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Sample records for quality shallow shelf

  1. New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Expedition 313 Scientists; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 to the New Jersey Shallow Shelf off the east coast of the United States is the third IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform. It was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO...... to sea level change. We drilled at three locations in 35 m of water 45–67 km offshore, targeting the topsets, foresets, and toesets of several clinoforms at 180–750 m core depth below seafloor (CSF-A). Seismic correlations to previously drilled holes on the continental slope and extrapolations of depths...... successions to as many as 16 surfaces and/or sequence-bounding unconformities mapped in the regional seismic grid. Eight lithologic units are recognized that contain important physical and biofacies indicators of paleobathymetry. Reliable zonations of multiple fossil groups, Sr isotopic ages measured...

  2. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  3. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  4. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  5. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  6. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2002-01-09

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  7. The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    E. Richardson, 2008, Field verification of a CFD model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone, J. Waterw. Port Coastal Engrg., 134(2...The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf Dr. Thomas C. Lippmann Center for Coastal...wave- and tidally-driven shallow water flows in the shallow depths of the inner shelf and surf zone. OBJECTIVES 1. Theoretical investigations of

  8. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SHALLOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of human societies. In Okrika Island ... abstraction of groundwater due to population increase in Port ... 298. Nwankwoala and Walter: Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Shallow Coastal Aquifers ..... and Tai-Eleme areas.

  10. Acoustic masking due to gases in shallow seismic profiling on the shelf off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Rao, D.G.; Veerayya, M.; Wagle, B.G.

    Shallow seismic profiling on the inner shelf off Bombay indicates 25-35 m thick acoustically transparent clays covering the seabed. At depth of 22 to 30 m and 50 m the profiles and echograms are marked by turbidity resembling inverted U or mushroom...

  11. Testing sequence stratigraphic models by drilling Miocene foresets on the New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Kenneth G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, James V.

    2013-01-01

    continental shelf (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 313, Sites M27-M29). We recognize stratal surfaces and systems tracts by integrating seismic stratigraphy, litho-facies successions, gamma logs, and foraminiferal paleodepth trends. Our interpretations of systems tracts, particularly......) and coarsening- and shallowing-upward highstand systems tracts (HST). Drilling through the foresets yields thin (

  12. Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at New Jersey Shallow Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Annick; Patterson, Fabian; Lofi, Johanna; Reiche, Sönke

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, three boreholes were drilled in the so-called New Jersey transect. Hydrochemical studies revealed the groundwater situation as more complex than expected, characterized by several sharp boundaries between fresh and saline groundwater. Two conflicting hypotheses regarding the nature of these freshwater reservoirs are currently debated. One hypothesis is that these reservoirs are connected with onshore aquifers and continuously recharged by seaward-flowing groundwater. The second hypothesis is that fresh groundwater was emplaced during the last glacial period. In addition to the petrophysical properties measured during IODP 313 expedition, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on samples from boreholes M0027, M0028 and M0029 in order to deduce porosities and permeabilities. These results are compared with data from alternative laboratory measurements and with petrophysical properties inferred from downhole logging data. We incorporate these results into a 2D numerical model that reflects the shelf architecture as known from drillings and seismic data to perform submarine groundwater flow simulations. In order to account for uncertainties related to the spatial distribution of physical properties, such as porosity and permeability, systematic variation of input parameters was performed during simulation runs. The target is to test the two conflicting hypotheses of fresh groundwater emplacements offshore New Jersey and to improve the understanding of fluid flow processes at marine passive margins.

  13. Constraints on Methane Distribution from Acoustic Profiles of Shallow Sediments Across the Alaska Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. T.; Hart, P. E.; Greinert, J.; de Batist, M. A.; Rose, K.; Coffin, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    In September of 2009 the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, U. S. Dept of Energy, and Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research conducted piston coring, acoustic profiling, and water sampling on the Alaskan Arctic shelf from the U. S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea, as part of the MITAS (Methane In The Arctic Shelf) project. The overall project objective is to determine the role of methane in arctic shelf processes by determining the source, distribution, and concentration of shallow (0-30m methane accumulations as well as active and potential methane seeps along selected transects across and along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea shelf. The specific objective of the acoustic program is to delineate gas (methane) by mapping bubble release into the water column (flare detection), and free gas indications as acoustic blanking and gas fronts in the sediment. The data consist of 3.5 kHz, 12 kHz profiles acquired using hull-mounted transducers on the Polar Sea, in conjunction with 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler and 180 kHz multi-beam data acquired from the Polar Sea's ASB (Arctic Service Boat). Acoustic profiles and images, as well as preliminary interpretations are discussed in the presentation.

  14. Recent climate tendencies on an East Antarctic ice shelf inferred from a shallow firn core network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, E; Anschütz, H; Divine, D; Martma, T; Sinisalo, A; Altnau, S; Isaksson, E

    2014-01-01

    Nearly three decades of stable isotope ratios and surface mass balance (SMB) data from eight shallow firn cores retrieved at Fimbul Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in the Austral summers 2009–2011 have been investigated. An additional longer core drilled in 2000/2001 extends the series back to the early eighteenth century. Isotope ratios and SMB from the stacked record of all cores were also related to instrumental temperature data from Neumayer Station on Ekström Ice Shelf. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the SMB shows a statistically significant negative trend, whereas the δ18O of the cores shows a significant positive trend. No trend is found in air temperature at the nearest suitable weather station, Neumayer (available since 1981). This does not correspond to the statistically significant positive trend in Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index, which is usually associated with a cooling of East Antarctica. SAM index and SMB are negatively correlated, which might be explained by a decrease in meridional exchange of energy and moisture leading to lower precipitation amounts. Future monitoring of climate change on the sensitive Antarctic ice shelves is necessary to assess its consequences for sea level change. Key Points Mass balance and stable oxygen isotope ratios from shallow firn cores Decreasing trend in surface mass balance, no trend in stable isotopes Negative correlation between SAM and SMB PMID:25821663

  15. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Kovar, M.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1999-02-24

    The application cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in a attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir.

  16. Application of the Three-Dimensional Shallow Sea and Continental Shelf Mode for Inversion of Undercurrent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Due to the incapability of high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) to detect undercurrent parameters, a new algorithm is proposed to apply a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear barotropic shallow sea and continental shelf model in coordinate system to the inversion of undercurrent. The calculation domain of this model is the area detected by HFSWR. Considering the benthal topography of the detected area and the ocean dynamic parameters, such as surface current, wind and wave detected by HFSWR, the relation between surface current and undercurrent is established in this model. Accordingly, the undercurrent parameters of corresponding area are obtained. The inversion results agree with the law of ocean dynamics and reproduce the movement of undercurrent.

  17. Recent climate tendencies on an East Antarctic ice shelf inferred from a shallow firn core network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, E; Anschütz, H; Divine, D; Martma, T; Sinisalo, A; Altnau, S; Isaksson, E

    2014-06-16

    Nearly three decades of stable isotope ratios and surface mass balance (SMB) data from eight shallow firn cores retrieved at Fimbul Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in the Austral summers 2009-2011 have been investigated. An additional longer core drilled in 2000/2001 extends the series back to the early eighteenth century. Isotope ratios and SMB from the stacked record of all cores were also related to instrumental temperature data from Neumayer Station on Ekström Ice Shelf. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the SMB shows a statistically significant negative trend, whereas the δ(18)O of the cores shows a significant positive trend. No trend is found in air temperature at the nearest suitable weather station, Neumayer (available since 1981). This does not correspond to the statistically significant positive trend in Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index, which is usually associated with a cooling of East Antarctica. SAM index and SMB are negatively correlated, which might be explained by a decrease in meridional exchange of energy and moisture leading to lower precipitation amounts. Future monitoring of climate change on the sensitive Antarctic ice shelves is necessary to assess its consequences for sea level change.

  18. Bottom currents and sediment waves on a shallow carbonate shelf, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belde, Johannes; Reuning, Lars; Back, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The modern seafloor of the Australian Northwest Shelf between Exmouth and Dampier was analyzed for large scale sedimentary bedforms on 3D seismic reflection data. The Carnarvon MegaSurvey of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), a merged dataset of multiple industrial 3D seismic reflection surveys with a total size of 49,717 km2, offers an extensive view of the continental shelf, slope and rise of the Northern Carnarvon Basin. Over the shelf two fields of large scale sediment waves were observed in water depths between 55-130 m, where the seafloor may be influenced by different processes including internal waves, tides and storms. Based on the dimensions and orientations of the sediment waves the dominant direction and approximate strength of local bottom currents could be estimated. Information on local sediment grain-size distribution was provided by the auSEABED database allowing a classification of the observed sediment waves into sand- or mudwaves. The first sediment wave field is positioned northwest of the Montebello Islands where the shelf is comparatively narrow and local sediment is mainly sand-sized. It most likely formed by increased bottom currents induced by the diversion of tidal flows around the islands. The second sediment wave field is located north of the Serrurier and Bessieres Islands within a local seafloor depression. Local sediments are poorly sorted, containing significant amounts of mud and gravel in addition to the mainly sand-sized grains. The coarser sediment fraction could have been reworked to sandwaves by cyclone-induced bottom currents. Alternatively, the finer sediment fraction could form mudwaves shaped by less energetic along-slope oriented currents in the topographic depression. The sediment waves consist partially of carbonate grains such as ooids and peloids that formed in shallow water during initial stages of the post glacial sea-level rise. These stranded carbonate grains thus formed in a different environment than the sediment

  19. Schaben field, Kansas: Improving performance in a Mississippian shallow-shelf carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Franseen, E.K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Gerlach, P.; Byrnes, A.; Guy, W.; Carr, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Schaben field (Kansas), located along the northeastern shelf of the Hugoton embayment, produces from Mississippian carbonates in erosional highs immediately beneath a regional unconformity. Production comes from depths of around 4400 ft (1342 m) in partially dolomitized shelf deposits. A detailed reservoir characterization/simulation study, recently performed as part of a Department of Energy Reservoir Class Oil Field Demonstration Project, has led to important revision in explanations for observed patterns of production. Cores recovered from three new data wells identify three main facies: Spicule-rich wackestone-packstone, echinoderm wackestone/packstone/grainstone, and dolomitic mudstone-wackestone. Reservoir quality is highest in spicule-rich wackestone/packstones but is subject to a very high degree of vertical heterogeneity due to facies interbedding, silification, and variable natural fracturing. The oil reservoir is underlain by an active aquifer, which helps maintain reservoir pressure but supports significant water production. Reservoir simulation, using public-domain, PC-based software, suggests that infill drilling is an efficient approach to enhanced recovery. Recent drilling directed by simulation results has shown considerable success in improving field production rates. Results from the Schaben field demonstration project are likely to have wide application for independent oil and exploration companies in western Kansas.Schaben field (Kansas), located along the northeastern shelf of the Hugoton embayment, produces from Mississippian carbonates in erosional highs immediately beneath a regional unconformity. Production comes from depths of around 4400 ft (1342 m) in partially dolomitized shelf deposits. A detailed reservoir characterization/simulation study, recently performed as part of a Department of Energy Reservoir Class Oil Field Demonstration Project, has led to important revision in explanations for observed patterns of production. Cores

  20. Deep Sediment-Sourced Methane Contribution to Shallow Sediment Organic Carbon: Atwater Valley, Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Coffin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal methane hydrate deposits are globally abundant. There is a need to understand the deep sediment sourced methane energy contribution to shallow sediment carbon relative to terrestrial sources and phytoplankton. Shallow sediment and porewater samples were collected from Atwater Valley, Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Gulf of Mexico near a seafloor mound feature identified in geophysical surveys as an elevated bottom seismic reflection. Geochemical data revealed off-mound methane diffusion and active fluid advection on-mound. Gas composition (average methane/ethane ratio ~11,000 and isotope ratios of methane on the mound (average δ13CCH4(g = −71.2‰; D14CCH4(g = −961‰ indicate a deep sediment, microbial source. Depleted sediment organic carbon values on mound (δ13CSOC = −25.8‰; D14CSOC = −930‰ relative to off-mound (δ13CSOC = −22.5‰; D14CSOC = −629‰ suggest deep sourced ancient carbon is incorporated into shallow sediment organic matter. Porewater and sediment data indicate inorganic carbon fixed during anaerobic oxidation of methane is a dominant contributor to on-mound shallow sediment organic carbon cycling. A simple stable carbon isotope mass balance suggests carbon fixation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC associated with anaerobic oxidation of hydrate-sourced CH4 contributes up to 85% of shallow sediment organic carbon.

  1. Aeolian to shallow-marine shelf architecture off a major desert since the Late Pleistocene (northern Mauritania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Mersmeyer, H.; Kudrass, H. R.; Westphal, H.

    2013-12-01

    Continental shelves off major desert regions are not expected to host substantial amounts of sediments due to long-lasting and unfocused material supply and a high re-mobilization potential of aeolian material. This study, in contrast, demonstrates that significant volumes of sediments have accumulated on the northern Mauritanian shelf under the arid climate conditions and prevail over consecutive climatic cycles. Eight late Pleistocene to Holocene depositional units, each formed under contrasting depositional conditions, are identified in high-resolution seismo-acoustic data and dated sediment cores. These are: (1) a highly differentiated Pleistocene paleo-landscape older than the past climatic cycle, (2) a continental dune complex (MIS-4), (3) a thick regressive shallow-water clinoform (late MIS-3), (4) a regressive to lowstand shore deposit (latest MIS-3), and (5) a local transgressive cover (LGM to deglacial). Additionally, (6) an open-shelf highstand cover, (7) an outer-shelf highstand wedge and (8) mid-shelf mud depocenters have formed during the Holocene sea-level highstand. The common local offshore formation and preservation of confined stratigraphic units, in particular from during MIS-3, mark the interplay of: a) episodes of pronounced arid climatic conditions resulting in enhanced aeolian and coastal sediment input, b) shelf current patterns focusing sediment deposition locally, and c) early post-depositional sediment stabilization providing protection against erosion. Prominent internal surfaces at 63 and 115 m modern water depths indicate widespread and intense erosional activity during late MIS-3 regression and MIS-2 lowstand to post-LGM transgression, hosting coarse shell sands and gravels from beach and shoreface paleo-environments. The reasons for the high preservation potential of confined stratigraphic units are: a) carbonaceous cementation, b) sediment composition (massive widespread shore-related gravel and shell beds with subtle minor

  2. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: shelf and shallow basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Oil and gas pools in shallow basins or on the shallow, stable shelves of deeper sedimentary basins may not be exceptions to the model of a hot deep origin of petroleum. The oil in shallow basins is directly associated with faulting extending out of the deepest parts of the basin. Evidence exists that some of these shallow basins have been much hotter in the past either from igneous activity or from a higher geothermal gradient. Uplift and erosion may also have removed substantial thicknesses of sediments in some of these basins. Oil on the stable shallow shelves of deep basins may have originated in the deeper part of the basin and undergone long lateral migration to the traps where it is now found. Conduits for such migration have been sandstones in delta-distributary systems (eastern Oklahoma and Kansas), reef trends (Alberta, Canada), or regional porosity and permeability in sheet carbonates (Anadarko basin, western Oklahoma and Kansas).

  3. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Björn K; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-22

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar-acid-ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality.

  4. Hydrocarbon production forecast for committed assets in the shallow water Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In 2007, the federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico averaged daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil and 7.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The majority of oil is produced from deepwater fields in water depth greater than 1000 ft, while most gas production is extracted from the shelf. The Outer Continental Shelf is a mature province with over 3800 fixed structures and 6500 producing wells connected into an integrated pipeline network more than 30,000 miles in length. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to forecast oil and gas production in the shallow water Gulf of Mexico. Structures are categorized according to age and production characteristics, and forecast procedures for each asset class are described and illustrated. The methodology is implemented using the inventory of committed assets circa December 2006. The expected amount of hydrocarbon production arising from the inventory of committed assets under stable reservoir and investment conditions is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas valued between $85 and 150 billion. The results of generalized regression models are presented with a discussion of the limitations of analysis. (author)

  5. Recent trends in the abundance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa and cod Gadus morhua in shallow coastal waters of the Northeastern Atlantic continental shelf – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Shallow, near-shore water habitats on the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic have been productive fishing areas in the past. Here, we review the present knowledge about (i) recent trends in the abundance of plaice and cod in these habitats and (ii) hypotheses regarding the factors respon...

  6. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Shallow sequence stratigraphy of the inner shelf deposits off the southeastern coast of Korea (Korea Strait)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong-Geun; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-09-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles on the inner shelf off the southeastern coast of Korea reveal that late Quaternary deposits consist of three sedimentary units (A upper, B middle and C lower) accumulated after the last glacial period. The upper unit (A) above the maximum flooding surface is the highstand systems tract formed during the recent highstand of sea level. The middle and lower units (B and C) represent the transgressive systems tract related to shoreface retreat during the post-glacial transgression. The middle unit (B) above the ravinement surface forms a thin veneer of transgressive sands, while lower unit (C) overlying the sequence boundary represents the transgressive estuarine deposits accumulated in the late stage of Holocene transgression. (author). 19 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Postharvest biology, quality and shelf-life of buckwheat microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat microgreens are rich in antioxidants and provitamins/vitamins, including flavonoids, carotenoids, and a-tocopherol. However, short shelf life has limited their commercial use. The purpose of this study was to optimize storage conditions to extend the shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. St...

  9. Multiple Suppression and Imaging of Marine Seismic Data from The Shallow Water Area in Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Luan, X.; Yang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface-related multiple elimination(SRME) nor predictive de-convolution method is effective to suppress the multiple of marine seismic data from the shallow water area. The former method needs the accurate reflection of seafloor, which is mixed with the direct wave in the near offset range. The other one could probably lose the primary wave when applied to the shallow water seismic data. We introduced the new method: deterministic water-layer de-multiple method (DWD) which is capable for the poor extrapolate result of near-offset traces. Firstly, the data shifts as downward continuation in tau-p domain with a water-layer period and the multiple model will be obtained. Then, the original seismic subtracts adaptively with the multiple model. Finally, we would get the de-multiple data after inverse tau-p transform. Marine seismic real data is from southern part of East China Sea Shelf Basin. This area has become the potential target for marine hydrocarbon exploration, it is located in the junction of the Eurasian plate pacific plate and Indian plate. Because the average water depth is less than 100 meters, seismic data contains abundant of multiple, especially the surface-related multiple. As a result it is difficult to distinguish the strata structure clearly. We used DWD approach to remove the water-layer multiple, cut off the seafloor reflection events and then suppressed the residual surface-related multiple by the traditional SRME. At last , the radon transform was applied to eliminate the multiple with long period . With these steps, we suppressed the multiple of marine seismic data from this area effectively. After multiple is removed , we acquired more accurate velocity to build the velocity model of migration. With the pre-stack migration technique, reflections from each geological period are shown clearly in the seismic section. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41476053).

  10. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality.

  11. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  12. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    . This approach allowed us to investigate the relationship between the lithological units and sea-level change and thus enable the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. This reconstruction suggests that the stratigraphy is dominated by a sea level lowstand during which aeolian, fluvial and paleosol sediments were deposited in a terrestrial environment. The coastal-terrestrial landscape was flooded by the early to middle Holocene transgression. The results of this study provide a valuable framework for future national strategic shallow-water infrastructure construction and also for the possible locations of past human settlements in relation to coastal evolution through time.

  13. The Origin(s) of the Methane Excess in the Shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf Unraveled with Triple Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapart, C. J.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jansen, J.; Kosmach, D.; Dudarev, O.; Szidat, S.; van der Veen, C.; Sergienko, V.; Salyuk, A.; Tumskoy, V.; Tison, J. L.; Egger, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas emitted by both human activity and natural processes. Its emissions from vast marine and terrestrial carbon pools in Arctic shallow reservoirs could create a strong positive feedback to climate change as permafrost is thawing. The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) overlays large areas of subsea permafrost that is degrading and causing the release of large amount of CH4 originally stored or formed there towards the water column. Large scale CH4 super-saturation has been observed in the ESAS waters, pointing out to leakages of CH4 through the sea floor and possibly to the atmosphere but the origin(s) of this gas is still debated. Here we present CH4 concentration and isotope data analyzed on gas extracted from sediment and water sampled over the shallow ESAS from 2007-2013. We find the presence of large amount (up to 500μM) of CH4 within the partially thawed subsea permafrost of this region. For all sediment cores, both hydrogen and carbon CH4 isotope data show the presence of highly depleted (in comparison with the atmospheric CH4 isotope signature) CH4, indicative of a microbial origin. Radiocarbon data demonstrates that in most cases the CH4 present in the ESAS sediment is of Pleistocene age or older. These results reveal the presence of CH4 that is not from thermogenic/natural gas (isotopically enriched CH4) origin as it has long been thought, but the results of microbial CH4 formation using as primary substrate old organic matter in the deep subsea permafrost or below. Our observations show that this CH4 accumulates under the Holocene marine sediment layer (when present) and slowly diffuses towards the sediment surface where it undergoes anaerobic methane oxidation. However, at locations where deep and/or open taliks develop in subsea permafrost, CH4 escapes to the water column as bubble plumes. In that case ebullition processes prevent CH4 anaerobic oxidation to occur in the surface sediment. CH4 will thus migrate

  14. Rare Earth Elements of the Permian-Triassic Conodonts from Shelf Basin to Shallow Platform: Implications for Oceanic Redox Conditions immediately After the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) can provide information regarding the influence of weathering fluxes and hydrothermal inputs on seawater chemistry as well as processes that fractionate REEs between solid and aqueous phases. Of these, cerium (Ce) distributions may provide information about variations in dissolved oxygen in seawater, and thus assess the redox conditions. The short residence times of REEs in seawater (~300-1,000 yr) can result in unique REE signatures in local watermasses. REE patterns preserved in biogenic apatite such as conodonts are ideal proxies for revealing original seawater chemistry. Here, we measured the REE content of in-situ, single albid crowns using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with an ArF (λ=193 nm) excimer laser (Lambda Physiks GeoLas 2005) and quadrupole ICP-MS (Agilent 7500a). LA-ICP-MS is ideally suited for analyzing conodonts due to its ability to measure compositional variation within single conodont elements. It has the capability to determine, with high spatial resolution, continuous compositional depth profiles through the concentric layered structure of component histologies. To evaluate paleoceanographic conditions immediately after the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) mass extinction in various depositional settings, we sampled a nearly contemporaneous strata unit, the P-Tr boundary bed, just above the extinction horizon from six sections in South China. They represent various depositional settings from shelf basin (Chaohu and Daxiakou sections), lower part of ramp (Meishan section), normal shallow platform (Yangou section), and platform microbialite (Chongyang and Xiushui sections). The sampled unit is constrained by conodonts Hindeodus changxingensis, H. parvus, and H. staeschei Zones in Meishan. REE results obtained from conodont albid crowns show that the seawater in lower ramp and shelf basin settings contains much higher REE concentrations than that in shallow platform. Ce

  15. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums) were ...

  17. Water quality assessment in a shallow lake used for tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembowska Ewa A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The routine evaluation of water quality is limited to lakes with the largest area. In Poland, only lakes with an area exceeding 50 hectares are monitored by the State Environmental Monitoring System. For many local communities, however, small lakes are more important. This applies mainly to areas with a small number of lakes, where even the smallest lakes are used for various purposes. This paper presents the results of phytoplankton analysis in a small and shallow lake used for recreation. The study was conducted at three sites located in different parts of the lake. A total of 122 algae taxa were identified in the phytoplankton, mainly diatoms and green algae. The most constant taxa in the lake were: Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Desmodesmus communis, Pediastrum tetras and Crucigenia tetrapedia. The average phytoplankton biomass was 37 mg l−1. The maximum biomass, almost 140 mg dm−3, was recorded in late July at the site located near the beach. At that time, there was a massive cyanobacterial bloom composed of Microcystis wesenbergii and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi. Based on these studies, the lake should be classified as hypertrophic with bad ecological status. This lake should not be used for recreational purposes in the current state.

  18. CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, S.C.; Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Preiditus, J.; Vogt, J.

    1996-09-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg/San Andres formation; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir within the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico.

  19. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  20. Lithofacies, biofacies, and ichnoassemblage evolution of a shallow submarine volcaniclastic fan-shelf depositional system (Upper Cretaceous, James Ross Island, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasso, R. A.; Olivero, E. B.; Buatois, L. A.

    The Upper Cretaceous (Santonian-Campanian/lower Maastrichtian) Santa Marta Formation on James Ross Island, Antarctica, represents volcaniclastic shallow marine fan and shelf sedimentation adjacent to an active volcanic arc. A combined analysis of sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and ichnologic data allows for the recognition in this unit of six lithofacies associations, eight biofacies, and five trace fossils assemblages. Lithofacies are dominated by fine, massive, tuffaceous rocks; graded, turbidite-like tuffaceous sandstones; carbonaceous mudstones; resedimented conglomerates; coquinas; sandstones; silty sandstones; and minor stromatolite beds. Biofacies are defined by different composition and relative abundance of elements of the benthic fauna, mainly bivalves, gastropods, and serpulids, with minor elements represented by scaphopods, corals, brachiopods, and echinoids. Trace fossil assemblages include the most common elements of the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies. A striking result of the analysis is that lithofacies, biofacies, and trace fossil assemblages form distinct, non-repetitive, vertically successive horizons, with their distribution boundaries roughly coincident. On this basis, seven major facies groups, showing a distinct combination of lithofacies, biofacies, and trace fossils, are distinguished in the Santa Marta Formation. These non-repetitive, vertically stacked facies groups reveal a one-way evolution of the depositional system during a transgressive-regressive cycle, with a new transgression at the top of the unit. The lower facies groups represent shallow marine settings with a very high rate of volcaniclastic sedimentation within subsiding basin. Shallow, volcaniclastic fan systems were probably formed at the base of delta slope and grew rapidly as a consequence of high sedimentary supply in equilibrium with basin subsidence. The upper facies groups probably represent sedimentation within the marine part of the envisaged deltaic system on a

  1. Distinct trends in the speciation of iron between the shallow shelf seas and the deep basins of the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, C-E.; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M.; Laan, P.; Le Guitton, M.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The speciation of iron was investigated in three shelf seas and three deep basins of the Arctic Ocean in 2007. The dissolved fraction ( 3 nM on the shelves and [TDFe] <2 nM in the Makarov Basin). A relative enrichment of particulate Fe toward the bottom was revealed at all stations, indicating Fe

  2. Towards improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhat Tam; Doan, Nhu Khue; Nguyen Ba, Thanh; Tran, Thi Van Thi

    2017-11-15

    An improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of freshly harvested black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was pursued by combining sensory and chemical methods. This involved developing a quality index method (QIM) to further assess both freshness and shelf life of the studied shrimp samples. The quality index included the use of trimethylamine (TMA-N), total volatile basis nitrogen (TVB-N), histamine, and hypoxanthine, which were performed at scheduled times during the ten days of ice storage (0°C). Shelf life of the studied shrimp was most likely to be 8days, and there were positive linear correlations between quality indices (QI) and storage period. The quality of shrimp decreased over storage time. In fact, significant changes of chemical and sensory characteristics of the shrimp samples would become more obvious from day 5 onwards. Besides, quality classification of black tiger shrimp involved four main levels, namely: excellent, good, moderately acceptable, and just acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shallow stratigraphy and gas-charged sediments in the inner shelf off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.

    palaeochannel running across the region in ENE-WSW direction. Shallow seismic surveys indicate a pseudo escapment of more than 7 m deep between 12-14 m water depths. Eastern part (11-14 m) of the escarpment indicate the existence of gas-charged sediments (silty...

  4. Sedimentary hydrocarbons and sterols in a South Atlantic estuarine/shallow continental shelf transitional environment under oil terminal and grain port influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Rafael; Bícego, Marcia C; Martins, César C

    2015-06-15

    Sterols and hydrocarbons were determined in the surface sediments from the transitional environment between Paranaguá Bay and the shallow continental shelf in the South Atlantic to assess the sources of organic matter (OM) and the contamination status of an area exposed to multiple anthropogenic inputs. Total aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were less than 10μgg(-1), which is typical of unpolluted sediments, and related to recent inputs from higher terrestrial plants. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ranged fromSterols typically related to marine sources predominated in the analysed sediments. Hence, the study area was protected from human activity. The relative absence of anthropogenic input and OM preservation clearly indicate that the organic markers analysed can be used to investigate the biogenic input of sedimentary OM in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  6. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  7. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  8. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the mid-Cretaceous widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100 to 150 water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (incl. 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased (cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green-sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. In Wunstorf this might have been induced by high continental run-off during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelfs and near shore areas.

  9. Shelf life establishment of a sliced, cooked, cured meat product based on quality and safety determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the shelf life of cooked, cured meat products based on lactic acid bacteria growth and the distribution of the time to cause health risks based on Listeria monocytogenes growth were studied. Growth models, developed and validated on cooked meat products, were used to predict the growth of microorganisms. Temperature data were obtained from retail and home refrigerators. Distribution predictions were conducted by two approaches (time-temperature profiles and Monte Carlo simulation). Time-temperature profiles were more appropriate to be used, because Monte Carlo simulation overestimated the growth of L. monocytogenes. Shelf life was greatly influenced by storage temperature, but initial microbial load had a smaller effect. The expiration date of cooked meat products might be based on only the growth of the spoilage microorganisms, and only when product contamination with L. monocytogenes cell concentrations is high does a product fraction pose health risks for consumers. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that storage temperature and temperature variability were the most important factors for the duration of shelf life. Distributions of shelf life and time to cause health risks give valuable information on the quality and safety of cooked meat products and may be used as practical tools by meat processors.

  10. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett), and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control) were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemica...

  11. Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Jia-En Zhang; Prem. Parajuli

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides information for better management of groundwater resources. This study characterized the shallow groundwater quality and its spatial and seasonal variations in the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA, under agricultural, forest, wastewater, and residential land...

  12. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  13. Hydro-acoustic remote sensing of benthic biological communities on the shallow South East Australian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Alex; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Burq, Shoaib; Reston, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Information regarding the composition and extent of benthic habitats on the South East Australian continental shelf is limited. In this habitat mapping study, multibeam echosounder (MBES) data are integrated with precisely geo-referenced video ground-truth data to quantify benthic biotic communities at Cape Nelson, Victoria, Australia. Using an automated decision tree classification approach, 5 representative biotic groups defined from video analysis were related to hydro-acoustically derived variables in the Cape Nelson survey area. Using a combination of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and derivative products produced highest overall accuracy (87%) and kappa statistic (0.83). This study demonstrates that decision tree classifiers are capable of integrating variable data types for mapping distributions of benthic biological assemblages, which are important in maintaining biodiversity and other system services in the marine environment.

  14. Resveratrol treatment controls microbial flora, prolongs shelf life, and preserves nutritional quality of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge Bernardo; Orea, José María; Montero, Carlos; Ureña, Angel González; Navas, Elena; Slowing, Karla; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar; Carretero, Emilia; De Martinis, Domenico

    2005-03-09

    Resveratrol is known as a grapevine secondary metabolite with fungicide activity. Its exogenous application on harvested grapes resulted in the reduction of microbial flora growth, and consequently, prolonged shelf life, without affecting the nutritional quality of the fruit. Resveratrol treatment also resulted in being effective on fruit that normally does not accumulate such metabolites as, for example, tomatoes, apples, avocado pears, and peppers. As a result, all treated fruits maintained their post-harvest quality and health longer than the untreated ones. This study demonstrates the potential use of resveratrol as a natural pesticide to reduce post-harvest fungi development on a broad spectrum of fruit types.

  15. CatQC and Shelf-Ready Material: Speeding Collections to Users While Preserving Data Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Libraries contract with vendors to provide shelf-ready material, but is it really shelf-ready? It arrives with all the physical processing needed for immediate shelving, then lingers in back offices while staff conduct itemby-item checks against the catalog. CatQC, a console application for Microsoft Windows developed at the University of Florida, builds on OCLC services to get material to the shelves and into the hands of users without delay and without sacrificing data quality. Using standard C programming, CatQC identifies problems in MARC record files, often applying complex conditionals, and generates easy-to-use reports that do not require manual item review.

  16. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  17. Understanding critical factors for the quality and shelf-life of MAP fresh meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preeti; Wani, Ali Abas; Saengerlaub, Sven; Langowski, Horst-Christian

    2011-02-01

    Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas of research that has shown promise, and had success, is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The success of MAP-fresh meat depends on many factors including good initial product quality, good hygiene from the source plants, correct packaging material selection, the appropriate gas mix for the product, reliable packaging equipment, and maintenance of controlled temperatures and humidity levels. Advances in plastic materials and equipment have propelled advances in MAP, but other technological and logistical considerations are needed for successful MAP systems for raw chilled meat. Although several parameters critical for the quality of MA packed meat have been studied and each found to be crucial, understanding of the interactions between the parameters is needed. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely available, scattered information about the various integrated critical factors responsible for the quality and shelf life of MA packed meat with an interest to stimulate further research to optimize different quality parameters.

  18. Disrupted carbonate hardgrounds in shallow carbonate-shelf sediments: origin and setting of tepees and their associated fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, C.G.; Warren, J.K.

    1985-02-01

    Carbonate-sediment surface hardgrounds are commonly disrupted and brecciated. Some of these breccias are the results of repeated episodes of fracturing and fracture fill by sediment and/or cement. Each fracture and fracture-fill phase causes the crust to grow in surface area and crumples it into megapolygons whose anteform margins are called tepees. Fracturing is caused by thermal contraction, water-table movement buoying up the crust, mass movement of sediment, and tectonic events. Tepees are commonly ascribed to tidal flats but, in fact, also occur in many settings that can be determined from their fabric and facies associations. (1) Submarine tepees from shallow, carbonate-saturated water occur in fractured, bedded, marine grainstones with acicular and micritic cements. They contain no vadose pisolites or gravity cements, and the hardground surface is altered and bored. (2) Peritidal tepees occur in fractured, bedded, tidal-flat carbonates characterized by fenestral, pisolitic, and laminar algal fabrics close to the marine water table. Fracture fills include gravity-controlled marine travertine and/or marine and terra rossa sediments. (3) Groundwater tepees form in fractured fenestral, pisolitic, and laminar algal crusts over boxwork carbonates at the margin of shallow salinas where periodic groundwater resurgence is common. (4) Extrusion tepees, which are also from salina margins with periodic groundwater resurgence, form in crusts coated with laminated micrite that extend from the fractures downward into dolomitic micrite. (5) Caliche tepees, from continental settings overlying soil profiles, form in laminar crusts with pisolites. Fractures are filled by micritic laminae, microspar, spar, and terra rossa.

  19. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the Mid-Cretaceous Period, widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100–150 m water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (including 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. This might have been induced by high continental runoff during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelves and near shore areas.

  20. ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY IN SHALLOW LAKES WITH A TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW-SEDIMENT MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The governing equation for sediment pollutions was derived based on the turbulent diffusion of pollutants in shallow lakes. Coupled with shallow water equations, a depth-averaged 2-D flow and water quality model was developed. By means of the conservation law, a proposed differential equation for the change of sediment pollutants was linked to the 2-D equations. Under the framework of the finite volume method, the Osher approximate Riemann solver was employed to solve the equations. An analytical resolution was used to examine the model capabilities. Simulated results matched the exact solutions especially well. As an example, the simulation of CODMn in the Wuli Lake, a part of the Taihu lake, was conducted, which led to reasonable results. This study provides a new approach and a practical tool for the simulation of flow and water quality in shallow lakes.

  1. Sedimentary process control on carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter in an ancient shallow-water shelf succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S. J.; Leng, M. J.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hawkins, K.

    2012-11-01

    Source and delivery mechanisms of organic matter are rarely considered when interpreting changing δ13C through sedimentary successions even though isotope excursions are widely used to identify and correlate global perturbations in the carbon cycle. Combining detailed sedimentology and geochemistry we demonstrate how organic carbon abundance and δ13C values from sedimentary organic matter from Carboniferous-aged mudstones are influenced by the proportion of terrestrial versus water column-derived organic matter. Silt-bearing clay-rich shelf mudstones that were deposited by erosive density flows are characterized by 1.8-2.4% organic carbon and highδ13C values (averaging -22.9 ± 0.3‰, n = 12). Typically these mudstones contain significant volumes of terrestrial plant-derived material. In contrast, clay-rich lenticular mudstones, with a marine macrofauna, are the products of the transport of mud fragments, eroded from pre-existing water-rich shelfal muds, when shorelines were distant and biological productivity in the water column was high. Higher organic carbon (2.1-5.2%) and lowerδ13C values (averaging -24.3 ± 0.5‰, n = 11) characterize these mudstones and are interpreted to reflect a greater contribution by (isotopically more negative) amorphous organic matter derived from marine algae. Differences in δ13C between terrestrial and marine organic matter allow the changing proportions from different sources to be tracked through this succession. Combining δ13C values with zirconium (measured from whole rock), here used as a proxy for detrital silt input, provides a novel approach to distinguishing mudstone provenance and ultimately using δ13C to identify oil-prone organic matter in potential source rocks. These results have important implications for using bulk organic matter to identify and characterize global C-isotope excursions.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  3. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone

  4. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from...

  5. Late Quaternary Incisions and Related Shallow Subsurface Stratigraphy on the New Jersey Mid-Outer Shelf: Preliminary Results from Ultra-High Resolution Chirp Sonar Images - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Goff, J. A.; Austin, J. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Nordfjord, S.

    2002-12-01

    High-resolution (1-15 kHz), shallow-penetration (~50 m), deep-towed chirp seismic profiles were collected on the New Jersey mid- and outer-shelf in August-September 2001 (R/V Endeavor cruise 359) in support of ONR's Geoclutter program. Geoclutter goals are to understand and predict acoustic scattering from the seafloor and the shallow sub-seafloor in order to distinguish man-made objects from naturally occurring features ("geological clutter") on sonar returns. The 2001 chirp survey focused on previously identified buried channels, of presumed fluvial origin, which may contribute to geoclutter. These channels are inferred to have formed during the sea-level lowstand of the last glacial maximum, and their fill likely constitutes a high-resolution record of the latest transgression. This survey represents the most comprehensive mapping to date of shallowly buried fluvial channels in a continental shelf setting. To allow robust mapping of channel systems, the survey maintained dense seismic profile spacings, mainly 200-900 m, but with some at 50 m. We focus on the southern portion of the survey area, where three channel systems are identified within an 8.6 x 10.2 km grid. The northernmost of these lies sufficiently within the survey area to be mapped in detail. Its channels are mainly V-shaped, up to 350 m wide and 12 m deep. Present water depth is ~80 m and channel flanks are truncated by the seafloor, except in a small area where an overlying unconformity truncating channel flanks is preserved. Some channels are truncated by erosional seafloor scour pits, mapped earlier with high-resolution multibeam data. Channel fill stratigraphy indicates multiple stages of incision and filling. Interfluves comprise up to ~20 m of a seismically transparent facies overlying stratified sediment. Grab samples contain medium-to-coarse sands, but such surficial sediments may not be entirely representative of the transparent facies. The contact with the stratified sediment is irregular

  6. Temporary expansion to shelf depths rather than an onshore-offshore trend: the shallow-water rise and demise of the modern deep-sea brittle star family Ophiacanthidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypotheses on the age and possible antiquity of the modern deep-sea fauna put forward to date almost all agree on the assumption that the deep-sea fauna is largely the result of colonisation from shallow-water environments. Here, the fossil record of the Ophiacanthidae, a modern deep-sea brittle star family with extensive fossil occurrences at shelf depths, is systematically traced against a calibrated phylogeny. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Ophiacanthidae originated and greatly diversified in the deep sea, with most extant clades having diverged by the end of the Triassic at the latest. During the Jurassic, the family temporarily invaded shelf environments, attaining relative abundances and diversities comparable to those found in coeval and modern deep-sea settings, and gradually declined in abundance subsequently, to become largely restricted to the deep-sea again. The pattern of temporary expansion to shelf environments suggested here underpins the potential of deep-sea environments to contribute significantly to shallow-water biodiversity; an aspect that has mostly been neglected so far. It is speculated that the large-scale ophiacanthid invasion of shelf environments around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary was initiated by a change from thermohaline to halothermal circulation, attenuating the thermal stratification of the water column and thus providing opportunities for enhanced vertical migration of marine taxa.

  7. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  8. Evaluation of quality and shelf life of buffalo meat keema at refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeepan, G; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N; Mendiratta, S K; Rajkumar, R S

    2013-12-01

    Scientific basis on the quality changes of traditional keema will boost and sustain meat production and utilization in buffalo abundant countries. A programme was undertaken to determine the influence of age and gender on the quality of buffalo meat keema at refrigerator storage (4 ± 1 °C). Buffalo meat keema was evaluated by analyzing the changes in physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The product characteristics and acceptability of keema were better in spent buffalo group than young male group. The values of pH, TBARS, total aerobic mesophils, coliforms, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic and psychrophilic counts of buffalo meat keema increased but appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness, connective tissue residue and overall acceptability scores decreased with progressing refrigerated storage. The shelf life of refrigerated buffalo meat keema was 18 days with an overall acceptability score ranging from extremely acceptable to moderately acceptable.

  9. Effects of somatic cell count on quality and shelf-life of pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Ryan, C; Barbano, D M; Galton, D M; Rudan, M A; Boor, K J

    2000-02-01

    Milk was collected from eight Holstein cows four times before and four times after intramammary infection with Streptococcus agalactiae. Postinfection milk had significantly higher somatic cell count (SCC) (849,000 cells/ml) than preinfection milk (45,000 cells/ml). High SCC raw milk had more lipolysis and proteolysis than low SCC raw milk. Pasteurized, homogenized, 2% fat milks from pre- and postinfection periods were stored at 5 degrees C and analyzed for lipolysis, proteolysis, microbial quality, and sensory attributes at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d post processing. During refrigerated storage, the average rates of free fatty acid increase (i.e., lipolysis) and casein hydrolysis in high SCC milk were, respectively, three and two times faster than those in low SCC milk. In general, standard plate counts, coliform counts, and psychrotrophic bacterial counts of both the high and low SCC milks remained low (<100,000 cfu/ ml) during 5 degrees C storage. Low SCC milk maintained high organoleptic quality for the entire 21-d shelf-life period. However, for high SCC milk, between 14 and 21 d, sensory defects were detected, which resulted in low overall quality ratings. The sensory defects mainly included rancidity and bitterness and were consistent with higher levels of lipolysis and proteolysis. Hence, mastitis adversely affected the quality of pasteurized fluid milk. It is recommended that the fluid milk industry consider implementation of premium quality payment programs for low SCC milks.

  10. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingridy Simone Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  11. Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

  12. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality assessment of shallow wells in Kitui town, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Abila

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kitui town, a small but fast growing town in arid south-eastern Kenya faces unreliable water supply and residents are highly dependent on shallow wells as the main source of water for domestic use. A study was carried out to assess the physical-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells within the town’s main residential areas. 96 water samples were collected from 8 main residential estates within the town between May and July 2011 and analysed for physical-chemical characteristics and bacterial quantity and species. Water analysis revealed presence of 9 pathogenic genera including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Multiple-tube fermentation technique was used to enumerate coliform bacteria in water. Total aerobic bacterial load ranged from 3.70 x102 to 2.352 x103 CFU/ml. E. Coli was isolated from Majengo and Mjini estates only and the bacterial load estimated as 1.10 x102 CFU/ml and 0.20 x102 CFU/ml respectively while Salmonella sp. was isolated from water samples from Kunda Kindu, JICA and Mjini estates. Conductivity and pH levels were above World Health Organization acceptable levels for drinking water in all samples. All samples tested did not meet the WHO bacteriological standards for drinking water. The presence of Salmonella, Vibrio, Listeria and E. Coli should particularly raise serious public health concerns over the quality of the town’s shallow wells water. Intervention measures including creating awareness and educating residents on shallow well construction, citing and care, boiling of water and improving sanitation should be urgently instituted. There is also need to construct sewerage works for the rapidly expanding Kitui town to reduce incidences of contamination from septic tanks.

