WorldWideScience

Sample records for quality shallow shelf

  1. New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Expedition 313 Scientists; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    to key horizons in wells drilled into the adjacent coastal plain suggest the clinoform structures investigated during Expedition 313 were deposited during times of oscillations in global sea level; however, this needs to be determined with much greater certainty. The age, lithofacies, and core-log......Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 to the New Jersey Shallow Shelf off the east coast of the United States is the third IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform. It was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO......) between 30 April and 17 July 2009, with additional support from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). There were three objectives: (1) date late Paleogene–Neogene depositional sequences and compare ages of unconformable surfaces that divide these sequences with times of sea...

  2. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Scott T.; Justice James L.; Taylor, Archie R.

    1999-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs

  3. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Archie R.

    1996-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  4. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2000-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  5. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  6. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2001-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  7. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  8. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  9. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  10. Testing sequence stratigraphic models by drilling Miocene foresets on the New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Kenneth G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, James V.

    2013-01-01

    continental shelf (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 313, Sites M27-M29). We recognize stratal surfaces and systems tracts by integrating seismic stratigraphy, litho-facies successions, gamma logs, and foraminiferal paleodepth trends. Our interpretations of systems tracts, particularly......) and coarsening- and shallowing-upward highstand systems tracts (HST). Drilling through the foresets yields thin (

  11. Transformation of internal solitary waves at the "deep" and "shallow" shelf: satellite observations and laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Shishkina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An interaction of internal solitary waves with the shelf edge in the time periods related to the presence of a pronounced seasonal pycnocline in the Red Sea and in the Alboran Sea is analysed via satellite photos and SAR images. Laboratory data on transformation of a solitary wave of depression while passing along the transverse bottom step were obtained in a tank with a two-layer stratified fluid. The certain difference between two characteristic types of hydrophysical phenomena was revealed both in the field observations and in experiments. The hydrological conditions for these two processes were named the "deep" and the "shallow" shelf respectively. The first one provides the generation of the secondary periodic short internal waves – "runaway" edge waves – due to change in the polarity of a part of a soliton approaching the shelf normally. Another one causes a periodic shear flow in the upper quasi-homogeneous water layer with the period of incident solitary wave. The strength of the revealed mechanisms depends on the thickness of the water layer between the pycnocline and the shelf bottom as well as on the amplitude of the incident solitary wave.

  12. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Kovar, M.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1999-02-24

    The application cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. and the US Department of Energy have teamed up in a attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir.

  13. Bottom currents and sediment waves on a shallow carbonate shelf, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belde, Johannes; Reuning, Lars; Back, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The modern seafloor of the Australian Northwest Shelf between Exmouth and Dampier was analyzed for large scale sedimentary bedforms on 3D seismic reflection data. The Carnarvon MegaSurvey of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), a merged dataset of multiple industrial 3D seismic reflection surveys with a total size of 49,717 km2, offers an extensive view of the continental shelf, slope and rise of the Northern Carnarvon Basin. Over the shelf two fields of large scale sediment waves were observed in water depths between 55-130 m, where the seafloor may be influenced by different processes including internal waves, tides and storms. Based on the dimensions and orientations of the sediment waves the dominant direction and approximate strength of local bottom currents could be estimated. Information on local sediment grain-size distribution was provided by the auSEABED database allowing a classification of the observed sediment waves into sand- or mudwaves. The first sediment wave field is positioned northwest of the Montebello Islands where the shelf is comparatively narrow and local sediment is mainly sand-sized. It most likely formed by increased bottom currents induced by the diversion of tidal flows around the islands. The second sediment wave field is located north of the Serrurier and Bessieres Islands within a local seafloor depression. Local sediments are poorly sorted, containing significant amounts of mud and gravel in addition to the mainly sand-sized grains. The coarser sediment fraction could have been reworked to sandwaves by cyclone-induced bottom currents. Alternatively, the finer sediment fraction could form mudwaves shaped by less energetic along-slope oriented currents in the topographic depression. The sediment waves consist partially of carbonate grains such as ooids and peloids that formed in shallow water during initial stages of the post glacial sea-level rise. These stranded carbonate grains thus formed in a different environment than the sediment

  14. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  15. Multilayer shallow shelf approximation: Minimisation formulation, finite element solvers and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvet, Guillaume, E-mail: jouvet@vaw.baug.ethz.ch [Institut für Mathematik, Freie Universität Berlin (Germany); Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, a multilayer generalisation of the Shallow Shelf Approximation (SSA) is considered. In this recent hybrid ice flow model, the ice thickness is divided into thin layers, which can spread out, contract and slide over each other in such a way that the velocity profile is layer-wise constant. Like the SSA (1-layer model), the multilayer model can be reformulated as a minimisation problem. However, unlike the SSA, the functional to be minimised involves a new penalisation term for the interlayer jumps of the velocity, which represents the vertical shear stresses induced by interlayer sliding. Taking advantage of this reformulation, numerical solvers developed for the SSA can be naturally extended layer-wise or column-wise. Numerical results show that the column-wise extension of a Newton multigrid solver proves to be robust in the sense that its convergence is barely influenced by the number of layers and the type of ice flow. In addition, the multilayer formulation appears to be naturally better conditioned than the one of the first-order approximation to face the anisotropic conditions of the sliding-dominant ice flow of ISMIP-HOM experiments.

  16. Turbulence and Mixing in a Shallow Shelf Sea From Underwater Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Larissa K. P.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Carpenter, Jeffrey R.

    2017-11-01

    The seasonal thermocline in shallow shelf seas acts as a natural barrier for boundary-generated turbulence, damping scalar transport to the upper regions of the water column and controlling primary production to a certain extent. To better understand turbulence and mixing conditions within the thermocline, two unique 12 and 17 day data sets with continuous measurements of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) collected by autonomous underwater gliders under stratified to well-mixed conditions are presented. A highly intermittent ɛ signal was observed in the stratified thermocline region, which was mainly characterized by quiescent flow (turbulent activity index below 7). The rate of diapycnal mixing remained relatively constant for the majority of the time with peaks of higher fluxes that were responsible for much of the increase in bottom mixed layer temperature. The water column stayed predominantly strongly stratified, with a bulk Richardson number across the thermocline well above 2. A positive relationship between the intensity of turbulence, shear, and stratification was found. The trend between turbulence levels and the bulk Richardson number was relatively weak but suggests that ɛ increases as the bulk Richardson number approaches 1. The results also highlight the interpretation difficulties in both quantifying turbulent thermocline fluxes as well as the responsible mechanisms.

  17. Delineating the relationship between chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) variability and biogeochemical parameters in a shallow continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Sourav Das; Sugata Hazra; Aneesh A. Lotlikar; Isha Das; Sandip Giri; Abhra Chanda; Anirban Akhand; Sourav Maity; T. Srinivasa Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 440 nm [aCDOM (440)], sea surface salinity (SSS), total suspended matter (TSM) and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) were measured during October, 2014 to March, 2015 in the shallow continental shelf waters of the Hugli Estuary, adjacent to West Bengal coast, India. The primary objective of the study was to characterize the relationship between aCDOM (440) and the above mentioned biogeochemical parameters. Upon analyzing the result...

  18. Controls on reef development and the terrigenous-carbonate interface on a shallow shelf, Nicaragua (Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H. H.; Murray, S. P.