  13. Quality and shelf-life prediction for retail fresh hake (Merluccius merluccius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Míriam R; Vilas, Carlos; Herrera, Juan R; Bernárdez, Marta; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Alonso, Antonio A

    2015-09-02

    Fish quality has a direct impact on market price and its accurate assessment and prediction are of main importance to set prices, increase competitiveness, resolve conflicts of interest and prevent food wastage due to conservative product shelf-life estimations. In this work we present a general methodology to derive predictive models of fish freshness under different storage conditions. The approach makes use of the theory of optimal experimental design, to maximize data information and in this way reduce the number of experiments. The resulting growth model for specific spoilage microorganisms in hake (Merluccius merluccius) is sufficiently informative to estimate quality sensory indexes under time-varying temperature profiles. In addition it incorporates quantitative information of the uncertainty induced by fish variability. The model has been employed to test the effect of factors such as fishing gear or evisceration, on fish spoilage and therefore fish quality. Results show no significant differences in terms of microbial growth between hake fished by long-line or bottom-set nets, within the implicit uncertainty of the model. Similar conclusions can be drawn for gutted and un-gutted hake along the experiment horizon. In addition, whenever there is the possibility to carry out the necessary experiments, this approach is sufficiently general to be used in other fish species and under different stress variables.

  14. Quality and shelf life of packaged fresh sliced mushrooms stored at two different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GONZÁLEZ-FANDOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensory and microbiological quality of sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L. packaged in films of perforated and non-perforated PVC and stored at 3 and 9ºC, was studied. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, colour, weight loss, sensory attributes, mesophiles, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were determined. The atmosphere generated with the perforated PVC film was similar to that of air atmosphere at 3 or 9ºC. T.he non-perforated PVC film generated inside the packages CO2 : O2 concentrations of 3.4% : 8.1% at 3ºC and CO2 : O2 concentrations of 4.5% : 0.15% at 9ºC. Browning of mushrooms was lower at 3 than at 9ºC. The quality of sliced mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC and stored at 3ºC was adequate after 9 days. However, at 9ºC, the slice deformation and brown blotches incidence were severe after 9 days. The atmosphere generated with non-perforated PVC inhibited aerobic microorganism growth compared to mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC. At 3ºC, the shelf life of mushrooms packaged in non perforated PVC was around 13 days. However, the extremely low O2 atmospheres generated at 9ºC was accompanied by off-odours and growth of anaerobic spore formers, although the appearance of sliced mushrooms was acceptable.;

  15. Improving Multi-Objective Management of Water Quality Tipping Points: Revisiting the Classical Shallow Lake Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    Recent multi-objective extensions of the classical shallow lake problem are useful for exploring the conceptual and computational challenges that emerge when managing irreversible water quality tipping points. Building on this work, we explore a four objective version of the lake problem where a hypothetical town derives economic benefits from polluting a nearby lake, but at the risk of irreversibly tipping the lake into a permanently polluted state. The trophic state of the lake exhibits non-linear threshold dynamics; below some critical phosphorus (P) threshold it is healthy and oligotrophic, but above this threshold it is irreversibly eutrophic. The town must decide how much P to discharge each year, a decision complicated by uncertainty in the natural P inflow to the lake. The shallow lake problem provides a conceptually rich set of dynamics, low computational demands, and a high level of mathematical difficulty. These properties maximize its value for benchmarking the relative merits and limitations of emerging decision support frameworks, such as Direct Policy Search (DPS). Here, we explore the use of DPS as a formal means of developing robust environmental pollution control rules that effectively account for deeply uncertain system states and conflicting objectives. The DPS reformulation of the shallow lake problem shows promise in formalizing pollution control triggers and signposts, while dramatically reducing the computational complexity of the multi-objective pollution control problem. More broadly, the insights from the DPS variant of the shallow lake problem formulated in this study bridge emerging work related to socio-ecological systems management, tipping points, robust decision making, and robust control.

  16. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The work reported here is on the reservoir characterization and project design objective. This objective is scheduled to be completed in early 1996 at which time work on the field demonstration phase is scheduled to begin.

  17. Effects of grape pomace extract on the quality and shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillets during chill storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hasani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grape pomace extract (0, 2 and 4% on quality and shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillets during chill storage (4°C were investigated. The control and the treated fillets were analyzed periodically for microbiological (TVC and PTC, chemical (TVB-N, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that grape pomace-treated samples have lower TVB-N (24.2 and 21.2 mg N/100 g, respectively, TVC (7.33 and 7.09 log cfu/g, respectively and PTC (7.26 and 7.03 log cfu/g, respectively at the end of the storage period. The results revealed that the addition of grape pomace extract has a positive effect on the sensory quality of silver carp fillets by retaining proper quality characteristics for a longer time and extends their shelf life during chill storage.

  18. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.

  19. Potential impacts of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Shiyu; Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-01

    To study the potential effects of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China, the field data analysis method is applied to data collected over a given monitoring period. Nine water quality parameters (water temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen) and three climate indicators for 20 years (1992-2011) are considered. The annual trends exhibit significant trends with respect to certain water quality and climate parameters. Five parameters exhibit significant seasonality differences in the monthly means between the two decades (1992-2001 and 2002-2011) of the monitoring period. Non-parametric regression of the statistical analyses is performed to explore potential key climate drivers of water quality in the reservoir. The results indicate that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive impacts on water quality. However, an extremely cold spring and high wind speed are likely to affect the self-stabilising equilibrium states of the reservoir, which requires attention in the future. The results suggest that land use changes have important impact on nitrogen load. This study provides useful information regarding the potential effects of climate change on water quality in developing countries.

  20. Studies on the effects of honey incorporation on quality and shelf life of aonla preserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aonla is the richest sources of Vitamin C. The raw fruit, due to its high acidic nature and astringent taste is unacceptable to the consumers. Honey is a natural high energy sweetener with many medicinal values. Keeping in view the nutritional and therapeutic values of aonla fruit and honey, aonla preserve was prepared by incorporating 7.5 and 15% of honey into them. The quality of the products was evaluated based on the physicochemical (moisture, ash, pH, TSS, browning index and Vitamin C content, it was observed that the physicochemical characteristics of the aonla preserve improved upon incorporation of honey. There was improved retention of moisture content, increased ash content, reduced browning and reduced loss of Vitamin C due to incorporation of honey. The Vitamin C content in the aonla preserve (15% honey incorporation was 133.56 mg/100 g at the end of storage. The aonla preserve sample incorporated with 15% honey was nutritionally better as compared to samples incorporated with 7.5% honey due to its better Vitamin C retention, higher mineral content, tenderness and tangy taste. The yeast and the mould detected were few to count in the control sample. Shelf life of the product was 90 days.

  1. Quality changes of fresh-cut pomegranate arils during shelf life as affected by deficit irrigation and postharvest vapour treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Estévez, María E; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Otón, Mariano; Galindo, Alejandro; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2015-08-30

    The effect of two sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) strategies, compared to a control, on postharvest physicochemical, microbial, sensory quality attributes and anthocyanin content of fresh-cut pomegranates arils throughout 18 days at 5 °C was studied. Furthermore, the effect of vapour treatments (4, 7 and 10 s) compared to a conventional sanitizing treatment with NaClO on such quality parameters in combination with the preharvest treatments was also studied. According to sensory analyses, the shelf life of arils from control and SDI-irrigated fruit was established in 14 and 18 days at 5 °C, respectively, showing 4 and 7 s vapour treatment time the best sensory quality. No significant change was observed in physicochemical quality attributes, across all treatments during storage, while low microbial loads were registered (<3 log CFU g(-1)) after shelf life. Postharvest treatments that had least effect on anthocyanin content on processing day were 7 and 10 s. Vapour treatments of 7-10 s applied to pomegranate arils led to an extended shelf life up to 18 days at 5 °C with better results in SDI-irrigated samples with a water saving of 6-11%. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. An Assessment of Peri-Urban Groundwater Quality from Shallow Dug Wells, Mzuzu, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, R.; Felsot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout Malawi, governmental, non-governmental, religious and civic organizations are targeting the human need for water. Diarrheal diseases, often associated with unsafe drinking water, are a leading cause of mortality in children under five in Malawi with over 6,000 deaths per year (World Health Organization, 2010). From January to March 2012, a field study was undertaken in Malawi to study water quality and develop a public health risk communication strategy. The region studied, Area 1B, represents a comparatively new peri-urban area on the edge of Mzuzu city. Area 1B is serviced by a piped municipal water supply, but many shallow dug wells are also used for household water. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 shallow dug well sites and analyzed for nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli, total hardness, total alkalinity and pH. In addition to water quality analyses, a structured household questionnaire was administered to address water use, sanitation, health, consumption patterns, and socioeconomics. Results showed that more than half of the groundwater samples would be considered of unacceptable quality based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards for E. coli contamination. Low levels of nitrate were found in groundwater, but only one well exceeded WHO standards. The structured questionnaire revealed that some residents were still consuming groundwater despite the access to safer municipal water. In general, the widespread E. coli contamination was not statistically correlated with well depth, latrine proximity, or surface features. Similarly, nitrate concentrations were not significantly correlated with proximity to latrines. On the other hand, nitrate was correlated with well depth, which is expected given the high potential for leaching of anionic highly water soluble compounds. E. coli was significantly correlated with nitrate concentration. Projects targeting the need for clean water need to recognize that households with access to a

  3. Shallow ground-water quality in selected agricultural areas of south-central Georgia, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain National Water-Quality Assessment Program began an agricultural land-use study in March 1994. The study area is located in the upper Suwannee River basin in Tift, Turner, Worth, Irwin, Wilcox, and Crisp Counties, Ga. Twenty-three shallow monitoring wells were installed in a 1,335-square- mile area characterized by intensive row-crop agriculture (peanuts, corn, cotton, and soybeans). The study focused on recently recharged shallow ground water in surficial aquifers to assess the relation between land-use activities and ground- water quality. All wells were sampled in March and April (spring) 1994, and 14 of these wells were resampled in August (summer) 1994. Shallow ground water in the study area is characterized by oxic and acidic conditions, low bicarbonate, and low dissolved-solids concentrations. The median pH of shallow ground water was 4.7 and the median bicarbonate concentration was 1.7 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 8.0 mg/L. The median dissolved-solids concentration in samples collected in the spring was 86 mg/L. Major inorganic ion composition was generally mixed with no dominant cation; nitrate was the dominant anion (greater than 60 percent of the anion composition) in 14 of 23 samples. Only concentrations of bicarbonate, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate had significant differences in concentrations between samples collected in the spring and the background samples. However, median concentrations of some of the major ingredients in fertilizer (including magnesium, chloride, nitrate, iron, and manganese) were higher in water samples from agricultural wells than in background samples. The median concentration of dissolved solids in ground-water samples collected in the spring (86 mg/L) was more than double the median concentration (41 mg/L) of the background samples. The median nitrate as nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L in the spring samples reflects the effects of

  4. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  5. Relationship of Shallow Groundwater Quality to Hydraulic Fracturing Activities in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansky, J. N.; Robertson, W. M.; Chappaz, A.; Babos, H.; Israel, S.; Groskreutz, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) of oil and natural gas (O&G) wells is a widely applied technology that can increase yields from tight geologic formations. However, it is unclear how fracking may impact shallow groundwater; previous research into its effects has produced conflicting results. Much of the worry over potential impacts to water quality arises from concerns about the produced water. The water produced from O&G formations is often salty, contains toxic dissolved elements, and can be radioactive. If fracking activities cause or increase connectivity between O&G formations and overlying groundwater, there may be risks to aquifers. As one part of a groundwater quality study in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI, samples were collected from the unconfined glacial aquifer (3-300 m thick) and produced water from the underlying Antrim formation, a shallow (180-670 m deep) natural gas producing black shale. Groundwater samples were collected between 200 to 10,000 m distance from producing Antrim gas wells and from a range of screened intervals (15-95 m). Samples were analyzed for major constituents (e.g., Br, Cl), pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The specific conductance of groundwater samples ranged from 230-1020 μS/cm; DO ranged from 0.4-100% saturation. Preliminary results show a slight inverse correlation between specific conductance and proximity to producing Antrim wells. The observed range of DO saturation in glacial aquifer groundwater appears to be related to both screened depth of the water wells and proximity to Antrim wells. During sampling, some well owners expressed concerns about the effects of fracking on groundwater quality and reported odd smells and tastes in their water after O&G drilling occurred near their homes. The results of this study and reported observations provide evidence to suggest a potential hydrogeological connection between the Antrim formation and the overlying glacial aquifer in some locations; it also raises

  6. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  7. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  8. Microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas in Mzuzu City in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msilimba, Golden; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    In Malawi, shallow wells constitute the most important water sources for domestic purposes. However, increasing human population coupled with poor sanitation and infrastructure is undermining the quality of shallow well water. An assessment of microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas of Zolozolo, Ching’ambo and Chiputula in Mzuzu City, Northern Malawi, has been carried out. The study aimed at characterising domestic water sources, identifying possible sources of water contamination and determining levels of microbial and chemical contamination. Arc-view GIS was used to map the water sources. A questionnaire survey was carried out to elicit information on characteristics of drinking water sources. Water samples were collected from quasi-randomly selected shallow wells and analysed for microbial and chemical parameters using standard methods. HCA, performed using R-programme, was used to group sampled sites according to their bio-physicochemical characteristics. Compliance of the water with MBS/WHO water quality guidelines was determined. The WQI was computed to turn multifaceted data obtained from laboratory analyses into simple information that is comprehensible and useable by the public to assess overall quality of water at a specific water points. The GW-chart was used to show hydrogeochemical water types from each sampled site. Microbial analysis revealed that water from 96.3% of shallow wells recorded faecal coliforms ranging from 129 to 920 cfu per 100 ml which were significantly higher than the Malawi Standards and WHO thresholds. In general, shallow well water is of low mineralisation (EC range 80-500 μS cm-1), with hydrogeochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. The shallow well water registered a WQI range of 50.16-66.04%, with a medium WQ rating. This suggested that the water obtained from the shallow wells is unsuitable for direct human consumption. It was observed that 100% of the

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  10. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRESH PACKAGED TILAPIA FILLETS STORED UNDER DIFFERENT CHILL TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoli Cyprian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus farmed in recirculation aquaculture system (RAS was filleted and packaged in 100% air and 50% CO2: 50% N2 modified atmosphere (MA prior to storage at 1˚C and -1˚C for up to 27 days. Fillets were sampled regularly and analysed for headspace gas composition, sensory and microbial changes. Shelf life varied with apparent relation to storage temperature, package atmosphere and microflora. Pseudomonads were reported as the main spoilage organisms in tilapia fillets during chilled storage conditions. Sensory analysis of cooked samples as well as microbial growth indicated fillets packaged in 100% air had a shelf life of 13-15 days during storage at 1˚C and 20 days at -1˚C. At the end of shelf life in 100% air packaged groups, TVC and pseudomonads counts reached log 7 colony-forming units g-1 in flesh. Whereas in 50% CO2: 50% N2 packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria was extended and recorded counts of < log 4 colony-forming units g-1 up to 27 days of storage at both 1˚C and -1˚C. However, 50% CO2 : 50% N2 conditions restricted fillets shelf life to 23 days based on sensorial changes mainly fillets colour characteristics.

  12. Quality changes of pomegranate arils throughout shelf life affected by deficit irrigation and pre-processing storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Estévez, María E; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Galindo, Alejandro; Gómez, Perla A

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the influence of sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 78% less water supply than the reference evapotranspiration, ET0) compared to a control (100% ET0) on the physicochemical and sensory qualities and health-promoting compounds of pomegranate arils stored for 14days at 5°C. Prior to processing, the fruits were stored for 0, 30, 60 or 90days at 5°C. The effect of the pre-processing storage duration was also examined. Physicochemical and sensory qualities were kept during the storage period. Arils from SDI fruit had lower punicalagin-α and ellagic acid losses than the control (13% vs 50%). However, the anthocyanin content decreased during the shelf-life (72%) regardless of the treatment. The ascorbic acid slight decreased. Arils from SDI experienced glucose/fructose ratio loss (19%) lower than that of the control (35%). In general, arils from SDI showed better quality and health attributes during the shelf-life than did the control samples.

  13. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs.

  14. Late Quaternary Incisions and Related Shallow Subsurface Stratigraphy on the New Jersey Mid-Outer Shelf: Preliminary Results from Ultra-High Resolution Chirp Sonar Images - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjord, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Austin, J. A.; Goff, J. A.; Fulthorpe, C. S.

    2002-12-01

    ONR's Geoclutter program is a multi-year initiative to investigate systematic relationships between geologic phenomena and discrete acoustic signals ("geoclutter"). The New Jersey middle and outer shelf is the natural laboratory for Geoclutter because of the abundance of surficial geologic structures, including complex dendritic networks of fluvial (?) channels shallowly buried below the seafloor. Their geophysical characterization includes collection of high resolution seismic data in August-September 2001, using a deep-towed chirp sonar aboard the R/V Endeavor. These data image the upper ~30 m of sediments at ~2 m horizontal resolution and ~10 cm vertical resolution. Track spacing is typically 200 m. This resolution allows us to resolve subsurface structures in greater detail and over a wider range of spatial scales than previous imaging efforts using boomer sources. We present preliminary results from the central portion of the survey, a ~20x30 km area covering two separate dendritic systems. Principal drainage axes of buried channels are oriented NW to SE. Multiple incisions include cut-and-fill morphologies that characterize the channel fills, suggesting a complicated history since the last eustatic lowstand, ~20-22 ka. Both flat-lying and chaotic reflections are imaged within the fills, suggesting that infilling occurred episodically, in response to high-order relative base-level variations, and under fluctuating energy conditions. Channel-fills are often capped with a thin veneer of sand deposited after channel-filling; this has been confirmed by recent grab sampling geoclutter aboard R/V Cape Henlopen. These sediments appear to have been deposited during the last glacio-eustatic cycle (~100 kyr). A regionally important seismic reflector mappable throughout the middle to outer shelf, "R", has been interpreted as an erosional surface created during the last regression. This hypothesis is supported by the few age constraints currently available (AMS Carbon-14

  15. Harvest discrimination of pomegranate fruit: postharvest quality changes and relationships between instrumental and sensory attributes during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olaniyi Amos; Opara, Umezuruike Linus

    2013-08-01

    Harvest maturity discrimination was carried out for "Ruby" pomegranate cultivar in simulated handling conditions for long distant supply chains. Fruit were harvested at 3 different maturities along days after full bloom (DAFB); Harvest 1 (H1) at 133 DAFB, H2 at 143 DAFB, and H3 at 157 DAFB. The effects of harvest maturity and storage duration on fruit quality attributes during a 6-wk period of cold storage (5°C, 95% RH) and subsequent 5 d of shelf life (20°C, 75% RH) were investigated. Instrumental evaluation of aril color, juice content, juice absorbance (520 nm), total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acids (TA), and phytochemical components including total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were carried out. Textural properties of arils which included hardness, toughness, bioyield point, and Young's modulus were also investigated. During the shelf life period, arils from individual fruit were rated by a trained sensory panel based on appearance, taste, and texture. Relationships between the instrumental and descriptive sensory data were explored and fruit harvest maturities were discriminated using discriminant analysis. Among the attributes evaluated, TSS : TA, sweet taste, and the CIE hue angle (h°) were the most decisive attributes distinguishing the harvest maturities. The optimum time for harvesting was at 143 DAFB (H2) when fruit TSS : TA ratio was > 55, which coincided with significantly higher rating for sweet taste in fruit at H2 than at H1 and H3 during shelf life. The harvest index proposed in the current study could be used as a guide to establish a reliable harvest maturity index to assist in assuring fruit quality in consideration of long supply chains for the investigated cultivar.

  16. Modelling sensorial and nutritional changes to better define quality and shelf life of fresh-cut melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Amodio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh-cut produce is mostly determined by evaluating the external appearance since this is the major factor affecting consumer choice at the moment of purchase. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation kinetics of the major quality attributes in order to better define the shelf life of fresh-cut melons. Melon pieces were stored for eight days in air at 5°C. Sensorial and physical attributes including colour, external appearance, aroma, translucency, firmness, and chemical constituents, such as soluble solids, fructose, vitamin C, and phenolic content, along with antioxidant activity were monitored. Attributes showing significant changes over time were used to test conventional kinetic models of zero and first order, and Weibullian models. The Weibullian model was the most accurate to describe changes in appearance score, translucency, aroma, firmness and vitamin C (with a regression coefficient always higher than 0.956, while the other parameters could not be predicted with such accuracy by any of the tested models. Vitamin C showed the lowest kinetic rate among the model parameters, even though at the limit of marketability (appearance score 3, estimated at five days, a loss of 37% of its initial content was observed compared to the fresh-cut product, indicating a much lower nutritional value. After five days, the aroma score was already 2.2, suggesting that this quality attribute, together with the vitamin C content, should be taken into account when assessing shelf life of fresh-cut melons. In addition, logistical models were used to fit the percentage of rejected samples on the basis of non-marketability and non-edibility (appearance score <3 and <2, respectively. For both parameters, correlations higher than 0.999 were found at P<0.0001; for each mean score this model helps to understand the distribution of the samples among marketable, nonmarketable, and non-edible products.

  17. Effect of methionine supplementation in chicken feed on the quality and shelf life of fresh poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Antonia; Herbert, Ulrike; Miskel, Dennis; Heinemann, Celine; Braun, Carina; Dohlen, Sophia; Zeitz, Johanna O; Eder, Klaus; Saremi, Behnam; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2017-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different methionine sources and concentrations on the quality and spoilage process of broiler meat. The trial was comprised of 7 treatment groups: one basal group (suboptimal in Methionine+Cysteine; i.e., 0.89, 0.74, 0.69% in DM SID Met+Cys in starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively) and 3 doses (0.10, 0.25, and 0.40%) of either DL-Methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) on an equimolar basis of the DLM-supplemented groups. The broilers were fed the diets for 35 d, then slaughtered and processed. The filets were aerobically packed and stored under temperature controlled conditions at 4°C. Meat quality investigations were comprised of microbial investigations (total viable count and Pseudomonas spp.), pH and drip loss measurements of the filets. The shelf life of the meat samples was determined based on sensory parameters. After slaughtering, all supplemented meat samples showed a high quality, whereby no differences between the 2 methionine sources could be detected for the microbial load, pH, and drip loss. In comparison to the control group, the supplemented samples showed a higher sensory quality, characterized by a fresh smell and fresh red color. Methionine supplementation had a significant influence on meat quality parameters during storage. The microbial load, pH and drip loss of the chicken filets were positively correlated to the methionine concentration. Additionally, the microbial load at the end of storage was positively correlated to pH and drip loss values. Nevertheless, the microbial parameters were in a normal range and the positive correlation to methionine concentration did not affect the sensory shelf life. The mean sensory shelf life of the broiler filets varied between 7 to 9 d. During storage, no difference in the development of sensory parameters was observed between the supplemented groups, while the spoilage process of the basal group

  18. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  19. Effect of different packaging films on shelf life and quality of peach under super and ordinary market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, B V C; Dhillon, W S; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Bikramjit

    2015-06-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruits of cultivar 'Shan-i-Punjab' were harvested at colour break stage and packed in paper moulded trays followed by wrapping with different packaging films viz. cryovac heat shrinkable RD-106, cling and low density polyethylene (LDPE) film. After packaging, the fruits were stored under two different conditions i.e. super-market conditions (18-20 °C; 90-95 % RH) and ordinary market conditions (28-30 °C; 60-65 % RH). The fruits were evaluated for various quality attributes periodically. The shrink film helped in reducing the loss in weight, firmness, decay incidence and maintained the various qualities attributes like total soluble solids, sugars, acidity and ascorbic acid content of the fruits during shelf-life better than unwrapped control fruits. The pectin methyl esterase enzyme activity was also found to be lower in shrink film packed fruits over the unwrapped control fruits. The in-package gaseous composition (O2 and CO2) in shrink film packed fruits was found to be at desired level which resulted in maintenance of pleasant flavour of the fruits. On the other hand LDPE film accumulated very high level of CO2, which led to formation of fermenting odour and decay of fruits in the package. The data revealed that RD-106 film proved quite effective in prolonging the shelf-life and maintaining the quality of peach fruits for 9 and 4 days under super market conditions (SMC) and ordinary market conditions (OMC), respectively as against 6 and 2 days only in case of unpacked control fruits under both the marketing conditions. The results suggest that shrink film could be used in packaging of peach without negative effects on quality.

  20. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of Najafgarh drain of NCT Delhi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashank Shekhar; Aditya Sarkar

    2013-02-01

    Najafgarh drain is the biggest drain in Delhi and contributes about 60% of the total wastewater that gets discharged from Delhi into river Yamuna. The drain traverses a length of 51 km before joining river Yamuna, and is unlined for about 31 km along its initial stretch. In recent times, efforts have been made for limited withdrawal of groundwater from shallow aquifers in close vicinity of Najafgarh drain coupled with artificial recharge of groundwater. In this perspective, assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of the Najafgarh drain of Delhi and hydrogeological characterization of adjacent areas were done. The groundwater quality was examined in perspective of Indian as well as World Health Organization’s drinking water standards. The spatial variation in groundwater quality was studied. The linkages between trace element occurrence and hydrochemical facies variation were also established. The shallow groundwater along Najafgarh drain is contaminated in stretches and the area is not suitable for large-scale groundwater development for drinking water purposes.

  1. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding orange dietary fibre (1%), rosemary essential oil (0.02%) or thyme essential oil (0.02%) and the storage conditions on the quality characteristics and the shelf-life of mortadella, a bologna-type sausage. The moisture, fat, ash content and colour coordinates lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were affected by the fibre content. The treatments analysed lowered the levels of residual nitrite (57.56% and 57.61%) and the extent of lipid oxidation, while analysis of the samples revealed the presence of the flavonoids, hesperidin and narirutin. No enterobacteria or psychotropic bacteria were found in any of the treatments. The treated samples stored in vacuum packaging showed the lowest aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts. Sensorially, the most appreciated sample was the one containing orange dietary fibre and rosemary essential oil, stored in vacuum packaging. Orange dietary fibre and spice essential oils could find a use in the food industry to improve the shelf-life of meat products.

  2. Control of microbiological quality and shelf-life of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by chemical preservatives and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efiuvwevwere, B J; Ajiboye, M O

    1996-05-01

    Fresh catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were subjected to different concentrations of sodium benzoate or potasium sorbate and smoked traditionally before evaluation for microbiological, chemical and organoleptic characteristics during ambient tropical storage. Unsmoked fish samples showed diverse microflora (Enterobacter, Escherichia, Serratia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Achlya genera) while smoked samples were dominated by Gram-positive bacterial flora (Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) and spoilage moulds (Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus flavus and Achlya spp.). Significant reduction in microbial population occurred in most samples following smoking with samples subjected to 0.4% (w/v) potassium sorbate showing the lowest microbial load and maximum shelf-stability. However, marked microbial increase occurred after day 4 of storage in control and benzoate-treated samples. Changes in pH were marginal but decreased after day 12 of storage. Moisture content decreased sharply after smoking and remained low after day 4 of storage. Overall, potassium sorbate treatment (0.4% w/v) was most effective in controlling microbial quality and extended the shelf-life of the samples by 8 d.

  3. Influence of hydroponic and soil cultivation on quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L. Laterr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Foschia, Martina; Tomasi, Nicola; Maifreni, Michela; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Marino, Marilena; Cortella, Giovanni; Cesco, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the hydroponic floating system to cultivate leafy vegetables for ready-to-eat salads. It is reasonable that different growing systems could affect the quality and shelf life of these salads. The quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce grown in protected environment in soil plot or in soil-less system over hydroponic solution with or without the addition of 30 µmol L⁻¹ silicon were evaluated. Minimum effects were observed on colour, firmness and microbial counts. Hydroponic cultivation largely affected plant tissue hydration, leading to weight loss and structural modifications during refrigerated storage. The shelf life of lamb's lettuce was limited by the development of visually detectable unpleasant sensory properties. Shelf life, calculated by survival analysis of consumer acceptability data, resulted about 7 days for soil-cultivated salad and 2 days for the hydroponically grown ones. The addition of silicon to the hydroponic solution resulted in an interesting strategy to increase plant tissue yield and reduce nitrate accumulation. Although hydroponic cultivation may have critical consequences on product quality and shelf life, these disadvantages could be largely counterbalance by increased yield and a reduction of nitrate accumulation when cultivation is performed on nutritive solutions with supplemental addition of silicon. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of Hot Water Treatment on Postharvest Shelf Life and Quality of Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ping; LI Wu

    2003-01-01

    Broccoli was stored at 0, 10, or 20℃ after immersion in hot water (38 -52℃ ) for 10 or 30min. Yellowing of broccoli was significantly slowed and shelf life significantly increased when broccoli wastreated with hot water at 42 -46℃ and then stored at 10 or 20℃. Heat injury occurred when treatment washigher than 46℃ in some varieties. Broccoli lasted 2 -3 days longer when stored at 10℃ and 1 -2 days longerwhen stored at 20℃ after hot water treatment at 46℃. There was no significant effect of treatment on shelflife after long time storage at 0℃. Weight loss was reduced by hot water treatment and the respiration behav-ior of the broccoli was also changed.

  5. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  6. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been demonstra

  7. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been

  8. The Contribution of Marsh Zones to Water Quality in Dutch Shallow Lakes: A Modeling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.; Janse, Jan H.; Mooij, Wolf M.; Coops, Hugo; Verhoeven, J.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Many lakes have experienced a transition from a clear into a turbid state without macrophyte growth due to eutrophication. There are several measures by which nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the surface water can be reduced. We used the shallow lake model PCLake to evaluate

  9. Glycemic index and quality evaluation of little millet (Panicum miliare) flakes with enhanced shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kavita B; Chimmad, Bharati V; Itagi, Sunanda

    2015-09-01

    Little millet is a minor cereal crop contains several nutraceutical components. Ready To Cook (RTC) flakes of the millet exhibited higher total dietary fiber content (22.40 %) compared to dehulled grain (15.80 %). One serving (30 g) of RTC flakes provided 2.25 g of protein, 0.13 g of fat, 0.13 g of total minerals, 9.67 mg of iron and zero trans fats. The flakes possessed a medium Glycemic Index (GI) of 52.11 ranging from 41.57 to 61.80 among normal volunteers. Glycemic Load (GL) of the flakes was a low of 9.24. The RTC flakes exhibited an acceptability index of 81.11. The flakes possessed a shelf life of more than 6 months with an acceptability index of 67.55, moisture content of 11.82 per cent and Free fatty acid content of 18.02 per cent at the end of sixth month of storage period.

  10. Imaging continental shelf shallow stratigraphy by using different high-resolution seismic sources: an example from the Calabro-Tyrrhenian margin (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Martorelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution seismic reflection profiles of the Calabro-Tyrrhenian continental shelf were collected using different seismic sources (Sub-Bottom Profiler, Uniboom, Sparker 0.5-1-4.5 kJ. Noticeable differences and results were obtained both from a geophysical and geological-interpretative point of view. The availability of different sources permitted the definition of the most suitable seismostratigraphic characterization in terms of resolution, penetration and acoustic facies. Very high resolution stratigraphy was defined through profiles produced by different seismic systems used in parallel. This permitted the application of sequence-stratigraphy concepts with the reconstruction of a thick postglacial depositional sequence, formed by a transgressive and a high-stand systems tract. The thickness distribution of postglacial deposits reveals that the main depocenter (55-65 m is located offshore of the Coastal Range, along a stretch of coast supplied by several small and seasonal streams ("fiumare" and characterized by the lack of a coastal plain. This suggests the greater efficiency of sediment supply and bypass in this area relatively to sectors located offshore of the main rivers. The transgressive systems tract, usually thin or nearly absent, is particularly well developed (up to 33 m and is composed of up to three parasequences with a retrogradational stacking pattern. The high-stand systems tract, up to 30 m thick, is made up of two parasequences and has a quite regular geometry and acoustic facies.Perfis de reflexão sísmica de alta resolução da plataforma continental tirreniana de Calabro foram obtidos utilizando-se recursos sísmicos diversos (Perfilador de Sub-superfície, Uniboom, Sparker 0.5-1-4.5 kJ. Diferenças evidentes foram encontradas sob o ponto de vista geofísico e geológico-interpretativo. A disponibilidade de diferentes fontes permitiu a definição de uma caracterização sismo-estratigráfica mais acurada em termos

  11. Biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in Malawi: Case study of Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; O'Neill, J. G.

    A study was conducted in Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje districts in Malawi to determine the biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells. An in situ membrane filtration test kit (Paqualab 50) was used to determine the microbiological quality of water and a photometer was used for the chemical analyses. Water samples were collected from 21 covered/protected and five open/unprotected shallow wells at four different times in a year to determine the change in quality with different seasons. The results of microbiological analysis show that the drinking water quality is very poor, i.e. grossly polluted with faecal matter. Total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) values in the wet season (February and April, 2006) were much higher than those in the dry season (August and October, 2005). In terms of total coliform, the results show that approximately 80% of the shallow wells tested in the dry season and 100% of the wells in the wet season did not meet the drinking water quality temporary guidelines, set by the Ministry of Water Development - MoWD (2003) [Ministry of Water Development - MoWD, 2003. Government of Malawi, Devolution of functions of assemblies, Guidelines and standards], of a maximum of 50 TC/100 ml for untreated water. Approximately 50% of the wells failed to meet the faecal coliform drinking water guideline of 50 FC/100 ml in the dry season while this figure had increased to 94% of the wells failing to meet the standard in the wet season. Covered wells were not as grossly contaminated as open wells but all of the wells tested failed the MoWD standards in at least one sample. Chemical analyses results were within the drinking water guideline and variations during seasons were insignificant. pH values were within the guidelines in the dry season except for Mulanje district where on average 45% of the wells had pH values below the lower limit of 6.0. In the wet season 50% of the samples had pH values below 6.0. Turbidity

  12. Seasonal Variations of Shallow Well Water Quality in Amuwo-Odofin and Ojo LGA’s of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah S. Akoteyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water from fifteen shallow wells used for irrigation was analysed during the wet and dry seasons of 2012 and 2013 respectively from Amuwo-Odofin and Ojo LGAs in Lagos-Nigeria. In situ parameters were measured for electrical conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids using portable metres. Bicarbonate, calcium, carbonate, and chloride were determined using a titrimetry method. Magnesium, potassium and sodium were determined with an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while sulphate was determined using a spectrophotometer. Total hardness was computed using Fournier equation. The study aimed at examining the seasonal variations of shallow well water for irrigation purpose in the study area. Data were analysed using tables, charts, descriptive inferential statistics and irrigation water quality indices. The results show that the mean values of all the parameters were higher in dry season compared to the wet season except for pH. The paired samples T-test indicate significant seasonal variations at p<0.05 for sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and sulphate. The Kelly ratio, magnesium ratio, residual sodium carbonate, percentage sodium and sodium adsorption ratio indices have revealed that the water quality is suitable for irrigation in both seasons. The spatial pattern of sodium and salinity hazard shows that all the samples are suitable for irrigation except for locations G12 and G14; and G9 in dry and wet seasons respectively. It was concluded that the shallow well water is suitable for irrigation. Routine monitoring, appropriate treatment and investigation of soil quality test are recommended for further study. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.68.2.5642

  13. Changes in the fish community and water quality during seven years of stocking piscivorous fish in a shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Perrow, M.R.; Berg, Søren

    2002-01-01

    zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish, with resultant effects on lower trophic levels and ultimately water quality. 2. The fish community and water quality parameters (Secchi depth, concentrations of total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and suspended solids) were monitored between 1996 and 2000 and relationships were...... evaluated between predatory fish and potential prey and between zooplanktivorous or benthivorous fish and water quality parameters. In addition, potential consumption of piscivorous fishes was calculated. 3. The density of fish feeding on larger zooplankton or benthos (roach >15 cm, crucian carp >15 cm......1. Piscivores (annual stocking of 1000 individuals ha(-1) of 0+ pike and a single stocking of 30 kg ha(-1) of large 20-30 cm perch) were stocked in seven consecutive years in a shallow eutrophic lake in Denmark. The stocking programme aimed at changing food-web structure by reducing...

  14. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefarth, Caroline; Tran, Thi Bich Thao; Mittermaier, Peter; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%), showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt. PMID:28234322

  15. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%, showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

  16. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefarth, Caroline; Tran, Thi Bich Thao; Mittermaier, Peter; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-05-15

    This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%), showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

  17. Evaluating the Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH and Pasteurization effects on the quality and shelf life of donkey milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cephas Nii Akwei Addo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk has functional properties of great interest to human nutrition. The effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH at 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa in comparison with different pasteurization treatments of 70 °C for 1 min and 85 °C for 1 min on the physicochemical quality and shelf-life of treated and raw (untreated donkey milk were studied. Gross composition and pH, total mesophilic counts, lysozyme activity and physical stability were studied during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. The compositional profile showed resemblance to that of human milk characterized by high lactose, low fat and low protein content and was least affected by the treatments. UHPH treatments at 200 MPa, 300 MPa and 85 °C were able to maintain steady pH during storage whereas the low intensity treatments showed a significant decrease. The observed lysozyme activity in the samples was generally high and appeared to have been enhanced by the applied UHPH and pasteurization treatments with no significant change during storage. Although the raw milk showed good initial microbial quality, extensive growth of mesophilic microorganisms occurred after 7 days of storage, unlike the treated samples which were able to maintain significantly low counts throughout the storage period. The physical stability of milk was negatively influenced by the higher UHPH treatments of 200 MPa and 300 MPa which exhibited sedimentation phenomenon, while creaming was insignificant.

  18. Evaluating the Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH and Pasteurization effects on the quality and shelf life of donkey milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cephas Nii Akwei Addo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk has functional properties of great interest to human nutrition. The effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH at 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa in comparison with different pasteurization treatments of 70 °C for 1 min and 85 °C for 1 min on the physicochemical quality and shelf-life of treated and raw (untreated donkey milk were studied. Gross composition and pH, total mesophilic counts, lysozyme activity and physical stability were studied during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. The compositional profile showed resemblance to that of human milk characterized by high lactose, low fat and low protein content and was least affected by the treatments. UHPH treatments at 200 MPa, 300 MPa and 85 °C were able to maintain steady pH during storage whereas the low intensity treatments showed a significant decrease. The observed lysozyme activity in the samples was generally high and appeared to have been enhanced by the applied UHPH and pasteurization treatments with no significant change during storage. Although the raw milk showed good initial microbial quality, extensive growth of mesophilic microorganisms occurred after 7 days of storage, unlike the treated samples which were able to maintain significantly low counts throughout the storage period. The physical stability of milk was negatively influenced by the higher UHPH treatments of 200 MPa and 300 MPa which exhibited sedimentation phenomenon, while creaming was insignificant.

  19. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  1. Evaluation of ultrasound based sterilization approaches in terms of shelf life and quality parameters of fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates the performance of ultrasound based sterilization approaches for processing of different fruit and vegetable juices in terms of microbial growth and changes in the quality parameters during the storage. Comparison with the conventional thermal processing has also been presented. A novel approach based on combination of ultrasound with ultraviolet irradiation and crude extract of essential oil from orange peels has been used for the first time. Identification of the microbial growth (total bacteria and yeast content) in the juices during the subsequent storage and assessing the safety for human consumption along with the changes in the quality parameters (Brix, titratable acidity, pH, ORP, salt, conductivity, TSS and TDS) has been investigated in details. The optimized ultrasound parameters for juice sterilization were established as ultrasound power of 100 W and treatment time of 15 min for the constant frequency operation (20 kHz). It has been established that more than 5 log reduction was achieved using the novel combined approaches based on ultrasound. The treated juices using different approaches based on ultrasound also showed lower microbial growth and improved quality characteristics as compared to the thermally processed juice. Scale up studies were also performed using spinach juice as the test sample with processing at 5 L volume for the first time. The ultrasound treated juice satisfied the microbiological and physiochemical safety limits in refrigerated storage conditions for 20 days for the large scale processing. Overall the present work conclusively established the usefulness of combined treatment approaches based on ultrasound for maintaining the microbiological safety of beverages with enhanced shelf life and excellent quality parameters as compared to the untreated and thermally processed juices.

  2. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite

  3. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  4. Enhancing arabic bread quality and shelf life stability using bread improvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleid, S M; Al-Hulaibi, A A; Ghoush, M Abu; Al-Shathri, A A

    2015-08-01

    Arabic breads is produced mainly from hard red winter wheat (HRWW) and have relatively little crumb, dense texture, form pocket and are often round with golden brown crust color. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of different bread improvers combinations addition in enhancing the quality parameters of Arabic bread. Therefore, the ability of Arabic bread for rolling, folding and overall quality were evaluated during the Arabic bread storage period for 2 days. It was found that there was significant effect of bread improvers combinations (Arabic gum "AG" * Mongglycerides "MG" *alpha-amylase) addition on the ability of Arabic bread for rolling and folding on the second day (P ≤ 0.1). The highest white Arabic bread quality was obtained significantly from addition of low AG, high of MG and high alpha-amylase combination and high AG, low of MG and high alpha-amylase combination. While, low of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination and high of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination significantly exhibited the highest overall quality for the Arabic bread made from whole flour.

  5. Formulation, quality control and shelf life of the experimental cytostatic drug cyclopentenyl cytosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Schimmel; H.J. Guchelaar; E. van Kan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation and quality control of an aqueous sterilized formulation of the experimental cytostatic drug cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) to be used in Phase I/II clinical trials. The raw drug substance was extensively tested. A High Pressure Liquid Chromotography (HPLC) method

  6. Assessment of suitability of macrobenthic mollusc diversity to monitor water quality and shallow sediment quality in a tropical rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated wetland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Six sampling sites were selected to represent different land use types in the rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated areas of a recreational wetland in Sri Lanka to study the suitability of macrobenthic mollusc diversity to monitor spatial and temporal variation in physico-chemical parameters of water and shallow sediments. Individuals belonging to six families and eight species were recorded during the study. The significantly highest mean abundance (individuals of Bithynia tentaculata and Pila globosa were recorded in sites from the rehabilitated area and there was no significant temporal variation of mollusc abundance during the study.  The abundance and diversity of mollusc community showed significant spatial variations and this study identified that B. tentaculata and P. globosa can be used as possible bioindicators to detect changes in water and shallow sediment quality in tropical wetland ecosystems

  7. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the

  8. Effect of salts of organic acids on Listeria monocytogenes, shelf life, meat quality, and consumer acceptability of beef frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amit; Bowers, Jordan W J; Bauermeister, Laura J; Singh, Manpreet; Huang, Tung-Shi; McKee, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate anti-listerial efficacy of salts of organic acids, and their impact on the quality of frankfurters. Beef frankfurters were manufactured by incorporating organic acids in 5 different combinations: (1) control (no marinade addition; C); (2) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt; SL); (3) potassium lactate (2% wt/wt; PL); (4) sodium citrate (0.75% wt/wt; SC); and (5) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt)/sodium diacetate (0.25% wt/wt; SL/SD). Cooked frankfurters were inoculated with streptomycin-resistant (1500 μg/mL) L. monocytogenes (7 log₁₀ CFU/frank). Inoculated and noninoculated frankfurters were vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken weekly up to 10 wk for estimation of L. monocytogenes as well as aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophs (PSY), respectively. Total of 2 independent trials of the entire experiment were conducted. Noninoculated beef frankfurters were evaluated weekly by untrained sensory panelists for 7 wk. SL, PL, and SC treatments did not (P > 0.05) adversely affect consumer acceptability through 8 wk although, SL/SD treatment was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less preferred across all sensory attributes. SL/SD treatment negatively affected product quality, but was able to control APC, PSY, and L. monocytogenes levels. SC performed similar to the control throughout the 8, 9, and 10 wk storage periods, providing no benefit for inhibiting L. monocytogenes (increasing from 7 logs CFU/frank to 10 logs CFU/frank throughout storage) or extending shelf life of the beef frankfurters. In conclusion, 2% SL and PL, and 2% SL/0.25% SD may be effective L. monocytogenes inhibitors (maintaining inoculation levels of 7 logs CFU/frank during storage), but changes in SL/SD treatment formulation should be studied to improve product quality.

  9. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mariyam

    2012-01-01

    Salted fi sh products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fi sh preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fi sh muscle. However, the current demand for salted fi sh is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fi sh quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution). After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight). All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN), Peroxide Value (PV), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), Total Viable Count (TVC), Halophilic Bacteria (HB) and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed) VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, TBA increased from 0.07 mg MDA/kg in fresh brined

  10. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fish quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Material  and methods. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution. After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight. All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN, Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA, Total Viable Count (TVC, Halophilic Bacteria (HB and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. Results.  TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4

  11. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  12. Radiation processing: An effective quality control tool for hygienization and extending shelf life of a herbal formulation, Amritamehari churnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amritamehari churnam (AC is an antidiabetic polyherbal formulation constituting of four herbal medicinal plants namely Phyllanthus emblica, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa. The feasibility of using gamma irradiation at doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy to reduce microbial load and enhance shelf life of this formulation was investigated. The irradiated and non-irradiated products were stored at room temperature (25–32 °C and 50–85% R.H., 1.5 years. Acceptability of the irradiated product was assessed based on sensory, microbial, physical and chemical attributes as well as their antioxidant status. A dose 7.5 kGy was sufficient to maintain microbial quality within acceptable limit up to 18 months of storage. No significant differences in sensory properties were observed between the non-irradiated and irradiated sample. The applied dose did not cause any significant qualitative and quantitative changes in the chemical constituents, antioxidant activities as well as physical properties when measured by EPR spectroscopy.

  13. Effect of Gamma Radiations on the Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruit of the Uttrakhand Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prianka; Rastogi, Meetu

    2016-08-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiations on the quality and shelf life of strawberries. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation doses in range of 0.3- 1.5 kGy. The irradiated strawberries were stored in ambient (temperature 25 +- 2oC, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (3 +-1oC, RH 80%) conditions. In samples treated with dose 1.2-1.5 kGy no decay was recorded up to 9 days of ambient conditions. Under refrigerated conditions, strawberry samples of unirradiated and irradiated in the range of 0.3-0.9 kGy started decaying after 14 days of storage. No decay was observed in the samples treated with 1.2-1.5 kGy up to 28 days of refrigerated storage. Dose of 1.2 kGy was significantly effective in reducing the weight loss and in maintaining the higher overall acceptability under both the storage conditions compared to the other treatments. This dose also proved effective in retention of significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to the other treatments. Thus, it was established that irradiating strawberries with dose of 1.2 kGy can prove beneficial in facilitating the marketing of the fruit to distant places other than the local markets, thereby benefiting the growers.

  14. Combining ozone and slurry ice to maximize shelf-life and quality of bighead croaker (Collichthys niveatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Huang, Ju; Deng, Shanggui; Huang, Yuting

    2016-10-01

    Slurry ice possesses several advantages for seafood preservation, such as faster chilling rate, reduced physical damage, and complete coverage of the fish surface. In this paper, the efficiency of its employment, either applied alone or combined with ozone, was evaluated for bighead croaker and compared with traditional flake ice. Changes of a series of microbial, biochemical and sensory parameters including total viable count (TVC), sensory scores, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hardness and springiness were investigated up to 21 days. TVC, sensory attributes, hardness and springiness of fish stored in ozonised slurry ice, were significantly different from fish stored flake ice and slurry ice, indicating that a combination of slurry ice and ozone allowed better quality maintenance. Increase in TVB-N, PV and TBA values of the fish treated with ozonised slurry ice and slurry ice were found to be noticeably reduced compared to those of the flake ice ones. Based on the acceptable limits of TVC and other quantifiable attributes, a prolonged shelf life of 18 days was estimated for the bighead croaker stored in ozonised-slurry ice, whereas the counterpart batches treated with flake and slurry ice would exceed these limits after 9 and 15 days, respectively. Additionally, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and scanning electron microscope observation also revealed that ozonised-slurry ice could effectively retard the degradation of myofibrillar proteins and reduce the deterioration of microstructure.

  15. Influence of packaging and storage conditions on quality parameters and shelf life of solar-dried banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Phothapaeree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of packaging materials (metalized or polylactic acid, PLA, based pouches, storage temperatures (30-50°C and time (up to 6 months on quality of solar-dried banana were investigated. At 30°C in both packaging materials, change in moisture content, water activity (a w and hardness were minimal while darkening of the surface color progressed. No microbial spoilage was found. Hedonic scores of color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptance of the 6th month aged samples were lowest (p≤0.05. Based on the sensory test, product packed in both packaging materials had shelf life of 5 months at 30°C. Higher storage temperature greatly induced time-dependent decrease in moisture content and a w with an increase in hardness, especially for the samples in PLA-based pouches. Fractional conversion model was used to predicted time-dependent change in total color difference (ΔE (R2 ≥ 0.84. Temperature dependence of the rate constant followed Arrhenius-type relationship (R2 ≥ 0.99.

  16. Modeling microbial spoilage and quality of gilthead seabream fillets: combined effect of osmotic pretreatment, modified atmosphere packaging, and nisin on shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, Theofania N; Taoukis, Petros S

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was the kinetic modeling of the effect of storage temperature on the quality and shelf life of chilled fish, modified atmosphere-packed (MAP), and osmotically pretreated with the addition of nisin as antimicrobial agent. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (DE 47) plus 5% NaCl. Water loss, solid gain, salt content, and water activity were monitored throughout treatment and treatment conditions were selected for the shelf life study. Untreated and osmotically pretreated slices with and without nisin (2 x 10(4) IU/100 g osmotic solution), packed in air or modified atmosphere (50% CO(2)-50% air), and stored at controlled isothermal conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees C) were studied. Quality assessment and modeling were based on growth of several microbial indices, total volatile nitrogen, trimethylamine nitrogen, lipid oxidation (TBARS), and sensory scoring. Temperature dependence of quality loss rates was modeled by the Arrhenius equation, validated under dynamic conditions. Pretreated samples showed improved quality stability during subsequent refrigerated storage, in terms of microbial growth, chemical changes, and organoleptic degradation. Osmotic pretreatment with the addition of nisin in combination with MAP was the most effective treatment resulting in significant shelf life extension of gilthead seabream fillets (48 days compared to 10 days for the control at 0 degrees C).

  17. Studies on the effects of honey incorporation on quality and shelf life of aonla preserve

    OpenAIRE

    Saghir Ahmad; Nanda Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Aonla is the richest sources of Vitamin C. The raw fruit, due to its high acidic nature and astringent taste is unacceptable to the consumers. Honey is a natural high energy sweetener with many medicinal values. Keeping in view the nutritional and therapeutic values of aonla fruit and honey, aonla preserve was prepared by incorporating 7.5 and 15% of honey into them. The quality of the products was evaluated based on the physicochemical (moisture, ash, pH, TSS, browning index and Vitamin C co...

  18. Assessing Risks of Shallow Riparian Groundwater Quality Near an Oil Sands Tailings Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, J W; Bickerton, G; Frank, R A; Grapentine, L; Hewitt, L M

    2016-07-01

    The potential discharge of groundwater contaminated by oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a concern for aquatic ecosystems near tailings ponds. Groundwater in the area, but unaffected by OSPW, may contain similar compounds, complicating the assessment of potential ecological impacts. In this study, 177 shallow groundwater samples were collected from riparian areas along the Athabasca River and tributaries proximate to oil sands developments. For "pond-site" samples (71; adjacent to study tailings pond), Canadian aquatic life guidelines were exceeded for 11 of 20 assessed compounds. However, "non-pond" samples (54; not near any tailings pond) provided similar exceedances. Statistical analyses indicate that pond-site and non-pond samples were indistinguishable for all but seven parameters assessed, including salts, many trace metals, and fluorescence profiles of aromatic naphthenic acids (ANA). This suggests that, regarding the tested parameters, groundwater adjacent to the study tailings pond generally poses no greater ecological risk than other nearby groundwaters at this time. Multivariate analyses applied to the groundwater data set separated into 11 smaller zones support this conclusion, but show some variation between zones. Geological and potential OSPW influences could not be distinguished based on major ions and metals concentrations. However, similarities in indicator parameters, namely ANA, F, Mo, Se, and Na-Cl ratio, were noted between a small subset of samples from two pond-site zones and two OSPW samples and two shallow groundwater samples documented as likely OSPW affected. This indicator-based screening suggests that OSPW-affected groundwater may be reaching Athabasca River sediments at a few locations. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Groundwater © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  19. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  20. Influence of gas mixture on quality and shelf life of veal calf meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Palo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of two different gas mixtures on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of veal meat packed in modified atmosphere during chill storage. Experimental gas atmospheres tested were O246 (46% O2, 31% N2 and 23% CO2 and O270 (70% O2, 8% N2 and 22% CO2. Samples were stored at 4°C for 14 days and tested at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after packaging. The different O2 concentration influenced many parameters. Lower O2 concentration showed a greater increase of a* values (P<0.01 from the 2nd to the 8th packaging day, and a lower increase in drip loss values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein oxidation (P<0.001. Total aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic count showed a gradual increase in bacterial load over storage time in both the experimental treatments. Results obtained showed that O246 is better than O270 in calf meat packaging because of a belated decline of meat quality, particularly about oxidative parameters.

  1. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  2. Quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Valder, Joshua F.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had 14C ages ranging from 30,000 years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from 14C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5 km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6 km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur.

  3. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4 ± 1 °C under vacuum packaging.

  4. Baking quality, sensory properties and shelf life of bread with polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Suresh; Kaur, A

    2014-09-01

    The polyols namely glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol were incorporated at 2, 4 and 6 % level in flour for bread making and their effect on textural properties, bread making quality and sensory acceptability of bread was studied. The effect of incorporation revealed the increased bake absorption, bread weight and decreased specific volume. The overall acceptability scores were maximum for bread prepared with glycerol at 2 % level, followed by sorbitol at 4 % level and mannitol at 4 % level. During storage of packed bread, moisture content and water activity were higher for bread prepared from polyols as compared to control and it was observed that moisture content was higher in bread packed in Polypropylene. Formation of free fatty acid content (% oleic acid) was observed to be higher in the breads stored at ambient condition and packed in Low density polyethylene packaging material. The overall acceptability of bread decreased with the increased storage period.

  5. Assessing ecological quality of shallow lakes: Does knowledge of transparency suffice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Franken, R.J.M.; Jeppesen, E.; Moss, B.; Bécares, E.; Hansson, L-A.; Romo, S.; Kairesalo, T.; Gross, E.M.; Van Donk, E.; Nõges, T.; Irvine, K.; Kornijów, R.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all aquatic ecosystems in their member states should reach ‘good’ ecological quality by 2015. To assess ecological quality, the WFD requires the definition of reference conditions using biological, physical and chemical indicators and the as

  6. Assessing ecological quality of shallow lakes: does knowledge of transparency suffice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Franken, R.J.M.; Jeppesen, E.; Moss, B.; Bécares, E.; Hansson, I.; Romo, S.; Kairesalo, T.; Gross, E.M.; Donk, van E.; Noges, T.; Irvine, K.; Kornijów, R.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all aquatic ecosystems in their member states should reach `good¿ ecological quality by 2015. To assess ecological quality, the WFD requires the definition of reference conditions using biological, physical and chemical indicators and the as

  7. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  8. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life.

  9. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (pmacrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  10. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological quality of ground water from boreholes and shallow wells in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  12. Trace fossils and sedimentary facies from a Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician tide-dominated shelf (Santa Rosita Formation, northwest Argentina): Implications for ichnofacies models of shallow marine successions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Acenolaza, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Rosita Formation is one the most widely distributed lower Paleozoic units of northwest Argentina. At the Quebrada del Salto Alto section, east of Purmamarca, Jujuy Province, it is represented by four sedimentary facies: thick-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones (A), thin-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones and mudstones (B), wave-rippled sandstones and bioturbated mudstones (C), and black and greenish gray shales (D). Paleocurrent data, sandstone architecture, and sedimentary structures from facies A and B indicate bipolar/bimodal paleoflows, suggesting the action of tidal currents. The succession is interpreted as that of a tide-dominated shelf, with only secondary influence of wave processes. Trace fossils are restricted to facies B and C. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis is preserved on the soles of thin-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones (facies B). This ichnocoenosis consists of Conostichus isp., Cruziana omanica, C. semiplicata, C. cf. tortworthi, Cruziana isp. Helminthopsis abeli, Monomorphichnus bilinearis, M. multilineatus, Palaeophycus tubularis, Rusophycus carbonarius, R. latus, and R. isp. The occurrence of Cruziana semiplicata, C. omanica, C. cf. tortworthi, and Rusophycus latus supports a Late Cambrian-Tremadoc age. Slabbing of Cruziana shows complex interactions between biologic and sedimentologic processes, and suggests a predominance of exhumed traces, washed out and recast by tractive sand deposition. Sandstone soles are densely packed with biogenic structures and exhibit distinctive clusters of Rusophycus isp. that most likely represent trilobite nesting burrows. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis records the resident fauna of a protected, lower intertidal to subtidal interbar setting. The Skolithos ichnocoenosis is represented by high to low density vertical burrows of Skolithos linearis, which extend downwards to the quartzose sandstone soles of facies B and cross the Cruziana ichnocoenosis. The

  13. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens.

  14. Diagenesis and reservoir quality evolution of palaeocene deep-water, marine sandstones, the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansurbeg, H. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Salem, A. [Faculty of Education at Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University, Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); Marfil, R.; Caja, M.A. [Departmento Petrologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); El-ghali, M.A.K. (Geology Department, Al-Fateh University, P.O. Box 13696, Libya); Nystuen, J.P. [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Amorosi, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 67, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Garcia, D. [Centre SPIN, Department GENERIC, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne 158, Cours Fauriel 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); La Iglesia, A. [Instituto de Geologia Economica (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The Palaeocene, deep-water marine sandstones recovered from six wells in the Shetland-Faroes Basin represent lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tract turbiditic sediments. Mineralogic, petrographic, and geochemical analyses of these siliciclastics are used to decipher and discuss the diagenetic alterations and subsequent reservoir quality evolution. The Middle-Upper Palaeocene sandstones (subarkoses to arkoses) from the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf are submarine turbiditic deposits that are cemented predominantly by carbonates, quartz and clay minerals. Carbonate cements (intergranular and grain replacive calcite, siderite, ferroan dolomite and ankerite) are of eogenetic and mesogenetic origins. The eogenetic alterations have been mediated by marine, meteoric and mixed marine/meteoric porewaters and resulted mainly in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-10.9 permille and -3.8 permille), trace amounts of non-ferroan dolomite, siderite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-14.4 permille to -0.6 permille), as well as smectite and kaolinite in the lowstand systems tract (LST) and highstand systems tract (HST) turbiditic sandstone below the sequence boundary. Minor eogenetic siderite has precipitated between expanded and kaolinitized micas, primarily biotite. The mesogenetic alterations are interpreted to have been mediated by evolved marine porewaters and resulted in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.9 permille to -7.8 permille) and Fe-dolomite/ankerite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.1 permille to -6.3 permille) at temperatures of 50-140 and 60-140 C, respectively. Quartz overgrowths and outgrowth, which post- and pre-date the mesogenetic carbonate cements is more common in the LST and TST of distal turbiditic sandstone. Discrete quartz cement, which is closely associated with illite and chlorite, is the final diagenetic phase. The clay minerals include intergranular and grain replacive

  15. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value gas extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical

  16. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14′09″S; 48°18′38″W on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2; the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (p<0.05 in the abundance of associated organisms. Eichhornia azurea had the highest contents in dry and wet weight, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and organic matter. Planktonic algae were directly correlated with biomass of E. azurea. The taxa with highest densities were Rotifera and Zygnematophyceae. Results showed that the environmental variables associated with macrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  17. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Two Rural Communities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaahan, Terngu J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health-related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2-1600.0 µS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0-55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.210mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0mg/L, while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 107.4-1375 µS/cm, pH 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2-1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi, the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. It is concluded that, while ground water abstraction may be a safety measure against guinea worm infestation it, nevertheless presents other health challenges to the rural population in the area, as the quality of the ground water is generally low.

  18. Microbial impact of small tributaries on water and shellfish quality in shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, P; Le Saux, J C; Dumas, F; Caprais, M P; Le Guyader, S F; Pommepuy, M

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of small tributaries on seawater and shellfish quality in coastal area subjected to brief episodes leading to fecal contamination. Escherichia coli and F-RNA-specific bacteriophages were selected as fecal indicators and astroviruses were chosen as being representative of pathogens in the human population during winter viral epidemics. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was built to simulate the current and dispersion in the model domain, which includes areas uncovered at low tide. The model also includes decay rates to simulate microorganism behavior and assess the influence of fecal input on shellfish quality. The originality lies in the fact that specific features of the study area were considered. Modeling results indicate limited particle movements and long flushing times at the back of the bay, where shellfish are farmed. Computational results showed that under normal conditions, i.e. 94% of the time, when rainfall was less than 10 mm per day, the sector shows acceptable water quality. These results are in agreement with shellfish concentration measured in the field. Under high flow conditions, high concentrations of fecal indicators and astrovirus were measured in the river and tributaries. The corresponding fluxes were over 50 times higher than under normal weather conditions. The location of the shellfish beds near the coast makes them vulnerable and fecal indicators and viruses were detected in shellfish after short rainfall events. Our modeling approach makes a contribution to shellfish management and consumer protection, by indicating the "risk period" as defined by EU regulations. Molecular development such as viral quantification in conjunction with model developments will help to prevent shellfish contamination and thus provide safer products to consumers and an effective tool for shellfish producers.

  19. Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes, Case Study of Lake Uluabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet İLERİ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Uluabat, located 20 km south of the Marmara Sea, between 42° 12' North latitude, 28° 40'East longitude and is located in the province of Bursa. The Lake is one of the richest lakes in terms of aquatic plants besides fish and bird populations in Turkey. In this study, water quality of the Lake was monitored from June 2008 to May 2009 during the 12 month period with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake and spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were examined. pH, temperature (T, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, secchi depth (SD, water level (WL, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P, total phosphorus (TP, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a were the monitoring parameters. As a result, concentrations of the parameters were found at high levels especially the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th stations and temporally were found at high levels often in the summer. According to the results of analysis of variance, regional and temporal variations of all parameters were found important except SS and NO3-N

  20. Groundwater-quality data in the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2014-2015: Results from the California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater samples from 95 domestic wells in Tulare and Kings Counties, California in 2014-2015. The wells were sampled for the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project’s assessment of the quality of groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply. Domestic wells commonly are screened at shallower depths than are public-supply wells. The Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit includes the Kaweah, Tule, and Tulare Lake subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin and adjacent areas of the Sierra Nevada. The study unit was divided into equal area grid cells and one domestic well was sampled in each cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality parameters, volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, noble gases, tritium, carbon-14 in dissolved inorganic carbon, stable isotopic ratios of water and dissolved nitrate, and microbial indicators.These data support the following publication:Fram, M.S., 2017, Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and Adjacent Highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3001, 4 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20173001.

  1. Hygienic and sensory quality factors affecting the shelf-life of Fruhe (Casu axedu traditional Sardinian fresh cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Spanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the dura- bility of the traditional fresh soft cheese Fruhe manufactured in Sardinia either from goats’ or sheep’s milk. Four farmstead cheese-making plants were visited three times during the Fruhe cheese-making season. During each visit environmental samples were collected from food contact and non-food contact sur- faces in order to evaluate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Listeria spp. In a total of 60 environmental samples, Escherichia coli and Listeria spp. were never detected, while contamination with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. was observed respectively in 48% and 43% of samples. The microbiological profile of 48 Fruhe cheese samples was assessed at different time points during the product shelf-life. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were investigated at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after production. E. coli, L. monocytogenes and B. cereus were never detected in the product. Enterobacteriaceae contamination was observed, showing decreasing levels over time. Pseudomonas spp. was recovered in only two Fruhe samples (3.3% at day 0. Sensory analysis was also conducted using a triangle test to determine whether a difference between Fruhe samples at 14 and 21 days of shelf-life exists. Based on the evolution of the microbiological profile and the sensory attributes observed in the present study, it is reasonable to assume that the product shelf-life can be feasibly extended up to 21 days.

  2. PRESERVING THE QUALITY AND PROLONGATION THE SHELF-LIFE OF BEEF PACKED UNDER VACUUM OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE USING TERNARY ANTIOXIDANT BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stoyanov Staykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the quality and prolongation the shelf-life of stored at 0  0.5ºC packed under vacuum or modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere beef m. semimembranosus sprayed with 0.02% solution, containing 10 g.l-1 dihydroquercetin from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, 5 g.l-1 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract and 1 g.l-1 L-ascorbic acid was studied. The experiments were carried out with five samples: control - air packaged; vacuum packaged; vacuum packaged and treated with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend; packaged under modified atmosphere (80%O2/20%CO2; and packaged under rich in oxygen modified atmosphere, after spaying with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend. Samples were stored 28 days (to 32 d post mortem at 0  0.5ºC. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend preserve the sensory scores and colour properties of beef, and inhibited total microbial growth, and development of Brochothrix termosphacta and pathogens to the end of storage (28 d at 0  0.5ºC, was found. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend was not main factors which can affect the pH and free amino nitrogen changes in fresh beef. The pre-treatment of beef with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend may be successfully used for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf-life of beef m. semimembranosus packed under modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere. The shelf-life can extend with 75% compared to air packed meat, and with 7 days against only vacuum- or modified atmosphere packed beef.

  3. Shallow ground-water quality beneath cropland in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1993-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    1997-01-01

    During 1993-95, the agriculture on two sandy, surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin affected the quality of shallow ground water in each aquifer differently. The Sheyenne Delta aquifer, in the western part of the basin, had land-use, hydrogeological, and rainfall characteristics that allowed few agricultural chemicals to reach or remain in the shallow ground water. The Otter Tail outwash aquifer, in the eastern part of the basin, had characteristics that caused significant amounts of nutrients and pesticides to reach and remain in the shallow ground water. Shallow ground water from both aquifers is dominated by calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions. During the respective sampling periods, water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer was mostly anoxic and water from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer had a median dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.6 mg/L (milligrams per liter). The median nitrate concentration was 0.03 mg/L as nitrogen (mg/L-N) in shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 6.1 mg/L-N in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. Of 18 herbicides and 4 insecticides commonly used in the aquifer areas and for which analyses were done, 5 herbicides and 1 herbicide metabolite were detected in the shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 8 herbicides and 2 metabolites were detected in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. The total herbicide concentration median was less than the detection limit in shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 0.023 μg/L (micorgrams per liter) in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. Triazine herbicides were the most commonly detected herbicides and were detected at the highest concentrations in the shallow ground water from both study areas. One sample from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer contained a high concentration of picloram. Agricultural chemicals in both aquifers were stratified vertically and their concentration correlated inversely with ground-water age. The

  4. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoev, Stefan Georgiev; Staykov, Alexandar Stoyanov; Vassilev, Kiril Petrov; Balev, Dessislav Kostadinov; Vlahova-Vangelova, Dessislava Borislavova

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions (P 0.05). According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at 0 ± 0.5°C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem.

  5. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Georgiev Dragoev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions (P0.05. According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at 0±0.5°C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem.

  6. Spatio-temporal variability of shallow groundwater quality in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Excessive agriculture-sourced N leaching into shallow groundwater has deteriorated the domestic water quality in rural China. To effectively prevent the above environmental contamination issue, it is an essential prerequisite of exploring the spatio-temporal variability (stV) of the groundwater quality. In this study, a large observation program was deployed to observe ammonium-N (NH4N), nitrate-N (NO3N) and total N (TN) concentrations in 194 groundwater observation wells (1.5 m deep from soil surface) from April 2010 to November 2012 in the Jinjing river catchment in Hunan Province of China. A logit function was applied to transform NH4N, NO3N and TN data for normality; the resultant variables were thus named as NH4Nt, NO3Nt and TNt, respectively. A spatio-temporal semivariogram model in a sum-metric form was used to quantify the stV of NH4Nt, NO3Nt and TNt. The results indicated that the 33-month means ± standard deviations of the NH4N, NO3N and TN concentrations were 0.75±0.10, 1.60±0.19 and 2.99±0.29 mg N L-1, respectively. NH4Nt and NO3Nt exhibited a strong spatio-temporal dependence, while TNt only presented a strong temporal structure. Spatio-temporal ordinary kriging (stOK) was applied to predict the spatio-temporal distributions of NH4N, NO3N and TN over the catchment. The cross-validation results indicated that the stOK predictions for NH4N (r=0.48, RMSE=1.11 mg N L-1), NO3N (r=0.46, RMSE=1.21 mg N L-1) outperformed that for TN (r=0.29, RMSE=2.11 mg N L-1). Referenced to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93), the proportions of areas contaminated by NH4N, NO3N and TN in the catchment over a 33-month period were 20.5%, 1.46%, and 5.07%, respectively. Our findings suggested that the Jinjing groundwater was mainly polluted by NH4N, which is probably attributed to the intensive rice agriculture featured with high urea fertilizer applications in the catchment.

  7. Evaluation of pulsed light treatments on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinang; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-08-16

    Blueberry have a short shelf life when fully ripe and susceptible to contamination of various pathogens. Our study investigated the effect of pulsed light (PL) on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. Dry PL (6J/cm(2)) and water-assisted PL (samples were agitated in water during PL treatment; 9J/cm(2)) along with two controls, dry control (untreated) and water-assisted control (water washing without PL), were applied to blueberries with subsequent storages at room temperature (3days) or 5°C (7days). For Salmonella inactivation, dry PL treatment achieved 0.9 and 0.6 log reduction of Salmonella for spot and dip inoculation, respectively; while the water-assisted PL treatment reduced Salmonella by 4.4 log and 0.8 log for spot and dip inoculation, respectively. The water-assisted PL treatment resulted in Salmonella populations significantly lower than the dry control after storage regardless of the storage temperature and inoculation method. Neither dry nor water-assisted PL treatments improved the shelf life of blueberries even though direct inactivation of natural yeasts and molds were achieved. Surface lightness was instantly reduced after both dry and water-assisted PL treatments. Compared with the dry control, the two PL treatments did not reduce the firmness of blueberries. Weight loss was increased for the dry PL treated samples, but not for the water-assisted PL treatment for both storage conditions. Delayed anthocyanins accumulation and reduced total antioxidant activity were induced by both PL treatments at the end of storage at room temperature, while slight enhancement in total phenolics content was achieved by water-assisted PL treatment. In conclusion, the water-assisted PL treatment could effectively decontaminate Salmonella on blueberries while showed minimal or no impact on the shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. PL

  8. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  9. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce.

  10. Variability of surface-water quantity and quality and shallow groundwater levels and quality within the Rio Grande Project Area, New Mexico and Texas, 2009–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jessica M.; Sherson, Lauren R.

    2016-03-15

    Drought conditions during the study period of January 1, 2009, to September 30, 2013, caused a reduction in surface-water releases from water-supply storage infrastructure of the Rio Grande Project, which led to changes in surface-water and groundwater (conjunctive) use in downstream agricultural alluvial valleys. Surface water and groundwater in the agriculturally dominated alluvial Rincon and Mesilla Valleys were investigated in this study to measure the influence of drought and subsequent change in conjunctive water use on quantity and quality of these water resources. In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department and the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, began a study to (1) calculate dissolved-solids loads over the study period at streamgages in the study area where data are available, (2) assess the temporal variability of dissolved-solids loads at and between each streamgage where data are available, and (3) relate the spatiotemporal variability of shallow groundwater data (groundwater levels and quality) within the alluvial valleys of the study area to spatiotemporal variability of surface-water data over the study period. This assessment included the calculation of surface-water dissolved-solids loads at streamgages as well as a mass-balance approach to measure the change in salt load between these streamgages. Bimodal surface-water discharge data led to a temporally-dynamic volumetric definition of release and nonrelease seasons. Continuous surface-water discharge and water-quality data from three streamgages on the Rio Grande were used to calculate daily dissolved-solids loads over the study period, and the results were aggregated annually and seasonally. Results show the majority of dissolved-solids loading occurs during release season; however, decreased duration of the release season over the 5-year study period has resulted in a decrease of the total annual loads at each streamgage

  11. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas : shallow ground-water quality and land use in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the quality of shallow ground water and the relations between land use and the quality of that shallow ground water in an urban area in and adjacent to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples were collected from 24 shallow wells. Samples were analyzed for selected common constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. The study area, which is in the Albuquerque Basin in central New Mexico, was limited to the Rio Grande flood plain; depth to water in this area generally is less than 25 feet. The amount and composition of recharge to the shallow ground-water system are important factors that affect shallow ground-water composition in this area. Important sources of recharge that affect shallow ground-water quality in the area include infiltration of surface water, which is used in agricultural land-use areas to irrigate crops, and infiltration of septic-system effluent in residential areas. Agricultural land use represents about 28 percent of the area, and residential land use represents about 35 percent of the total study area. In most of the study area, agricultural land use is interspersed with residential land use and neither is the dominant land use in the area. Land use in the study area historically has been changing from agricultural to urban. The composition of shallow ground water in the study area varies considerably. The dissolved solids concentration in shallow ground water in the study area ranges from 272 to 1,650 milligrams per liter, although the relative percentages of selected cations and anions do not vary substantially. Calcium generally is the dominant cation and bicarbonate generally is the dominant anion. Concentrations of nutrients generally were less than 1 milligram per liter. The concentration of many trace elements in shallow ground water was below or slightly above 1 microgram per liter and there was little variation in the concentrations. Barium, iron, manganese

  12. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  13. Applicability of NASA contract quality management and failure mode effect analysis procedures to the USGS Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, M. K.; Little, D. G.; Hoard, E. G.; Taylor, A. C.; Campbell, R.

    1972-01-01

    An approach that might be used for determining the applicability of NASA management techniques to benefit almost any type of down-to-earth enterprise is presented. A study was made to determine the following: (1) the practicality of adopting NASA contractual quality management techniques to the U.S. Geological Survey Outer Continental Shelf lease management function; (2) the applicability of failure mode effects analysis to the drilling, production, and delivery systems in use offshore; (3) the impact on industrial offshore operations and onshore management operations required to apply recommended NASA techniques; and (4) the probable changes required in laws or regulations in order to implement recommendations. Several management activities that have been applied to space programs are identified, and their institution for improved management of offshore and onshore oil and gas operations is recommended.

  14. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Van Nes, E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer,

  15. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Nes, van E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer, the bre

  16. On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeholders tend to focus (e.g., a single-dosage unit, a batch, a production process, etc.). The article also highlights a key missing element in the discussion of shelf life-a Quality Statement, which defines the quality standard for all key stakeholders. Arguments are presented that for regulatory and statistical reasons the true product shelf life should be defined in terms of a suitably small quantile (e.g., fifth) of the distribution of batch shelf lives. The choice of quantile translates to an upper bound on the probability that a randomly selected batch will be nonconforming when tested at the storage time defined by the labeled shelf life. For this strategy, a random-batch model is required. This approach, unlike a fixed-batch model, allows estimation of both within- and between-batch variability, and allows inferences to be made about the entire production process. This work was conducted by the Stability Shelf Life Working Group of the Product Quality Research Institute.

  17. Oceanography of the Southeastern Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume, the second in the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences series, provides a synthesis of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The results presented derive from a decade-long multidisciplinary investigation of the SAB continental shelf regime.The SAB extends from West Palm Beach, Fla., where the narrow south Florida shelf begins to broaden, to Cape Hatteras, N.C., where the shelf again narrows. This broad and shallow area is distinguished by the proximity of the Gulf Stream to the shelf break. Large contrasts in the distribution of properties, the strength of oceanic and atmospheric forces, and the high frequency (4-12 days) at which these forces vary have created a unique natural laboratory in which a variety of oceanic processes may be studied.

  18. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  19. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  20. Microbial and sensory quality of commercial fresh processed red lettuce throughout the production chain and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, A; Aguayo, E; Artés, F

    2004-03-01

    Red pigmented 'Lollo Rosso' lettuce was processed under usual and controlled conditions in an industrial plant. At different steps of the production chain (reception, shredding, washing, draining, rinsing, centrifugation, and packaging), microbial counts were evaluated. Following industrial practices, processed lettuce was packaged at 5 degrees C in sealed polypropylene (PP) bags with an initial atmosphere containing 3 kPa O(2) and 5 kPa CO(2). The numbers of psychrotrophic bacteria, coliform and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were influenced by all the studied steps of the production chain of the fresh processed 'Lollo Rosso' lettuce. Shredding, rinsing and centrifugation in particular increased bacterial counts. During a storage period of 7 days at 5 degrees C, sensory attributes (general appearance, texture, aroma, translucency, initial and persistent off-odors, leaves superficial browning, leaves edges browning, and decay) as well as microbial counts (psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, coliforms and lactic acid bacteria) were monitored. Due to high microbial counts and off-odors evaluation, a shelf life shorter than 7 days should be considered for fresh processed 'Lollo Rosso' lettuce.

  1. Bruises in beef cattle at slaughter in Mexico: implications on quality, safety and shelf life of the meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Monterrosa, Rosy G; Reséndiz-Cruz, Verónica; Rayas-Amor, Armando A; López, Marcos; la Lama, Genaro C Miranda-de

    2017-01-01

    In emergent economies and developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the major cause for carcass rejection from the international market is bruising; nevertheless, many of these carcases are destined to local markets and meat processing industries for human consumption. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bruised meat on pH, microbiologic count and biogenic amine (BA) profiles along 21 days of ageing (sampling 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day) with two packaging method (plastic bag vs vacuum) at 4 °C. A total of 50 bruised carcasses were sampled from 1000 young bulls (Brown Swiss X Zebu) of 18-24 months old and an average live weight of 450 ± 66 kg. The results showed significant differences between packaging systems and bruised vs non-bruised meat. The bruised meat caused higher biogenic amine concentrations than did non-bruised meat. We conclude that bruised meat favoured increments of biogenic amine concentrations, even more than did non-bruised meat. The plastic bag + vacuum system limited the increments of BA concentration during storage time therefore it improved shelf life of meat. These results emphasized the importance of implementing best management practices during pre-slaughter operations of cattle in order to reduce a possible risk factor for bruised meat.

  2. Study of microbiological quality of controlled atmosphere packaged 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries and subsequent shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Villalobos, María del Carmen; Hernández, Alejandro; Martín, Alberto; Lozano, Mercedes; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2013-08-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different controlled atmospheres, containing 3% O2+10% CO2, 5% O2+10% CO2 and 8% O2+10% CO2, on changes in microbial population of 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries throughout storage during 30days and subsequent shelf-life, as well as to identify the main genera of yeast, mould, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., and coliforms. The results indicated that controlled atmospheres with 5% O2+10% CO2 and 8% O2+10% CO2 were highly effective to control the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., yeasts, and moulds after 15days of storage, showing, in the case of yeasts and moulds, counts that ranged between <1 and 1.75logCFU/g. The genera of yeasts, moulds, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae spp., and coliforms identified were Aureobasidium spp., Penicillium spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Rahnella spp., respectively. In addition, the genera Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were also identified. On the other hand, cherries of Stage 3 ripening presented the highest counts for all microbial groups.

  3. Organic acid based sanitizers and free chlorine to improve the microbial quality and shelf-life of sugar snaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, Sam; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Sampers, Imca

    2013-10-15

    A screening in a sugar snap packaging company showed a converged build-up of aerobic psychrotrophic plate count (APC) (ca. 6.5 log CFU/100mL), yeasts and molds (Y&M), and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (both ca. 4.5 log CFU/100mL) in the wash water in the absence of water sanitizer, and a low build-up of chemical oxygen demand (30 ± 5 mg O2/L) and turbidity (5.2 ± 1.1 NTU). Decontamination experiments were performed in the lab with Purac FCC 80® (80% L(+) lactic acid), two other commercial water sanitizers based on organic acids (NATRApHASe-ABAV®, and NATRApHASe-FVS®) and chlorine to evaluate their performance in reduction of the sugar snap microbial load as well as their functionality as disinfectant of the wash water to avoid cross-contamination. An additional 1 log reduction of APC on the sugar snaps was achieved with lactic acid in the range 0.8 to 1.6%, ABAV 0.5%, and free chlorine 200mg/L when compared to a water wash, while no significant difference in the numbers of Y&M was obtained when washing in sanitizer compared to water. There was no significant influence of the studied concentration and contact time on decontamination efficiency. Treatment with lactic acid 0.8% resulted in a lower APC contamination on the sugar snaps than on the untreated and water washed samples for 10 days. Chlorine 200mg/L was the only treatment able to maintain the Y&M load lower than the untreated samples throughout the entire storage duration. The use of water sanitizers could not extend the sensorial shelf-life. Microbial loads were not indicative/predictive of visual microbial spoilage (shelf-life limiting factor), whereas maturity and amount of damage at the calyx end of the pods were. The APC wash water contamination (5.2 log CFU/100mL) was reduced significantly by chlorine 20 to 200mg/L (to 1.4 log CFU/100mL), ABAV 0.5 to 1.5% (to 2.7 log CFU/100mL), FVS 0.5% (to 2.7 log CFU/100mL) and lactic acid 0.8 to 1.6% (to 3.4 log CFU/100mL). Only the use of chlorine enabled the

  4. Assessing temporal and spatial variability of hypoxia over the inner Louisiana-upper Texas shelf: Application of an unstructured-grid three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-water quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justić, Dubravko; Wang, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of temporal and spatial variability in hypoxia (hypoxia originates in bottom waters on the mid-continental shelf, where isolated pockets of hypoxic water develop during early spring and later join into a larger continuous hypoxic zone. The model accurately described the seasonal cycle of hypoxia at station C6, including the episodes of intermittent hypoxia during May and June, persistent hypoxia during July and August, and dissipation of hypoxia during September. The onset of hypoxia coincided with high stability of the water column (i.e., Richardson number values>1) and the initial transition from normoxia (i.e., 6 mg O2 l-1) to hypoxia lasted about three weeks. The model results point to a significant short-term variability in the extent of hypoxic bottom waters, indicating that the size of the mid-summer hypoxic zone cannot be adequately captured by a single shelfwide cruise. The dynamics of bottom-water hypoxia is clearly influenced by the bathymetric features of the LaTex shelf, namely the presence of three shallow shoals (hypoxia on the LaTex shelf is strongly modulated by the frequency and intensity of cold fronts and tropical storms. High winds associated with these events disturb stratification, causing partial or complete breakdown of hypoxia. However, cold fronts and tropical storms also cause significant sediment resuspension that fuels respiration in the lower water column, and in this manner promote redevelopment of hypoxia.

  5. Preliminary development of a GIS-tool to assess threats to shallow groundwater quality from soil pollutants in Glasgow, UK (GRASP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Fordyce, F. M.; Ander, E. L.; Bonsor, H. C.

    2009-04-01

    The protection of groundwater and related surface water quality is a key aspect of the European Union Water Framework Directive and environmental legislation in many countries worldwide. Globally, the protection of urban groundwater resources and related ecosystem services is of growing concern as urbanisation increases. Although urban areas are often where groundwater resources are most in need of protection, there is frequently a lack of information about threats to groundwater quality. Most studies of soil and groundwater contamination, although detailed, are site-specific, and city-wide overviews are generally lacking. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is currently undertaking the Clyde Urban Super-Project (CUSP), delivering multi-disciplinary geoscience products for the Glasgow conurbation. Under this project, a GIS-based prioritisation tool known as GRASP (GRoundwater And Soil Pollutants) has been trialled to aid urban planning and sustainable development by providing a broad-scale assessment of threats to groundwater quality across the conurbation. GRASP identifies areas where shallow groundwater quality is at greatest threat from the leaching and downward movement of potentially harmful metals in the soil. Metal contamination is a known problem in many urban centres including Glasgow, which has a long industrial heritage and associated contamination legacy, notably with respect to Cr. GRASP is based primarily upon an existing British Standard - International Standards Organisation methodology to determine the leaching potential of metals from soils, which has been validated for 11 metals: Al, Fe, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn (BS-ISO 15175:2004). However, the GRASP tool is innovative as it combines assessments of soil leaching potential with soil metal content data to highlight threats to shallow groundwater quality. The input parameters required for GRASP (soil pH, clay, organic matter, sesquioxide and metal content) are based upon a systematic

  6. Effect of chitosan-carvacrol edible coatings on the quality and shelf life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets stored in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraí CHAPARRO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fish consumption has increased in recent years. However, fish meat is highly perishable, which demonstrates the need for technologies to preserve its quality. Edible coatings (EC might provide an alternative to extend the shelf life of fish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of EC of chitosan (C in combination with carvacrol (CAR on the physical and microbiological changes of tilapia fillets. Fillets were submerged for two minutes in different treatments (T1: control; T2: C 2%; T3: C 2% + 0.125% CAR; T 4: C 2% + 0.25% CAR. At the end of storage, T1 and T2 showed the lowest values of total volatile bases (TVB. The color parameters L*, a* and b* varied from each treatment. The texture decreased and the different treatments reduced the microbial population in relation to the control; T3 and T4 were the most effective. These results show that the use of C with CAR might be an alternative method to preserve the quality and safety of tilapia fillets.

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  8. Shallow gamification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . To isolate the effects of framing, students (N=90) were assigned to either discuss study environment issues through a list of questions, via a competitive discussion board game, or though the same game artifacts but with no game mechanics. Task engagement and self-reported intrinsic motivation was compared...... motivation variables remained unchanged. Implications for game design in non-game contexts are discussed, and a framework for differentiating “deep and shallow gamification” in terms of mechanics and framing is developed....

  9. Structure of a Northwest Atlantic Shelf Macofaurnal Assemblage with Respect to Seasonal Variation in Sediment Nutritional Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined temporal variation in the relationship between benthic macrofaunal assemblage structure and sediment nutritional quality, using core samples taken seasonally from a 232 m deep site in Wilkinson Basin, Gulf of Maine from October 2003 through August 2004. The benthic as...

  10. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P).

  11. Acid-labile sulfides in shallow marine bottom sediments: A review of the impact on ecosystems in the Azov Sea, the NE Black Sea shelf and NW Adriatic lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Zakuskina, O. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Acid-labile sulfides (LS) increase in bottom sediments at sites in the Azov Sea, at the NE Black Sea shelf and in the coastal lagoons of NW Adriatic Sea experiencing direct impacts of anthropogenic pollution. Fresh anthropogenic organic matter stimulates the bacterial sulfate reduction and here the rate of the LS production overcomes their loss during the oxidation and pyritization. This results in the expansion of reduced sediment layer up to the bottom surface. The LS concentration in the reduced sediments varies between 300 and 2000 mg S l -1 of wet silt depending on the size of pollution loading and on the rate of sedimentation. In the oxidized sediments away from the direct pollution impact, the LS concentration did not exceed 100-150 mg S l -1. Being a strong cytochrome toxin, the LS adversely affect the coastal ecosystems. The concentrations over 600 mg S l -1 result in quasi total benthic mortality whereas >300-400 mg S l -1 depletes the benthic faunal abundance and taxonomic diversity. Accumulation of the LS in sediments also induces nocturnal hypoxia and stimulates domination of toxic cyanobacteria in the pelagic phytocenoses.

  12. Application of Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme in shelf-life study of farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2002-01-01

    Salmon (Salmo salar) was stored in ice up to 24 d, and changes during storage were observed with sensory evaluation using the Quality Index Method (QIM), and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), total viable counts (TVC), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing bacteria, and instrumental texture......-producing bacteria after 20 d in ice, which was the maximum storage time. Texture measurements indicated softening of salmon flesh with storage...