    1983-06-01

    Marine geology and physical oceanographic data collected during two field projects (˜4 months) on the Caribbean shelf of Nicaragua indicate a surprising dominance of carbonate deposition and reef growth on a shelf that is receiving an abnormally large volume of terrigenous sediments. High rainfall rates (˜400 500 cm/year), coupled with a warm tropical climate, encourage rapid denudation of the country's central volcanic highland and transport of large volumes of terrigenous sediment and fresh water to the coast. Estimates suggest that three times more fresh water and fifteen times more sediment are introduced per unit length of coastline than on the east coast of the United States. Distribution of the terrigenous facies, development of carbonate sediment suites, and the location and quality of viable reefs are strongly controlled by the dynamic interaction near the coasts of highly turbid fresh to brackish water effluents from thirteen rivers with clear marine waters of the shelf. Oceanic water from the central Caribbean drift current intersects the shelf and moves slowely in a dominant northwest direction toward the Yucatan Channel. A sluggish secondary gyre moves to the south toward Costa Rica. In contrast, the turbid coastal water is deflected to the south in response to density gradients, surface water slopes, and momentum supplied by the steady northeast trade winds. A distinct two-layered flow is commonly present in the sediment-rich coastal boundary zone, which is typically 10 20 km wide. The low-salinity upper layer is frictionally uncoupled from the ambient shelf water and therefore can expand out of the normally coherent coastal boundary zone during periods of abnormal flooding or times when instability is introduced into the northeast trades. Reef distribution, abruptness of the terrigenous-carbonate interface, and general shelf morphology reflect the long-term dynamic structure of the shelf waters. A smooth-bottomed ramp of siliciclastic sands to

  19. Quality assessment of groundwater from shallow aquifers in Hong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality assessment of groundwater from shallow aquifers in Hong area, Adamawa state, northeastern Nigeria. ... The high content of fluoride and iron in the groundwater may have contributed to the high EC and TDS especially during the rainy season when the rate of leaching and infiltration is high. Keywords: Quality ...

  20. Oil, gas potential in shallow water: Peru`s continental shelf basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H. [BPZ and Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-11-16

    This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.

  1. Acoustic masking due to gases in shallow seismic profiling on the shelf off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Rao, D.G.; Veerayya, M.; Wagle, B.G.

    like features which extend from the underlying reflector, i.e. sand and reach within 5-10 m of the surface. These features resemble the acoustic masking due to gases reported in shallow seismic profiles and echograms from estuaries and bays elsewhere...

  2. Hydrocarbon production forecast for committed assets in the shallow water Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico averaged daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil and 7.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The majority of oil is produced from deepwater fields in water depth greater than 1000 ft, while most gas production is extracted from the shelf. The Outer Continental Shelf is a mature province with over 3800 fixed structures and 6500 producing wells connected into an integrated pipeline network more than 30,000 miles in length. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to forecast oil and gas production in the shallow water Gulf of Mexico. Structures are categorized according to age and production characteristics, and forecast procedures for each asset class are described and illustrated. The methodology is implemented using the inventory of committed assets circa December 2006. The expected amount of hydrocarbon production arising from the inventory of committed assets under stable reservoir and investment conditions is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas valued between $85 and 150 billion. The results of generalized regression models are presented with a discussion of the limitations of analysis. (author)

  3. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs

  4. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  5. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    . This approach allowed us to investigate the relationship between the lithological units and sea-level change and thus enable the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. This reconstruction suggests that the stratigraphy is dominated by a sea level lowstand during which aeolian, fluvial and paleosol sediments were deposited in a terrestrial environment. The coastal-terrestrial landscape was flooded by the early to middle Holocene transgression. The results of this study provide a valuable framework for future national strategic shallow-water infrastructure construction and also for the possible locations of past human settlements in relation to coastal evolution through time.

  6. Effects of pre- and postharvest calcium treatments on shelf life and postharvest quality of broccoli microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microgreens’ extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of pre- and post- harvest treatments using different forms of calcium on the postharvest quality and shelf-life of broccoli microgreens. Preharvest spray with calcium lactate, ...

  7. Microbial biodiversity, quality and shelf life of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Verena S J; Kaufmann, Veronika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2012-03-01