  13. Development of sourdough fermented date seed for improving the quality and shelf life of flat bread: study with univariate and multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Pourfarzad, Amir; Zahedi, Hoda; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Zahra; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of a novel sourdough system prepared by wheat flour supplemented by combination of pulverized date seed, Lactobacillus plantarum, and/or Lactobacillus brevis as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the sourdough characteristics, quality, sensory, texture, shelf life and image properties of Barbari flat bread. The highest sourdough acidity and bread specific volume was obtained with co-culture of Lb. plantarum + Lb. brevis + S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improving sensory aspects of bread supplemented with pulverized date seed, as a dietary fiber resource. Texture analysis of bread samples during 7 days of storage indicated that the presence of pulverized date seed in sourdough was able to diminish bread staling. The interaction of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has led to increase the particle average size of bread crumb and decrease the area fraction than the LAB samples. It was observed that all treatments of sourdough Barbari breads had higher cell wall thickness than the control Barbari bread. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among sourdough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data.

  14. Use of natural antimicrobials to improve the quality characteristics of fresh "Phyllo" - A dough-based wheat product - Shelf life assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiraki, Maria I; Karam, Layal; Abiad, Mohamad G; Yehia, Hany M; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the effects of chitosan and natamycin on the quality of fresh "Phyllo" - a dough-based wheat product, by monitoring the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters. Four different lots of phyllo samples stored under aerobic packaging conditions, in the absence or presence of the aforementioned antimicrobials, were prepared and stored at 4 °C. Microbiological data suggested that, the combination of chitosan and natamycin resulted in significant reductions (1-3 log cfu/g) of the microbial species examined (mesophilic total viable counts; TVC), yeasts/molds, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms) by day 10. The pH values of treated phyllo samples were lower on final day 10, as compared to the untreated phyllo, and of the Hunter color parameters (L*, b* and a*) that were evaluated, mostly the combined treatment of chitosan and natamycin maintained the original lightness (L*) and color (yellowness) stability (b*) of phyllo product during the storage period. Sensory data, based on overall acceptability (mean values of appearance and odor) scores confirmed the superiority of combined treatment of chitosan and natamycin, resulting in almost a doubling of the shelf-life of fresh phyllo, while retaining excellent sensorial characteristics (appearance and odor) even on final storage day (10). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  16. Effect of hot water surface pasteurization of whole fruit on shelf life and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; Annous, B A; Beaulieu, J C; Sites, J E

    2008-04-01

    Cantaloupes are associated with recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls. Therefore, new approaches are needed for sanitization of whole and cut fruit. In the present study, whole cantaloupes were submerged into water in the following 3 conditions: 10 degrees C water for 20 min (control), 20 ppm chlorine at 10 degrees C for 20 min, and 76 degrees C water for 3 min. Populations of microflora were measured on the rinds of the whole cantaloupes. Quality and microbial populations of fresh-cut cantaloupes prepared from whole fruit were analyzed after 1, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20 d of storage at 4 degrees C. The hot water significantly reduced both total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mold count on rind of whole fruits while chlorine or cold water wash did not result in a significant reduction of microbial population. Fresh-cut pieces prepared from hot water-treated cantaloupes had lower TPC than the other 2 treatments in the later storage periods (days 13 to 20) in 2 of 3 trials. The hot water treatment of whole fruits was inconsistent in reducing yeast and mold count of fresh-cut pieces. Soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, fluid loss, and aroma and appearance scores were not consistently affected by either hot water or chlorine treatment. Our results suggested that hot water pasteurization of whole cantaloupes frequently resulted in lower TPCs of fresh-cut fruit during storage and did not negatively affect quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes.

  17. Geohydrology and quality of shallow ground water at and near the Old Laurel County and GC Singleton Landfills, Laurel County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1983, solid and hazardous waste was deposited at the Old Laurel County and G.C. Singleton Landfills that were developed on a bench created by strip mining for coal. Water-level data from eight monitoring wells indicate that the general direction of groundwater flow in the shallow aquifer is toward Slate Lick, which is at a lower altitude than the landfills. Analyses of water samples from these wells indicate that the water quality near the landfills is similar to that expected in coal strip-mined areas. The pH of groundwater ranged from 4.6 to 6.2 and indicates acidic conditions. Elevated values of specific conductance in groundwater near the landfills may indicate the effects of landfill leachate or acid-mine drainage. The groundwater samples also contained high concentrations of dissolved constituents commonly associated with acid-mine drainage such as aluminum, iron, manganese, sulfate, and zinc. A relatively high concentration of fluoride, 4.5 mg/L, in water from one well may be related to landfill leachate. Except for 3,4-dichloro-benzoic acid, organic constituents were not detected in the groundwater samples. However, because of the widespread use of chemicals containing 3,4-dichloro-benzoic acid, the source of this constituent in the shallow aquifer system near the landfills cannot be determined.

  18. Field evidence of the influence of aquatic macrophytes on water quality in a shallow eutrophic lake over a 13-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edélti Faria Albertoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this work is to describe the changes in water characteristics of a shallow subtropical lake, in periods with and without growing of macrophytes, related to periods of clear-macrophyte dominance and turbid-phytoplankton dominance states. METHODS: The study was conducted in Biguás Lake, in the south coastal plain of Brazil (32° 04' 43" S and 52° 10' 03" W. Samplings were carried out monthly between October 2000 and November 2013. The limnological variables measured in the water column were dissolved oxygen (DO, water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorous (TP and suspended material (SM. Data were grouped according to periods with macrophyte growth dominance (MD and without macrophytes, with phytoplankton dominance (PD, and applied t- tests among TP, TN, Chlorophyll-a and SM. During macrophyte growth we estimated the coverage (% and biomass variation of plants. RESULTS: Over the 13 years, the lake was well oxygenated, alkaline, and with a temperature variation according to subtropical seasonality. The lower values of all of the limnological variables were verified during periods of macrophyte growth, characterizing periods of clear and turbid waters. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of aquatic macrophytes in improving water quality in this shallow lake during the studied period, reducing nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll-a and suspended material in water, favoring the maintenance of a clear water state, was verified.

  19. Groundwater-quality data for the Madera/Chowchilla–Kings shallow aquifer study unit, 2013–14: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-02-03

    Groundwater quality in the 2,390-square-mile Madera/Chowchilla–Kings Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey from August 2013 to April 2014 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program’s Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems of the Madera, Chowchilla, and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. The shallow aquifer system corresponds to the part of the aquifer system generally used by domestic wells and is shallower than the part of the aquifer system generally used by public-supply wells. This report presents the data collected for the study and a brief preliminary description of the results.Groundwater samples were collected from 77 wells and were analyzed for organic constituents, inorganic constituents, selected isotopic and age-dating tracers, and microbial indicators. Most of the wells sampled for this study were private domestic wells. Unlike groundwater from public-supply wells, the groundwater from private domestic wells is not regulated for quality in California and is rarely analyzed for water-quality constituents. To provide context for the sampling results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks established for drinking-water quality by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the State of California, and the U.S. Geological Survey.Of the 319 organic constituents assessed in this study (90 volatile organic compounds and 229 pesticides and pesticide degradates), 17 volatile organic compounds and 23 pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in groundwater samples; concentrations of all but 2 were less than the respective benchmarks. The fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP

  20. Analysing the correlations of long-term seasonal water quality parameters, suspended solids and total dissolved solids in a shallow reservoir with meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping

    2017-03-01

    To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.

  1. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  2. Relationship between precipitation quality, shallow ground-water geochemistry, and dissolved aluminum in eastern Maryland. Final report, November 1983-April 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, L.J.; Katz, B.G.

    1986-04-01

    Precipitation, surface water, and shallow ground-water samples were collected in eastern Maryland to determine if acidic precipitation is affecting the chemical quality of water in the Columbia aquifer--an unconsolidated sand and gravel deposit. Thirty-eight water samples were collected from 11 wells, and 9 samples from 3 stream sites between February and June 1984. Ground-water and surface-water samples contained chemical species with significantly different concentration from those of precipitation. Ground-water samples were enriched with bicarbonate, silica, potassium, chloride, and sulfate and had lower hydrogen-ion concentrations than precipitation. Dissolved aluminum in most of the other ground-water samples was at or near the detection limit of 0.01 mg/l.

  3. Development and quality characteristics of shelf-stable soy-agushie: a residual by-product of soymilk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nti, Christina A; Plahar, Wisdom A; Annan, Nana T

    2016-03-01

    A process was developed for the production of a high-protein food ingredient, soy-agushie, from the residual by-product of soymilk production. The product, with a moisture content of about 6%, was evaluated for its quality characteristics and performance in traditional dishes. The protein content was about 26% with similar amino acids content as that of the whole soybean. Lysine remained high in the dehydrated product (6.57 g/16 g N). While over 60% of the original B vitamins content in the beans was extracted with the milk, high proportions of the minerals were found to be retained in the residual by-product. The process adequately reduced the trypsin inhibitor levels in the beans from 25 to 1.5 mg/g. High sensory scores were obtained for recipes developed with soy-agushie in traditional dishes. The scope of utilization of the soy-agushie could be widened to include several traditional foods and bakery products for maximum nutritional benefits.

  4. Changes in the fish community and water quality during seven years of stocking piscivorous fish in a shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Perrow, M.R.; Berg, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish, with resultant effects on lower trophic levels and ultimately water quality. 2. The fish community and water quality parameters (Secchi depth, concentrations of total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and suspended solids) were monitored between 1996 and 2000 and relationships were...... evaluated between predatory fish and potential prey and between zooplanktivorous or benthivorous fish and water quality parameters. In addition, potential consumption of piscivorous fishes was calculated. 3. The density of fish feeding on larger zooplankton or benthos (roach >15 cm, crucian carp >15 cm...... 0+ pike was detected on 0+ roach. 4. A major decline in the recruitment strength of 0+ roach was observed in 2000. A combination of (i) the indirect effect of large pike preying on adult roach, with negative effect on roach reproduction and (ii) the direct predation effect of 0+ pike and or 1+ and 2...

  5. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  6. Functional quality, sensorial and shelf life characteristics of Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora (L.Poir leaves enriched breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Mesa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our modern life, theburdensof non-communicable diseases such as obesity, cancer, cardiovasculardisease,and type-2 diabetes haveincreased. By contrast, life expectancy and also cost of healthcare has increased. Therefore, individuals search other ways to improve or maintain their well-being. Inthis regard, food and pharmaceutical industriesoffer functional foods (FFs with health promotingand disease-preventing properties.Sesbania grandifloraL.Poiris a small, loosely branching tree alsoknown as the local name,Agathi. Agathibelongs to the Fabaceaefamily, and is one of the most popular green vegetables andtraditional medicinal plantsof India.The chemical analysis of Sesbania grandifloraleaves reveal it to be a rich source of nutrientsand beneficial bioactive compounds,such as antioxidants and polyphenols.Bread has been regarded as one of the most popular foodfor centuries, as agood source of calories and othernutrients. Bread is traditionally made from wheat flour.The addition of Agathi leaves led to the enhancementof functionality of common bread.Objective: Against the background of thisinformation, the present investigation was undertaken withaclear objective of evaluatingthe effects of the additionof Agathi leaves on the sensory, textural, andbaking characteristics,byexamining their microbial quality on a 5-daystorage period,at an ambient temperature,in different packaging materials, and assessingthe improvement, if any, in their antioxidant content.Methods: Shade dried Agathi leaf powder was analysedfor proximate,mineral,and phytochemical composition. Bread samples were prepared with ingredients such as yeast, salt, sugar, water,shortening, baking time,temperature using straight dough process,and varying levels ofshade dried Agathi leaves.Physical parameters such as loaf weight, loaf volume,and color values were recorded. Breads were subjected to a sensory evaluation, andin vitroanti-oxidant capacitywas evaluated. Results

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; shallow ground-water quality of a land-use area in the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderholm, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the quality of shallow ground water in an agricultural area in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and discusses how natural and human factors affect the quality of shallow ground water. Thirty-five wells were installed, and water samples were collected from these wells and analyzed for selected dissolved common constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, and synthetic organic compounds. The San Luis Valley is a high intermontane valley that is partially drained by the Rio Grande. The San Luis Valley land-use study area was limited to a part of the valley where the depth to water is generally less than 25 feet. The area where the 35 monitor wells were installed was further limited to the part of the study area where center-pivot overhead sprinklers are used to irrigate crops. Precipitation, runoff from adjacent mountainous areas, and ground-water inflow from the adjacent mountainous areas are the main sources of water to the aquifers in the San Luis Valley. Discharge of water from the shallow, unconfined aquifer in the valley is mainly from evapotranspiration. The dominant land use in the San Luis Valley is agriculture, although nonirrigated land and residential land are interspersed with agricultural land. Alfalfa, native hay, barley, wheat, potatoes, and other vegetables are the main crops. Dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow ground water sampled ranged from 75 to 1,960 milligrams per liter. The largest median concentration of cations was for calcium, and the largest median concentration of anions was for bicarbonate in shallow ground water in the San Luis Valley. Calcium concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 300 milligrams per liter, and bicarbonate concentrations ranged from 28 to 451 milligrams per liter. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 58 milligrams per liter as N; water from 11 wells had nitrite plus nitrate concentrations greater than 10 milligrams per liter as N. With the exception of the

  8. Sediment transport, light and algal growth in the Markermeer : a two-dimensional water quality model for a shallow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, van E.H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis reports on a study of the water quality in the Markermeer, focusing on the relationships between sediment transport, the light field and the growth of Oscillatoria agardhii . The study comprises two aspects: an extensive data collection program with the data

  9. Effects of climate and nutrient load on the water quality of shallow lakes assessed through ensemble runs by PCLake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.; Trolle, D.; Bjerring, R.

    2014-01-01

    Complex ecological models are used to predict the consequences of anticipated future changes in climate and nutrient loading for lake water quality. These models may, however, suffer from nonuniqueness in that various sets of model parameter values may yield equally satisfactory representations of t

  10. Evaluation of Salicylic Acid and Calcium Chloride Effect on Shelf Life, Quality Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Peach Fruit cv. Amesden after Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Davarynejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of postharvest salicylic acid and calcium chloride on shelf life, quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of peach fruit cv. Amesden, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized completely design with three replications. Fruits were harvested at the commercial ripening stage, and fruits were immerged in different concentrations of salicylic acid (1 and 2 mM, calcium chloride (1.5 and 3%, combined salicylic acid and calcium chloride (1-1.5, 1-3, 2-1.5 and 2-3, and distilled water (control for 5 min, then fruits were packed in boxes with polyethylene cover and stored at 4°C with 80-85% relative humidity for 35 days. The changes in weight loss, fruit firmness, rot percentage; pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity were estimated in 0 and 35 days during storage. The results showed that the weight loss, rot percentage, pH and total soluble solids significantly increased, while the fruit firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity significantly decreased at the end of storage period. The salicylic acid and calcium chloride treatments significantly reduced the weight loss and maintained their firmness. In this condition, the highest of titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity were observed in treatments of salicylic acid and calcium chloride, while the lowest of total soluble solids and rot percentage was showed in treatments of salicylic acid and calcium chloride than in the control treatment. Also, combined treatment (salicylic acid + calcium chloride had an important effect in relative to each treatment separately. The data indicated that the use of salicylic acid and calcium chloride may be introduced as an effective and successful strategy in postharvest technology of the peach.

  11. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Rakshit, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  12. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Lokesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and residual sodium carbonate (RSC values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  13. The SSC cycle: a PDCA approach to address site-specific characteristics in a continuous shallow water quality monitoring project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eduardo J

    2008-05-01

    In any water quality-monitoring project there are several critical success factors that must be adequately addressed in order to ensure the implementation and realization of the monitoring objectives. Site selection is one of these critical success factors. The monitoring sites must be selected to comply with the monitoring and data quality objectives. In the real world, ideal monitoring setting conditions are difficult to achieve, and compromises must be made in order to locate the monitoring stations that best represent the environment to be monitored. Site-specific characteristics are all the environmental, logistical and management factors particular to the monitoring site, that could influence the fulfilment of the monitoring and data quality objectives. Therefore, during the site selection process, it is essential to properly consider and evaluate these site-specific characteristics. The SSC cycle was developed with this goal in mind, to assist the monitoring team to systematically address site-specific characteristics. The cycle is a methodology to organize the site-specific characteristics in different categories, and to ensure a comprehensive overview of these characteristics throughout the project life cycle.

  14. A seasonal quality assessment on potability of fresh shallow aquifers along the Rameswaram-Dhanushkodi coastal tract, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, T; Sivasankar, V; Subramanian, V

    2009-12-01

    Rameswaram-Dhanushkodi coastal tract lies in the south-east of Rameswaram Island, which stretches about 20 km from the Rameswaram proper and occults several historic values. The objective of the present study is to investigate the water quality parameters viz., pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity (SAL), total alkalinity (TA), calcium hardness (CH), magnesium hardness (MH), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), and fluoride (F) during summer and winter seasons of the year 2006. The calculated Langelier Saturation Index values confirm the incrusting ability in most of the groundwater samples. The Water Quality Index values show that the potable quality of groundwater is improved from about 32% to 58%, especially in post-winter. The principal component analysis identifies the dominance of CH, TA, and TH with 33% and 44% in summer and winter, respectively. In addition, Cl is also having dominance in winter. The box plots have depicted asympathy in concentrations of F, TDS, and CH during winter, whereas sympathetic relationship in Cl and MH. Unlike in summer, a good correlation of Cl with the other parameters including SAL, EC, TDS, CH, and TH is observed in the winter.

  15. Spatial Assessment of the Effect of Sediment Quality on the Nutrient Levels in Shallow Waters: Cernek Lake Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Cüce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the water-sediment quality and trophic status changes of Cernek Lake located in the Kızılırmak Delta (one of the most important wetlands in Turkey and protected as a Ramsar site. The main objective, was evaluated and examined the effects on trophic level of surface water that the layers of lake sediments can create. In the study, the periodic exchange on trophic level have been evaluated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS by identifying existing water of lake and sediment quality of lake. Spatial analysis was realized for water and sediment quality parameters (pH, salinity, Secchi disc depth and chlorophyll-a, total phosphate and total organic carbon (TOC concentrations. The results of field studies conducted at Cernek Lake for three seasons (2010-2011 showed that the sediments contain high phosphate (annual average 541 mg / kg PO4-P, dry weight and high organic carbon content (annual average 22.4 G / kg TOC, Dry weight. During the summer, Carlson Index values relatively declined during this period compared to autumn (81 to 79, but the eutrophic structure of the lake is still found to be high character. Findings, showed that the contaminated lake sediment layer would be highly effective in trophic level of the lake therefore it has revealed the necessity of taking measures for eutrophication. According to the results of study, taking the medium and long term measures to eutrophication and implementation of the strategic action plan is required.

  16. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  17. Relationship Between Surface Sediment Diatoms and Summer Water Quality in Shallow Lakes of the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Dong YANG; Xu-Hui DONG; Guang GAO; Hong-Xi PAN; Jing-Lu WU

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between surface sediment diatoms and summer water quality was investigated at 49 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Lakes ranging from oligomesotrophic to hypereutrophic were examined, providing an obvious nutrient gradient. With the shift from mesotrophic to eutrophic levels, diatom multi-ecotypes dominated by epiphytic and facultative planktonic taxa were replaced by nutrient-tolerant planktonic taxa, such as Cyclotella meneghiniana Skvortzow, C. atomus Hustedt,Cyclostephanos Round, and Stephanodiscus Ehrenberg etc., reflecting the nutrient changes in the lake.The relationship between diatoms and summer water quality indices was explored further using numeric analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) with forward selection and a Monte Carlo permutation test revealed that of all 25 summer water environmental variables, total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (Chzl a), Secchi depth (SD), dissolved inorganic phosphorus, C1-, SO42-, Mg2+, CO32-, and water depth were significant variables (P<0.05) in explaining diatom distributions. Of these, TP, Chl a, SD, and C1-, were the most important variables. The result of the correlation analysis also showed that a significant correlation exists among these variables, implying that these indices are either interconnected or independent in explaining the diatom data. For phosphorus-limited sites, TP was the most significant variable affecting the diatoms, also affecting changes in Chl a, SD, and iron concentrations. The independence of Chl a may be related to algal competition induced by lake eutrophication, resulting in the feedback to diatom community.In addition to TP, SD can be related to sediment disturbance by wave action and the growth of macrophytes in large shallow lakes. These relationships between diatom ecotypes and water quality provide the basis for a future quantitative reconstruction of historic lake nutrient evolution in the study area and will also provide a

  18. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, June 3, 1994--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    The work reported here covers Budget Phase I of the project. The principal tasks in Budget Phase I are the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task. Completion of these tasks have enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed and evaluated from an economic and risk analysis standpoint. Field implementation of the project has been recommended to the working interest owner of the South Cowden Unit (SCU) and approval has been obtained. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take or pay requirements, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing cost as opposed to large capital investments for compression) were negotiated to further improve project economics. A detailed reservoir characterization study was completed by an integrated team of geoscientists and engineers. The study consisted of detailed core description, integration of log response to core descriptions, mapping of the major flow units, evaluation of porosity and permeability relationships, geostatistical analysis of permeability trends, and direct integration of reservoir performance with the geological interpretation. The study methodology fostered iterative bidirectional feedback between the reservoir characterization team and the reservoir engineering/simulation team to allow simultaneous refinement and convergence of the geological interpretation with the reservoir model. The fundamental conclusion from the study is that South Cowden exhibits favorable enhanced oil recovery characteristics, particularly reservoir quality and continuity.

  19. Shelf-Life Prediction of Chilled Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg

    All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion, others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes safety in its definition of shelf life: "The period of time under defined conditions of storage, after manufacture or packing, for which a food product will remain safe and be fit for use" ( http://www.ifst.org ). This definition does not describe what makes a food product "safe" or "fit" for use, but one can say all factors which restrict the shelf life of a food product either affect safety or quality or both.

  20. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  1. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  2. Qualidade e vida útil de pequi minimamente processado armazenado sob atmosfera modificada Quality and shelf life of fresh-cut peki stored under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éllen Cristina de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a eficiência do uso de atmosfera modificada passiva e ativa na manutenção da qualidade e prolongamento da vida útil de pequi minimamente processado armazenado a 5ºC, por 12 dias, através de avaliações fisiológicas, físicas, físico-químicas e químicas. Os pequis foram lavados em água corrente e sanificados antes e após a retirada da casca em solução de hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg.L-1 e 100 mg.L-1, por 15 e 5 minutos, respectivamente. Os pequis foram acondicionados em embalagem rígida de polipropileno (PP, da seguinte forma: coberta com tampa do mesmo polímero; envolta com filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC 0,014 mm; selada passiva e ativamente (3,2% O2 + 9,2% CO2 e (7,7% O2 + 3,9% CO2 com filme de polietileno (PE + PP 0,060 mm. Conclui-se que as embalagens rígidas seladas passiva e ativamente com filme de PE + PP 0,060 mm não são recomendadas para acondicionar pequi minimamente processado, em razão do nível de O2 estar próximo a 0%, no terceiro dia de armazenamento, o que compromete a sua qualidade. As embalagens rígidas de polipropileno com tampa do mesmo polímero e as envoltas com filme de PVC são as mais indicadas para pequi minimamente processado, visto que não propiciam condições de anaerobiose e nem alteraram expressivamente suas características físicas, físico-químicas e químicas, resultando em uma vida útil de 12 dias de armazenamento a 5 ± 1ºC e UR 90 ± 5%.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of passive and active modified atmosphere on the maintenance of quality and prolongation of the shelf life of fresh-cut peki fruit stored at 5ºC, for 12 days, through physiological, physical, physico-chemistry and chemistry evaluations. Peki fruit were washed with stream water and sanitized with sodium hypochlorite 200 and 100 mg.L-1, for 15 and 5 minutes, before and after peeling, respectively. Peki fruit were packed into rigid propylene package

  3. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on some quality characteristics and the shelf-life of "morcilla", a typical cooked blood sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachaldora, Aida; García, Gloria; Lorenzo, José M; García-Fontán, M Camino

    2013-02-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on the shelf-life of "morcilla", a traditional cooked blood sausage, was investigated. A total of 99 "morcillas" were packaged under vacuum and in modified atmosphere using three different gas mixtures: 15:35:50/O(2):N(2):CO(2) (atmosphere 1), 60:40/N(2):CO(2) (atmosphere 2) and 40:60/N(2):CO(2) (atmosphere 3), and stored during 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks at 4 °C. Shelf life evaluation was based on pH, water activity (a(w)), colour (CIE L*, a*, b*, C* and h*), TBARS formation and microbial counts. The results indicated that, in general, storage time affected (P0.05) among packaging conditions. Based on the microbial counts, the shelf-life of "morcilla" would be greater than 8 weeks for all packaging conditions. Samples packaged with high CO(2) concentrations (40:60/N(2):CO(2)) showed the lowest values of TBARS at the end of storage.

  4. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy

  5. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    conditions, and neotectonic activity. The most prominent bathymetric feature on the Ayeyarwady continental shelf is the 120 km-wide Martaban Depression, at the centre of which is located the Martaban Canyon. Most of the suspended sediment discharge...

  6. 3种处理方式对冬枣货架期品质的影响%Effects of Different Treatments on Storage Quality of Dongzao Jujube Fruits during Shelf-life Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武杰; 张引成; 李梅玲; 钱金

    2012-01-01

    In order to prolong the shelf life of Dongzao jujube fruits,the effects of three treatments were studied.Through the determination of respiration intensity,firmness,total soluble solids,vitamin C,ethylene release amount and ethanol production,effects of hot-water treatment,1-MCP and nano-package on the storage quality of Dongzao jujube fruits were studied during the shelf-life period.The results showed that all treatments could keep the storage quality of Dongzao jujube in some degree during the shelf-life period.The nano-package revealed the best effect on maintaining firmness,vitamin C content and fruit color,increasing total soluble solid amount,and inhibiting respiration rate,ethylene release amount and ethanol production.Therefore,nano-package could extend the shelf life of Dongzao jujube fruits up to 15 days.%以冬枣为试材,研究3种处理方式对其货架期品质的影响。通过测定冬枣的呼吸强度、硬度、总可溶性固形物、VC、乙烯释放量、乙醇积累等指标,研究热水浸泡、1-MCP熏蒸、纳米袋包装3种处理对冬枣果实的保鲜效果。结果表明:3种处理方法均不同程度保持了枣果货架期品质,其中纳米袋包装保鲜效果最佳,有效维持了冬枣果肉硬度和VC含量,延缓其色泽由绿到红的转变和总可溶性固形物上升,抑制了冬枣的呼吸强度及乙烯和乙醇的产生,货架期15d后,仍具有商品价值。

  7. Analysis of quality changes and shelf-life of low temperature distribution oyster meat%低温流通牡蛎肉贮藏期品质变化及货架期预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙飞; 秦小明; 周翠平; 王晓谦

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the shelf-life of the low temperature oyster meat and the quality changes of the low temperature distribution oyster meat stored at 10 ℃, the changes of sensory quality, total viable count ( TVC) , total volatile basic nitrogen ( T-VBN) and pH stored at 10℃ were studied. The predicitive model for shelf-life based on TVC was established. The results showed that with the increase of storage time, the quality of oyster meat gradually decreased, and the sensory quality and TVC achieved to the state of inedible, while T-VBN and pH relatively lagged to inedible state due to acidification. In addition, the shelf-life of oyster meat stored from 0℃ to 10℃ can be predicated by the predicitive model with TVC as index, with the relative error of less than 10%.%为探讨低温牡蛎肉的货架期寿命,以及10℃条件下,低温流通牡蛎肉品质随贮藏时间的变化及其货架期寿命,对贮藏期内,低温牡蛎肉的感官品质、菌落总数、挥发性盐基氮( TVBN)和pH的变化进行了研究,并建立了以菌落总数为指标的货架期模型。结果表明,在10℃贮藏条件下,随着贮藏时间的延长,低温牡蛎肉的品质逐渐劣变,感官品质和菌落总数均在第7天达到不可食用状态,而TVBN和pH的变化则因酸化而相对滞后。以菌落总数为指标所建立的货架期模型,其误差在10%以内,能够对0~10℃范围内低温牡蛎肉的货架寿命进行预测。

  8. Australian Continental Shelf as an Inverse Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Hetzel, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Transport of inshore waters and suspended material off the continental shelf by Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) has important ecological and biogeochemical implications in Australian waters. Because of high rates of evaporation, denser saline water along the sea bed occurs in a majority of the shallow coastal regions around Australia, setting up horizontal density gradients that can form DSWC. This study uses data available from the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), which is operated by the Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (ANFOG) located at the University of Western Australia, to measure cross-shelf density profiles under varying conditions around the entire continent. Analysis of 143 transects of 97 sets of spatial and temporal resolution data from the ocean gliders under varying wind and tide conditions for seven contrasting regions surrounding Australia has allowed us to confirm that DSWC occurs on a regular basis during autumn and winter seasons. Results indicate that cascades occur during these seasons mainly due to cooling of the coastal water which already have higher salinity due to evaporation during the summer months. The cascades were present under different wind and tidal energy conditions and the controlling parameter for cascade formation is the cross-shelf density gradient. The cross-shelf density gradient in North-West Australia is maximum in July (14.23x10-6 kgm-4); whereas it is a maximum in June in South Australia (18.78x10-6 kgm-4) and in May in South-West Australia (25.884x10-6 kgm-4). Greater knowledge of the occurrence of DSWC will enhance understanding of the offshore transport of larvae, nutrients, salt, heat, carbon, low-oxygen water, sediment, and pollutants in Australian waters.

  9. Shallow-Water Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  10. Assessing the quality of bottom water temperatures from the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Tanaka, Kisei R.; Chen, Yong; Brady, Damian C.; Thomas, Andrew C.

    2017-09-01

    The Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) is an advanced coastal circulation model widely utilized for its ability to simulate spatially and temporally evolving three-dimensional geophysical conditions of complex and dynamic coastal regions. While a body of literature evaluates model skill in surface fields, independent studies validating model skill in bottom fields over large spatial and temporal scales are scarce because these fields cannot be remotely sensed. In this study, an evaluation of FVCOM skill in modeling bottom water temperature was conducted by comparison to hourly in situ observed bottom temperatures recorded by the Environmental Monitors on Lobster Traps (eMOLT), a program that attached thermistors to commercial lobster traps from 2001 to 2013. Over 2 × 106 pairs of FVCOM-eMOLT records were evaluated by a series of statistical measures to quantify accuracy and precision of the modeled data across the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region. The overall comparison between modeled and observed data indicates reliable skill of FVCOM (r2 = 0.72; root mean squared error = 2.28 °C). Seasonally, the average absolute errors show higher model skill in spring, fall and winter than summer. We speculate that this is due to the increased difficulty of modeling high frequency variability in the exact position of the thermocline and frontal zones. The spatial patterns of the residuals suggest that there is improved similarity between modeled and observed data at higher latitudes. We speculate that this is due to increased tidal mixing at higher latitudes in our study area that reduces stratification in winter, allowing improved model accuracy. Modeled bottom water temperatures around Cape Cod, the continental shelf edges, and at one location at the entrance to Penobscot Bay were characterized by relatively high errors. Constraints for future uses of FVCOM bottom water temperature are provided based on the uncertainties in temporal-spatial patterns. This study is

  11. Hydrology and water quality of Shell Lake, Washburn County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of diversion and changes in water level on the water quality of a shallow terminal lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Shell Lake is a relatively shallow terminal lake (tributaries but no outlets) in northwestern Wisconsin that has experienced approximately 10 feet (ft) of water-level fluctuation over more than 70 years of record and extensive flooding of nearshore areas starting in the early 2000s. The City of Shell Lake (City) received a permit from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in 2002 to divert water from the lake to a nearby river in order to lower water levels and reduce flooding. Previous studies suggested that water-level fluctuations were driven by long-term cycles in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, although questions about the lake’s connection with the groundwater system remained. The permit required that the City evaluate assumptions about lake/groundwater interactions made in previous studies and evaluate the effects of the water diversion on water levels in Shell Lake and other nearby lakes. Therefore, a cooperative study between the City and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was initiated to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the area and evaluate potential effects of the diversion on water levels in Shell Lake, the surrounding groundwater system, and nearby lakes. Concerns over deteriorating water quality in the lake, possibly associated with changes in water level, prompted an additional cooperative project between the City and the USGS to evaluate efeffects of changes in nutrient loading associated with changes in water levels on the water quality of Shell Lake. Numerical models were used to evaluate how the hydrology and water quality responded to diversion of water from the lake and historical changes in the watershed. The groundwater-flow model MODFLOW was used to simulate groundwater movement in the area around Shell Lake, including groundwater/surface-water interactions. Simulated results from the MODFLOW model indicate that groundwater flows generally northward in the area around Shell Lake, with flow locally converging

  12. Qualidade e vida útil pós-colheita de melancia Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró Quality and postharvest shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil pós-colheita de melancia cv. Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró, RN. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada por local de venda e tamanho de fruto. As melancias de tamanho grande e médio apresentaram melhor aparência externa e maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis que aquelas de tamanho pequeno, enquanto as comercializadas na ocasião do desembarque apresentaram melhor aparência e maior firmeza. A avaliação da vida útil pós-colheita foi feita com frutos provenientes de um plantio comercial instalado em Mossoró, RN. A perda de peso foi de apenas 3,79%, o pH da polpa aumentou de 4,89 para 5,20, a acidez total titulável decresceu durante o armazenamento e os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis e açúcares solúveis totais não apresentaram correlação com o armazenamento, sendo que o primeiro variou de 7,63 a 9,55%. Os açúcares redutores apresentaram leve diminuição no final do armazenamento. A vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos foi avaliada em 12 dias.The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality and shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró-RN. The quality of the fruits was evaluated by locality and fruit size. The large and middle sized watermelons presented better external appearance and higher soluble solids content than those of small size, while those marketed directly upon off loading, presented better appearance and higher firmness. The evaluation of the postharvest shelf life was done with fruits of a commercial plantation in Mossoró-RN. The weight loss was of 3.79%, the pH of the fruits increased from 4.89 to 5.20, the total titrable acidity decreased during storage. The soluble solids content and total soluble sugars did not present correlation with the storage, and the first varied from 7.63 to 9.55%. The reducing sugars a presented slight decrease at the end of the storage. The postharvest shelf life of the fruits was

  13. Effect of pectin methyl esterase and Ca²⁺ ions treatment on antioxidant capacity, shelf-life and quality of minimally processed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ramesh; Nambi, V E

    2016-03-01

    Pomegranate fruits are difficult to peel and once peeled, extracted arils have very short shelf-life. Therefore, present investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of minimally processed pomegranate arils using pectin methyl esterase (PME) and CaCl2 treatment during refrigerated storage. The arils of freshly harvested pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum L.) were treated with different concentrations of food-grade PME (50-300 units) and calcium ions (0.5-2.0% CaCl₂) for a period of 5-30 min using response surface methodology. Treated and untreated arils were then packed in low density polyethylene bags (25 μ) and maintained under low temperature (5°C; 90% RH) for evaluating the physical, biochemical and microbial quality of pomegranate arils at four day interval. Physiological loss in weight increased during storage but no food-borne pathogens were found during 28 day of cold storage in treated arils. Color and firmness of both treated and untreated arils decreased during storage but it was better maintained in treated arils. The firmness was found to be 0.630 N in treated samples compared to untreated one (0.511 N) after 20 d of storage. Total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase activities increased during storage. Treatment with 249.33 units of PME and 1.70% CaCl₂for an immersion time of 24.93 min was found to be most effective treatment for maintaining the quality of minimally processed arils for longer period. Sensory score was also higher in treated pomegranate arils that were quite acceptable even after 20 day of referigerated storage as against 12 day for untreated ones.

  14. A coupled oscillator model of shelf and ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, Brian K.; Garrett, Chris

    2010-04-01

    The resonances of tides in the coupled open ocean and shelf are modeled by a mechanical analogue consisting of a damped driven larger mass and spring (the open-ocean) connected to a damped smaller mass and spring (the shelf). When both masses are near resonance, the addition of even a very small mass can significantly affect the oscillations of the larger mass. The influence of the shelf is largest if the shelf is resonant with weak friction. In particular, an increase of friction on a near-resonant shelf can, perhaps surprisingly, lead to an increase in ocean tides. On the other hand, a shelf with large friction has little effect on ocean tides. Comparison of the model predictions with results from numerical models of tides during the ice ages, when lower sea levels led to a much reduced areal extent of shelves, suggests that the predicted larger tidal dissipation then is related to the ocean basins being close to resonance. New numerical simulations with a forward global tide model are used to test expectations from the mechanical analogue. Setting friction to unrealistically large values in Hudson Strait yields larger North Atlantic M2 amplitudes, very similar to those seen in a simulation with the Hudson Strait blocked off. Thus, as anticipated, a shelf with very large friction is nearly equivalent in its effect on the open ocean to the removal of the shelf altogether. Setting friction in shallow waters throughout the globe to unrealistically large values yields even larger open ocean tidal amplitudes, similar to those found in simulations of ice-age tides. It thus appears that larger modeled tides during the ice ages can be a consequence of enhanced friction in shallower water on the shelf in glacial times as well as a reduced shelf area then. Single oscillator and coupled oscillator models for global tides show that the maximum extractable power for human use is a fraction of the present dissipation rate, which is itself a fraction of global human power

  15. Holocene sediment dynamics on a cool-water carbonate shelf: Otway, southeastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreen, T.D.; James, N.P. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-07-01

    The Otway Shelf is covered by cool waters and veneered by bryozoan-dominated carbonate sediments. Radiocarbon dating and stratigraphy of shelf vibracores and slope gravity cores document late Pleistocene/Holocene deposition. Shelf sediments of the late Pleistocene high-stand are rare, either never having been deposited or having been removed during the following sea-level fall. During the subsequent lowstand the shelf was exposed, facies shifted basinward, and beach/dune complexes were constructed near the shelf edge. The deep shelf was characterized by nondeposition and hardground formation, and the shelf margin became locally erosional. Upper-slope bryozoan/sponge assemblages continued to grow actively, and lower-slope foraminifera and nannofossil ooze was increasingly enriched in hemipelagic terrigenous mud swept off the wide shelf. Coarse shelf debris and lowstand dune sands were erosively reworked and transported onto the upper slope and redistributed to deep-slope aprons during early transgression. The late Quaternary shelf record resembles that of flat-topped, warm-water platforms with Holocene sediment overlying Pleistocene/Tertiary limestone, but for different reasons. The slow growth potential, uniform profile of sediment production and distribution, and inability of constituent organisms to construct rigid frameworks favor maintenance of a shallow ramp profile and makes the cool-water carbonate system an excellent modern analog for interpretation of many ancient ramp successions.

  16. Assessing the impact of CO2 and brine leakage on shallow groundwater quality: Results from a natural analog study in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, E. H.; Hakala, A.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Carey, J. W.; Fessenden, J. E.; Pawar, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    A vital aspect to public and regulatory acceptance of carbon sequestration is assurance that drinking water in overlying aquifers will be protected. Direct observations of CO2 flowing through shallow drinking water aquifers are invaluable for informing credible risk assessments. To this end, we have sampled shallow wells in a natural analog site in New Mexico, USA, where CO2 from natural sources is upwelling from depth, and have conducted laboratory experiments on aquifer sediments. Collectively, this work has generated insights into the processes controlling major ion and trace element geochemistry in a CO2-rich system. One finding has been that impacts related to upwelling saline water far exceed those related to in-situ CO2-induced trace metal mobilization. We have also developed 3-D reactive-transport simulations to represent the key aspects of this particular type of drinking water aquifer. In this paper we will summarize field and laboratory findings, and compare reactive-transport simulations with field data. We will then show how field-tested simulations can be used to predict the temporal evolution of shallow groundwater in hypothetical CO2 leakage scenarios. These simulations highlight the importance of transient, non-equilibrium effects. These effects should be carefully considered in risk assessments and monitoring network design. We conclude by presenting sensitivity analysis results showing the most important uncertain model parameters; these results can be used to guide future laboratory and field studies.

  17. Nonthermal physical technologies to decontaminate and extend the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables: Trends aiming at quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-07-03

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are one of the major growing sectors in food industry. This growing demand for healthy and convenient foods with fresh-like properties is accompanied by concerns surrounding efficacy of the available sanitizing methods to appropriately deal with food-borne diseases. In fact, chemical sanitizers do not provide an efficient microbial reduction, besides being perceived negatively by the consumers, dangerous for human health, and harmful to the environment, and the conventional thermal treatments may negatively affect physical, nutritional, or bioactive properties of these perishable foods. For these reasons, the industry is investigating alternative nonthermal physical technologies, namely innovative packaging systems, ionizing and ultraviolet radiation, pulsed light, high-power ultrasound, cold plasma, high hydrostatic pressure, and dense phase carbon dioxide, as well as possible combinations between them or with other preservation factors (hurdles). This review discusses the potential of these novel or emerging technologies for decontamination and shelf-life extension of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Advantages, limitations, and challenges related to its use in this sector are also highlighted.

  18. Habitat Specialization in Tropical Continental Shelf Demersal Fish Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ben M Fitzpatrick; Euan S Harvey; Heyward, Andrew J.; Twiggs, Emily J.; Jamie Colquhoun

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. ...

  19. The abundance of boarfish (Capros aper) along the western shelf estimated using hydro-acoustics

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, C; Farrell, E.; Saunders, R.; Campbell, A

    2012-01-01

    The Boarfish (Capros aper, Linnaeus) is a relatively small deep bodied fish growing up to 23 cm in total length. Typically reddish in colour with large eyes and a highly protrusible mouth boarfish are known to inhabit shallow shelf seas to shelf slopes from 40-600 m. Boarfish are a mesopelagic shoaling species distributed in the eastern Atlantic from Norway to Senegal including the Mediterranean. Exploratory fishing for boarfish by Irish vessels began in the later 1980s when commercial quanti...

  20. 牛油火锅底料品质变化特征及货架期预测%Quality Changes during Storage and Shelf Life Prediction of Butter Hotpot Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽兰; 尼海峰; 闫志农; 卢晓黎

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated changes in the sensory quality, acid value, peroxide value and total bacterial count of butter hotpot seasoning during storage at different temperatures (5, 25 ℃ and 37 ℃). Acid value was found to be a reliable indicator for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning. A kinetic model of acid value for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning was developed with E (activation energy) and K0 (regression coefficient) of 21.82 J/mol and 32.62, respectively. The reliability of the prediction model was validated.%以牛油火锅底料为研究对象,在不同贮藏温度(5、25、37℃)条件,对牛油火锅底料的感官品质、酸价、过氧化值及菌落总数变化情况进行研究。结果表明预测牛油火锅底料货架期采用酸价变化动力学模型较为可靠。以酸价为指标建立动力学模型预测牛油火锅底料的货架期,模型的活化能(E)和回归系数(K0)分别为21.82J/mol和32.62。经验证,此动力学模型可较准确的预测火锅底料货架期。

  1. Application of Arrhenius model combined special quality index in shelf life prediction of vegetable%Arrhenius方程结合特征指标在蔬菜货架期预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利平; 谢晶

    2012-01-01

    货架期预测模型可以用来预测蔬菜的货架期.文章通过数学模型讨论蔬菜相关品质,如Vc降解、叶绿素损失、颜色以及质构的变化;介绍不同研究中使用的Arrhenius模型及相关参数或方程,比如Q10、Weibull方程,Michaelis-Menten方程和不同级数的动力学方程,还介绍各个预测模型的局限性.经典的Arrhenius模型结合动力学方程形式有待改进,而Arrhenius方程结合Weibull模型和Michaelis- Menten 方程则有望在新鲜蔬菜货架期中广为应用.%Shelf life prediction model can be used to predict the storage time of certain vegetable. This article discusses relevant qualities of vegetable, such as vitamin C degradation, chlorophyll loss, color and texture changes via mathematical models; Arrhemus model applied in different reaserches is introduced with related parameters or equations, such as Q10,, Weibull mode], Michaehs-Menten equation and kinetic model with different orders used in various studies, while limitations of each prediction models are also investigated. Classical forms of Arrhenius equation combined with kinetic models need to be improved, while models combined with Weibull model and Michaelis-Menten equation were promising used widely in predicting shelf life of fresh vegetables.

  2. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1979-02-12

    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  3. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesi, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.tesi@bo.ismar.cnr.it; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo [ISMAR-CNR, Sede di Bologna - Geologia Marina (Italy); Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca [Universita di Bologna, Laboratorio di Biologia e Fisiologia Algale, Sc. Ambientali (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf.

  4. 伽马辐照对冰藏大黄鱼品质和货架期的影响%Effects of gamma irradiation on quality and shelf life of iced Pseudosciaena crocea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宪时; 姜兴为; 李学英; 郭全友; 蒋慧亮

    2011-01-01

    为探索伽马辐照处理对冰藏鲜鱼的保鲜效果,试验分析了大黄鱼冰藏期间微生物、生化指标和感官指标的变化,探讨了低剂量辐照处理(1 kGy和2 kGy)对大黄鱼品质和货架期的影响.结果表明,辐照处理后人黄鱼的菌落总数、假单胞菌和产硫化氢细菌数量显著减少;在贮藏期间辐照处理的大黄鱼各种菌数量始终比对照组少:辐照处理可显著减缓大黄鱼挥发性盐摹氮和三甲胺的增加;但会促进脂肪的氧化,2 kGy组大黄鱼在贮藏后期能闻到脂肪酸败的味道,而1 kGy组和对照组大黄鱼始终没有闻到这种味道.辐照处理可增加大黄鱼的货架期,对照组货架期为17 d,而辐照剂量为1 kGy和2 kGy的货架期可延长至30 d和26 d.本试验为辐照商业化应用提供了技术依据.%To explore the preservation effect of gamma irradiation on ice-storaged fish, the influence of gamma irradiation (1 kGy and 2 kGy) on quality and shelf life of iced Pseudosciaena crocea was discussed by analyzing the microbiological, biochemical and organoleptic changes occurring in fish samples. The results showed that the numbers of total viable counts, Pseudomonas spp. and H2S-producing bacteria significantly decreased after irradiation; during storage the bacteria numbers of Pseudosciaena crocea treated with irradiation were always less than the control simples;the concentrations of total volatile basic nitrogen and trimethylamine were conspicuously reduced by irradiation,whereas lipid oxidation was accelerated. At the end of storage the smell of lipid rancidity could be smelled for fish treated with 2 kGy dose, but that smell could not be smelled for 1 kGy and control simples. The shelf life could be remarkably prolonged by irradiation, and compared to a shelf life of 17 days for non-irradiated samples, the shelf life of Pseudosciaena crocea treated with 1 kGy and 2 kGy were extended to 30 days and 26 days, respectively. The work can provide

  5. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  6. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  7. Piping coarse-grained sediment to a deep water fan through a shelf-edge delta bypass channel: Tank experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuri; Kim, Wonsuck; Cheong, Daekyo; Muto, Tetsuji; Pyles, David R.

    2013-12-01

    is now generally accepted that deltas that prograde to the shelf edge are able to transport coarse sediment to deep water either with or without sea level changes. However, it is still unclear how feeder rivers behave differently in the shelf-edge delta case to rivers found in a delta that progrades over the shelf. A series of nine shelf-edge delta experiments are presented to investigate the lateral mobility of the feeder channel at the shelf edge and the associated deep water depositional system under a range of sediment supply rates and shelf-front depths. In the experiments, constant sediment supply from an upstream point source under static sea level led the fluviodeltaic system to prograde over the shallow shelf surface and advance beyond the shelf edge into deep water. The feeder river of the fluviodeltaic system became a bypass system once the toe of the delta front reached the shelf edge. After the delta front was perched at the shelf edge, a submarine fan developed in deep water although remaining disconnected from the delta. In this bypass stage, no regional avulsion or lateral migration of the feeder river occurred and all sediment from the upstream source bypassed the river, delta front, and shelf-front slope. The duration of the bypass stage is proportional to shelf-front depth and inversely proportional to sediment discharge. The combined duration of the shelf-transit phase of the fluviodeltaic system and the bypass phase is the characteristic time scale for the continental margin to "anneal" transgression-inducing perturbation due to high-frequency and/or high-amplitude relative sea level rise. The sequential evolution in the experiment compares favorably to the Eocene Sobrarbe Formation, a shelf-edge delta in Spain, although natural variations are noted. This comparison justifies the application of concepts proposed herein to natural systems and provides insight into interpreting processes from ancient shelf-edge delta systems.

  8. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  9. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL under fluctuating postharvest temperatures. A box of 12 - 24 lettuce heads constituted a sample unit. The end of the shelf life of each head was determined when it showed initial signs of decay or yellowing. Air temperatures inside a shipping box were recorded. Daily average temperatures in storage and averaged shelf life of each box were used as inputs, and the RSL was modeled as an output. An R2 of 0.57 could be observed when a simple NN structure was employed. Since the "future" (or remaining storage temperatures were unavailable at the time of making a prediction, a second NN model was introduced to accommodate a range of future temperatures and associated shelf lives. Using such 2-stage NN models, an R2 of 0.61 could be achieved for predicting RSL. This study indicated that NN modeling has potential for cold chain quality control and shelf life prediction.

  10. Use of UV-C treatments to maintain quality and extend the shelf life of green fresh-cut bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoni, Luis M; Concellón, Analía; Chaves, Alicia R; Vicente, Ariel R

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this work was to select a Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment for fresh-cut mature green bell pepper, and to evaluate the effect of its combination with refrigeration on quality maintenance. Bell pepper sticks were treated with 0, 3, 10, or 20 kJ/m² UV-C in the outer (O), inner (I), or both sides of the pericarp (I/O) and stored for 8 d at 10 °C. During the first 5 d of storage, all UV-C treatments reduced deterioration as compared to the control. The treatment with 20 kJ/m² I/O was the most effective to reduce deterioration, and was used for further evaluations. In a second group of experiments, mature green bell pepper sticks were treated with 20 kJ/m² I/O, stored at 5 °C for 7 or 12 d and assessed for physical and chemical analysis, and microbiological quality. UV-C-treated fruit showed lower exudates and shriveling than the control. UV exposure also reduced decay, tissue damage, and electrolyte leakage. After 12 d at 5 °C, UV-C irradiated peppers remained firmer and had higher resistance to deformation than the control. The UV-C treatments also reduced weight loss and pectin solubilization. UV-C exposure decreased the counts of mesophile bacteria and molds, and did not affect acidity or sugars. UV-C-treated fruit stored for 0 or 7 d at 5 °C did not show major differences in antioxidants from the control as measured against DPPH(•) or ABTS(•)⁺ radicals. Results suggest that UV-C exposure is useful to maintain quality of refrigerated fresh-cut green pepper. Exposure to UV-C radiation before packing and refrigeration could be a useful nonchemical alternative to maintain quality and reduce postharvest losses in the fresh-cut industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Pre-harvest nitrogen and azoxystrobin application enhances raw product quality and post-harvest shelf-life of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Baby spinach was cultivated under spring or winter conditions to investigate the effect of azoxystrobin and, only in the winter cycle, of nitrogen fertilisation (0, 80 and 120 kg ha(-1) of N) on yield and product morphological traits at harvest and on the physical, visual, bio-physiological, nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics change during cold storage. The yield was 37% higher in spring than in the overwinter cycle. Spring grown plant had leaves of lighter colour, lower in dry matter content, higher in ascorbic acid, nitrate, and total phenol content. They had higher weight loss during storage than the winter product. Fresh weight was favoured by azoxystrobin only in the non-fertilised plants. During storage azoxystrobin reduced leaf dehydration, contrasted weight loss and the increase in phenols in leaves from fertilised plants. N supply positively affected yield, and greenness of raw and stored leaves. N fertilisation lowered weight loss due to respiration and showed a protective effect on membrane integrity during storage. Azoxystrobin proved effective in reducing nitrate leaf content. Azoxystrobin, especially in fertilised crop, is useful in improving the physiological quality, the safety, and the nutritional quality of baby spinach. A rate of 80 kg ha(-1) can be suggested as optimum N fertilisation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for You Consumers Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print FAQs Main Page What is the shelf life of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye- ...

  13. Changes in Lipid Oxidation and Sensory Quality in Vacuum-Packaged Goubangzi Roast Chicken during Shelf-Life%真空沟帮子烧鸡贮藏中脂肪氧化及感官品质的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娜; 王乐田; 戴琳; 宋立; 邓亚敏; 董丽; 刘登勇

    2014-01-01

    研究2种品牌真空包装市售沟帮子烧鸡在贮藏中脂肪氧化和感官品质的变化。测定了烧鸡在室温贮藏过程中的硫代巴比妥酸反应值、过氧化物值、pH值的变化情况,并对烧鸡进行感官评定。结果表明:随着贮藏时间的增加,烧鸡的硫代巴比妥酸反应值、过氧化物值呈现上升趋势,pH值则呈现先下降后上升的趋势,感官品质保持较好。真空包装沟帮子烧鸡在常温贮藏条件下,其品质至多可保持15个月,逾期则不利于食用。%The changes in lipid oxidation and sensory quality of two brands of vacuum-packaged Goubangzi roast chicken which had been produced six months before were studied during the remaining 12 months of the shelf life (claimed to be 18 months) at ambient temperature. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) value, peroxide value (POV), pH and sensory evaluation were determined during the storage period The results showed that the TBARs and POV values increased with increasing storage time, while the pH first declined and then increased. The sensory evaluation was not significantly affected. At room temperature, the quality of Goubangzi roast chicken could be maintained for up to 15 months, otherwise the product became unsuitable for consumption.

  14. Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and ractopamine (Paylean) on quality and shelf-life of fresh pork and bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leick, C M; Puls, C L; Ellis, M; Killefer, J; Carr, T R; Scramlin, S M; England, M B; Gaines, A M; Wolter, B F; Carr, S N; McKeith, F K

    2010-08-01

    Pigs (n = 240) were allotted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS): 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60%, and 2 ractopamine (RAC) levels: 0 and 5 mg/kg. Four pigs per pen (2 barrows, 2 gilts) closest to pen mean BW were used for meat quality evaluation. Loins (n = 119) were evaluated for objective color; moisture and fat; subjective color, marbling, and firmness; and drip loss. Bellies (n = 119) were evaluated for weight, length, width, thickness, objective fat color, and firmness. Cured bellies were evaluated for pump yield, cook loss, and sliced bacon cook loss. Loin thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated on enhanced (salt and phosphate) boneless chops held in modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) packages for 0, 7, 14, and 21 d. Bacon TBARS were evaluated on sliced bacon held in vacuum packages for 0, 28, 56, and 84 d. Fat samples were collected from each jowl and belly and evaluated for fatty acid profile and iodine value (IV). Increasing DDGS decreased subjective marbling (P = 0.0134) and firmness (P = 0.0235), and increased drip loss (P = 0.0046). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin pH, subjective or objective color, percent moisture, or percent fat (P > 0.05). The RAC decreased subjective color (P = 0.0239), marbling (P = 0.0445), and a* (P = 0.0355). Increasing DDGS decreased belly weight (P = 0.0155), length (P = 0.0008), thickness (P = 0.0019), and firmness (P = 0.0054); decreased belly fat L* (P = 0.0818); and increased belly cook loss (P = 0.0890). Ractopamine did not affect any belly measurements, and there were no DDGS x RAC interactions (P > 0.05). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin TBARS at 0, 7, or 14 d. At 21 d, loin TBARS from 30, 45, and 60% DDGS groups were increased compared with 0 and 15% groups (P 0.05) loin TBARS, and there were no (P > 0.05) DDGS x RAC interactions. Distillers dried grains with solubles and RAC did not affect

  15. Stratification and mixing in Lake Elsinore, California: an assessment of axial flow pumps for improving water quality in a shallow eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca; Anderson, Michael A

    2007-11-01

    A 3-year study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of a destratification system on weakening thermal stratification and increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Lake Elsinore, California. Biweekly measurements of temperature, DO, and other parameters were made at 14 sites across the lake beginning in July 2003. A destratification system consisting of 20 axial flow pumps fitted with 3 HP electric motors and 1.8m diameter impellers mounted 2m below the water surface was installed in the spring of 2004 and made fully operational in July 2004. An unusually wet winter of 2005 raised the summer mean depth from 3.0m in 2004 to 6.7 m in 2005. This study thus allowed us to quantify the influence of axial flow pump operation on water column properties under shallow water conditions (i.e., before and after axial flow pump installation), and also to compare the effectiveness of the destratification system at two strongly different lake levels. Transparencies increased substantially after the winter storms in 2005 and thermal stability was shown to be strongly dependent upon lake level. Stratification and a large area of anoxic sediments persisted despite pump operation in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements showed that mixing energy was not being efficiently transmitted laterally into the water column.

  16. Active Heave-Compensated Coring On The New Jersey Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, D. L.; Pardey, M.; Austin, J. A.; Goff, J. A.; Alexander, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Nordfjord, S.; Sommerfield, C.; Venherm, C.

    2003-12-01

    The continental shelves are of obvious scientific and strategic importance. However, the ability to cost-effectively collect core samples of continental shelf sediments has been limited by technical difficulties. Many sites of scientific interest are too shallow to be drilled by large drill ships, and they are too deep to be drilled economically from jack-up platforms. DOSECC has developed an Active Heave Compensated (AHC800) drilling system under sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research to overcome these obstacles by building a small active heave compensated drilling rig that can be used to collect high-quality core from selected vessels of opportunity. The AHC800 drilling rig is designed to collect continuous core to a total drill string length of 800 m. Water depths of 200 m and less are optimal; however, with some modification operation in deeper water is possible. The AHC800 senses vessel heave using a constantly tensioned low-stretch taut line attached to a seafloor weight. A linear position transducer is attached to this taut line and through the data acquisition system, the ship's distance from the bottom is communicated to the heave compensation computer running Labview RT operating system and object-based software language. This real-time control system is used to achieve a 10-ms control loop for both data gathering and output functions. The Labview RT system continuously controls two hydraulic cylinders that keep the heave carriage and the drill string at the same reference distance from the bottom. The AHC800 system was used on the R/V Knorr on the New Jersey continental shelf in water depths from 74 to 130 m from 25 Sep to 15 Oct 2002. The AHC800 system performed up to and beyond its design specifications. The rig was designed to compensate for 2.44 m of heave with an 8 s period. However, the Knorr's response was a 6 s period resulting in a significant increase in the required acceleration as well as a faster response time for the system as a whole

  17. Seabed topography beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf from seismic soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Brisbourne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic reflection soundings of ice thickness and seabed depth were acquired on the Larsen C Ice Shelf in order to test a sub-shelf bathymetry model derived from the inversion of IceBridge gravity data. A series of lines were collected, from the Churchill Peninsula in the north to the Joerg Peninsula in the south, and also towards the ice front. Sites were selected using the bathymetry model derived from the inversion of free-air gravity data to indicate key regions where sub-shelf oceanic circulation may be affected by ice draft and sub-shelf cavity thickness. The seismic velocity profile in the upper 100 m of firn and ice was derived from shallow refraction surveys at a number of locations. Measured temperatures within the ice column and at the ice base were used to define the velocity profile through the remainder of the ice column. Seismic velocities in the water column were derived from previous in situ measurements. Uncertainties in ice and water cavity thickness are in general <10 m. Compared with the seismic measurements, the root-mean-square error in the gravimetrically derived bathymetry at the seismic sites is 162 m. The seismic profiles prove the non-existence of several bathymetric features that are indicated in the gravity inversion model, significantly modifying the expected oceanic circulation beneath the ice shelf. Similar features have previously been shown to be highly significant in affecting basal melt rates predicted by ocean models. The discrepancies between the gravity inversion results and the seismic bathymetry are attributed to the assumption of uniform geology inherent in the gravity inversion process and also the sparsity of IceBridge flight lines. Results indicate that care must be taken when using bathymetry models derived by the inversion of free-air gravity anomalies. The bathymetry results presented here will be used to improve existing sub-shelf ocean circulation models.

  18. On the freshening of the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Hellmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of the three austral winters 1989, 1997, and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield Strait. In winter, the whole continental shelf exhibits southern characteristics with high Neon (Ne concentrations, indicating a significant input of glacial melt water. The comparison of the winter data from the shallow shelf off the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, spanning a period of 17 yr, shows a salinity decrease of 0.09 for the whole water column, which has a residence time of <1 yr. We interpret this freshening as being caused by a combination of reduced salt input due to a southward sea ice retreat and higher precipitation during the late 20th century on the western Weddell Sea continental shelf. However, less salinification might also result from a delicate interplay between enhanced salt input due to sea ice formation in coastal areas formerly occupied by Larsen A and B ice shelves and increased Larsen C ice loss.

  19. Effect of Postharvest Application of Thyme Essential oil on Quality and Shelf-life of Pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Tarom red skin Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghfouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to high quality, Iran pomegranate is quite competitive compared to other countries is unrivaled among agricultural products and has great economic importance. Using essential oil is a new idea to reduce postharvest losses and increase the horticultural crop storage life and control of fungal infection. In this context, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted to study the postharvest spraying of thyme essential oil on storage life and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (cv. Tarom red skin Materials and Methods: Pomegranate fruit (cv. Tarom red skin was prepared and transferred to University of Zanjan, Horticulture postharvest physiology lab. Treatments were included essential oil of thyme at four levels (0, 500, 1000, 1500 mg/l and the cold time storage (6 °C and 85% of relative humidity at three levels (one, two and three months (by four replications. In the first experiment, 180 normal pomegranate fruits were treated with thyme essential oil. In the second experiment, fruits were infected with spores of the fungus Aspergillus niger and then treated with essential oil. During experiment, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, pH, anthocyanin, electrolyte leakage, chilling injury, weight loss and fungal decay were evaluated. Fruit juice TSS was determined with a hand-refractometer at room temperature. TA was determined by titration an aliquot (20 mL of the juice with 0.1 N NaOH and the results were expressed as a percentage of citric acid. The maturity index (TSS/TA ratio was evaluated as the TSS/TA ratio. Fruit juice pH was measured using a pH meter. Anthocyanin was performed to method Fuleki & Francis. Electrolyte leakage was measured according to McCollum & McDonald method. Weight loss was measured according to Ershadi method. Chilling injury was measured by Wang method. Decay was visually evaluated and expressed as percentage. An analysis of variance

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Long-Term Change in Contamination Hazards and Shallow Well Quality in Two Neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Okotto-Okotto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013–2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = −1.98, p = 0.048. Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = −3.296, p = 0.001, but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings.

  1. A longitudinal study of long-term change in contamination hazards and shallow well quality in two neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okotto-Okotto, Joseph; Okotto, Lorna; Price, Heather; Pedley, Steve; Wright, Jim

    2015-04-17

    Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013-2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = -1.98, p = 0.048). Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = -3.296, p = 0.001), but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings.

  2. Central Nervous System Based Computing Models for Shelf Life Prediction of Soft Mouth Melting Milk Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Kumar Goyal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latency and potential of central nervous system based system intelligent computer engineering system for detecting shelf life of soft mouth melting milk cakes stored at 10o C. Soft mouth melting milk cakes are exquisite sweetmeat cuisine made out of heat and acid thickened solidified sweetened milk. In today’s highly competitive market consumers look for good quality food products. Shelf life is a good and accurate indicator to the food quality and safety. To achieve good quality of food products, detection of shelf life is important. Central nervous system based intelligent computing model was developed which detected 19.82 days shelf life, as against 21 days experimental shelf life.

  3. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitore...

  4. Widespread collapse of the Ross Ice Shelf during the late Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yusuke; Anderson, John B; Yamane, Masako; Simkins, Lauren M; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Koizumi, Mamito; Suga, Hisami; Kusahara, Kazuya; Prothro, Lindsay; Hasumi, Hiroyasu; Southon, John R; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-03-01

    The stability of modern ice shelves is threatened by atmospheric and oceanic warming. The geologic record of formerly glaciated continental shelves provides a window into the past of how ice shelves responded to a warming climate. Fields of deep (-560 m), linear iceberg furrows on the outer, western Ross Sea continental shelf record an early post-Last Glacial Maximum episode of ice-shelf collapse that was followed by continuous retreat of the grounding line for ∼200 km. Runaway grounding line conditions culminated once the ice became pinned on shallow banks in the western Ross Sea. This early episode of ice-shelf collapse is not observed in the eastern Ross Sea, where more episodic grounding line retreat took place. More widespread (∼280,000 km(2)) retreat of the ancestral Ross Ice Shelf occurred during the late Holocene. This event is recorded in sediment cores by a shift from terrigenous glacimarine mud to diatomaceous open-marine sediment as well as an increase in radiogenic beryllium ((10)Be) concentrations. The timing of ice-shelf breakup is constrained by compound specific radiocarbon ages, the first application of this technique systematically applied to Antarctic marine sediments. Breakup initiated around 5 ka, with the ice shelf reaching its current configuration ∼1.5 ka. In the eastern Ross Sea, the ice shelf retreated up to 100 km in about a thousand years. Three-dimensional thermodynamic ice-shelf/ocean modeling results and comparison with ice-core records indicate that ice-shelf breakup resulted from combined atmospheric warming and warm ocean currents impinging onto the continental shelf.

  5. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  6. Bedrock control on the Assu Incised Valley morphology and sedimentation in the Brazilian Equatorial Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moab Praxedes Gomes; Helenice Vital; Karl Stattegger; Klaus Schwarzer

    2016-01-01

    The Assu Incised Valley (AIV) is a new example of an incised-valley system located on the Brazilian Equatorial continental shelf. This valley extends over 40 km from the present-day shoreline to the shelf break, in a passive margin setting, on a shallow (~70 m), narrow (43 km) and flat («1°) shelf, with mixed carbonate–siliciclastic sedimentation and a low terrigenous sediment supply. To investigate the mor-phology of the incised valley and the surrounding shelf area, we analyzed LandSat images and bathy-metric, shallow seismic and sedimentological data. The results indicate that the AIV is a coastal-plain incised valley. The incision was mainly forced by the magnitude of the last fall in sea level, which created the specific geometry of valley, atypically widening landward due to lithological and structural control. The AIV is a broad N–S-trending valley with a negative relief of approximately 12 m below the mean shelf topography and low-angle valley walls (~3°), surrounded by a highly planar shelf. The valley is asymmetric in cross-section and subdivided into three segments along the shelf:the landward segment is wide (up to 8 km), shallow (<9 m deep), and 25 km long; the middle segment is narrow (~2 km wide), only slightly deeper than the inner segment (<15 m deep) and 10 km long;the outer segment is very narrow (<1 km), has incised relief up to 30 m deep and is 8 km long. The incised valley changes near the shelf break abruptly to a deeper (300 m) and wider submarine canyon (3 km). The three valley-segments are bounded by transfer faults of W–E orientation. In addition, the accommodation-space response to the last deglacial sea-level rise provided a 30 m thick sedimentary fill above a Pleistocene/Holocene regional unconformity and a morphologically controlled stratigraphic organization. The ante-cedent valley topography controls the sedimentation and hydrodynamics of the modern shelf. Further-more, the morphology of the AIV is a key example of the

  7. On the distribution of batch shelf lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michelle; Stroup, Walter; Christopher, David; Schwenke, James

    2013-01-01

    Implicit in ICH Q1E (International Conference on Harmonization [ICH], 2003b ) are definitions of batch shelf life (the time the batch mean crosses the acceptance limit) and product shelf life (the minimum batch shelf life). The distribution of batch means over time projects to a distribution of batch shelf lives on the x-axis. Assuming multivariate normality, shelf life is the ratio of correlated Gaussian variables. Using Hinkley ( 1969 ), we describe the relationship between quantiles of the distributions of batch shelf lives and batch means. Exploiting this relationship, a linear mixed model is used to estimate a target quantile of batch shelf lives to address the ICH objective.

  8. 锌离子对浅层地下水水质影响预测研究%Zinc Ion Impact on Shallow Groundwater Quality Forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2012-01-01

      根据地下水动力学原理及溶质在地下含水层中的运移机理,采用Visual MODFLOW对矸石山的污染进行了可视化模拟预测,获取了主要污染物质锌离子在40年内对地下水污染程度和范围。结果表明,矸石山淋溶液中的锌离子至40年后将对浅层地下水水质构成威胁,超过地下水环境质量Ⅱ类标准。%  In accordance with the principle of groundwater dynamics and solute transport mechanism in underground aquifers using Visual MODFLOW visual simulation and prediction of the pollution of the waste dump, getting the main pollutants of zinc ions in 40 years to the groundwater contamination andrange. The results show that the waste dump leaching of zinc ions in the solution to 40 years wil pose a threat to the water quality of shal ow groundwater exceed Groundwater Environmental Quality II standard.

  9. New Result on Methane Emissions from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Sergienko, V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Dmitrevsky, N.; Salyuk, A.; Yusupov, V.; Salomatin, A.; Karnaukh, V.; Chernykh, D.; Kosmach, D.; Ananiev, R.; Meluzov, A.; Nicolsky, D.; Panteleev, G.

    2013-12-01

    Methane release from thawing Arctic permafrost is one of the few carbon-climate mechanisms that could change projected climate forcing substantially in this century. Venting of methane to the atmosphere in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, the world's largest yet shallowest shelf, was recently shown to be ubiquitous. Here we report results of multi-year investigations performed in the coastal East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), where invasion of relatively warm seawater occurred most recently. Observational data and simulation of the warming effect of seawater on subsea permafrost suggest that disintegrating subsea permafrost allows formation of migration pathways for methane bubbles released from the sea floor. Sonar data collected in the coastal area and in the mid-outer shelf area together with data, obtained using high-resolution high-speed video camera, enabled area-weighted methane fluxes to be estimated. New factors controlling spatial and temporal variability of methane fluxes on the ESAS were found. In the outer shelf, it was shown that methane releases from the seabed via strong flare-like ebullition that produces fluxes much greater than on the shallow shelf, where largely frozen sediments restrict fluxes. The coastward progression of thawing subsea permafrost in a warming Arctic could potentially result in a significant increase in methane emissions from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf.

  10. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    were collected in May and September of each year; samples were collected at the outlet of the control and treatment basins and at three upstream sites, two in the treatment basin and one in the control basin. For each benthic-macroinvertebrate sample: Stream riffles and pools were sampled using the kick-net method; habitat was characterized using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP); water-quality samples were collected for nutrients and suspended sediment; stream field parameters were measured; and multiple biological metrics were calculated. The experimental design to study the effects of fencing on the quality of near-stream shallow ground water involved a nested well approach. Two well nests were in the treatment basin, one each at surface-water sites T-1 and T-2. Within each well nest, the data from one deep well and three shallow wells (no greater than 12 ft deep) were used for regional characterization of ground-water quality. At each site, two of the shallow wells were inside the eventual fence (treated wells); the other shallow well was outside the eventual fence (control well). The wells were sampled monthly, primarily during periods with little to no recharge, for laboratory analysis of nutrients and fecal streptococcus; field parameters of water quality also were measured. Ancillary data collected during the study included precipitation amounts, inorganic and organic nutrient applications in both basins, and the number of cows in both basins. Precipitation during the pre-treatment period averaged about 5 in. more per year than during the post-treatment period; streamflow was about 56-63 percent less during the post-treatment period relative to the calibration period. Agricultural activity did show some changes from the pre- to post-treatment period. The estimated amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) applied to the land as inorganic and organic fertilizers decreased 27 and 33 percent, respectively, from the pre- to the post-treatment period in t

  11. 琼东北滨海浅层地下水水质变化特征分析%Analysis of water quality fluctuations in coastal shallow groundwater at NE Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路剑飞; 甘华阳; 张顺枝; 黄向青

    2016-01-01

    Based on short-term (52 h in consecutive spring and neap tidal cycles)hourly water quality data and long-term hourly electrical conductivity monitoring data of coastal shallow groundwater in north-eastern part of Hainan,short-term and long-term water quality fluctuations are analyzed.The results indi-cate that:① Na + and Cl - are chief ions in shallow groundwater in the research area and vary with quasi-synchronization,which bring about major changes of TDS.Extremely low amount of CO2 -3 can be found in shallow groundwater.Mutual relations of cation are all positive correlated with distinct intensity at dif-ferent sites,and are apparently influenced by tidal cycles.Different types of tidal cycles also lead to in-terchange between positive and negative correlations among anion.② Soil alkalization degree caused by shallow groundwater increases from the north to the east,from low-medium level to medium-high level. Intensity of seawater intrusion keeps a medium-high level,especially at the spring tidal cycle.Results from water mineralization imply that water quality of the study area is classified between brackish water and salt water.③ During study period,electrical conductivity vs.mineralization,and electrical conduc-tivity vs.Na + +Cl - both obey individual linear correlation rules and can be hardly affected in different tidal cycles,which means that long-term monitoring of water mineralization,Na + and Cl - can be possi-ble.Also,it means a lot to long-term monitoring of water quality and seawater intrusion.④ Long-term fluctuations and probability distributions of electrical conductivity follow respective rules which depend more on locations.⑤ More sharper changes can exist in the amount of Na + and Cl -than in water miner-alization from a long-term view.A great quantity of fresh water discharged from estuary of the Nandu Riv-er and occasional seawater intrusions may be the immediate causes for changes in the contents of Na + and Cl - in shallow

  12. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    to look at the complicated boundary between deep and shallow water, i.e. the slope/ canyon region. (Dates for any experiments are approximate...them for publication, 2) begin the 2018 (shelfbreak, slope and canyon ) experimental planning, both on an individual basis, and in conjunction with...experimental planning for a shelfbreak/slope/ canyon experiment has been placed “on hold” by ONR for the time being, though some of that planning has been

  13. Seabed topography beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf from seismic soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A. M.; Smith, A. M.; King, E. C.; Nicholls, K. W.; Holland, P. R.; Makinson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic reflection soundings of ice thickness and seabed depth were acquired on the Larsen C Ice Shelf in order to test a sub-ice shelf bathymetry model derived from the inversion of IceBridge gravity data. A series of lines was collected, from the Churchill Peninsula in the north to the Joerg Peninsula in the south, and also towards the ice front. Sites were selected using the bathymetry model derived from the inversion of free-air gravity data to indicate key regions where sub-ice shelf oceanic circulation may be affected by ice draft and seabed depth. The seismic velocity profile in the upper 100 m of firn and ice was derived from shallow refraction surveys at a number of locations. Measured temperatures within the ice column and at the ice base were used to define the velocity profile through the remainder of the ice column. Seismic velocities in the water column were derived from previous in situ measurements. Uncertainties in ice and water cavity thickness are in general model, significantly modifying the expected oceanic circulation beneath the ice shelf. Similar features have previously been shown to be highly significant in affecting basal melt rates predicted by ocean models. The discrepancies between the gravity inversion results and the seismic bathymetry are attributed to the assumption of uniform geology inherent in the gravity inversion process and also the sparsity of IceBridge flight lines. Results indicate that care must be taken when using bathymetry models derived by the inversion of free-air gravity anomalies. The bathymetry results presented here will be used to improve existing sub-ice shelf ocean circulation models.

  14. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  15. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ben M; Harvey, Euan S; Heyward, Andrew J; Twiggs, Emily J; Colquhoun, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected habitats

  16. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE00) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  17. Modelling snowdrift sublimation on an Antarctic ice shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Déry, S. J.; König-Langlo, G.; Ettema, J.; Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the contribution of snowdrift sublimation (SUds) to the surface mass balance at Neumayer, located on the Ekström ice shelf in Eastern Antarctica. A single column version of the RACMO2-ANT model is used as a physical interpolation tool of high-quality radiosonde and surface

  18. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  19. Efeito do retardamento da colheita, na qualidade e na vida útil do melão Orange Flesh Effect of the harvest delay on the quality and post-harvest shelf-life of Orange Flesh melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vinícius de S. Mendonça

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do retardamento da colheita na qualidade e na vida útil dos frutos do meloeiro foi avaliado. Os frutos, tipo Honey Dew Orange Flesh, foram colhidos no dia adotado pelos produtores como maturidade comercial, um, dois, três e quatro dias após e, foram armazenados a 7 ± 1ºC e UR de 90 ± 5%. O experimento foi conduzido obedecendo delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com cinco repetições, cinco tempos de retardamento (0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 dias após o adotado para a colheita e cinco tempos de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após a colheita. Foram avaliado a aparência externa e interna, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de sólidos solúveis e incidência de rachadura no pedúnculo. Foi observada perda gradativa de firmeza da polpa para todos os retardamentos durante o armazenamento. Ao final do experimento os frutos ainda apresentavam aparência própria à comercialização. O conteúdo de sólidos solúveis ficou entre 9 e 12% e a incidência de rachaduras foi menor para os frutos colhidos aos 59; 60 e 61 dias após o plantio.The effect of harvesting delay on quality and postharvest shelf-life of Honey Dew Orange Flesh melons was examined. Fruits were harvested at the stage of commercial maturity and, one, two, three and four days after this period. Fruits were kept at 7 ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity. A 5 x 5 factorial scheme in a completely randomized design with five replications was used, with five harvesting dates (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 days after the stage of commercial harvest and five storage periods (0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days. During this period we evaluated the external and internal appearances, flesh firmness, soluble solid content and crack incidence of the peduncle. There occurred reduction of the flesh firmness for all harvest delaying dates. Fruits presented appropriate marketing appearance until the end of the experiment. The soluble solids content varied from 9 to 12%, and the cracking

  20. Peculiarities of spreading of acoustic waves over a shelf with decreasing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, G. I.; Budrin, S. S.; Ovcharenko, V. V.; Plotnikov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze experimental data collected in Vityaz Bay of the Sea of Japan during study of the peculiarities of spreading of hydroacoustic waves over a shelf with decreasing depth. We found that the waves propagate over a shelf with depths greater than half of the hydroacoustic wave according to the law of cylindrical divergence with least losses of the wave energy. If the depths are shallower than half of the hydroacoustic wave, they spread along the water-bottom boundary as Rayleigh waves of decaying and undamped types with significant absorption of the wave energy by the bottom.

  1. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  2. Effects of packaging methods on shelf life of ratite meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horbańczuk Olaf K.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years a growing demand for ratite meat, including ostrich, emu, and rhea has been observed in the world. Ratite meat is recognised as a dietetic product because of low level of fat, high share of PUFA, favourable n6/n3 ratio, and higher amounts of iron content in comparison with beef and chicken meat. The abundance of bioactive compounds, e.g. PUFA, makes ratite meat highly susceptible to oxidation processes. Moreover, pH over 6 creates favourable environment for fast microbial growth during storage conditions affecting its shelf life. However, availability of information on ratite meat shelf life among consumers and industry is still limited. Thus, the aim of the present review is to provide current information about the effect of ratite meat packaging type, i.e. air packaging, vacuum packaging with skin pack, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, on its shelf life quality during storage, including technological and nutritional properties.

  3. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  4. The relevance of buttressing for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronja; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Levermann, Anders; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-04-01

    Sub-shelf melting is an important component of Antarctica's mass budget. Although thinning of ice shelves does not directly contribute to sea-level rise, it may have a significant indirect impact through the potential of ice shelves to buttress their adjacent ice sheet. This is clearly seen in recent observations, e.g. in the Amundsen region (Pritchard et al., 2012) or at the Southern Antarctic Peninsula (Wouters et al, 2015) where increased ice loss of the adjacent upstream drainage basins is attributed to enhanced sub-shelf melting. In the extreme case, the complete disintegration of an ice shelf, e.g. during the calving events of Larsen A and B in 1995 and 2002, respectively, the adjacent ice streams subsequently accelerated significantly (Scambos et al., 2014). Here, we investigate the importance of buttressing using the finite-element, shallow-stream approximation numerical model Úa. We derive transfer functions for an idealized setup (Gudmundsson et al. 2012) and the Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. They allow for the computation of instantaneous changes in velocities to thickness perturbation patterns. Based on the transfer functions, we calculate the sensitivity of flux across the grounding line to regional varying melting patterns for the idealized setup and for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. We find that the immediate response of velocities in the ice shelf-ice sheet system to changes in sub-shelf melting can be understood as the interaction of two effects: On the one hand, the spreading rate is a function of local ice thickness, indicating that a thinning of the ice shelf reduces velocities. On the other hand, ice shelf thinning weakens its ability to buttress, and thus enhances velocities. These two processes compete, leading to a complex pattern of velocity changes within the ice shelf. We find - both in the idealized setup and for Ross and Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelves - that the reduction in buttressing is dominating the velocity changes in the

  5. Export of terrigenous organic carbon along submarine canyons driven by dense shelf water cascading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, T.; Puig, P.; Goni, M.; Canals, M.; Langone, L.; Palanques, A.; Miserocchi, S.; Heussner, S.; Trincardi, F.; Calafat, A.; Turchetto, M.; Fabres, J.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Boldrin, A.

    2008-12-01

    At current highstand in sea level, shelves are considered major sites of terrigenous organic carbon (OCterr) accumulation with relatively little connectivity to the ocean interior. In recent years, the process of dense water cascading from the continental shelf, which occurs in numerous places around the world, has been suggested as carrier for OCterr to the deep ocean. The land-locked Mediterranean Sea is characterized by intense and recurrent cascades of dense shelf water. In winter, cold and dry winds cause the formation of dense water over the shelf that may overflow it and travel down to the outer margin and basin. Moored instruments were deployed in the canyons of the Gulf of Lion (France-Spain) and the Adriatic Sea (Italy) to intercept particulate material escaping the shelf and to investigate hydrodynamic and physical properties of the water column. Surface sediments along the shelves were also sampled to evaluate their contribution to the particle fluxes. The relative fractions of autochthonous and advected OC in sediment trap samples were investigated using biogeochemical proxies including alkaline CuO oxidation products (lignin phenols, dicarboxylic acids, and fatty acids), radiocarbon measurements (Ä14C), and elemental and carbon stable isotope (ä13C) compositions. Lignin-derived CuO products were a powerful biogeochemical tool that allowed us to identify the provenance of the material from the continental margin and to assess the amount of OCterr transferred across the slope in both Mediterranean regions. The results indicate that the composition of OC escaping the shelf through submarine canyons depends on the geomorphological setting. At the present sea level stage, cascading on a broad shelf limits the transport of OCterr, promoting instead the down-slope export of material accumulated in the mid- and outer-shelf. In contrast, cascade events on narrow shelves lead to the efficient export of OCterr from shallower regions of the margin along with

  6. Thermohaline structure inhomogeneity associated with polynia at the northern margin of Emery Ice-shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the hydrographic data in austral summer during the 22nd Antarctic Expedition of China (2005/2006), some features can be found about the northern margin of Emery ice shelf as follows. The heat content in the surface layer(0-50 m) at the eastern end and the western end of the ice-shelf margin is much higher than that at the middle. The upper mixing-layer depth and the seasonal thermocline depth at the middle of the ice-shelf northern margin are much shallower than those at the both ends. However there is much less difference between the middle and the ends in the bottom layer. The remote sensing photos show that the inhomogeneity in the surface-layer water is closely related to the spatial distribution of the floes and polynia in the area.

  7. The Cumacea community of the southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf: structure and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda L. Dos Santos

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition, abundance, diversity and dynamics of the Cumacea community from the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf were studied. The area is characterized by the intrusion of a cold and highly saline water mass in summer, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, from the slope towards the coast, changing the hydrographic structure of the shelf and the species distribution. During the other seasons the inner shelf, area shallower than 50 m, is filled with warm and low saline water, the Coastal Water (CW. The presence of the SACW seems to favor the abundance and diversity of Cumacea due to its higher primary production and stability. Three groups of species were related to the water masses. Depth and fine sand fraction were shown to be the main factors structuring the Cumacea community. The role of the SACW in maintaining the Cumacea populations in the area through the passive transport of pre-ovigerous and ovigerous females is discussed.

  8. Focus on shallow gas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.; Nelskamp, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent exploration activities in two of the largest deltas in the world, the still active Nile delta and the Cenozoic Southern North Sea (SNS) deltas, proved the potential of shallow gas resources. However, shallow gas production is still limited due to a lack of understanding of this gas system. Fo

  9. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  10. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  11. Accelerated shallow water modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    ln this talk we will describe our ongoing developments in accelerated numerical methods for modeling tsunamis, and oceanic fluid flows using two dimensional shallow water model and/or three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes model discretized with high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. High order discontinuous Galerkin methods can be computationally demanding, requiring extensive computational time to simulate real time events on traditional CPU architectures. However, recent advances in computing architectures and hardware aware algorithms make it possible to reduce simulation time and provide accurate predictions in a timely manner. Hence we tailor these algorithms to take advantage of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture that is seen in modern many core compute devices such as GPUs. We will discuss our unified and extensive many-core programming library OCCA that alleviates the need to completely re-design the solvers to keep up with constantly evolving parallel programming models and hardware architectures. We will present performance results for the flow simulations demonstrating performance leveraging multiple different multi-threading APIs on GPU and CPU targets.

  12. Shelf Stable Epoxy Repair Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    manufacturing operations are more efficient , discarding less expired film. Commercial and military aircraft repair operations at Boeing experience very similar...successfully encapsulated at concentrations greater than 50 wt% within four N N = CC Infoscitex Corporation Shelf Stable Epoxy Resin Adhesive WP-1763 8...affects the composition of the encapsulant , which in turn affects the ability of the encapsulant to wet the core phase, the barrier properties of the

  13. Earth - Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire Antarctic continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken on December 8, 1990.

  14. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  15. Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: Examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E J D'Sa; C Hu; F E Muller-Karger; K L Carder

    2002-09-01

    Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophyll concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource managers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida Shelf. However, accurate stimates of these variables using standard ocean color algorithms have been di#cult due to the complex nature of the light field in these environments. In this study, we process SeaWiFS satellite data using two recently developed algorithms; one for atmospheric correction and the other a semi-analytic bio-optical algorithm and compare the results with standard SeaWiFS algorithms. Overall, the two algorithms produced more realistic estimates of Chl and CDOM distributions in Florida Shelf and Bay waters. Estimates of surface salinity were obtained from the CDOM absorption field assuming a conservative mixing behavior of these waters. A comparison of SeaWiFS-derived Chl and CDOM absorption with field measurements in the Florida Bay indicated that although well correlated, CDOM was underestimated, while Chl was overestimated. Bottom reflectance appeared to affect these estimates at the shallow central Bay stations during the winter. These results demonstrate the need for new bio-optical algorithms or tuning of the parameters used in the bio-optical algorithm for local conditions encountered in the Bay.

  16. Offshore forcing on the "pressure point" of the West Florida Shelf: Anomalous upwelling and its influence on harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Lenes, Jason M.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Hubbard, Katherine; Walsh, John J.

    2016-08-01

    Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC) interactions with the West Florida Shelf (WFS) slope play an important role in shelf ecology through the upwelling of new inorganic nutrients across the shelf break. This is particularly the case when the LC impinges upon the shelf slope in the southwest portion of the WFS near the Dry Tortugas. By contacting shallow water isobaths at this "pressure point" the LC forcing sets the entire shelf into motion. Characteristic patterns of LC interactions with the WFS and their occurrences are identified using unsupervised neural network, self-organizing map, from 23 years (1993-2015) of altimetry data. The duration of the occurrences of such LC patterns is used as an indicator of offshore forcing of anomalous upwelling. Consistency is found between the altimetry-derived offshore forcing and the occurrence and severity of WFS coastal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis: years without major blooms tend to have prolonged LC contact at the "pressure point," whereas years with major blooms tend not to have prolonged offshore forcing. Resetting the nutrient state of the shelf by the coastal ocean circulation in response to deep-ocean forcing demonstrates the importance of physical oceanography in shelf ecology. A satellite altimetry-derived seasonal predictor for major K. brevis blooms is also proposed.

  17. SHELF LIFE OF THAWED CRUSTACEANS TREATED WITH SULPHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Smaldone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish and fish products is closely related to their freshness. Aim of this research was to evaluate the shelf life of thawed crustaceans (Aristeomorpha foliacea and Nefrops norvegicus which had been treated with sulphites and frozen on board. Organoleptic characteristics and microbiological and chemical parameters were judged favourably up to day 6 and 7 for the shrimps and Norway lobsters, respectively.