    Information on factors limiting the shelf life of extended shelf life (ESL) milk produced by microfiltration and subsequent pasteurization is very limited. In this study, three different batches of ESL milk were analyzed at different stages of the production process and during storage at 4 °C, 8 °C and 10 °C in order to evaluate the changes in bacterial cell counts, microbial diversity and enzymatic quality. Additionally, detailed biodiversity analyses of 250 retail ESL milk packages produced by five manufacturers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were performed at the end of shelf life. It was observed that microfiltration decreased the microbial loads by 5-6 log₁₀ units to lower than 1 CFU/mL. However, bacterial counts at the end of shelf life were extremely variable and ranged between ESL treatment, causing stochastic variations of initial species distributions in individual packages. This would result in the development of significantly different bacterial populations during cold storage, including the occasional development of high numbers of pathogenic species such as B. cereus or Acinetobacter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. 1994 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    It is anticipated that this project will show that the application of the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in shallow shelf carbonates can be economically implemented to recover appreciable volumes of light oil. The goals of the project are the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential. The selected site for the demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Work is nearing completion on the reservoir characterization components of the project. The near-term emphasis is to, (1) provide an accurate distribution of original oil-in-place on a waterflood pattern entity level, (2) evaluate past recovery efficiencies, (3) perform parametric simulations, and (4) forecast performance for a site specific field demonstration of the proposed technology. Macro zonation now exists throughout the study area and cross-sections are available. The Oil-Water Contact has been defined. Laboratory capillary pressure data was used to define the initial water saturations within the pay horizon. The reservoir`s porosity distribution has been enhanced with the assistance of geostatistical software. Three-Dimensional kriging created the spatial distributions of porosity at interwell locations. Artificial intelligence software was utilized to relate core permeability to core porosity, which in turn was applied to the 3-D geostatistical porosity gridding. An Equation-of-State has been developed and refined for upcoming compositional simulation exercises. Options for local grid-refinement in the model are under consideration. These tasks will be completed by mid-1995, prior to initiating the field demonstrations in the second budget period.

  9. Chronology of Eocene-Miocene sequences on the New Jersey shallow shelf: implications for regional, interregional, and global correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, James V.; Miller, Kenneth G.; Sugarman, Peter J.; Barron, John; McCarthy, Francine M.G.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Katz, Miriam E.; Feigenson, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 313 continuously cored and logged latest Eocene to early-middle Miocene sequences at three sites (M27, M28, and M29) on the inner-middle continental shelf offshore New Jersey, providing an opportunity to evaluate the ages, global correlations, and significance of sequence boundaries. We provide a chronology for these sequences using integrated strontium isotopic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy (primarily calcareous nannoplankton, diatoms, and dinocysts [dinoflagellate cysts]). Despite challenges posed by shallow-water sediments, age resolution is typically ±0.5 m.y. and in many sequences is as good as ±0.25 m.y. Three Oligocene sequences were sampled at Site M27 on sequence bottomsets. Fifteen early to early-middle Miocene sequences were dated at Sites M27, M28, and M29 across clinothems in topsets, foresets (where the sequences are thickest), and bottomsets. A few sequences have coarse (∼1 m.y.) or little age constraint due to barren zones; we constrain the age estimates of these less well dated sequences by applying the principle of superposition, i.e., sediments above sequence boundaries in any site are younger than the sediments below the sequence boundaries at other sites. Our age control provides constraints on the timing of deposition in the clinothem; sequences on the topsets are generally the youngest in the clinothem, whereas the bottomsets generally are the oldest. The greatest amount of time is represented on foresets, although we have no evidence for a correlative conformity. Our chronology provides a baseline for regional and interregional correlations and sea-level reconstructions: (1) we correlate a major increase in sedimentation rate precisely with the timing of the middle Miocene climate changes associated with the development of a permanent East Antarctic Ice Sheet; and (2) the timing of sequence boundaries matches the deep-sea oxygen isotopic record, implicating glacioeustasy as a major driver

  10. Recent trends in the abundance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa and cod Gadus morhua in shallow coastal waters of the Northeastern Atlantic continental shelf – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of the southern distribution boundary in the Bay of Biscay and deepening of stocks in the North Sea. In contrast, no trend in shallow water abundance of plaice similar to a decline in deep-water stocks during the 1970s and their slow recovery during the 2000s is apparent in the Skagerrak/Kattegat. Although......Shallow, near-shore water habitats on the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic have been productive fishing areas in the past. Here, we review the present knowledge about (i) recent trends in the abundance of plaice and cod in these habitats and (ii) hypotheses regarding the factors...... responsible for any trends. At present, only a few studies exist on the trends of abundance of plaice or cod, namely from the Bay of Biscay, the North Sea and the Skagerrak/Kattegat. They suggest a declining abundance in coastal, shallow areas and – at least for plaice – a latitudinal gradient with an erosion...

  11. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  13. Effect of TiO2 photocatalytic preservation on quality of kiwifruit during shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chengjie; Jiang, Yong; Qi, Shasha; Zhang, Changfeng; Guo, Fengjun

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology on the quality of kiwifruit during shelf life, the texture properties of kiwifruit during shelf life were measured by simulating the effect of cross-ripening among fruits and vegetables under the mixed environment of different fruits and vegetables. The results showed that the kiwifruit after photocatalytic preservation maintained a more mature state in the middle and preliminary stage of shelf life, chewiness is better than the control group and the blank group, compared with the over-ripen control group and low-maturity blank group, experimental group has the best commodity value. Therefore, using nanometer photocatalytic preservation can effectively reduce the ripening effect of kiwifruit in the mixed environment, control the after-ripening of kiwifruit, and meanwhile maintain the commodity value of the kiwifruit during the shelf life.iO2, Photocatalysis, Kiwifruit, Shelf-life.

  14. Using Recent Advances in 2D Seismic Technology and Surface Geochemistry to Economically Redevelop a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir: Vernon Field, Isabella County, M, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Chittick, S.D.; Harrison, William B.; Tayjor, W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01

    In this project a consortium consisting of Cronus Exploration (Traverse City, MI), Michigan Technological University (Houghton, MI) and Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo, MI) proposed to develop and execute an economical and environmentally sensitive plan for recovery of hydrocarbons from an abandoned shallow-shelf carbonate field that is typical of many fields in the U.S. Midwest. This is a 5-year project that will use surface geochemistry as a tool to reduce risk in locating and producing hydrocarbons in Class II fields. The project will develop new techniques for measuring hydrocarbon gases in the soil horizon to locate new and bypassed oil in the shallow-shelf carbonate environments typified by the Dundee and Trenton Formations of the Michigan Basin (Fisher et. al., 1988). In Phase I of the project, the consortium proposes to re-develop the Vernon Oil field located in Vernon Twp, Isabella County, Michigan and produce both bypassed hydrocarbons from the original field and to locate and produce extensions of the original field

  15. CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, S.C.; Boomer, R.J.; Cole, R.; Preiditus, J.; Vogt, J.

    1996-09-01

    The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg/San Andres formation; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir within the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico.

  16. Glacially-derived overpressure in the northeastern Alaskan subduction zone: combined tomographic and morphometric analysis of shallow sediments on the Yakutat shelf and slope, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, W. A.; Worthington, L. L.; Scuderi, L. A.; Daigle, H.; Swartz, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Pamplona zone fold and thrust belt is the offshore expression of convergence and shallow subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath North America in the northeastern Alaska subduction zone. The combination of convergent tectonics and glaciomarine sedimentary processes create patterns of deformation and deposition resulting in a shallow sedimentary sequence with varying compaction, fluid pressure, and fault activity. We propose that velocity variations observed in our tomographic analysis represent long-lived fluid overpressure due to loading by ice sheets and sediments. Regions with bathymetric and stratigraphic evidence of recent ice sheets and associated sedimentation should be collocated with evidence of overpressure (seismic low velocity zones) in the shallow sediments. Here, we compare a velocity model with shelf seismic stratigraphic facies and modern seafloor morphology. To document glacially derived morphology we use high resolution bathymetry to identify channel and gully networks on the western Yakutat shelf-slope then analyze cross-channel shape indices across the study area. We use channel shape index measurements as a proxy of recent ice-proximal sedimentation based on previously published results that proposed a close correlation. Profiles taken at many locations were fitted with a power function and assigned a shape - U-shape channels likely formed proximal to recent ice advances. Detailed velocity models were created by a combination of streamer tomography and pre-stack depth migration velocities with seismic data including: a 2008 R/V Langseth dataset from the St. Elias Erosion and Tectonics Project (STEEP); and a 2004 high-resolution R/V Ewing dataset. Velocity-porosity-permeability relationships developed using IODP Expedition 341 drilling data inform interpretation and physical properties analyses of the shallow sediments. Initial results from a 35 km profile extending SE seaward of the Bering glacier and subparallel to the Bering trough