  18. Wave-driven sediment mobilization on a storm-controlled continental shelf (Northwest Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hanebuth, Till

    2014-01-01

    Seafloor sediment mobilization on the inner Northwest Iberian continental shelf is caused largely by ocean surface waves. The temporal and spatial variability in the wave height, wave period, and wave direction has a profound effect on local sediment mobilization, leading to distinct sediment mobilization scenarios. Six grain-size specific sediment mobilization scenarios, representing seasonal average and storm conditions, were simulated with a physics-based numerical model. Model inputs included meteorological and oceanographic data in conjunction with seafloor grain-size and the shelf bathymetric data. The results show distinct seasonal variations, most importantly in wave height, leading to sediment mobilization, specifically on the inner shelf shallower than 30 m water depth where up to 49% of the shelf area is mobilized. Medium to severe storm events are modeled to mobilize up to 89% of the shelf area above 150 m water depth. The frequency of each of these seasonal and storm-related sediment mobilization scenarios is addressed using a decade of meteorological and oceanographic data. The temporal and spatial patterns of the modeled sediment mobilization scenarios are discussed in the context of existing geological and environmental processes and conditions to assist scientific, industrial and environmental efforts that are directly affected by sediment mobilization. Examples, where sediment mobilization plays a vital role, include seafloor nutrient advection, recurrent arrival of oil from oil-spill-laden seafloor sediment, and bottom trawling impacts.

  19. Geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef: a northwest Australian mid-shelf platform reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihuddin, Tubagus; Bufarale, Giada; Blakeway, David; O'Leary, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    The mid-shelf reefs of the Kimberley Bioregion are one of Australia's more remote tropical reef provinces and such have received little attention from reef researchers. This study describes the geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef, a mid-shelf platform reef, through remote sensing of contemporary reef habitats, shallow seismic profiling, shallow percussion coring and radiocarbon dating. Seismic profiling indicates that the Holocene reef sequence is 25 to 35 m thick and overlies at least three earlier stages of reef build-up, interpreted as deposited during marine isotope stages 5, 7 and 9 respectively. The cored shallow subsurface facies of Adele Reef are predominantly detrital, comprising small coral colonies and fragments in a sandy matrix. Reef cores indicate a `catch-up' growth pattern, with the reef flat being approximately 5-10 m deep when sea level stabilised at its present elevation 6,500 years BP. The reef flat is rimmed by a broad low-relief reef crest only 10-20 cm high, characterised by anastomosing ridges of rhodoliths and coralliths. The depth of the Holocene/last interglacial contact (25-30 m) suggests a subsidence rate of 0.2 mm/year for Adele Reef since the last interglacial. This value, incorporated with subsidence rates from Cockatoo Island (inshore) and Scott Reefs (offshore), provides the first quantitative estimate of hinge subsidence for the Kimberley coast and adjacent shelf, with progressively greater subsidence across the shelf.

  20. Geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef: a northwest Australian mid-shelf platform reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihuddin, Tubagus; Bufarale, Giada; Blakeway, David; O'Leary, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The mid-shelf reefs of the Kimberley Bioregion are one of Australia's more remote tropical reef provinces and such have received little attention from reef researchers. This study describes the geomorphology and late Holocene accretion history of Adele Reef, a mid-shelf platform reef, through remote sensing of contemporary reef habitats, shallow seismic profiling, shallow percussion coring and radiocarbon dating. Seismic profiling indicates that the Holocene reef sequence is 25 to 35 m thick and overlies at least three earlier stages of reef build-up, interpreted as deposited during marine isotope stages 5, 7 and 9 respectively. The cored shallow subsurface facies of Adele Reef are predominantly detrital, comprising small coral colonies and fragments in a sandy matrix. Reef cores indicate a `catch-up' growth pattern, with the reef flat being approximately 5-10 m deep when sea level stabilised at its present elevation 6,500 years BP. The reef flat is rimmed by a broad low-relief reef crest only 10-20 cm high, characterised by anastomosing ridges of rhodoliths and coralliths. The depth of the Holocene/last interglacial contact (25-30 m) suggests a subsidence rate of 0.2 mm/year for Adele Reef since the last interglacial. This value, incorporated with subsidence rates from Cockatoo Island (inshore) and Scott Reefs (offshore), provides the first quantitative estimate of hinge subsidence for the Kimberley coast and adjacent shelf, with progressively greater subsidence across the shelf.

  1. Wind-driven coastal upwelling and westward circulation in the Yucatan shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Eugenio; Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Sheinbaum, Julio; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in a large shelf sea with a zonally oriented coast are examined. The Yucatan shelf is located to the north of the Yucatan peninsula in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. This area is a tropical shallow body of water with a smooth sloping bottom and is one of the largest shelves in the world. This study describes the wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in the Yucatan shelf, which is forced by easterly winds throughout the year. Data obtained from hydrographic surveys, acoustic current profilers and environmental satellites are used in the analysis. Hydrographic data was analyzed and geostrophic currents were calculated in each survey. In addition an analytical model was applied to reproduce the currents. The results of a general circulation model were used with an empirical orthogonal function analysis to study the variability of the currents. The study area is divided in two regions: from the 40 m to the 200 m isobaths (outer shelf) and from the coast to the 40 m isobath (inner shelf). At the outer shelf, observations revealed upwelling events throughout the year, and a westward current with velocities of approximately 0.2 m s-1 was calculated from the numerical model output and hydrographic data. In addition, the theory developed by Pedlosky (2007) for a stratified fluid along a sloping bottom adequately explains the current's primary characteristics. The momentum of the current comes from the wind, and the stratification is an important factor in its dynamics. At the inner shelf, observations and numerical model output show a wind-driven westward current with maximum velocities of 0.20 m s-1. The momentum balance in this region is between local acceleration and friction. A cold-water band is developed during the period of maximum upwelling.

  2. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  3. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) F2 population segregation for improving shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H

    2013-02-27

    Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.

  4. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    CERN Document Server

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  5. 26 CFR 1.638-1 - Continental Shelf areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Continental Shelf areas. 1.638-1 Section 1.638-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Continental Shelf Areas § 1.638-1 Continental Shelf areas. (a) General rule. For.... The terms Continental Shelf of the United States and Continental Shelf of a possession of the United...

  6. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  7. The geochemical similarity of Oligocene and recent phosphorites from the Chiatura deposit (Georgia) and the Namibian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, G. N.; Zhegallo, E. A.; Shkolnik, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed studies of the distribution of macro- and microelements in phosphorites associated with Oligocene manganese ores of the Chiatura deposit revealed their geochemical similarity to the Late Quaternary phosphorites on the recent shelf of Namibia in the Atlantic Ocean. This shows that the Chiatura nodular phosphorites were formed in the shallow-water bioproductive zone of the Oligocene basin by biogenic supply of phosphorus onto the bottom and its subsequent diagenetic concentrating similarly to the granular-nodular phosphorites on the shelf of the recent ocean. The Chiatura phosphorites were later subjected to the epigenetic impact of hydrogeological processes, which modified the initial composition of the contained rareearth elements.

  8. Multibeam mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Dartnell, Peter; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama City, Florida (Figure 1). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama are found in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957; Gardner et al., 2001, in press) and were the focus of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2000, Gardner et al., 2001, in press). If this deep-water-reef trend does exist along the northwestern Florida shelf, then it is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology and reef type that occur because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. Georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry is a fundamental first step in the study of areas suspected to be critical habitats. Morphology is thought to be critical to defining the distribution of dominant demersal plankton/planktivores communities. Fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have been relatively ignored. The ecology of deep-water ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatypic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web in ahermatypic reefs. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Thus, one of the principle uses of the morphology data will be to identify whether any reefs found are hermatypic or ahermatypic in origin.

  9. The last glaciation and deglaciation of the Northeast Greenland continental shelf revealed by hydro-acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jan Erik; Jokat, Wilfried; Dorschel, Boris

    2017-03-01

    About 16% of the Greenland Ice Sheet drains in the area of the Northeast Greenland shelf between 76°N and 80.5°N via marine terminating glaciers. Most of it is via the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream, the largest ice stream of Greenland. During ice ages, the ice sheet extended onto the continental shelf and modern-day cross-shelf troughs were filled by ice streams. In this study, high-resolution hydro-acoustic data acquired during three decades of research were jointly investigated to reveal the past glacial conditions. Our data shows that Westwind Trough and Norske Trough were filled by fast flowing ice streams that extended to the shelf edge during the last glacial maximum. In between the cross-shelf troughs, ice domes resided on shallow banks that may have contributed about a decimetre to global sea level. Most probably these ice domes initiated fast ice flow through sinks in the inter-trough area. In Westwind Trough, ice sheet retreat to the inner shelf after the last glacial maximum was intermittent. In contrast, in Norske Trough the ice sheet retreat appears relatively rapid with no evidences for phases of grounding line stabilization. Probably during the Younger Dryas, the ice sheet readvanced to a mid-shelf position in both troughs documented by grounding zone wedges. During this time, a thick ice shelf was present in Norske Trough releasing tabular icebergs. Ice sheet retreat from the mid-shelf to the coastline during Holocene deglaciation was rapid.

  10. Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency at the Greenland shelf edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P.A

    1999-01-01

    Tidal analysis was carried out on current measurements at a 'cross-shelf' transect off Greenland at 71°N. The diurnal tides manifest themselves mainly as a barotropic continental shelf wave, travelling southward along the shelf slope. This follows from the amplitude distribution of the diurnal tidal

  11. Sponges of the Guyana Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Soest, Rob W M

    2017-01-12

    Sponges collected on the Guyana Shelf, predominantly in Suriname offshore waters, by Dutch HMS 'Snellius' O.C.P.S. 1966, HMS 'Luymes' O.C.P.S. II 1969, and HMS 'Luymes' Guyana Shelf 1970 expeditions are described in this study. Sponges were obtained by trawling, dredging or grabbing on sandy, muddy, shelly, and fossil reef bottoms at 88 stations between 19 and 681 m depth. A total of 351 samples were identified to species level, each consisting of one or more specimens of a given species from each individual station (together comprising 547 individuals and fragments). The collection yielded 119 species together belonging to all sponge classes, but in large majority are Demospongiae. All species are identified to species level, occasionally tentatively, and all are described and illustrated. A new subgenus is proposed, Tedania (Stylotedania) subgen. nov. and a previously synonymized genus, Tylosigma Topsent, 1894 is revived. Thirtysix species were found to be new to science, excluding the first Central West Atlantic record of the genus Halicnemia, not named at the species level because of lack of sufficient material. The new species erected are, in alphabetical order: Amphoriscus ancora sp. nov., Biemna rhabdotylostylota sp. nov., Callyspongia (Callyspongia) scutica sp. nov., Chelonaplysilla americana sp. nov., Cladocroce guyanensis sp. nov., Clathria (Axosuberites) riosae sp. nov., Clathria (Clathria) gomezae sp. nov., Clathria (Microciona) snelliusae sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) complanata sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) zeai sp. nov., Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) lissodendoryxoides sp. nov., Craniella crustocorticata sp. nov., Diplastrella spirastrelloides sp. nov., Epipolasis tubulata sp. nov., Erylus rhabdocoronatus sp. nov., Erylus surinamensis sp. nov., Geodia pocillum sp. nov., Geodia sulcata sp. nov., Hemiasterella camelus sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Stylopus) alcoladoi sp. nov., Hymenancora cristoboi sp. nov., Penares sineastra sp. nov., Hymerhabdia kobluki sp

  12. Shallow marine sedimentation within an active margin basin, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrie, Duncan

    1989-06-01

    The Santa Marta Formation exposed on northern James Ross Island, Antarctica, represents shallow marine shelf sedimentation within an active margin basin. The formation is approximately 1000 m thick, is of uppermost Santonian to Campanian age and represents part of a 5000-6000 m thick sedimentary sequence forming the Larsen Basin. The Larsen Basin represents either a back-arc basin, or a half-graben basin, developed on the extending margin of the Weddell Sea. Twelve sedimentary facies have been recognised, which can be subdivided into two groups: those which are controlled by shelf processes and those which are related to active arc volcanism. Background shelf processes include fair-weather suspension sedimentation, storm sands and rare tidal current reworking. Active arc processes include direct settling of airfall detritus and rapid resedimentation of volcaniclastic detritus by sandy debris-flows and both high- and low-concentration turbidity currents. In addition sheet conglomerates represent debris flows that evolved from syn-sedimentary slumps. Two facies associations representing a mid to outer shelf and an inner shelf depositional setting respectively can be distinguished, with an apparent regression in the ?mid to late Campanian.

  13. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  14. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  15. An introductory perspective on non-tropical shelf carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Campbell S.

    1988-11-01

    This brief account introduces the topic of non-tropical shelf carbonate deposits, both modern and ancient, specific aspects of which are described and discussed in the 22 accompanying papers in this Special Issue of Sedimentary Geology. "Non-tropical" shelves are loosely defined as lying poleward of the present limit of development of hermatypic coral reefs, or beyond the mean annual surface-water isotherm of about 20°C, typically near 30° latitude. Most geoscientists have traditionally regarded shallow-water carbonate formation as a low-latitude phenomenon. However, wherever the rate and extent of terrigenous sediment dilution is small, the potential exists for extensive deposits of skeletal carbonate to accumulate on shelves beyond the (sub)tropics. The facies attributes of the modern non-tropical carbonates are distinctive and contrast significantly with the structural, lithological, faunal, floral, mineralogical and diagenetic character of their tropical counterparts. In the rock record, non-tropical limestones probably occur throughout the Phanerozoic, but generally remain to be identified and/or interpreted as such. They are presently described mainly from the Ordovician, Permian and Tertiary-Quaternary, periods of major continental glaciations and accentuated latitudinal thermal gradients. A uniformitarian approach to the recognition and interpretation of ancient shallow-marine limestones requires acceptance of both tropical and non-tropical carbonate facies models.

  16. Meteotsunami disintegration and soliton forerunners on Atchafalaya shelf, Lousiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Alex; Gravois, Uriah; Shrira, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Field observations collected on the Atcahfalaya shelf in 2008 captured in high detail the shoaling evolution of a meteotsunami, including its disintegration into a undular bore. One of the intriguing elements of this process is a spectacular 1.5-m solitary-wave (soliton) forerunner, that precedes the arrival of the meteotsunami by approximately 5 min, reaching the observation site propagating through relatively calm waters (a wave field of approximately 20-cm height). The source of the meteotsunami is identified as a squall line associated with a strong atmospheric perturbation. An inverse ray method used to estimate the meteotsunami path suggests that the meteotsunami propagated as a trapped wave, originating in shallow water and ending in shallow water. The process of the generation of the soliton forerunner is investigated using the variable-coefficient KdV equation first proposed by Ostrovsky and Pelinovsky (1975). Numerical scenarios indicate that the soliton is the product of the collision of a shoaling "multiple-bump" tsunami structure. Given the natural irregularities of the generation mechanism of the meteotsunami, this suggests that such solitary-wave foreunners might be more common than expected. Ostrovsky L.A., and E.N. Pelinovsky (1975). Refraction of nonlinear ocean waves in a beach zone. Izv Atmos Ocean Phys 11, 37-41.

  17. Influence of Late Paleozoic Gondwana glaciations on the depositional evolution of the northern Pangean shelf, North Greenland, Svalbard and the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemmerik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    fluctuations linked to the 100 k.y. Milankovitch cycle. The stratigraphic distribution of subaerial exposure surfaces indicates that during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time, the northern Pangea shelf repeatedly changed from being a shallow subtropical carbonate platform to a vast subaerially exposed...

  18. Holocene marine tephrochronology on the Iceland shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guomundsdottir, Esther Ruth; Eiriksson, Jón; Larsen, Guorun

    2012-01-01

    Currently the Late-glacial and Holocene marine tephrochronology on the shelf around Iceland comprises 130 tephra layers from 30 sediment cores ranging in age from 15,000 years cal. BP to AD 1947. A vast majority of the cores and tephra layers are from the North Iceland shelf Much fewer tephra...... layers have been found on the South and West Iceland shell The early Holocene Saksunarvatn ash and Vedde Ash are the only tephra layers identified on all investigated shelf areas. For the last 15,000 years correlated tephra layers from the shelf sediments around Iceland to their terrestrial counterparts...... both in Iceland and overseas are 40 of which 26 are terrestrially dated tephra markers. Thirty correlations are within the last 7050 years. The terrestrially dated tephra markers found on the shelf have been used to constrain past environmental variability in the region, as well as marine reservoir age...

  19. THE EVALUATION OF THE GEOCHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT QUALITY OF SHALLOW UNDERGROUND WATER IN EAST SHANDONG PROVINCE%山东省东部地区浅层地下水地球化学特征及环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代杰瑞; 王存龙; 庞绪贵; 曾宪东; 陈磊; 郑伟军

    2012-01-01

    Geochemical characteristics of 29 elements or indicators which had been analyzed and tested were studied in this paper on the basis of the shallow groundwater data obtained from the agro-ecological geochemical survey in eastern Shandong Province, the results show that several indicators ( such as Mo, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cl- , NO2- and total hardness) in the shallow groundwater of the study area have changed significantly, which has led to the deterioration of local groundwater quality. Other indicators have changed relatively insignificantly and are evenly distributed in the shallow groundwater. In the light of the Quality Standard for Groundwater and Standards for Drinking Water Quality, the authors made single factor and integrated environmental quality evaluation of local shallow groundwater. The results show that the area of shallow groundwater unsuitable for direct drinking accounts for 44. 88% , the integrated environmental quality is relatively poor, groundwater pollution occurs in such areas as major cities, industrial and mining enterprises as well as their surrounding districts. Single indicator groundwater pollution assumes point-like or linear distribution, the exceesive indicators include total hardness, total dissolved solids, potassium permanganate index, NO2- , Cl- , F- , Mn, Fe etc. The studies were focused on the formation mechanism of high-density fluorosis in shallow groundwater, and the result provides a basis for prevention and treatment of fluorosis in the study area.%以山东省东部地区农业生态地球化学调查中浅层地下水数据为基础,对分析测试的29项指标的地球化学特征进行了研究.调查区浅层地下水中,Mo、Pb、Mn、Fe、Cl-、NO2-、总硬度等含量变化较大,导致局部水质变差;其他指标含量变化较小,在浅层地下水中分布均匀.参照我国地下水质量标准和生活饮用水质量标准,对本区浅层地下水进行了单因子与综合环境质量评价,该

  20. Ecological assessment of a coastal shallow lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a coastal shallow lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria: A bio-indicator approach. ... at using benthic macro-invertebrates to assess the water quality of this part of the Lagoon. ... and regulatory framework for sustainable management of Lagos Lagoon ...

  1. Determinants of biodiversity in subtropical shallow lakes (Atlantic coast, Uruguay)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruk, C.; Rodriguez-Gallego, L.; Meerhoff, M.; Quintans, F.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Scasso, F.; Paggi, J.C.; Peeters, E.; Marten, S.

    2009-01-01

    P> Shallow lakes and ponds contribute disproportionally to species richness relative to other aquatic ecosystems. In-lake conditions (e.g. presence of submerged plants) seem to play a key role in determining diversity, as has been demonstrated for temperate lakes. When water quality deteriorates

  2. C²SLDS: a WSN-based perishable food shelf-life prediction and LSFO strategy decision support system in cold chain logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Lin; Xu, Mark; Fu, Zetian; Mira, Trebar; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-01-01

    Temperature monitoring, shelf-life visibility and Least Shelf-life First Out (LSFO) stock strategy are important contents in perishable food cold chain logistics for both cold chain managers and workers in order to reduce quality and economic losses. This paper illustrates a wireless sensor network (WSN) based integrated Cold Chain Shelf Life Decision Support System (C²SLDS) designed for perishable food product cold chain management. The system is implemented based on the WSN and time tempera...

  3. Depositional architecture and evolution of inner shelf to shelf edge delta systems since the Late Oliocene and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change, Pear River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; liu, Jingyan; Jiang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The Pear River Mouth Basin is located in the northern continent margin of the South China Sea. Since the Late Oligocene, the long-term active fluvial systems (Paleo-Zhujiang) from the western basin margin bebouched into the northern continental margin of the South China Sea and formed widespread deltaic deposits in various depositional geomorphologies and tectonic settings. Based of integral analysys of abundant seismic, well logging and drilling core data, Depositional architecture and evolution of these delta systems and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change are documented in the study. There are two basic types of the delta systems which have been recognized: inner shelf delta deposited in shallow water enviroments and the outer shelf or shelf-edge delta systems occurred in deep water settings. The paleowater depths of these delta systems are around 30 to 80m (inner shelf delta) and 400-1000m (shelf-edge delta) estimated from the thickness (decompaction) of the delta front sequences. The study shows that the inner shelf delta systems are characterized by relatively thin delta forests (20-40m), numereous stacked distributary channel fills, relative coarse river mouth bar deposits and thin distal delta front or distal bar and prodelta deposits. In contrast, the outer shelf or shelf edge delta systems are characteristic of thick (300-800m) and steep (4-60) of deltaic clinoforms, which commonly display in 3D seismic profiles as "S" shape reflection. Large scale soft-sediment deformation structures, slump or debris flow deposits consisting mainly of soft-sediment deformed beds, blocks of sandstones and siltstones or mudstones widely developed in the delta front deposits. The shelf edge delta systems are typically associated with sandy turbidite fan deposits along the prodelta slopes, which may shift basinwards as the progradation of the delta systems. The delta systems underwent several regional cycles of evolution from inner shelf deltas to shelf edge

  4. Model of inner shelf shoal development, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, P.; Nummedal, D.; Reimnitz, E.

    1985-01-01

    At least two types of inner shelf shoals exist in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. One type is located up to 40 km from the shoreline in an average water depth of 20m and oriented obliquely to the coast. A second type of shoals occur adjacent to existing barrier islands where minimum water depth over the shoal crest may be as little as 30-50cm. The development of shallow water shoals is believed to be a result of barrier island submergence. Dinkum Sands is an example of a shallow water shoal. This linear sand body is located between Cross and Narwhal Islands, 25km northeast of Prudhoe Bay. The shoal complex is 8 km long and less than 2 km wide and has a maximum relief of 5m. Historical data reveal submergence of an island over at least a 25 year period. The proposed initial stage of shoal development occurs when longshore sediment transport between barrier islands is disrupted by numerous events of downdrift tidal inlet breaching. Reduction in the amount of available sediment to each island results in significant coastal erosion (stage 2), manifest as a landward migration of the shoreline and a reduction in barrier elevation. The final stage of the model is barrier submergence. At present the greatest accumulation of sediment on Dinkum Sands occur at the distal extremities of the shoal. These are believed to represent the location of recurved spits at either end of the island prior to submergence. Application of the submergence model to explain deepwater shoal development must await the collection of shallow (10m) whole core data.

  5. Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States: Battling the Good Guys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Jan J.; Verhofstad, Michiel J. J. M.; Louwers, Evelien; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Brederveld, Robert J.; van Gerven, Luuk P. A.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2017-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable

  6. Pennsylvanian carbonate buildups, Paradox basin: Increasing reserves in heterogeneous, shallow-shelf reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Chidsey, T.C.; Eby, D.E.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.

  7. Shallow seismic studies on the inner continental shelf off selected bays, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    .g., Ratnagiri bay). Methods Atlas Deso 10, a dual frequency (30-210 kHz) echosounder was deployed for recording the bathymetry. The echosounder was calibrated and adjusted by lowering a bar to a set depth below the side-mounted transducer and adjust- ing...

  8. Impact of urbanization coupled with drought situations on groundwater quality in shallow (basalt) and deeper (granite) aquifers with special reference to fluoride in Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation, Nanded District, Maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Madhnure; Kaplay, R D; Potdar, S S; Sangnor, H; Rao, A D

    2017-09-01

    Rapid expansion in urbanization and industrialization coupled with recent drought conditions has triggered unplanned groundwater development leading to severe stress on groundwater resources in many urban cities of India, particularly cities like Nanded, Maharashtra. In the quest of tapping drinking water requirement, due to recent drought conditions, people from the city are piercing through entire thickness of shallow basalt aquifers to reach productive deeper granite aquifers. Earlier reports from Nanded and surrounding districts suggest that deeper granite aquifer is contaminated with fluoride (geogenic). The study aimed to find out variations in fluoride concentration in shallow basalt (10-167 m) and deeper granite aquifers (below 167 m) and to find out the relationship between fluoride and other ions. Study suggests that concentration of fluoride in shallow basalt aquifer is within maximum permissible limits of Bureau of Indian Standards and deeper granite aquifer contains as high as 4.9 mg/l of fluoride and all samples from granite aquifers are unfit for human consumption. The groundwater from basalt aquifer is mainly Ca-HCO3-Cl type, and from granite aquifer, it is Ca-Na-Cl type. The correlation plot between F(-) vs. pH, Na(+) and HCO3(-) shows a positive correlation and an inverse relationship with Ca(2+) in both aquifers. As recommendations, it is suggested that granite aquifers should not be tapped for drinking purposes; however, in drought situations, water from this aquifer should be blended with treated surface water before supplying for drinking purposes. Efforts may be made to utilize 1.35 MCM of rainwater from available rooftop, which is sufficient to cater for the needs of ~40,800 people annually. Most effective defluoridation techniques like electrolytic de-fluoridation (EDF), ion exchange and reverse osmosis may be adopted along with integrated fluorosis mitigation measures.

  9. SHALLOW GROUNDWATER USE BY ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One proposal for drainage water disposal is to reuse drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant crops until the volume has been reduced sufficiently to enable final disposal by evaporation. Part of this concept of serial biological concentration requires in-situ crop water reuse from shallow gr...

  10. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving t

  11. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving

  12. Mapping and classifying the seabed of the West Greenland continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, S.; Kemp, K. M.; Blicher, M. E.; Yesson, C.

    2017-03-01

    Marine benthic habitats support a diversity of marine organisms that are both economically and intrinsically valuable. Our knowledge of the distribution of these habitats is largely incomplete, particularly in deeper water and at higher latitudes. The western continental shelf of Greenland is one example of a deep (more than 500 m) Arctic region with limited information available. This study uses an adaptation of the EUNIS seabed classification scheme to document benthic habitats in the region of the West Greenland shrimp trawl fishery from 60°N to 72°N in depths of 61-725 m. More than 2000 images collected at 224 stations between 2011 and 2015 were grouped into 7 habitat classes. A classification model was developed using environmental proxies to make habitat predictions for the entire western shelf (200-700 m below 72°N). The spatial distribution of habitats correlates with temperature and latitude. Muddy sediments appear in northern and colder areas whereas sandy and rocky areas dominate in the south. Southern regions are also warmer and have stronger currents. The Mud habitat is the most widespread, covering around a third of the study area. There is a general pattern that deep channels and basins are dominated by muddy sediments, many of which are fed by glacial sedimentation and outlets from fjords, while shallow banks and shelf have a mix of more complex habitats. This first habitat classification map of the West Greenland shelf will be a useful tool for researchers, management and conservationists.

  13. A vertically integrated treatment of ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2014-04-01

    The extremely small vertical shear in ice stream and ice shelf flow simplifies the equations, which govern their thermodynamic evolution. Complemented by the widely used shallow shelf approximation used to simplify the ice flow momentum balance, a vertically integrated formulation of heat transfer presented here reduces the dimensionality of the thermodynamic problem from three to two (plan view) dimensions and thus significantly reduces the computational cost of treating ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics in models. For realistic conditions, errors in ice stiffness parameter, ice thickness, and speed caused by the vertically integrated treatment of heat transfer are less than 5% of magnitudes of these values compared to the standard three-dimensional thermomechanical computations. In addition, for the specific case of ice shelves with strong bottom melting, the governing equation describing evolution of the vertically integrated ice stiffness parameter is derived, which further reduces computational cost. The presented error analysis and formulations of ice stream and ice shelf thermodynamics in terms of the vertically integrated temperature allow the thermodynamic effects on ice deformation to be easily incorporated into studies that traditionally disregard them.

  14. Sunda Shelf Seas: flushing rates and residence times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mayer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The region of the Sunda Shelf has an average depth of approx. 48 m and is subject to many physical and biogeochemical processes with a strong impact from human activities. For the investigation of marine environmental water properties and quality, it is helpful to have an idea about exchange rates of water masses in the different parts of this region. Four numerical models, the global hydrodynamical model MPI-OM, the global hydrological model MPI-HM, the regional hydrodynamical model HAMSOM and a Lagrangian tracer model have been utilized to estimate the flushing rates and residence times in different seas on the Sunda Shelf. Using decadal averaged monthly transports, the commonly used flushing rate formula gives rates for the different months of approximately 40 to 70 days for the entire Sunda Shelf. For most parts of it (Malacca Strait, southern South China Sea, Java Sea, the results are similar, while for the Gulf of Thailand, the flushing rates amount to 80 to 170 days. The tracer model provides quite different but very detailed 3-D pictures with residence times of below 30 days to more than two years, depending on the location within the region, on the starting layer and on the season.

  15. Shelf-life prediction of canned "nasi uduk" using accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT) - Arrhenius model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Salam, Nur; Kusumaningrum, Annisa; Nursiwi, Asri; Angwar, Mukhamad; Susanto, Agus; Nurhikmat, Asep; Triwiyono, Frediansyah, Andri

    2017-01-01

    "Nasi Uduk" is one of the Indonesian traditional food made from rice, steamed with coconut milk and seasoning. For optimizing shelf-life, canned "nasi uduk" for military and disaster-response ration, was packed using cylindrical cans of 72,63 × 53,04 mm (Ø × h) in size. One of the important aspects on quality assessment of preserved product was its rancidity. The aim of this research was to determine shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" using ASLT method of Arrhenius model. Storage temperatures set up at 35, 45 and 55°C for 35 days. Optimization of sterilization process was conducted to achieve the optimum conditions of sterilization. Target lethality value (Fo), microorganism total plate count (TPC) and rancidity levels (TBA) were used as parameters in this research. The results showed that the optimum sterilization conditions were 121 °C for 20 minutes, TPC value of 9.5 × 101 CFU/ml and Fo value 4.14 minutes. Predicted shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" was 9.6 months which was average TBA value still bellow of the critical point.

  16. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  17. Near-inertial ocean response to tropical cyclone forcing on the Australian North-West Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayson, M. D.; Ivey, G. N.; Jones, N. L.; Lowe, R. J.; Wake, G. W.; McConochie, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied to the Australian North-West Shelf (NWS) to hindcast the ocean response to four intense historical tropical cyclones (TCs). While the four cyclones had very different trajectories across the NWS, all passed within 150 km of a long-term vertical mooring located on the continental shelf in 125 m depth. The observed ocean response at this relatively shallow, Southern Hemisphere shelf site was characterized by the development of a peak in the counter-clockwise (CCW) near-inertial kinetic energy, mixed layer deepening, and subsequent restratification. Strong near-inertial isotherm oscillations were also observed following two of the cyclones. ROMS reproduced these features and also showed that the peak in the near-inertial CCW kinetic energy was observed on the left side of each cyclone trajectory. The time rate of change of near-inertial kinetic energy depended strongly on the storm Rossby number, i.e., defined based on the storm speed, the storm length scale, and the Coriolis frequency. The shallow water depth on the NWS resulted in first, a more rapid decay of near-inertial oscillations than in the deep ocean, and second a generation efficiency (the ratio of near-inertial power to the rate of wind work) of up to 10%, smaller than found for cyclones propagating across deeper water. The total energy put into near-inertial motions is nevertheless large compared to the background tidal energy. The rapid decay of near-inertial motions emphasizes the importance of frictional effects in characterizing the response to cyclone forcing in shallow seas.

  18. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    % of shelf waters, were moved into the deep-sea region, respectively. Due to the high intensity of cross-shelf exchanges, the average renewal time for the NW shelf in the Black Sea was only 28 days in the summer of 2005 (Zhou et al. 2014). Mechanism 3: exchanges due to assisted cascading. Using the model run for 2003 as an example, we examine the fate of the tracer after 5.5 months of model integration. At 100m depth we identify four anti-cyclonic eddies: two eddies west of the Crimea peninsula, one north of Sinop and one west of Batumi. These eddies can be seen to assist cascading into the basin interior of cold waters formed on a shallow NW shelf to a depth greater than at which they were originally formed. The important result is that for many of the 24 studied years a significant proportion of dense shelf water does not cascade locally off the NW shelf, but is transported by the Rim Current over hundreds of kilometres before cascading into the deep basin in the southern and southeastern Black Sea. This work has been supported by EU FP7 PERSEUS, EU H2020 Sea Basin checkpoints Lot4 - Black Sea and a number of Chinese and Russian national projects. References Zhou, F., G. I. Shapiro, and F. Wobus, 2014: Cross-shelf exchange in the northwestern Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119, 2143-2164.

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27.205 Section 101-27.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  20. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  1. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  2. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  3. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  4. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, R.; Watts, M. F.; Plested, M. E.

    2002-03-01

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications.

  5. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, S. (Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)); Behera, A.K. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-08-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants.

  6. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  7. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Grabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  8. Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Han

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS and the South China Sea (SCS are two major marginal seas of the north Pacific with distinct seasonal primary productivity. Based upon field observation in December 2008–January 2009 covering both the ECS and the northern SCS (NSCS in wintertime, we examined southward long-range nutrient-transport from the ECS to the northeast SCS (NESCS carried by the China Coastal Current (CCC driven by the northeast prevailing monsoon. These nutrients escaped from the cold ECS shelf to refuel the primary production on the NESCS shelf where river-sourced nutrients were limited yet water temperature remained favorable. By coupling the field observation of nitrate + nitrite (DIN with the volume transport of the CCC, we derived a first order estimate of DIN flux of ~ 1430 ± 260 mol s−1. This DIN flux was ~ 7 times the wintertime DIN input from the Pearl River, a primary riverine nutrient source to the NSCS. By assuming DIN was the limiting nutrient, such southward DIN transport would have stimulated ~ 8.8 ± 1.6 × 1011 gC of new production (NP, accounting for ~ > 58 ± 10% of the total NP or ~ 38 ± 7–24 ± 4% of primary production on the NESCS shelf shallower than 100 m.

  9. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend Visby;

    2011-01-01

    to retreat ca 16 ka to 10.3 cal ka BP before the final break-up, which took place ca 10.1 cal ka BP probably as a combined result of increased inflow of warm Atlantic water through the Fram Strait, a shallower halocline and higher summer temperatures, corresponding to orbital maximum solar insolation...... at this time. The existence of extensive shelf-based ice north of Greenland provides an important contribution to the understanding of the LGM glaciation history of the Arctic Ocean....

  10. Geology and geochemistry of gas-charged sediment on Kodiak Shelf, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, M.A.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Methane concentrations in some sediment cores from the Kodiak Shelf and adjacent continental slope increase with depth by three or four orders of magnitude and exceed the solubility in water at ambient conditions. Acoustic anomalies in seismic-reflection records imply that methane-rich sediment is widespread. Molecular composition of hydrocarbon gases and isotopic composition of methane indicate gas formation by shallow biogenic processes. Stratigraphic positions of acoustic anomalies in Quaternary glacial and posttransgressive sediments suggest that these units are likely sources of gas. A seep along the extension of a fault may be gas venting from a deeper thermogenic source. ?? 1981 A.M. Dowden, Inc.

  11. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  12. Alternative Attractors of Shallow Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and shallow lakes can be very clear with abundant submerged plants, or very turbid due to a high concentration of phytoplankton and suspended sediment particles. These strongly contrasting ecosystem states have been found to represent alternative attractors with distinct stabilizing feedback mechanisms. In the turbid state, the development of submerged vegetation is prevented by low underwater light levels. The unprotected sediment frequently is resuspended by wave action and by fish searching for food causing a further decrease of transparency. Since there are no plants that could serve as refuges, zooplankton is grazed down by fish to densities insufficient to control algal blooms. In contrast, the clear state in eutrophic shallow lakes is dominated by aquatic macrophytes. The submerged macrophytes prevent sediment resuspension, take up nutrients from the water, and provide a refuge for zooplankton against fish predation. These processes buffer the impacts of increased nutrient loads until they become too high. Consequently, the response of shallow lakes to eutrophication tends to be catastrophic rather than smooth, and various lakes switch back and forth abruptly between a clear and a turbid state repeatedly without obvious external forcing. Importantly, a switch from a turbid to a stable clear state often can be invoked by means of biomanipulation in the form of a temporary reduction of the fish stock.

  13. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  14. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics. PMID:24797134

  15. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2014-06-13

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics.

  16. Comparison of Shallow Survey 2012 Multibeam Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Shallow Survey common dataset is a comparison of the different technologies utilized for data acquisition in the shallow survey marine environment. The common dataset consists of a series of surveys conducted over a common area of seabed using a variety of systems. It provides equipment manufacturers the opportunity to showcase their latest systems while giving hydrographic researchers and scientists a chance to test their latest algorithms on the dataset so that rigorous comparisons can be made. Five companies collected data for the Common Dataset in the Wellington Harbor area in New Zealand between May 2010 and May 2011; including Kongsberg, Reson, R2Sonic, GeoAcoustics, and Applied Acoustics. The Wellington harbor and surrounding coastal area was selected since it has a number of well-defined features, including the HMNZS South Seas and HMNZS Wellington wrecks, an armored seawall constructed of Tetrapods and Akmons, aquifers, wharves and marinas. The seabed inside the harbor basin is largely fine-grained sediment, with gravel and reefs around the coast. The area outside the harbor on the southern coast is an active environment, with moving sand and exposed reefs. A marine reserve is also in this area. For consistency between datasets, the coastal research vessel R/V Ikatere and crew were used for all surveys conducted for the common dataset. Using Triton's Perspective processing software multibeam datasets collected for the Shallow Survey were processed for detail analysis. Datasets from each sonar manufacturer were processed using the CUBE algorithm developed by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC). Each dataset was gridded at 0.5 and 1.0 meter resolutions for cross comparison and compliance with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) requirements. Detailed comparisons were made of equipment specifications (transmit frequency, number of beams, beam width), data density, total uncertainty, and

  17. Ichnofabric analysis of the Tithonian shallow marine sediments (Bhadasar Formation) Jaisalmer Basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhawanisingh G Desai; Rajendra Dutt Saklani

    2014-08-01

    The shallow marine sedimentary sequence of the Jaisalmer Basin exhibits one of the important and well-developed Tithonian sedimentary outcrops for western India. The ichnology and ichnofabric of the lower part of Bhadasar Formation (i.e., Kolar Dongar Member) belonging to Tithonian age are presented and discussed. The Kolar Dongar Member represents a shallow marine succession that contains 16 ichnotaxa: Ancorichnus ancorichnus, Conichnus conicus, Gyrochorte comosa, cf. Jamesonichnites heinbergi, Imponoglyphus kevadiensis, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Monocraterion tentaculatum, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Palaeophycus tubularis, P. bolbiterminus, Phycodes palmatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Rhizocorallium isp., Rosselia rotatus, R. socialis, and Teichichnus rectus. The ichnofabric analysis divulges five distinct ichnofabrics, each typifying distinct depositional environment within shallow marine conditions. The ichnofabric Ophiomorpha 1 with syn-sedimentary faulting exemplifies high energy conditions typical of lower shoreface environment, whereas the Ophiomorpha 2 ichnofabric typifies upper shoreface environment. The Ancorichnus ichnofabric reflects lower offshore condition of deposition. The high ichnodiversity Ancorichnus–Rosselia ichnofabric is indicative of inner shelf conditions, while low ichno-diversity Teichichnus ichnofabric indicates prevalence of low energy brackish bay environment. Thus, Tithonian Kolar Dongar Member indicates depositional environment ranging from shoreface to offshore to inner shelf and finally to brackish bay environment.

  18. The geological record preserved by Amazon shelf sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Charles A.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Allison, Mead A.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Rine, James M.; Faria, L. Ercilio C.; Silveira, Odete M.

    A recent study of the subaqueous delta and coastal plain near the mouth of the Amazon River provides insight to the geological record created there and elsewhere. A compound clinoform structure is forming across the Amazon shelf. The uppermost portion is the shoreline, whose aggradation brings the modern sedimentary deposit to sea level and produces a deposit 5-10 m thick. It contains sediments accumulating primarily in shallow subtidal areas, intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, and progradation occurs by overlapping of northward-extending mudcapes. Through these processes, the coastal plain has been widened by 10-100 km during the Holocene. The shoreline deposits are prograding across topset strata of the modern subaqueous delta, which is the lowermost and dominant portion of the compound clinoform structure. The subaqueous delta extends to a water depth of 70 m, with a depositional break between topset and foreset strata at 30-40 m. Advective sediment input to the foreset region causes high accumulation rates, which control the geometry and progradation of the clinoform structure. On time scales of 10 2-10 3 y, physical processes (e.g. waves, currents) have changed and the upper portions of the coastal plain and subaqueous delta have been eroded. One expression of this is a widespread unconformity recorded within late Holocene strata on the inner shelf. Over longer time scales (10 3-10 4 y) sea-level changes have led to more extensive erosion and only the lower 20 m of the compound clinoform structure is preserved, overlain by a transgressive sand layer. On other continental margins with different regional characteristics (e.g. more rapid subsidence) larger fractions of the clinoform structures could be preserved.

  19. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moura Dos Reis

    Full Text Available The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  20. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Vanessa Moura; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013–2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future. PMID:27119151

  1. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Vanessa Moura Dos; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  2. Ice-shelf – ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica from oxygen isotope ratio measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Nicholls

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Melt water from the floating ice shelves at the margins of the southeastern Weddell Sea makes a significant contribution to the fresh water budget of the region. In February 2005 a multi-institution team conducted an oceanographic campaign at Fimbul Ice Shelf on the Greenwich Meridian as part of the Autosub Under Ice programme. This included a mission of the autonomous submarine Autosub 25 km into the cavity beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf, and a number of ship-based hydrographic sections on the continental shelf and adjacent to the ice shelf front. The measurements reveal two significant sources of glacial melt water at Fimbul Ice Shelf: the main cavity under the ice shelf and an ice tongue that protrudes from the main ice front and out over the continental slope into deep water. Glacial melt water is concentrated in a 200 m thick Ice Shelf Water (ISW layer below the base of the ice shelf at 150–200 m, with a maximum glacial melt concentration of up to 1.16%. Some glacial melt is found throughout the water column, and much of this is from sources other than Fimbul Ice Shelf. However, at least 0.2% of the water in the ISW layer cannot be accounted for by other processes and must have been contributed by the ice shelf. Just downstream of Fimbul Ice Shelf we observe locally created ISW mixing out across the continental slope. The ISW formed here is much less dense than that formed in the southwest Weddell Sea, and will ultimately contribute a freshening (and reduction in δ18O to the upper 100–150 m of the water column in the southeast Weddell Sea.

  3. Ice-shelf – ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica from oxygen isotope ratio measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Nicholls

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Melt water from the floating ice shelves at the margins of the southeastern Weddell Sea makes a significant contribution to the fresh water budget of the region. In February 2005 a multi-institution team conducted an oceanographic campaign at Fimbul Ice Shelf on the Greenwich Meridian as part of the Autosub Under Ice programme. This included a mission of the autonomous submarine Autosub 25 km into the cavity beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf, and a number of ship-based hydrographic sections on the continental shelf and adjacent to the ice shelf front. The measurements reveal two significant sources of glacial melt water at Fimbul Ice Shelf: the main cavity under the ice shelf and an ice tongue, Trolltunga, that protrudes from the main ice front and out over the continental slope into deep water. Glacial melt water is concentrated in a 200 m thick Ice Shelf Water (ISW layer below the base of the ice shelf at 150–200 m, with a maximum glacial melt concentration of up to 1.16%. Some glacial melt is found throughout the water column, and much of this is from sources other than Fimbul Ice Shelf. However, at least 0.2% of the water in the ISW layer cannot be accounted for by other processes and must have been contributed by the ice shelf. Just downstream of Fimbul Ice Shelf we observe locally created ISW mixing out across the continental slope. The ISW formed here is much less dense than that formed in the southwest Weddell Sea, and will ultimately contribute a freshening (and reduction in δ18O to the upper 100–150 m of the water column in the southeast Weddell Sea.