  17. Water quality assessment in a shallow lake used for tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembowska Ewa A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The routine evaluation of water quality is limited to lakes with the largest area. In Poland, only lakes with an area exceeding 50 hectares are monitored by the State Environmental Monitoring System. For many local communities, however, small lakes are more important. This applies mainly to areas with a small number of lakes, where even the smallest lakes are used for various purposes. This paper presents the results of phytoplankton analysis in a small and shallow lake used for recreation. The study was conducted at three sites located in different parts of the lake. A total of 122 algae taxa were identified in the phytoplankton, mainly diatoms and green algae. The most constant taxa in the lake were: Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Desmodesmus communis, Pediastrum tetras and Crucigenia tetrapedia. The average phytoplankton biomass was 37 mg l−1. The maximum biomass, almost 140 mg dm−3, was recorded in late July at the site located near the beach. At that time, there was a massive cyanobacterial bloom composed of Microcystis wesenbergii and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi. Based on these studies, the lake should be classified as hypertrophic with bad ecological status. This lake should not be used for recreational purposes in the current state.

  18. Shallow stratigraphy and gas-charged sediments in the inner shelf off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.

    palaeochannel running across the region in ENE-WSW direction. Shallow seismic surveys indicate a pseudo escapment of more than 7 m deep between 12-14 m water depths. Eastern part (11-14 m) of the escarpment indicate the existence of gas-charged sediments (silty...

  19. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-01-01

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities

  20. Monitoring Shelf Life of Pasteurized Whole Milk Under Refrigerated Storage Conditions: Predictive Models for Quality Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaina, Mohamed; Govindan, Byju N; Rasco, Barbara; Coffey, Todd; Sablani, Shyam S

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of pasteurized milk is generally determined through microbiological analysis. The objective of this study was to correlate microbial quality parameters then to design predictive models for shelf life of pasteurized milk. We analyzed pasteurized milk (3.9% fat) for aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophic bacteria counts (PBCs), and Bacillus spp. counts at 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, and 19 (±1 °C) to the end of storage time. We also monitored titratable acidity, pH, and, lipase, and protease activity and correlated this with APC, which is the principal index defining shelf life. Results indicate that the shelf life of pasteurized milk was 24, 36, and 72 h at 19, 15, and 13 °C respectively, as determined by APC and acidity indicators. However, milk stored at lower temperatures of 5, 7, and 10 °C had longer shelf life of 30, 24, and 12 d, respectively. A sharp increase in titratable acidity, while decrease pH were observed when APCs reached 5.0 log 10 CFU/mL at all storage temperatures. Lipase and protease activities increased with storage temperature. At 5 and 7 °C, however, protease activity was very low. Therefore, we eliminated this parameter from our quality parameters as a potential spoilage indicator. Findings of this research are useful for monitoring the quality of commercial pasteurized milk, particularly in locations where environmental conditions make longer storage difficult. The study also provides valuable information for development of colorimetric shelf life indicators. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Shelf-life and quality evaluation of clementine following a combined treatment with γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrouz, M.; Lacroix, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Oufedjikh, H.; Boubekri, C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of a late variety of Moroccan Citrus clementina (Nour), ionizing treatments were applied at 0.3 kGy, as well as washing (cold water) and waxing treatments. It has been found that, despite the irradiation treatment, the washing and waxing treatment do not improve the quality of C. clementina, but rather result in peel injury. Finally, sensory evaluation confirmed that irradiation had no detrimental effect on the quality of clementines

  2. Shelf-Life Prediction of Extra Virgin Olive Oils Using an Empirical Model Based on Standard Quality Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil shelf-life could be defined as the length of time under normal storage conditions within which no off-flavours or defects are developed and quality parameters such as peroxide value and specific absorbance are retained within accepted limits for this commercial category. Prediction of shelf-life is a desirable goal in the food industry. Even when extra virgin olive oil shelf-life should be one of the most important quality markers for extra virgin olive oil, it is not recognised as a legal parameter in most regulations and standards around the world. The proposed empirical formula to be evaluated in the present study is based on common quality tests with known and predictable result changes over time and influenced by different aspects of extra virgin olive oil with a meaningful influence over its shelf-life. The basic quality tests considered in the formula are Rancimat® or induction time (IND; 1,2-diacylglycerols (DAGs; pyropheophytin a (PPP; and free fatty acids (FFA. This paper reports research into the actual shelf-life of commercially packaged extra virgin olive oils versus the predicted shelf-life of those oils determined by analysing the expected deterioration curves for the three basic quality tests detailed above. Based on the proposed model, shelf-life is predicted by choosing the lowest predicted shelf-life of any of those three tests.