  4. An East Siberian ice shelf during the Late Pleistocene glaciations: Numerical reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Florence; Kirchner, Nina; Niessen, Frank; Quiquet, Aurélien; Liakka, Johan

    2016-09-01

    A recent data campaign in the East Siberian Sea has revealed evidence of grounded and floating ice dynamics in regions of up to 1000 m water depth, and which are attributed to glaciations older than the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyrs BP). The main hypothesis based on this evidence is that a small ice cap developed over Beringia and expanded over the East Siberian continental margin during some of the Late Pleistocene glaciations. Other similar evidence of ice dynamics that have been previously collected on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean have been attributed to the penultimate glaciation, i.e. Marine Isotopes Stage 6 (≈140 kyrs BP). We use an ice sheet model, forced by two previously simulated MIS 6 glacial maximum climates, to carry out a series of sensitivity experiments testing the impact of dynamics and mass-balance related parameters on the geometry of the East Siberian ice cap and ice shelf. Results show that the ice cap developing over Beringia connects to the Eurasian ice sheet in all simulations and that its volume ranges between 6 and 14 m SLE, depending on the climate forcing. This ice cap generates an ice shelf of dimensions comparable with or larger than the present-day Ross ice shelf in West Antarctica. Although the ice shelf extent strongly depends on the ice flux through the grounding line, it is particularly sensitive to the choice of the calving and basal melting parameters. Finally, inhibiting a merging of the Beringia ice cap with the Eurasian ice sheet affects the expansion of the ice shelf only in the simulations where the ice cap fluxes are not large enough to compensate for the fluxes coming from the Eurasian ice sheet.

  5. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  6. High Resolution Ice Surface of the Ross Ice Shelf: Accuracy and Links to Basal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    We use airborne laser altimetry data from IcePod and IceBridge to map the surface across the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Laser altimetry and radar data is analyzed from the IcePod 2014 and 2015 field campaigns as well as IceBridge 2013. Icepod is a multi sensor suite that includes ice penetrating radars, a swath scanning laser, visible and IR cameras as well as GPS mounted on a LC-130. Using shallow ice radar data from both IcePod and IceBridge we identify the base of the ice shelf. Across the shelf we observe distinct areas of high reflectivity in the radar data suggesting basal crevassing. In some regions, the basal reflector is not well defined. Laser altimetry profiles correlate surface morphology with features at the base including basal crevasses and marine ice formed by freezing on to the base of the ice shelf. Building Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the laser altimetry data, we investigate the relationship between the surface expressions of these ice shelf dynamics including thickness changes, potential sites of marine ice at the base and basal morphology in regions where a well defined basal reflector does not exist in the radar profiles. We present accuracy of the IcePod laser altimetry dataset using ground control points and GPS grids from Greenland and Antarctica as well as Photogrammetric DEMs. Our laser altimetry analysis resolves sub-meter surface features which, combined with coincident radar, provides a link between basal processes and their surface expressions.

  7. Extending the shelf life of flower bulbs and perennials in consumer packages by modiefied atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.; Miller, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of flower bulbs and herbaceous perennials in consumer packages declines rapidly due to sprouting and drying out. The present study was undertaken to develop Modified Atmosphere Packages (MAP) with suitable filling materials for a prolonged shelf life of different species of flower bulbs

  8. Factors controlling the quality and safety of fish using mackerel (Scomber scombrus) shelf-life model in the context of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures for The Gambian fisheries.

    OpenAIRE

    Banja, Bamba A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/769 on 06.20.2017 by CS (TIS) Food quality, including safety, is a major concern facing the food industry today. The effects of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in the fisheries sector of The Gambia including the factors affecting the safety and spoilage of fish were investigated. Effects of SPS measures are important impediments for exporting fish and fishery products originating from The Gambia to the international food commodity ...

  9. Map of Distribution of Bottom Sediments on the Continental Shelf, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kevin R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Hampton, Monty A.; Marlow, Michael S.; Barnes, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey has a long history of exploring marine geology in the Gulf of Alaska. As part of a cooperative program with other federal and state agencies, the USGS is investigating the relations between ocean-floor geology and benthic marine biohabitats. This bottom sediment map, compiled from published literature will help marine biologists develop an understanding of sea-floor geology in relation to various biological habitats. The pattern of sea-floor sedimentation and bottom morphology in the Gulf of Alaska reflects a complex interplay of regional tectonism, glacial advances and retreats, oceanic and tidal currents, waves, storms, eustatic change, and gravity-driven processes. This map, based on numerous cruises during the period of 1970-1996, shows distribution of bottom sediments in areas of study on the continental shelf. The samples were collected with piston, box, and gravity corers, and grab samplers. The interpretations of sediment distribution are the products of sediment size analyses combined with interpretations of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. The sea floor was separated into several areas as follows: Cook Inlet -- Hazards studies in this embayment emphasized sediment distribution, sediment dynamics, bedforms, shallow faults, and seafloor stability. Migrating mega-sandwaves, driven by strong tidal currents, influence seabed habitats and stability of the seafloor, especially near pipelines and drilling platforms. The coarseness of the bottom sediment reinforces the influence of the strong tidal currents on the seafloor habitats. Kodiak Shelf -- Tectonic framework studies demonstrate the development of an accretionary wedge as the Pacific Plate underthrusts the Alaskan landmass. Seismic data across the accretionary wedge reveal anomalies indicative of fluid/gas vent sites in this segment of the continental margin. Geologic hazards research shows that movement along numerous shallow faults poses a risk to sea

  10. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  11. Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency at the Greenland shelf edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Tidal analysis has been carried out on current measurements at a “cross-shelf” transect off Greenland at 71o N. The diurnal tides manifest themselves mainly as a barotropic continental shelf wave, travelling southward along the shelf slope. This follows from the amplitude distribution of the diurnal

  12. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the

  13. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the amou

  14. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  15. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  16. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the amou

  17. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 17. Geomorphology of the Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, and Influence on Ground-Water Flow in the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kirk R.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley of north-central New Mexico. This report is one in a series of reports that can be used to determine pre-mining ground-water conditions at the mine site. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The bedrock of the Taos Range surrounding the Red River is composed of Proterozoic rocks of various types, which are intruded and overlain by Oligocene volcanic rocks associated with the Questa caldera. Locally, these rocks were altered by hydrothermal activity. The alteration zones that contain sulfide minerals are particularly important because they constitute the commercial ore bodies of the region and, where exposed to weathering, form sites of rapid erosion referred to as alteration scars. Over the past thousand years, if not over the entire Holocene, erosion rates were spatially variable. Forested hillslopes eroded at about 0.04 millimeter per year, whereas alteration scars eroded at about 2.7 millimeters per year. The erosion rate of the alteration scars is unusually rapid for naturally occurring sites that have not been disturbed by humans. Watersheds containing large alteration scars delivered more sediment to the Red River Valley than the Red River could remove. Consequently, large debris fans, as much as 80 meters thick, developed within the valley. The geomorphology of the Red River Valley has had several large influences on the hydrology of the shallow alluvial aquifer, and those influences were in effect before the onset of mining within the watershed. Several reaches where alluvial ground water emerges to become Red River streamflow were observed by a tracer dilution study conducted in 2001. The aquifer narrows

  18. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  19. The wind- and wave-driven inner-shelf circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Steven J; Fewings, Melanie R

    2012-01-01

    The inner continental shelf, which spans water depths ofa few meters to tens of meters, is a dynamically defined region that lies between the surf zone (where waves break) and the middle continental shelf (where the along-shelf circulation is usually in geostrophic balance). Many types of forcing that are often neglected over the deeper shelf-such as tides, buoyant plumes, surface gravitywaves, and cross-shelfwind stress-drive substantial circulations over the inner shelf. Cross-shelf circulation over the inner shelf has ecological and geophysical consequences: It connects the shore to the open ocean by transporting pollutants, larvae, phytoplankton, nutrients, and sediment. This review of circulation and momentum balances over the inner continental shelf contrasts prior studies, which focused mainly on the roles of along-shelfwind and pressure gradients, with recent understanding of the dominant roles of cross-shelf wind and surface gravity waves.

  20. Shallow Water Tuned Liquid Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Jørgen

    researchers on TLDs termed wave breaking. A large part of the energy dissipation in the fluid is anticipated to stem from the turbulence in the vicinity of the moving hydraulic jump, and in order to verify this supposition the effect of bottom friction is included in the mathematical model. Studies reveal...... in connection with sloshing has used cumbersome, computationally expensive and somewhat outdated numerical solution schemes. We compare a state of the art, high order, shock capturing method with a simpler low order scheme and find that the simple scheme is adequate for simulating shallow water sloshing...

  1. Ecological quality assessment in the Eastern Mediterranean combining live and dead molluscan assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshno, Yael; Benjamini, Chaim; Edelman-Furstenberg, Yael

    2016-03-15

    The EU directive to quantify ecological quality by deviation from pre-impacted conditions often fails to be implemented because past information is usually incomplete or missing. Molluscan death assemblages, representing long-term accumulation of shells on the sea floor, average out short-term variability and can serve as a baseline for quality assessment. AMBI, Bentix and Shannon-Wiener indices were calculated for live and dead assemblages from polluted and control stations on the highly oligotrophic Levantine shallow shelf of Israel. Bentix successfully tracked deterioration over time, from moderate EcoQS in the dead to poor in the live assemblage. Additional modification of the ecological classification of species by scoring the naturally abundant Corbula gibba as pollution-sensitive improved the utility of the Bentix index in monitoring in this part of the Mediterranean. This adjustment of Bentix, and use of death assemblages for an ecological baseline, should therefore be incorporated in monitoring for compliance with EU directives.

  2. Sensory shelf life of dulce de leche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garitta, L; Hough, G; Sánchez, R

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the sensory cutoff points for dulce de leche (DL) critical descriptors, both for defective off-flavors and for storage changes in desirable attributes, and to estimate the shelf life of DL as a function of storage temperature. The critical descriptors used to determine the cutoff points were plastic flavor, burnt flavor, dark color, and spreadability. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cutoff point for each descriptor. To estimate shelf life, DL samples were stored at 25, 37, and 45 degrees C. Plastic flavor was the first descriptor to reach its cutoff point at 25 degrees C and was used for shelf-life calculations. Plastic flavor vs. storage time followed zero-order reaction rate. Shelf-life estimations at different temperatures were 109 d at 25 degrees C, 53 d at 37 degrees C, and 9 d at 45 degrees C. The activation energy, necessary to calculate shelf lives at different temperatures, was 14,370 +/- 2080 cal/mol.

  3. Effects of Nano-SiOx/Chitosan Complex (NSCC) on the Shelf Life and Quality of Fresh-cut Chinese Water Chestnut%纳米SiOx/壳聚糖复合物对鲜切荸荠品质和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庭巧; 罗自生; 解静

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨纳米SiOx/壳聚糖复合物(NSCC)涂膜处理对鲜切荸荠的保鲜效果,研究10℃条件下1%NSCC涂膜处理对鲜切荸荠品质和生理的影响.结果表明:NSCC可以有效延缓荸荠在贮藏过程中失水率的增加和L值的下降,对硬度和可溶性固形物含量则无显著影响,但可抑制PAL、PPO、POD的活性,延缓总酚含量和褐变指数的增加,延长鲜切荸荠的货架期.这表明1% NSCC能有效保持鲜切荸荠的品质,延缓鲜切荸荠的生理变化,显示其在鲜切荸荠保鲜上有潜在的应用价值.%In order to determine the effectiveness of nano-SiOx/chitosan complex (NSCC) coating on fresh cut Chinese water chestnut stored at 10 ℃ for 5 days, and the effect of 1% NSCC coating on quality and physiology of fresh cut Chinese water chestnut were investigated. The results indicated the weight loss and L value of fresh cut Chinese water chestnut treated by 1% NSCC coating was inhibited, while the effect on firmness and total soluble solid content were not significant. It also inhibited the phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL), polyphenol oxidase(PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, maintained lower level of BI and total phenolic content and prolonged shelf-life. The present findings suggested that NSCC treatment can maintain quality and inhibit physiology of fresh cut Chinese water chestnut, and could be used commercially to preservation in fresh cut Chinese water chestnut during storage.

  4. Amery ice shelf DEM and its marine ice distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Amery Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. A new DEM was generated for this ice shelf, using kriging to interpolate the data from ICESat altimetry and the AIS-DEM. The ice thickness distribution map is converted from the new DEM, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The Amery Ice Shelf marine ice, up to 230 m thick, is concentrated in the northwest of the ice shelf. The volume of the marine ice is 2.38×103 km3 and accounts for about 5.6% of the shelf volume.

  5. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  6. Sensory acceptability of squid rings gamma irradiated for shelf-life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of extending the shelf-life of a squid product by gamma irradiation was analyzed. Illex argentinus rings were irradiated at 4 and 8 kGy; and stored at 4±1 °C during 77 days. No mesophilic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were detected in irradiated rings during storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria were significantly reduced by irradiation; their counts were fitted to a growth model which was further used for shelf-life estimations: 3 and 27 days for 0 and 4 kGy, respectively. Initially, non-irradiated as well as irradiated rings had very good sensory scores. The overall acceptability of 4 and 8 kGy rings did not decrease during 27 and 64 days, respectively, while control samples spoiled after 3 days. A radiation dose range for squid rings preservation was defined, which attained the technological shelf-life extension objective, without impairing sensory quality.

  7. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Further studies of the nature, composition and ages of contemporary phosphorite from the Namibian Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. (Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley (UK)); Calvert, S.E.; Mukherjee, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Oceanography); Burnett, W.C. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Oceanography); Bremner, J.M. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Geology)

    1984-08-01

    Major and minor element and radiochemical data are examined for a set of phosphorite concretions and other phosphatic material from the Namibian Shelf. The concretions were separated on a morphological basis from grab samples taken in a transect of shallowing depth over the diatomaceous ooze belt. Compositional data indicate that the samples are fairly pure carbonate-fluorapatite, and trend towards a maximum 32% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content. A range of compositional variability similar to other samples from the Namibian Shelf is observed. Radiochemical systematics confirm that pelletal phosphorite and glauconitized pelletal phosphorite from depths > 170 m are at radioactive equilibrium, and are therefore old and reworked. The concretions, collected from depths shallower than 78 m, are entirely Recent, with maximum ages in the range 500-3800 years. They may be much younger. Despite distinct textural and small compositional differences, similar are found for separates from the same grab. Samples of fish scales and an unidentified high-magnesian phosphate mineral are also shown to have incorporated uranium recently. 48 refs.

  9. Influence of estuarine dynamics on macrobenthos spatial variability along the southeast continental shelf of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana R. Zalmon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Along the southeast continental shelf of Brazil, the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR plays a fundamental role in sediment and nutrient transport. This study focuses on the contribution of the PSR and its effect on the benthic macrofauna. Physical and chemical analyses of the sediment were conducted, and the macrofauna were identified and counted. Multivariate analyses were used to compare the distribution patterns of the benthic assemblages related to the depth gradient over two sampling periods. The principal component analysis showed that shallow waters assemblages are mostly influenced by the environmental descriptors temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a, whereas pheophytin, degree of sediment sorting, total carbonate and organic carbon were correlated with benthic assemblages at greater depths. The high organic enrichment reflected an increase in surface and sub-surface deposit feeders such as the polychaetes Spiophanes sp. and Prionospio cristata and the crustacean Phtisica marinain the deeper stations, with a corresponding decrease in other trophic groups. This study provides evidence of differences in organic matter sources, from primary production in shallow waters to detritus in deep waters. These sources provide different niches for the corresponding macrofaunal assemblages along the continental shelf adjacent to the PSR, with species richness and abundance of benthic populations related to the river output.

  10. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of water quality in subtropical shallow lakes, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas como indicadores da qualidade da água em pequenos lagos rasos subtropicais, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Amaral Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: We evaluated the potential of aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators in six small shallow lakes. METHODS: The sampling was conducted monthly for one year, during which all macrophytes were surveyed, and the water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, total nitrogen (Nt and total phosphorus (Pt were measured. RESULTS: In total, forty-three species were recorded, and there were significant differences in the species richness and limnological conditions among the lakes studied. A canonical correspondence analysis showed that the concentration of nutrients (Nt and Pt, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important predictors of the distribution of macrophytes. Some emergents were related to the high concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and suspended matter. Moreover, the most submersed species were associated with environments with low nutrient concentrations and the lowest values chlorophyll-a and suspended matter. In addition, some species submerged and floating were related to low values pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Limnological differences between lakes may be cited as the main causes of the observed heterogeneous distribution of macrophytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the importance of limnological characteristics of the different environments in the macrophyte community composition and the potential role of this community as a bioindicator in shallow lakes in southern Brazil.OBJETIVO: Foi avaliado o potencial bioindicador da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em seis pequenos lagos rasos. MÉTODOS: O acompanhamento foi mensal durante um ano, sendo que em cada coleta, além do registro de todas as espécies de macrófitas foram determinadas a temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade elétrica, alcalinidade total, clorofila-a, material em suspensão, nitrogênio total (Nt e fósforo total

  11. Variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf circulation in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yeping; Castelao, Renato M.; He, Ruoying

    2017-02-01

    Variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf circulation in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) is investigated using altimetry observations. Satellite-derived along-shelf velocity anomalies are in good agreement with independent near-surface current measurements from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers and surface velocities from high frequency radar at adjacent locations. This is especially true if wind-driven Ekman velocities are added to the geostrophic velocities, suggesting that the influence of Ekman dynamics to surface along-shelf flow in the SAB is unusually large. The decade-long time series reveals substantial seasonal variability in surface velocities, with peak poleward anomalies during late spring and summer and strong equatorward flow during autumn. Convergences and divergences in the along-shelf transport between two cross-sections are compared with three-dimensional numerical model results and used to estimate cross-shelf transport across the 50 m isobath in the SAB. The calculation suggests a pattern of weak offshore flow during spring followed by prolonged and relatively stronger offshore flow during summer and early autumn, while cross-shelf velocity anomalies during winter are weak and slightly onshore. Prolonged offshore flow following the peak in river discharge that generally occurs in spring indicates the potential for the establishment of a conduit for offshore export of riverine material. The long-term time series also reveals several large events of interannual variability, including the 2003 cold event observed in the SAB.

  12. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  13. An assessment of vertical mixing schemes in comparison with observations in the European shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneva, Maria; Holt, Jason; Pelling, Holly; Palmer, Mathew; Polton, Jeff; Wakelin, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    An assessment of vertical mixing schemes in comparison with observations in the European shelf. Maria Luneva, Jason Holt, , Holly Pelling, Mathew Palmer, Jeff Polton ,Sarah Wakelin. Using the NEMO-shelf model of the Atlantic Marginal Domain with 7km resolution (AMM7) we examine 5 different turbulent closures structural functions, based on the k-epsilon version of the Generic Length Scale Model: Galperin,1988 type closure ,two models by the Canuto group (2001, ab), two by Kantha and Clayson (1994,2004). The AMM7 model realistically reproduces tides and shelf sea processes in the upper and benthic layers, depth of mixed layer and pycnocline. The results have been compared with scanfish temperature sections and direct turbulence observations during 1998-2009All models show high correlations of pycnocline depth and bottom temperature with observations in, however 'less diffusive' Kantha Clayson and Galperin models have much smaller biases in bottom temperature, while more diffusive Canuto models better predicts pycnocline depth. All models underestimate dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in the mixed layer and pycnocline at least by an order and have good agreement with observations in the bottom boundary layer. We discuss the effects of Stock's drift velocity and Langmure circulations in the upper layer and internal waves in pycnocline. Using algebraic equations for third order turbulence moment s we derive parameterisation for non-local terms in TKE equation and discuss asymptotical solutions in a shallow Stokes layer.

  14. Glacier surge after ice shelf collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Hernán; Skvarca, Pedro

    2003-03-07

    The possibility that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet will collapse as a consequence of ice shelf disintegration has been debated for many years. This matter is of concern because such an event would imply a sudden increase in sea level. Evidence is presented here showing drastic dynamic perturbations on former tributary glaciers that fed sections of the Larsen Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula before its collapse in 1995. Satellite images and airborne surveys allowed unambiguous identification of active surging phases of Boydell, Sjögren, Edgeworth, Bombardier, and Drygalski glaciers. This discovery calls for a reconsideration of former hypotheses about the stabilizing role of ice shelves.

  15. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  16. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons , sub-bottom layers...existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons , sub- bottom layers, surface waves, internal waves...propagation in the area ofNorth Mein-Hua Canyon northeast of Taiwan. With the hydrophone data received on bottom mounted vertical arrays, we can obtain

  17. Shallow Talk about the Quality of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Construction Process Monitoring and Management%浅谈水利水电施工过程质量监控管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄友涛

    2015-01-01

    As an important infrastructure project, water conservancy and hydropower project construction quality directly affects the development of the national economy. These requires good quality control management of water conservancy and hydropower construction process, and continuously improve the economic benefits of water conservancy and hydropower construction, lower construction costs, and actively introduce advanced construction techniques and technology to improve the quality of water conservancy and hydropower project. During the construction of hydropower projects, there is still a number of quality monitoring and management issues, therefore, we must take effective measures to improve the quality of monitoring and management level of water conservancy and hydropower construction process.%作为重要的基础设施工程,水利水电工程的施工质量直接影响着国民经济的发展。这就需要做好水利水电施工过程的质量监控管理工作,不断提高水利水电施工的经济效益,降低施工成本,积极引进先进的施工工艺和技术,提高水利水电工程的质量。在我国水利水电工程的施工过程中,还存在一些质量监控管理问题,因此,必须采取有效的措施提高水利水电施工过程的质量监控管理水平。

  18. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  19. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  20. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  1. Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics by month and summarized annually. Outer Continental Shelf consists of Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and...

  2. Shallow water cnoidal wave interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Osborne

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamics of cnoidal waves, within the context of the general N-cnoidal wave solutions of the periodic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV and Kadomtsev-Petvishvilli (KP equations, are considered. These equations are important for describing the propagation of small-but-finite amplitude waves in shallow water; the solutions to KdV are unidirectional while those of KP are directionally spread. Herein solutions are constructed from the 0-function representation of their appropriate inverse scattering transform formulations. To this end a general theorem is employed in the construction process: All solutions to the KdV and KP equations can be written as the linear superposition of cnoidal waves plus their nonlinear interactions. The approach presented here is viewed as significant because it allows the exact construction of N degree-of-freedom cnoidal wave trains under rather general conditions.

  3. Macroelement modeling of shallow foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzigogos, Charisis; Salençon, J

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new macroelement model for shallow foundations. The model is defined through a non-linear constitutive law written in terms of some generalized force and displacement parameters. The linear part of this constitutive law comes from the dynamic impedances of the foundation. The non-linear part comprises two mechanisms. One is due to the irreversible elastoplastic soil behavior: it is described with a bounding surface hypoplastic model, adapted for the description of the cyclic soil response. An original feature of the formulation is that the bounding surface is considered independently of the surface of ultimate loads of the system. The second mechanism is the detachment that can take place at the soil-footing interface (foundation uplift). It is totally reversible and non-dissipative and can thus be described by a phenomenological non-linear elastic model. The macroelement is qualitatively validated by application to soil-structure interaction analyses of simple real structures.

  4. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks.

  5. Shelf life assessment of Malaysian Pangasius sutchi during cold storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Abbas; S M Sapuan; A S Mokhtar

    2006-10-01

    The findings of the present work yield useful information about the Malaysian Pangasius sutchi concerning the marketing sector from the point of view of shelf life and storage temperature in the range of 0 to 10°C. A fresh batch of typical samples, were stored similarly in four chillers of different temperatures for a period of 28 days. During the course of storage, the samples were periodically subjected to pH and sensory tests performed by trained panelists. Experimental observations were analysed and regressed to develop three correlations. The first one was between the sensory tests and the storage time and temperatures, while the second one related pH values to storage time and temperatures. Finally, a correlation between sensorial and pH values was developed as well. The first correlation is presented in tabular form to yield a simple guide to fish retailers, by which quality and shelf life of the displayed fish commodity may be estimated.

  6. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  7. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, F.C.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  8. Sedimentologic Events on the Eel River Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    PROJECTS Research into shelf processes is being conducted by a number of researchers, including: D. Drake (USGS), E. Leithold (NCSU), C. Nittrouer (SUNY...D. Swift (ODU) and R. Wheatcroft (WHOI). REFERENCES Wheatcroft, R.A., Borgeld, J.C., Born. R.S., Drake, D.E., Leithold , E.L. and Nittrouer, C.A

  9. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Mireles DeWitt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  10. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Christina A Mireles; Oliveira, Alexandra C M

    2016-06-28

    This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO₂ in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  11. Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incoronato, A L; Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimicrobial packaging system containing active nanoparticles on the quality deterioration of Fior di Latte cheese. To this aim, 3 concentrations of silver montmorillonite embedded in agar were used. The cell loads of spoilage and useful microorganisms were monitored during a refrigerated storage period. Moreover, cheese sensory quality (i.e., odor, color, consistency, and overall quality) was evaluated by means of a panel test. Results showed that the active packaging system markedly increased the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese, due to the ability of silver cations to control microbial proliferation, without affecting the functional dairy microbiota and the sensory characteristics of the product. The active packaging system developed in this work could be used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte and boost its distribution beyond local market borders.

  12. Nature of the observed oscillatory flows in shelf waters of the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Sundar, D.

    of internal waves. Semidiurnal characteristics computed from hydrographic data collected during the period of mooring across the shelf combined with the distribution of phases and amplitudes of horizontal velocities are found to be consistent...

  13. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.10 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in...

  14. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  15. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...: 2010-119] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil... maximum daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to... operations in the Outer Continental Shelf at least once every 3 years. This review ensures that the...

  16. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    sediments. The sonographs of the outer shelf, from beyond 60 m depth, to the shelf edge, exhibit bedforms such as reef outcrops (algal and oolitic ridges) and minor topographic undulations. Towards the shelf edge these give way to isolated colonies of algal...

  17. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  18. Analysis of Water Dynamics in Banda Sea and its Influences on Continental Shelf Fishing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Muripto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the rise of the Arafura Sea of the vertical configuration results shown curves which easy to understand about its water dynamics. The water character is oceanic’s as cool, salty and stable DO were maintaining by the variability of thermal structure in the continental shelf. The pattern of water masses is the current system surrounding the Banda Sea as an upwelling from undercurrent those enhances and nitrified the shelf.  Along the coast of western part of Papua was conducted the parcel of water masses traveling across the fishing area where’s kind of fishing boat catches the fish in the whole year, and almost confining in the continental shelf has low current from the southern part. The current flows from west to east at the southern part of Nusa Tenggara Islands bringing water and curve to the southwestern coast of Australia. These water masses characterized the temperature, salinity and oxygen gradients from some points where may have an important implication to the slopes area between the deepest and the shallow water near the coast. The lower temperature ranges from 10.0˚C to 8.0˚C at 300m depth and 34.50‰ to 34.85‰ conducted was circulated back to the deepest layer were higher salinity and stable dissolved oxygen. This continental shelf as a fishing area boundary water dynamic may cause by these water dynamic,  especially from data catches of the two fishing vessels catches 17,4 to 39,21kg/haul in the western area and 44.0 to 80kg/haul in eastern coast area.

  19. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots by gaseous chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, V M; Devlieghere, F; Ragaert, P; Debevere, J

    2007-05-10

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas is a strong oxidizing and sanitizing agent that has a broad and high biocidal effectiveness and big penetration ability; its efficacy to prolong the shelf-life of a minimally processed (MP) vegetable, grated carrots (Daucus carota L.), was tested in this study. Carrots were sorted, their ends removed, hand peeled, cut, washed, spin dried and separated in 2 portions, one to be treated with ClO(2) gas and the other to remain untreated for comparisons. MP carrots were decontaminated in a cabinet at 91% relative humidity and 28 degrees C for up to 6 min, including 30 s of ClO(2) injection to the cabinet, then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere (4.5% O(2), 8.9% CO(2), 86.6% N(2)) at 7 degrees C for shelf-life studies. ClO(2) concentration in the cabinet rose to 1.33 mg/l after 30 s of treatment, and then fell to nil before 6 min. The shelf-life study included: O(2) and CO(2) headspace concentrations, microbiological quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts), sensory quality (odour, flavour, texture, overall visual quality, and white blushing), and pH. ClO(2) did not affect respiration rate of MP carrots significantly (alphacarrots was not impaired significantly (alphaview. The shelf-life extension was limited to one day due to the restricted effect of the ClO(2) treatment on yeast counts. Nevertheless, ClO(2) seems to be a promising alternative to prolong the shelf-life of grated carrots.

  20. Sources, degradation and transport of terrigenous organic carbon on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the present hydrological regime increase observed in the Arctic rivers is mainly the consequence of the changes in permafrost conditions as a result of climate warming. Given the enormous amount of carbon stored in coastal and terrestrial permafrost the potentially increased supply from this large carbon pool to the coastal Arctic Ocean, possibly associated with a translocated release to the atmosphere as CO2, is considered a plausible scenario in a warming climate. However, there is not sufficient information regarding the reactivity of terrigenous material once supplied to the Arctic Ocean. In this study, we address this critical issue by examining the organic composition of surface sediments collected over extensive scales on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) as part of the International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS). The ESAS represents by far the largest shelf of the Arctic Ocean. Samples were collected from the inner- to the outer-shelf following the sediment transport pathway in a region between the Lena and the Kolyma rivers. The analytical approach includes the characterization of marine and land-derived carbon using a large number of molecular biomarkers obtained by alkaline CuO oxidation such as lignin-phenols, cutin-derived products, p-hydroxy benzenes, benzoic acids, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids. Our results indicated high concentrations of terrigenous material in shallow sediments and a marked decrease of terrestrial biomarkers with increasing distance from the coastline. In parallel, lignin-based degradation proxies suggested highly altered terrigenous carbon in mid- and outer-shelf sediments compared to coastal sediments. Furthermore, the ratio of cutin-derived products over lignin significantly increased along the sediment transport pathway. Considering that cutin is considered to be intrinsically more reactive compared to lignin, high values of this ratio off the coastal region were interpreted as selective

  1. Dynamics and Mass Balance of Riiser-Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and its Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, S.; Oelke, C.; Kleiner, T.; Lange, M. A.; Baessler, M.; Dietrich, R.

    2006-12-01

    A coupled finite difference ice sheet/ice shelf model is used to investigate the flow regime of Riiser-Larsen ice shelf, Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, and its drainage area. The model takes into account higher order terms that are neglected in the popular shallow ice approximation. The modeled region has a total area of roughly 130 · 103 km2. The model grid consists of 2.5 km × 2.5 km cells horizontally, and of 10 sigma layers vertically. As input data for the simulation, a new DEM is derived mainly from recent ICESat/GLAS laser-altimetry data. In the ice sheet part of the modeled area, ice thickness data are taken from the BEDMAP data set. For the ice shelf, the thickness distribution is computed from the DEM by assuming isostatic equilibrium. For this purpose, vertical density variations inside the ice shelf are derived by comparison of GLAS altimetry data with airborne RES ice thickness measurements from the EPICA mission. The modeled ice flow velocity is compared with interferometrically derived surface flow velocities from ERS-SAR scenes of the ice sheet and with published in-situ measurements of the ice shelf. In order to minimize the difference between modeled and measured velocities, the boundary conditions and free parameters of the flow model are adjusted. The boundary condition at the ice-rock interface turns out to play a crucial role in optimizing the agreement. Thus, the basal sliding velocity of the ice body is calculated from the basal temperature and the basal shear stress following a widely used relation originally proposed by Weertman, and by adjusting its parameters. In the ice shelf, the viscosity of the ice is used as a tuning parameter and is adjusted to maximize the agreement with in-situ measurements. From the result of the simulation with an optimal set of parameters a mass flow over the grounding line of roughly 2 · 1013 kg yr-1 is derived. The comparison with published surface accumulation data suggests a stable mass balance for

  2. Exact internal controllability for shallow shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shaoji; FENG Dexing

    2006-01-01

    The internal control problem is considered, based on the linear displacement equations of shallow shell. It is shown, with some checkable geometric conditions on control region, that the undergoing shallow shell is exactly controllable by using Hilbert uniqueness method (HUM), piecewise multiplier method and Riemannian geometry method. Then some examples are given to show the assumed geometric conditions.

  3. Analysis and Evaluation of the Shallow Underground Water Quality in Lankao of Henan%河南省兰考县浅层地下水水质分析评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志国; 王道山; 郭山峰; 王春晖

    2014-01-01

    兰考县为典型的水质型缺水地区,区内广泛分布有咸水、微咸水、高硬度水、高氟水以及高铁高锰水等劣质地下水。通过采集水样分析,浅层地下水水质差,除零星分布的少数地区可直接饮用外,大部分地区需适当处理后饮用或不宜饮用。%Lankao is a typical quality-induced water shortage area, where there spreads various underground water of poor quality such as salt water, brackish water, high hardness water, high fluorine water, high ferrum and high manganese water. By collecting and analyzing water sample, it is found that the shallow underground water is of low quality, and except several scattered areas whose shallow underground water can be drunk directly, the shallow underground water in most areas is not safe to drink or needs proper disposition for drinking.

  4. Modeling the evolution of climate-sensitive Arctic subsea permafrost in regions of extensive gas expulsion at the West Yamal shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Expulsions of methane from shallow Russian Arctic shelf areas may continue to rise in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. Here we show modeling of the permafrost evolution from the Late Pleistocene to present time at the West Yamal shelf. Modeling results suggest a highly dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g., geothermal heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above permafrost. Scenarios of permafrost evolution show a potentially nearest landward modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas its farthest seaward extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with a maximal thickness of 275-390 m near the shoreline. Previous field observations detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the transition zone between today's shallow water permafrost (20 m). The model adapts well to corresponding heat flux and ocean temperature data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions. It shows current locations of upper and lower permafrost boundaries and evidences for possible release of methane from the seabed to the hydrosphere in a warming Arctic.

  5. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  6. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  7. Shelf-life assessment and forecast in retail fresh hake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam R. Garcia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish quality has a direct impact on market price and its accurate assessment and prediction is of main importance to prevent food wastage due to extremely conservative product shelf-life estimations. In this work we present a general methodology to derive predictive models of fish freshness under different storage conditions. The approach focuses in finding growth models of specific spoilage micro-organisms in hake sufficiently informative to estimate two common quality market indexes. In order to get enough predictive capabilities, we make use of Optimal Experimental Design and analyze the statistics associated with the predictions due to fish variability. As a result, both quality indexes and their variability can be estimated under different temperature profiles. Although the methodology here presented has been applied and validated in hake, it is sufficiently general to be used in other fish species and under different stress variables. In addition, the parameters found for this case are robust enough to predict quality in conditions not used during the model calibration, such as for example hake captured with a different commercial fishing technique.

  8. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

  9. A Shallow Research to Teaching Quality Assessment Approach ;in Universities based on Posterior Information%基于后验信息的高校教学质量评价方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝玲

    2015-01-01

    The teacher’s present teaching quality assessment approach in institution of higher education was summarized and analyzed, and the disadvantages of which was concluded. A new assessments based on posterior information was presented there and as a supplement of present methods, in order to promote the teaching quality’s further improvement, and the results are more Objective and justice.%通过对现行高校教师教学质量评价方法的归纳和分析,对其存在的不足进行总结,提出一种基于后验信息的教学质量评价方法,作为现行教学质量评价方法的补充,以期对高校教师的教学质量做出更加客观、公正的评价。

  10. 采收期对京白梨果实细胞壁代谢及货架品质的影响%Effect of Harvest Date on Cell Wall Metabolism and Fruit Quality of Jingbaili Pear during Shelf-Life Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建梅; 齐秀东

    2015-01-01

    The Jingbaili pear fruit, with different harvest dates, were used to study the change of cell wall metabolism and fruit shelf-quality during ripening and softening. The results showed that the fruits picked in harvest stageⅠandⅡhave highest hardness and chlorophyll content , lowest soluble solids content , unsteady respiration rate and slowly ripening rate, meanwhile, there was a significant difference in cell wall metabolism between harvest stage II and harvest stage III, IV and V, meaning fruit maturity is not enough at harvest stage II. The fruit of harvest stageⅤwere easy to aging with no respiratory climacteric peak and higher activities in cell wall enzymes, which showed that fruit of this period were overripe. However, the harvest timeⅢandⅣ(135-142th day after florescence) was the optimal harvest date because the fruits were of suitable maturity, and exhibited the normal physiological metabolism and good quality during storage.%研究了不同采收期京白梨果实后熟软化过程中细胞壁代谢和货架品质的变化。结果表明,采期Ⅰ和采期Ⅱ果实硬度大,叶绿素含量高,可溶性固形物含量低,呼吸速率不稳定,软化进程缓慢。采期Ⅱ的果实细胞壁代谢与采期Ⅲ、采期Ⅳ和采期Ⅴ存在显著差异,表明果实成熟度不够。采期Ⅴ果实无明显呼吸跃变峰,细胞壁酶活性高,果实软化后易衰老,货架期短,表明该期果实已经完熟。而采期Ⅲ和采期Ⅳ(盛花后135 d~142 d)的果实呼吸、细胞壁代谢、品质变化正常,具有适宜的采收成熟度。

  11. Geometry of calcite cemented zones in shallow marine sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walderhaug, O.; Prestholm, E.; Oexnevad, I.E.I.

    1995-12-31

    In offshore oil production, tightly cemented calcite zones often form impermeable barriers to fluid flow an so adversely affect reservoir performance. Based on recent breakthroughs in the theory of the formation of calcite cemented zones, the project discussed in this paper was concerned with (1) Performing outcrop studies in order to increase the existing database on the geometry of calcite cemented zones, (2) Extending and refining methods of predicting the geometry of cored calcite cemented zones, and (3) Applying and illustrating the use of these methods by studying calcite cementation in shallow marine reservoir sandstones on the Norwegian shelf. The paper presents results from field work and applies these results and the criteria for recognizing geometrical forms of calcite cementation in cores to the Ula Formation of the Ula Field and the Rannoch Formation of the Gullfax Field. The results from the core and outcrop studies are integrated in a tentative identification key for cored calcite cemented zones. The work is part of PROFIT (Program for Research On Field oriented Improved recovery Technology), a research project conducted by RF - Rogaland Research in 1991-1994. 32 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, Maria M.; Browder, Joan A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism.

  13. Impacts of Sea-Level Rise and Human Activity on a Tropical Continental Shelf, RN State, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, H.; Barros Pereira, T. R.; Lira, H. F.; Tabosa, W. F.; Eichler, P.; Stattegger, K.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Gomes, M. P.; Nogueira, M. L. D. S.; Pierri, G. C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The northeastern Brazilian, tropical coast-shelf system along the Atlantic Ocean is a sediment-starved zone, because of low relief, small drainage basins, and a semiarid climate. This work presents the major results of a study of environmental changes, particularly those related to Holocene sea-level rise, affecting the coast and shallow waters of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) State, NE Brazil. The methods included bottom-sediment characterization, bioindicator tracking, and integrated shallow-water geophysical investigation. This coastline is marked by active sea cliffs carved into tablelands alternating with reef- or dune-barrier sections, beach rocks and lagoons, whereas the shelf is a narrow, very shallow, and highly energetic system. Overall, the area is under the natural influence of tides (with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime) and the anthropogenic influence of salt exploration, oil industry, shrimp farms, tourism, and wind-farms. Sedimentation during the Holocene has been controlled mainly by sea-level variation, longshore currents, and the advance and westward propagation of active dunes along the coast. As in other areas around the world, growing numbers of permanent and seasonal residents choose to live at or near the ocean. Coastal erosion is a cause for concern along many Brazilian beaches, and several erosion hot spots are already recognized in RN State. Curves of Holocene relative sea-level variation were established for RN State, but the absence of long-term oceanographic observations in the last centuries or that of detailed altimetry maps hinders the evaluation of different risk scenarios at the local level. Nevertheless, impacts of the current sea-level rise and human activity can be observed along the RN coastal-shelf system. Particular aspects of the study, such as oil-spill monitoring, coastal-water sewage contamination, and coastal erosion, will be highlighted.

  14. Effect of different preservative treatments on the shelf-life of sorghum malt based fermented milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Garg, Faqir Chand; Pal, Dharam

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted to extend the shelf life of sorghum based fermented milk beverage (referred to SSL) developed at our Institute. In the first approach preservatives namely nisin (N) @ 400RU/ml, MicroGARD (M) @ (1%), potassium sorbate (PS) @ (0.15%) were added to the beverage before packaging and in the second approach thermization (65 °C/5 min) of the packaged samples containing above mentioned preservatives was adopted. The shelf life was assessed on the basis of sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. Total plate count and lactic acid bacterial count increased till 7th day of storage and afterwards decreased significantly (p thermization treatment helped in improving the microbiological and chemical quality of the beverage, the sensory and physical quality was adversely affected. Addition of PS without thermization was found to be the best preservation technique for enhancing the shelf life of SSL at refrigeration conditions.

  15. Classification of regimes of internal solitary waves transformation over a shelf-slope topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Talipova, Tatiana; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2015-04-01

    The internal waves shoal and dissipate as they cross abrupt changes of the topography in the coastal ocean, estuaries and in the enclosed water bodies. They can form near the coast internal bores propagating into the shallows and re-suspend seabed pollutants that may have serious ecological consequences. Internal solitary waves (ISW) with trapped core can transport masses of water and marine organisms for some distance. The transport of cold, low-oxygen waters results in nutrient pumping. These facts require development of classification of regimes of the ISWs transformation over a shelf-slope topography to recognize 'hot spots' of wave energy dissipation on the continental shelf. A new classification of regimes of internal solitary wave interaction with the shelf-slope topography in the framework of two-layer fluid is proposed. We introduce a new three-dimensional diagram based on parameters α ,β , γ. Here α is the nondimensional wave amplitude normalized on the thermocline thickness α = ain/h1 (α > 0), β is the blocking parameter introduced in (Talipova et al., 2013) that is the ratio of the height of the bottom layer on the the shelf step h2+ to the incident wave amplitude ain, β = h2+/ain (β > -3), and γ is the parameter inverse to the slope inclination (γ > 0.01). Two mechanisms are important during wave shoaling: (i) wave breaking resulting in mixing and (ii) changing of the polarity of the initial wave of depression on the slope. Range of the parameters at which wave breaking occurs can be defined using the criteria, obtained empirically (Vlasenko and Hutter, 2002). In the three-dimensional diagram this criteria is represented by the surface f1(β,γ) = 0 that separates the region of parameters where breaking takes place from the region without breaking. The polarity change surface f2(α,β) = 0 is obtained from the condition of equality of the depth of upper layer h1 to the depth of the lower layer h2. In the two-layer stratification waves of

  16. Breakup of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Recent Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery analyzed at the University of Colorado's National Snow and Ice Data Center revealed that the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf, a large floating ice mass on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula, has shattered and separated from the continent. This particular image was taken on March 5, 2002. The shattered ice formed a plume of thousands of icebergs adrift in the Weddell Sea. A total of about 3,250 square kilometers of shelf area disintegrated in a 35-day period beginning on January 31, 2002. Over the last five years, the shelf has lost a total of 5,700 square kilometers and is now about 40 percent the size of its previous minimum stable extent. Ice shelves are thick plates of ice, fed by glaciers, that float on the ocean around much of Antarctica. The Larsen B shelf was about 220 meters thick. Based on studies of ice flow and sediment thickness beneath the ice shelf, scientists believe that it existed for at least 400 years prior to this event and likely existed since the end of the last major glaciation 12,000 years ago. For reference, the area lost in this most recent event dwarfs Rhode Island (2,717 square kilometers) in size. In terms of volume, the amount of ice released in this short time is 720 billion tons--enough ice for about 12 trillion 10-kilogram bags. This is the largest single event in a series of retreats by ice shelves along the peninsula over the last 30 years. The retreats are attributed to a strong climate warming in the region. The rate of warming is approximately 0.5 degrees Celsius per decade, and the trend has been present since at least the late 1940s. Overall in the peninsula, the extent of seven ice shelves has declined by a total of about 13,500 square kilometers since 1974. This value excludes areas that would be expected to calve under stable conditions. Ted Scambos, a researcher with the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at

  17. Off-the-Shelf Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier

    People with severe motor-skill disabilities are often unable to use standard input devices such as a mouse or a keyboard to control a computer and they are, therefore, in strong need for alternative input devices. Gaze tracking offers them the possibility to use the movements of their eyes...... of the challenges introduced by the use of low-cost and off-the-shelf components for gaze interaction. The main contributions are: - Development and performance evaluation of the ITU Gaze Tracker, an off-the-shelf gaze tracker that uses an inexpensive webcam or video camera to track the user’s eye. The software...... is readily available as open source, offering the possibility to try out gaze interaction for a low price and to analyze, improve and extend the software by modifying the source code. - A novel gaze estimation method based on homographic mappings between planes. No knowledge about the hardware configuration...

  18. Quality Improvement Project for Shelf Stable Bakery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Harrington Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey The Center for Advanced Food Technology School of Enviromental and Biological Sciences New...captures attention of many researchers. The consequences of the staling process is the main cause for product rejection and results in huge economic

  19. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  20. Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf Donald N. Slinn Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611...Florida,Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering,Gainesville,FL,32611-6590 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...2002. 452: p. 1-24. Acrivos, A., Shear-Induced Particle Diffusion in Concentrated Suspensions of Noncolloidal Particles. Journal of Rheology , 1995

  1. Methods for preservation and extension of shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G W

    1996-11-01

    There is potential for spoilage of all foods at some rate or other following harvest, slaughter or manufacture and spoilage may occur at any of the stages between the acquisition of raw materials and the eventual consumption of a food product. These stages include processing, packaging, distribution, retail display, transport, storage and use by the consumer. They are under varying degrees of control that aim to deliver a satisfactory shelf life, to ensure that the finally-consumed product is of high quality and to ensure that it is safe. Spoilage may be caused by a wide range of reactions including some that are essentially physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of microbiological spoilage are preventable to a large degree by a wide range of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or inhibiting microbial growth (e.g., chilling, freezing, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting and adding preservatives). A smaller number of techniques act by inactivating microorganisms (e.g., pasteurization, sterilization and irradiation). Additional techniques restrict the access of microorganisms to products (e.g., aseptic processing and packaging. A major trend is that new and emerging preservation techniques which are coming into use or are under development include more that act by inactivation (e.g., ultrahigh pressure, electroporation, manothermosonication and addition of bacteriolytic enzymes). A further trend is towards the use of procedures that deliver products that are less heavily preserved, have higher quality, are more natural, freer from additives and nutritionally healthier. Less severe preservation procedures are therefore being developed that make use of preservative factors in combinations to deliver (a) less damage to product quality (hurdle technologies); (b) new methods of heating that are better controlled and therefore deliver milder

  2. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Group, Paleo Labo AMS Dating; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sea-surface water Δ14C record of AD 1966-2000 (i.e., after the atmospheric nuclear-bomb testing period of the mid-1950s to early 1960s) was reconstructed from a coral sample collected from Iki Island, western Japan. The island is located in the Tsushima Strait where the Tsushima Current flows from the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf into the Sea of Japan, indicating a strong influence of the ECS shelf water on the island. It is widely accepted that the Tsushima Current originates in the area between the ECS shelf break and the Nansei Islands further offshore as a branch of the Kuroshio Current, although another possible origin is the Taiwan-Tsushima Current System. The Δ14C record from Iki Island shows the following evidence of a response to the atmospheric nuclear testing: (1) an increase from ~55‰ in 1966 to ~133‰ in 1970, (2) a plateau ranging between ~123 and ~142‰ during the 1970s to the late 1980s, and (3) a gradual decrease from ~115‰ in 1990 to ~83‰ in 2000. Comparison of this record with coral Δ14C records from the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Island, Ishigaki Island and Kikai Island), located ~160-280 km off the ECS shelf break and little influenced by the shelf water, suggests that the surface-water Δ14C around Iki Island was ~30-45‰ lower than that of the Nansei Islands from the mid-1960s to late 1970s, and that the Δ14C difference between Iki Island and the Nansei Islands decreased from the end of the 1970s to ~0-15‰ in the mid-1980s to 2000. The lower Δ14C around Iki Island can be explained as follows: (1) in contrast to the Nansei Islands area, the ECS shelf area is a vertically mixed, highly concentrated carbon reservoir significantly connected to subsurface and deeper waters outside the shelf area, strongly suggesting that the surface-water Δ14C of the shelf area (perhaps excepting very shallow innermost shelf areas) was significantly less sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear-bomb 14C spike than that of the

  3. aromaticus: Its Development and Shelf Life Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant rich products are valued due to their health benefits and appetizers are required in several pathological and geographical stress situations such as prolonged exposure to altitude. The paper deals with the development of a shelf stable RTE (ready-to-eat antioxidant rich herbal appetizer convenient to the consumer. Using ginger and Karpurvalli (Coleus aromaticus as two independent variables, a central composite design with 13 experimental combinations was obtained. These combinations were processed by concentration and dehydration into the appetizer RTE munches using preprocessed ingredients and evaluated for antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and sensory characteristics. The product optimized using Design Expert Statistical Software had the proximate composition of 11.4% fat, 2.3% protein, and 75.0% carbohydrates, supplying about 82.36 Kcals per munch of 20 g. The munches packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf life of 10 months at 28 ± 5°C as well as 37°C storage. The RTE appetizer based on Coleus aromaticus was developed with excellent sensory properties and shelf stability.

  4. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Pareek, Sunil; Sagar, Narashans Alok; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, Maria

    2017-08-17

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI) in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  5. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Sagar, Narashans Alok; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI) in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall. PMID:28817100

  6. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT, spermine (SPE, and spermidine (SPD are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  7. Along-shelf current variability on the Catalan inner-shelf (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the circulation over the inner shelf of the Catalan Sea using observations of currents obtained from three ADCPs within the inner-shelf (24 and 50 m depth) during March-April 2011. The along-shelf current fluctuations during that period are mainly controlled by the local wind stress on short time scales and by remote pressure gradients on synoptic time scales. Different forcing mechanisms are involved in the along-shelf momentum balance. During storm conditions, wind stress, sea level gradients and the non-linear terms dominate the balance. During weak wind conditions, the momentum balance is controlled by the pressure gradient, while during periods of moderate wind in the presence of considerable stratification, the balance is established between the Coriolis and wind stress terms. Vertical variations of velocity are affected by the strong observed density gradient. The increased vertical shear is accompanied by the development of stratified conditions due to local heating when the wind is not able to counteract (and destroy) stratification. The occasional influence of the Besòs river plume is observed in time scales of hours to days in a limited area in front of Barcelona. The area affected by the plume depends on the vertical extend of the fresher layer, the fast river discharge peak, and the relaxation of cross-shore velocities after northeast storm events. This contribution provides a first interpretation of the inner-shelf dynamics in the Catalan Sea.

  8. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be

  9. Shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages as affected by antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Incoronato, Anna Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2011-10-17

    The combined use of antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages was investigated in this study. First, a pre-screening of different antimicrobial compounds and MAP was addressed. In particular, the consumer test was used as a tool to select the most pleasant antimicrobial compounds, whereas both sausage color and cell load of main spoilage microorganisms were used to choose optimal MAP. Afterwards, antimicrobial compounds (lemon alkott and thymol) and MAP (MAP1: 20% CO(2), 5% O(2), 75% N(2)) that had shown the best performance were used to run the shelf life tests. In order to assess the influence of the variables described beforehand on the shelf life of investigated sausages, the sensorial and microbiological (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria) quality was monitored during storage. Results recorded in this study suggested that Pseudomonas spp. were responsible for sausage unacceptability in all samples, except for thymol and thymol-MAP samples. For these samples, the sensorial quality was the limiting factor while the microbial growth did not limit the shelf life. In particular, for thymol and thymol-MAP samples a shelf life value of more than 5 days with respect to the other samples (2 days) was obtained.

  10. Shelf life extension of whole-wheat breadsticks: Formulation and packaging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Cappa, Carola; Ratti, Simona; Limbo, Sara; Signorelli, Marco; Fessas, Dimitrios; Lucisano, Mara

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was the shelf life extension of whole-wheat breadsticks through the addition of a rosemary extract and packaging under nitrogen. Shelf life was studied at four temperatures (20, 27, 35, 48°C) for up to 200 storage days. The minimal changes observed in moisture, water activity and texture of the samples, coupled with the high peroxide values (13-539meqO2/kgfat) measured at the end of storage, and the exponential increase of hexanal concentrations (up to 13-34mg/kg) confirmed that quality decay of whole-wheat breadsticks is mainly associated to lipid oxidation. The kinetic study of oxidation development and the consumer sensory acceptance determined by the survival analysis demonstrated that the rosemary extract addition yields a 42% shelf life extension, higher than that observed using nitrogen in the package (24-29%). The combination of the formulation and packaging strategies gave the best result (83% shelf life extension at 25°C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashie, I N; Smith, J P; Simpson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish-processing industry is actively seeking alternative methods of shelf life preservation and marketability of fresh, refrigerated fish and at the same time economizing on energy costs. Additional methods that could fulfill these objectives include chemical decontamination, low-dose irradiation, ultra-high pressure, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This review focuses on the biochemical and microbiological composition of fresh fish/shellfish, the spoilage patterns in these products, factors influencing spoilage, and the combination treatments that can be used in conjunction with refrigeration to extend the shelf life and keeping quality of fresh fish/shellfish. The safety concerns of minimally processed/MAP fish, specifically with respect to the growth of Clostridium botulinum type E, is also addressed.

  12. Surveying the Alentejo continental shelf for minerals and Quaternary environmental changes: preliminary results of the MINEPLAT project survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Neres, Marta

    2017-04-01

    assessment of good quality sand deposits between approximately 30m and 50m below sea level aims at minimizing this problem that affects the economy of littoral of Alentejo. The MINEPLAT project (Assessment of the mineral resources potential in the continental shelf of Alentejo and of the environmental conditions caused by the tectonic uplift in the Pliocene-Quaternary) aims at assessing the existence of mineral deposits off the Alentejo. The MINEPLAT-1 geophysical survey acquired very high resolution multi-channel reflection seismics, swath bathymetry, backscatter and magnetic data in a test area. The preliminary results show: previously unknown NNW-SSE aligned magnetic anomalies, possibly corresponding to buried Late Cretaceous alkaline rocks; faults affecting recent sediments; well defined patches of sediments associated to morphologic traps. Future work will involve ground-truthing to characterize the shallow deposits. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by Alentejo 2020 contract ALT20-03-0145-FEDER-000013

  13. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ichnosedimentologic evidence of periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition includes lower ichnodiversity, shallower bioturbation and burrowing depth (<4 cm ), rare domichnia, tiny Chondrites occupying shallower or shallowest tiering, widely distributed nodules of limonite pseudomorphs after pyrite, occurrence of trace fossils being closely associated with the storm event layers, and stratigraphic successions with orbital cyclostratigraphic architecture. It is suggested that lower atmospheric oxygen level during the Early Paleozoic, the Ordovician radiation, dramatic transgression and warmer temperatures would result in the periodic anoxia in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition. This episode began at the later Early Ordovician and lasted about 3.4 Ma on the basis of orbital cyclostratigraphy.

  14. Mapping of shallow karstic aquifers by electromagnetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwail, T.A. [MPWH, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-11-01

    Earth resistivities are mapped by an EM-34 electromagnetic terrain conductivity meter in order to delineate shallow Pliocene reef system which is associated with the potable water in Collier County, Florida. Relationships between lithofacies, hydrogeologic properties, and geophysical signature are determined. Sixty three ground water samples drawn from various depths in the area indicate the presence of a zone of well-flushed, good quality water associated with coralline facies and a zone of lower permeability and relatively poor quality water. The primary porosity and diagenetic history of the coralline facies give them a distinctive geophysical signature. This signature is the result of the destruction of the primary porosity, high karstic porosity, and the presence of good quality water.

  15. On the Calculation of Shallow Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambartsumyan, S. A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper considers a sufficiently thin shallow shell of nonzero Gaussian curvature. It also presents a system of symmetrically constructed differential equations, constructed by the mixed method through the stress function and the displpacement function.

  16. Some problematic shallow-marine structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    The lowermost Devonian beds in Gotland (Sweden) were deposited in a very shallow marine environment, close to the coast. In these beds three structures were observed, whose mode of formation cannot be explained by the author.

  17. Evolution of the siliciclastic-carbonate shelf system of the northern Kenyan coastal belt in response to Late Pleistocene-Holocene relative sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordi, Giovanni; Carbone, Federico

    2016-11-01

    A classification of depositional environments of the Lamu Archipelago is proposed based on a sedimentary facies analysis of unconsolidated and hard bottoms of the study area. The genesis of the siliciclastic-carbonate depositional pattern, typical of this East African region, is closely related both to the presence of a quartz-dominate Pleistocene riverine net-flooded during the Holocene sea level rise-and to the coeval development on the shallow shelf of a coral ecosystem producing vast skeletal sediments. The present facies pattern originates from the variable contribution in time and space of three sediment types: skeletal carbonate, quartz and palimpsest debris. The facies analysis allowed to distinguish 10 depositional facies and to differentiate them into three main types of substratum: soft bottom, reefal hard bottom and non-reefal hard bottom. These three types define both the loose facies typical of the channelized coastal belt and several facies of the shallow shelf. In the first, the amounts and textures of the stored sediment are strictly related to three major geomorphic types of substratum: sheltered mangal flat, shallow channel and deep channel. In the second and the third, a wide range of textures is related to coastal flats, benches, islets and emerging rocks. This modern facies pattern is implemented through a series of evolutionary phases: i-during the Last Interglacial Period, since isotope substage 5b, the shallow shelf-above -20 m-is permanently exposed for about 80 ka, with erosion, karstification and cuts of river channels through the shelf; ii-after the Last Glacial Maximum, when the sea level fell to about 110-115 m b.p.s.l. (below present sea level) at 18-17 ka BP, the sea level rose at -20 m for about 9 ka, flooding the shallow shelf area and gradually drowning the riverine net; iii-the maximum flooding of the coastal belt was reached at about 4.5 ka BP, when a gradual moisture reduction caused a decrease of siliciclastic sediment supply

  18. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  19. Carbon exchange between a shelf sea and the ocean: The Hebrides Shelf, west of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C.; Hartman, Susan E.; Kivimäe, Caroline; Salt, Lesley A.; Clargo, Nicola M.; Bozec, Yann; Daniels, Chris J.; Jones, Sam C.; Hemsley, Victoria S.; Munns, Lucie R.; Allen, Stephanie R.

    2016-07-01

    Global mass balance calculations indicate the majority of particulate organic carbon (POC) exported from shelf seas is transferred via downslope exchange processes. Here we demonstrate the downslope flux of POC from the Hebrides Shelf is approximately 3- to 5-fold larger per unit length/area than the global mean. To reach this conclusion, we quantified the offshore transport of particulate and dissolved carbon fractions via the "Ekman Drain," a strong downwelling feature of the NW European Shelf circulation, and subsequently compared these fluxes to simultaneous regional air-sea CO2 fluxes and onshore wind-driven Ekman fluxes to constrain the carbon dynamics of this shelf. Along the shelf break, we estimate a mean offshelf total carbon (dissolved + particulate) flux of 4.2 tonnes C m-1 d-1 compared to an onshelf flux of 4.5 tonnes C m-1 d-1. Organic carbon represented 3.3% of the onshelf carbon flux but 6.4% of the offshelf flux indicating net organic carbon export. Dissolved organic carbon represented 95% and POC 5% of the exported organic carbon pool. When scaled along the shelf break the total offshelf POC flux (0.007 Tg C d-1) was found to be 3 times larger than the regional air-sea CO2 ingassing flux (0.0021 Tg C d-1), an order of magnitude larger than the particulate inorganic carbon flux (0.0003 Tg C d-1) but far smaller than the DIC (2.03 Tg C d-1) or DOC (0.13 Tg C d-1) fluxes. Significant spatial heterogeneity in the Ekman drain transport confirms that offshelf carbon fluxes via this mechanism are also spatially heterogeneous.

  20. A review of shallow seismic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Steeples

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Shallow seismic methods have historical roots dating to the 1930s, when limited shallow refraction work was performed using the Intercept-Time (IT method. Because of high costs and the general lack of appropriate equipment - particularly data-processing equipment and software - the shallow-reflection and surface-wave techniques did not catch on as quickly as the refraction techniques. However, since 1980 substantial progress has been made in the development of all of the shallow seismic approaches. The seismic-reflection method has been used increasingly in applications at depths of less than 30 m, incorporating both the standard Common-Midpoint (CMP method of the petroleum industry and the Common-Offset (CO method, which was developed specifically as a low-cost technique for use in shallow surveying. In refraction studies, the Generalized Reciprocal Method (GRM largely has replaced the classical intercept-time method, and tomographic approaches are rapidly gaining popularity. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW has been developed by civil engineers, and surface-wave analysis involving many seismograph channels (MASW recently has shown promise. With any of the shallow seismic methods, however, selecting the appropriate seismic recording equipment, energy sources, and data-acquisition parameters, along with processing and interpretation strategies, often is critical to the success of a project.

  1. Icepod Plus Potential Field: An Integrated Approach For Understanding Ice Shelf Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frearson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Warm water flowing beneath the large floating ice shelves in Antarctica will play an important role in how fast sea level rises. The lack of detailed bathymetry beneath the large ice shelves and lack of understanding of their internal structure inherently limits our knowledge of how ice shelves will thin and collapse. Understanding the bathymetry beneath the remaining ice shelves is critical to understanding how ice shelves will thin in the future and how that will impact the flux of ice into the global ocean. The Ross Ice Shelf, the largest ice shelf remaining on our planet, buttresses the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The bathymetry beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is the least explored piece of ocean floor on our planet. The IcePod is a compact integrated ice imaging system developed for use on any C-130 aircraft developed with NSF support. The initial development program was targeted towards investigating glacial and ice-sheet processes. In this program, deep and shallow ice radars were developed. Optical instruments, including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and visible wave camera were integrated into the pod. We have expanded the IcePod instrument suite to include the potential field measurements of magnetic and gravity anomalies with support from the Moore Foundation. During the development, a total field cesium sensor magnetometer and 3-axis fluxgate from previously funded work were also incorporated into the pod. Their behavioral response to being located close to high-frequency electronics, power supplies and metallic objects were studied. We describe in part some of that development process and the positive findings that resulted. The Icepod group is also actively pursuing the development, modification and incorporation of a new gravimeter into the suite of instruments available to the program and is investigating reduction in size of this that may eventually lead to incorporating the gravimeter into the pod itself. As part of this program we are also

  2. Tidal shelf sedimentation in the Neoproterozoic Chattisgarh succession of central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarbani Patranabis Deb

    2005-06-01

    The Neoproterozoic Kansapathar Sandstone of the Chattisgarh basin, a shallow marine shelf bar sequence, consists of mineralogically and texturally mature sandstones with subordinate siltstones, mudstones and conglomerates. The sediments were transported, reworked and deposited in subtidal environments by strong tidal currents of macrotidal regime as well as storms, and accumulated as discrete shoaling-upward features, separated from each other by muddy to low-energy sandy deposits. The sandbodies developed into shoaling up linear bars, often more than a kilometre in length, through accretion of thick cross-stratified units in transverse directions under the influence of ebb and flood tidal currents, as well as in longitudinal direction affected by southeasterly flowing along-shore currents. The aggrading upper surfaces of the bars experienced protracted reworking by strong oscillatory wave currents leading to extensive development of subaqueous 2D or 3D dunes mantled with lag pebble deposits at different points. With continued shoaling and progradation, thebars amalgamated into large sandstone sheets with the development of high energy beach depositsand coastal sand flats in the uppermost part of the sequence. The presence of rill marks, flat-topped ripples, wrinkle marks, desiccation cracks and adhesion warts point to intertidal conditions with intermittent exposure. The high energy sandstone bars overlie a thick mudstone-dominated shelf sequence across a sharp interface indicating rapid change in the sea-level, provenance, rate of sediment generation and sediment input, and circulation condition in the shelf. A quiet muddy shelf was replaced by a major sand-depositing environment with strong, open marine circulation. An interplay of tidal currents, oscillatory wave currents and storm currents generated a complex flow pattern that varied in time and space from bimodal-bipolar to strongly unimodal flows. Close parallelism of wave ripple crests, trend of linear bars

  3. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m-2 d-1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m-2 d-1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m-2 d-1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L-1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  4. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  5. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Bathymetric zonation of modern shelf benthic foraminifera in the Levantine Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnaim-Katav, Simona; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Milker, Yvonne; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2015-05-01

    Siliciclastic carbonate-poor sediments are common in southern and central parts of the inner Israeli shelf, part of the Nile littoral cell and in deeper water along the entire coast, while carbonate rich sediments occur in northern Israel and in submerged rocky environments. The distribution of benthic foraminifera, common components of these environments, was studied in surface sediment samples in order to identify their bathymetric zonation using multivariate statistical analyses. The dead foraminiferal assemblages exhibit a clear bathymetric zonation directly related to substrate type. A distinct faunal change has been found at approximately 40 m water depth coinciding with the shift from the shallow-water sand belt, distributed parallel to the Israeli coast up to Haifa Bay, to a silty-clayey belt relatively rich with organic matter extending westward along the entire SE Mediterranean shelf. Ammonia parkinsoniana, Ammonia sp. 1, Buccella granulata, Nubeculina divaricata and Adelosina sp. 1 predominating the shallow-water depths are positively related to sand content and negatively related to water depth. Other species, such as Asterigerinata mamilla, Hanzawaia rhodiensis, Reussella spinulosa, Triloculina marioni and Valvulineria bradyana, occurring between 40 and 100 m, exhibit a positive relationship with total organic carbon content and water depth. Beyond the Nile littoral cell and partly in its distal part Amphistegina lessonii, Peneroplis pertusus, Pseudoschlumbergerina ovata, Pseudoschlumbergerina sp. 1 and Quinqueloculina ungeriana dominate the rocky and coarse sand substrate, exhibiting a more positive relationship with higher carbonate content values. The distinct bathymetric zonation established in this study may prove to be useful in fossil records for accurate paleo-bathymetry reconstruction of Quaternary records in this dynamic system prone to frequent sea level fluctuations.

  7. Qualitative Characteristics and Determining Shelf-Life of Milk Beverage Product Supplemented with Coffee Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Il; Kim, Ha-Na; Park, Jun-Hong; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Duk-Geun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the shelf-life of a milk beverage product supplemented with coffee extracts. Qualitative changes including peroxide value (PV), microorganism content, caffeine content, and sensory evaluation were measured periodically in beverages kept at 10, 20, and 30°C for 8 wk. Lipid oxidation of the product was measured by peroxide value analysis, and apparent changes were observed during a 4 wk storage period. Caffeine analysis revealed that the changes in caffeine content were negligible during the storage period. Total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, yeast, and mold were not detected in the products during an 8 wk storage period. Sensory evaluation revealed that after 4 wk of storage overall acceptance was less than 3 points on a 5-point scale. In this study, PV was used as an indicator of the shelf-life of the milk beverage product. PV analysis revealed that a value of 20 meq/kg was the end of the shelf-life using the Arrhenius equation and the accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT). Assuming that the beverages are kept at 4°C during distribution, calculation of when the PV reached the quality limit point (20 meq/kg) was done with the equation ln(PV) = 0.3644X - 2.21834 and, using that equation, PV = e(0.3644X-2.21834) was calculated. Therefore, 14.3086 wk was determined to be the shelf-life of the milk beverage supplemented with coffee when stored at 4°C.

  8. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  9. Mass Balance and Structure of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Padman, L.; Chu, W.; Fricker, H. A.; Becker, M. K.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Millstein, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance is key to the long term stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. Although the most extensive thinning occurs on the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, recent studies indicate that many other ice shelves are also experiencing widespread thinning. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Self. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows elevation change 1 m/yr across the shelf. Significant variability in ice shelf height on interannual time scales makes it difficult to detect a long-term mass budget trend of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. In this work, we investigate the Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophyical data from the ROSETTA-ICE IcePod and NASA's Operation IceBridge. ROSSETTA-ICE is an aerogeophysical program planned to survey the ice shelf at a 10 km spacing over the course of two field seasons-2015 and 2016. This NSF/Moore Foundation supported multi-University collaborative project is designed to provide an integrated view of the ice shelf and the underlying bathymetry using the IcePod system including its ice-penetrating radars, laser altimetry, gravity meters and magnetometers. We present preliminary results from our ongoing efforts of quantifying the mass balance of the ice shelf using IcePod ice penetrating radars and laser altimetry along with satellite data. We will use internal layers traced from ice penetrating radars to outline the structure of the ice shelf. Airborne laser altimetry measurements from this IcePod survey and IceBridge will be used to study the elevation change of the ice shelf. Spatial variations of thickness of the internal layers in the first few meters of the ice shelf, particularly near the grounding line, will indicate the impact of wind-blown snow coming from the continent onto the ice shelf. In order to infer conditions of melt and freeze-on at the ice

  10. Are mesophotic coral ecosystems distinct communities and can they serve as refugia for shallow reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Robert F.; Hoot, Whitney C.; Reaka, Marjorie L.

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed an extensive dataset of over 9000 benthic and suprabenthic species found throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GoMx) to assess whether mesophotic coral ecosystems represent distinct assemblages and evaluate their potential to serve as refugia for shallow reef communities. We assessed community structure of the overall benthic community from 0 to 300 m via non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of species presence across depth bands. We used the Jaccard index of similarity to calculate the proportion of shared species between adjacent depth bands, measure species turnover with depth, and assess taxonomic overlap between shallow reefs versus progressively deeper depth bands. NMDS ordinations showed that the traditionally defined mesophotic range (30-150 m) as a whole is not a distinct community. In contrast, taxonomically distinct communities, determined by hierarchical clustering, were found at 0-70, 60-120, 110-200, and 190-300 m. Clustering highlighted an important separation in the benthic community at 60 m, which was especially important for actinopterygian fishes. Species turnover between adjacent depths decreased with depth for all taxa combined and individual taxa, with peaks at 60, 90-120, and 190-200 m. Fishes showed lower turnover from shallow to upper mesophotic depths (0-50 m) than all taxa combined, a substantial peak at 60 m, followed by a precipitous and continued decline in turnover thereafter. Taxonomic overlap between shallow (0-20 m) and progressively deeper zones declined steadily with depth in all taxa and individual taxa, suggesting that mid- and lower mesophotic habitats have less (but not inconsequential) potential to serve as refugia (60-150 m, 15-25% overlap with shallow habitats) than upper mesophotic zones (30-60 m, 30-45% overlap with shallow habitats) for all taxa combined. We conclude that the traditional mesophotic zone is home to three ecological communities in the GoMx, one that is confluent with shallow reefs, a distinct

  11. Shelf Circulation in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    phase speeds while narrow shelf regions, such as between Puerto Angel and Manzanillo , have weaker wind coupling coefficients. Frictional decay length...at Puerto Pefiasco and Guaymas respectively that are probably associated with localized gales. In later comparisons with moored observations, the...So.Califomia 250 - 0.01 -0.46 (summer) 35 -,4;~ a) SAN FELIPE 4’. PUERTO APE&ASCO WI ANGEL IS JoJ OE LA $Gota uya 30’ SAN/ 6W oai FRANCISQUIT04.1

  12. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  13. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  14. Carbon Dynamics on the Louisiana Continental Shelf and Cross-Shelf Feeding of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale hypoxia regularly develops during the summer on the Louisiana continental shelf. Traditionally, hypoxia has been linked to the vast winter and spring nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River and its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. However, recent studies indica...

  15. Deciphering the lithological consequences of bottom trawling to sedimentary habitats on the shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Nelson, Robert K.; Baasch, Benjamin; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Widespread bottom trawling on the NW Iberian shelf causes chronic sediment and habitat disturbance. The few studies that have investigated vessel-modified sedimentary-structure and texture of the seabed have typically classified their results as being either impacted by trawling or not. This study indicates that bottom trawling can result in a sequence of vastly different effects to the lithology of seabed sediment, which have in turn different ecological consequences. Here, we combined very high-resolution spatial bottom-trawling data with sedimentological (grain size, porosity) and geochemical datasets (excess 210Pb, 3D petroleum fingerprinting) to study sediment disturbance, including sorting and mixing. Our results were used to develop five conceptual disturbance scenarios: minimal seabed effects, sediment overturning, complete sediment mixing, sediment grading and layering, and loss of sediment. Considering that bottom trawling is a widespread and growing global fishing technique, such impacts need to be considered in the management of habitat conservation as well as in the reconstruction of late Holocene climate history from shallow-water deposits, not just on the NW Iberian shelf, but also globally.

  16. Tectonic structure of the Tuscany-Latium Continental Shelf (Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartole, R.

    1988-08-01

    An old regional seismic multicoverage reflection survey (Zone E) provides useful information on the shallow structure of the southern Tuscany-northern Latium shelf located between Elba Island and Anzio. Three main seismic units have been recognized on the grid, directly tied to the Matilde-1 offshore drilling and correlated to onshore wells and outcrops. The upper unit, characterized by continuous and generally undisturbed reflectors, is constituted by the postorogenic sedimentary cover of late Neogene-Quaternary age. This sequence unconformably lies on an intermediate unit or, when absent, a basal one. These two units, characterized by good-to-poor seismic response, are constituted by the tectonized geologic units of the Northern and Central Apennines. The intermediate unit corresponds to the Ligurids and Sicilids allochthonous complexes, while the basal unit may be attributable to the Tuscan nappe and/or the Tuscan autochthon in the shelf sector north of the Tiber River mouth, and the Umbro-Sabina units south of the same mouth. The widespread distribution and consistent thickness of the allochthonous cover (up to 1,000 msec two-way traveltime) lying over a structured substratum might be of some interest in hydrocarbon prospecting.

  17. Turbulent mixing over a shelf sea bank: linking physics to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew; Davis, Clare; Sharples, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    The interaction between stratified flow and topography has previously been seen to generate enhanced vertical mixing both locally and far field by breaking of an intensified wave field close to the generation point and from waves propagating energy away from the source. Here we present a new series of measurements made during the summer of 2008 that includes transect data from a Scanfish towed CTD that provides a snapshot of the vertical density structure and distribution of chlorophyll over the Celtic Sea from beyond the shelf break to 250km onshelf. The transect supports previous findings of a persistent level of primary production identifiable as a subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM). Intensification of chlorophyll is seen at the shelf break region and provides a biological indicator of mixing. Similarly, we identify a high concentration of chlorophyll over Jones Bank 200km from the shelf break in 120m depth. Measurements from an array of acoustic current profilers, thermistor stings and a turbulence profiler reveal that the shallow sloping bank and strong tides regularly interact to produce hydraulic jumps in the lee of the bank during spring periods identifying Jones Bank as a mixing hotspot. The energy dissipated during these events act to erode the base of the strong thermocline and result in a vertical flux of nutrients into the stable, stratified environment. We suggest that it is the spring-neap modulation of this process which promotes intensified mixing over the bank. Nutrient measurements made during the experiment reveal that the ever changing mixing environment has significant influence on the phytoplankton community at the bank and is likely the key component in promoting enhanced biological production.

  18. The Effects of Dense Shelf-Water Cascading in the World Ocean Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblas, D.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Micallef, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dense shelf-water cascading (DSWC) is a seasonal phenomenon that occurs in marine regions around the globe. DSWC starts when surface waters over the continental shelf become denser than surrounding waters (by cooling, evaporation or sea-ice formation with brine rejection) and sink, generating near-bottom gravity flows that move downslope along the seabed, often using submarine canyons as preferential conduits. This process contributes to deep-ocean ventilation, plays a role in the global thermohaline circulation (and hence global climate), and involves large-scale transfer of energy and matter (including sedimentary particles, organic carbon, chemical pollutants and light litter) from shallow to deep waters. The large volumes involved in DSWC flows can result in appreciable sediment erosion and downslope transport. However, very few field studies discuss DSWC as an effective seafloor-sculpting agent, and none of them at a global scale. Here we present a new project that investigates the seafloor imprint of DSWC on modern continental shelves and slopes. This study represents a timely updated inventory of global DSWC occurrences and, in selected areas, provides a geomorphologic and geomorphometric analysis focused on identifying the seafloor drainage signature of DSWC. The study should provide a better characterization of the distribution, hydrodynamics and sculpting capacity of dense shelf-water currents, as well as their morphological evolution through time under the influence of dynamic processes. This will allow us to make predictions about the future trends (intensification vs. lessening, and geographic shifts) and role of DSWC on seafloor dynamics under a changing climate on different continental margins worldwide.

  19. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Impact of Medium Deep Borehole Thermal Energy Storage on the Shallow Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Schulte, Daniel O.; Rühaak, Wolfram; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Borehole heat exchanger arrays are a well-suited and already widely applied method for exploiting the shallow subsurface as seasonal heat storage. However, in most of the populated regions the shallow subsurface also comprises an important aquifer system used for drinking water production. Thus, the operation of shallow geothermal heat storage systems leads to a significant increase in groundwater temperatures in the proximity of the borehole heat exchanger array. The magnitude of the impact on groundwater quality and microbiology associated with this temperature rise is controversially discussed. Nevertheless, the protection of shallow groundwater resources has priority. Accordingly, water authorities often follow restrictive permission policies for building such storage systems. An alternative approach to avoid this issue is the application of medium deep borehole heat exchanger arrays instead of shallow ones. The thermal impact on shallow aquifers can be significantly reduced as heat is stored at larger depth. Moreover, it can be further diminished by the installation of a thermally insulating materials in the upper section of the borehole heat exchangers. Based on a numerical simulation study, the advantageous effects of medium deep borehole thermal energy storage are demonstrated and quantified. A finite element software is used to model the heat transport in the subsurface in 3D, while the heat transport in the borehole heat exchangers is solved analytically in 1D. For this purpose, an extended analytical solution is implemented, which also allows for the consideration of a thermally insulating borehole section.

  1. QUALIY PARAMETERS AND SHELF LIFE OF GAME MEAT DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spaziani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the duration of frozen storage at –20°C on the game meat quality parameters, namely the pH, colour, thawing and cooking losses. The oxidative stability of game meat was evaluated by the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Frozen storage duration did not extensively influence either the quality properties, or the oxidative stability of game meat. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the higher amount of a- tocopherol in the muscles of game compared to pellet-fed animals could be mainly responsible for the lower lipid oxidation and longer shelf life.

  2. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V.F.

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  3. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  4. Determination of shelf life of sous vide salmon (Salmo salard) based on sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

    2009-10-01

    Sous vide technology permits precooked dishes of high sensory and nutritional quality to be obtained with a longer shelf life than is possible using other cooking-cooling methods. Salmon portions (200 g; 0.5, w:w; greased with olive oil) were par-roasted (300 degrees C/3 min), cooked using sous vide technology (80 degrees C/43 min), and maintained in anaerobic conditions at 2 degrees C for 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 25 d. At each control day, Enterobacteriaceae counts were made and the attributes of sensory spoilage were determined (3 visual, 2 odor, 2 flavor, and 3 texture attributes) by a panel of trained judges. A loss of smell, taste, color, and juiciness was detected during storage, along with the appearance of off-odors and off-flavors. The shelf life of the sous vide salmon based on sensory analysis was established at 18 d.

  5. A concept of a component based system to determine pot-plant shelf-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Oliver; Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti;

    2006-01-01

    to calculate the expected keeping quality, or it will be able to apply the system as decision support during plant cultivation. In the latter case, the model-based system can be implemented in a greenhouse climate computer. The concept contains information on climate control strategies, controlled stress......, the keeping quality of a plant after removal from the greenhouse could be estimated. A concept of a system that describes a model based knowledge system aiming at determination of the last selling date for pot plants is presented. The core of the conceptual system is a tool that can either be used......Plant keeping quality during shelf life is next to genetic attributes also determined by plant treatment. This is attributed to inner plant quality parameters. We expect that a model including information gathered during crop cultivation could be used to predict the inner crop quality. From that...

  6. Sorted bedforms on the inner shelf off northeastern New Zealand: spatiotemporal relationships and potential paleo-environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, Arthur C.; Hume, Terry M.

    2011-06-01

    Sorted bedforms are heterogeneous shelf seabed features found ubiquitously on the inner shelf of New Zealand and around the world. In this study we examine the shallow stratigraphy of sorted bedforms using diver-collected short cores together with the textural analysis of the associated surface sediments in the Tairua-Pauanui embayment on the northeast coast of the North Island of New Zealand. Combining sonar and textural analysis together with the local oceanographic conditions provides new insight into the interpretation of sorted bedform features. In this regional case study, sorted bedforms are found to have a stratigraphic signature characterized by alternating fine and coarse sequences that does not reflect alternating calm (low-energy) and storm (high-energy) cycles. Instead, the core sequences suggest the signature of a heterogeneous inner shelf sedimentary facies developed from morphodynamic feedback mechanisms operating at the scale of the bottom boundary layer. The resulting sedimentary sequence (alternating coarse and fine units) found throughout this study site is the result of contemporaneous sorting processes.

  7. International Legislation of Shallow Geothermal Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnlein, S.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change, energy savings and energy autonomy are frequently discussed topics. Hence, renewable energy resources are currently promoted worldwide. One of these is geothermal energy. Worldwide the number of shallow geothermal installations (review the current international legal status of thermal use of groundwater. We present the results of an international survey, which offers comprehensive insight in the worldwide legal situation of closed and open systems of shallow geothermal installations. The focus is on minimum distances of these systems and limits for groundwater temperature changes. We can conclude that there are only few regulations and recommendations for minimum distances of these installations and groundwater temperature changes. Some countries have no regulations and in addition if recommendations are given, these are not legally binding. However, to promote shallow geothermal energy as an economically attractive and sustainable energy source, an international homogeneous legislation is necessary.

  8. A Three Dimensional Sea Facility for Deep and Shallow Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost wave tank for the testing of structures in short crested seas and current. The paddle system is of the snake type and used for the generation of both deep and shallow water waves. The quality of the waves and scale problems related to small scale tests are discussed...

  9. The structure and origin of Prydz Bay and MacRobertson Shelf, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, H. M. J.

    1985-04-01

    A marine geophysical survey in early 1982, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, indicated that much of Prydz Bay is underlain by a sedimentary basin. Severe seismic multiples preclude an accurate estimate of total sediment thickness, but interpretation of the seismic and magnetic data suggest that it is probably at least 5 km. The trends of the southeast basin margin and of mild faulting and folding in the southwest indicate an overall NNE trend, roughly orthogonal to the continental margin. In the south of Prydz Bay, two series of seismic sequences are evident, separated by a mildly erosional unconformity. The lower series ranges from poorly- to well-stratified, has minor folding and faulting, and probably derives from continental and perhaps shallow marine pre-breakup sediments. The upper series is generally well-stratified, and prograded near the shelf edge; it probably represents shallow marine post-breakup sediments. The seabed is distinctly unconformable with the underlying sediments, implying both that much of the upper series sediments and some of the lower series sediments have been bulldozed off by advances of the Amery Ice Shelf, and that present sedimentation rates are very low. Possible thin moraines or tillites in the northeast part of the Prydz Bay are also attributed to these glacial advances. The continental slope and rise sedimentary section ranges from at least 3 km thick off Prydz Bay, to thin off the MacRobertson Shelf to the west, reflecting the more prolific sediment source in Prydz Bay. The deep water section includes several seismic sequences, the most distinctive being interpreted as sheet volcanics and turbidite fans. The deepest visible unconformity is locally strongly faulted and may separate the pre-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Indo-Antarctic breakup has been tentatively dated as Early Neocomian (130 Ma) and the E-W orientation of the resultant Antarctic coast invites interpretation of the Lambert Glacier

  10. Cenozoic Carbonate Stratigraphy of the Yucatan Shelf, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Nieto, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Yucatan shelf in the southern Gulf of Mexico has developed as a large shallow ramp shelf, tectonically stable that preserves a continuous sedimentary record for the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. We present the preliminary results of a study involving well stratigraphy, X-ray diffraction and petrography of the Cenozoic sequence sampled in the UNAM-5, UNAM-6 and UNAM-7 exploratory boreholes drilled in the southwestern and southern sectors of the Yucatan state. The boreholes were drilled as part of the Chicxulub Drilling Project aimed to investigate the formation and characteristics of the large crater, formed by an asteroid impact at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary. Our study aims to investigate the stratigraphic relations, textural changes and characteristics of the sedimentary units, to identify events associated with the evolution of the platform during the Cenozoic. We constructed detailed stratigraphic columns for the three borehole cores and prepared samples collected across the stratigraphic section for petrography and clay analyses. The petrographic studies were made at different depths above the K/Pg boundary to recognize textural variations, the identification of dolomite was made by the method of staining thin sections, and the dolomite fabrics were analyzed to identify the nature and shape of their crystal boundaries. The method of X-ray diffraction was used to identify clay types. The three boreholes cross the K/Pg boundary at different depths. The stratigraphic column is formed, from bottom to top, of a limestone sequence with evaporites nodules, little contents of benthic foraminifera, scarce planktic foraminifera and oogonia fossils suggesting internal lagoonal environments that vary to outer lagoon. This sequence is underlain by limestones with different degrees of dolomitization that in many cases present poorly preserved microfossil contents. Above this sequence, there is a clay bed identified as palygorskita, which has a variable

  11. The impact of future sea-level rise on the European Shelf tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, M. D.; Wells, N. C.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Green, J. A. M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of future sea-level rise (SLR) on the tides of the northwest European Continental Shelf. The European shelf tide is dominated by semidiurnal constituents. This study therefore focuses primarily on the changes in the M2 tidal constituent and the spring and neap tidal conditions. The validated operational Dutch Continental Shelf Model is run for the present day sea-level as well as 2 and 10 m SLR scenarios. The M2 tidal amplitude responds to SLR in a spatially non-uniform manner, with substantial amplitude increases and decreases in both scenarios. The M2 tidal response is non-linear between 2 and 10 m with respect to SLR, particularly in the North Sea. Under the 2 m SLR scenario the M2 constituent is particularly responsive in the resonant areas of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St. Malo (with large amplitude decreases) and in the southeastern German Bight and Dutch Wadden Sea (with large amplitude increases). Changes in the spring tide are generally greater still than those in the M2 or neap tides. With 2 m SLR the spring tidal range increases up to 35 cm at Cuxhaven and decreases up to -49 cm at St. Malo. Additionally the changes in the shallow water tides are larger than expected. With SLR the depth, wave speed and wave length (tidal resonance characteristics) are increased causing changes in near resonant areas. In expansive shallow areas SLR causes reduced energy dissipation by bottom friction. Combined these mechanisms result in the migration of the amphidromes and complex patterns of non-linear change in the tide with SLR. Despite the significant uncertainty associated with the rate of SLR over the next century, substantial alterations to tidal characteristics can be expected under a high end SLR scenario. Contrary to existing studies this paper highlights the importance of considering the modification of the tides by future SLR. These substantial future changes in the tides could have wide reaching implications; including

  12. Rule Based Shallow Parser for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of language processing approaches that compute a basic analysis of sentence structure rather than attempting full syntactic analysis is shallow syntactic parsing. It is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verb groups, prepositional groups, but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence. The only technique used for Arabic shallow parser is Support Vector Machine (SVM based approach. The problem faced by shallow parser developers is the boundary identification which is applied to ensure the generation of high accuracy system performance. Approach: The specific objective of the research was to identify the entire Noun Phrases (NPs, Verb Phrases (VPs and Prepositional Phrases (PPs boundaries in the Arabic language. This study discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. New rules were proposed to the shallow parser features up to the generation of two levels from full parse-tree. We described an implementation and evaluate the rule-based shallow parser that handles chunking of Arabic sentences. This research was based on a critical analysis of the Arabic sentences architecture. It discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect the start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. Results: The system was tested manually on 70 Arabic sentences which composed of 1776 words, with the length of the sentences between 4-50 words. The result obtained was significantly better than state of the art Arabic published results, which achieved F-scores of 97%. Conclusion: The main achievement includes the development of Arabic shallow parser based on rule-based approaches. Chunking which constitutes the main contribution is achieved on two successive stages that include grouped sequences of

  13. 76 FR 54787 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...