  3. Multiple episodes of dolomitization and dolomite recrystallization during shallow burial in Upper Jurassic shelf carbonates: eastern Swabian Alb, southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, C.

    1998-10-01

    The Upper Jurassic of the eastern Swabian Alb is composed of oolitic platform sands with associated microbe-siliceous sponge mounds at the platform margins. They are surrounded by argillaceous or calcareous mudstones and marl-limestone alternations, deposited in adjacent marl basins. Partial to complete dolomitization is predominantly confined to the mound facies. Six types of dolomite, as well as one type of ankerite, document a complex diagenetic history during shallow burial with multiple episodes of dolomite formation and recrystallization. The earliest massive matrix dolomitization is Ca-rich, has slightly depleted oxygen isotope values relative to Late Jurassic seawater, and carbon isotopic values in equilibrium with Late Jurassic seawater. This initial massive matrix dolomitization occurred during latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous and is related to pressure dissolution during very shallow burial at temperatures of at least 50°C. Hydrologic conditions and mass-balance calculations indicate that burial compaction provided sufficient fluids for dolomitization. Mg is derived from negligibly modified seawater, that was expelled from the adjacent off-reef strata into the mound facies. Position of the mounds along the platform margins controlled the distribution of the shallow-burial dolomite. Covariant trends between textural modification, increasing stoichiometry, partial changes in trace element content (Mn, Fe, Sr) and depletion in stable isotopes as well as distinctive CL pattern illustrate two recrystallization phases of the precursor matrix dolomite during further burial at elevated temperatures. Strong Sr enrichment of the second phase of recrystallized dolomite is ascribed to Sr-rich meteoric waters descending from overlying aragonite-bearing reef limestones or evaporite-bearing peritidal carbonates. Late-stage coarsely crystalline dolomite cements occur as vug and fracture fillings and formed during burial. Ankerite, associated with sulphide and

  4. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  5. Shallow ocean response to tropical cyclones observed on the continental shelf of the northwestern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Hou, Yijun; Hu, Po; Liu, Ze; Liu, Yahao

    2015-05-01

    Based on observed temperature and velocity in 2005 in northwestern South China Sea, the shallow ocean responses to three tropical cyclones were examined. The oceanic response to Washi was similar to common observations with 2°C cooling of the ocean surface and slight warming of the thermocline resulted from vertical entrainment. Moreover, the wavefield was dominated by first mode near-inertial oscillations, which were red-shifted and trapped by negative background vorticity leading to an e-folding timescale of 12 days. The repeated reflections by the surface and bottom boundaries were thought to yield the successive emergence of higher modes. The oceanic responses to Vicente appeared to be insignificant with cooling of the ocean surface by only 0.5°C and near-inertial currents no larger than 0.10 m/s as a result of a deepened surface mixed layer. However, the oceanic responses to Typhoon Damrey were drastic with cooling of 4.5°C near the surface and successive barotropic-like near-inertial oscillations. During the forced stage, the upper ocean heat content decreased conspicuously by 11.65% and the stratification was thoroughly destroyed by vertical mixing. In the relaxation stage, the water particle had vertical displacement of 20-30 m generated by inertial pumping. The current response to Damrey was weaker than Washi due to the deepened mixed layer and the destroyed stratification. Our results suggested that the shallow water oceanic responses to tropical cyclones varied significantly with the intensity of tropical cyclones, and was affected by local stratification and background vorticity.

  6. Carbonated fermented dairy drink - effect on quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Menon Rekha; Rao, K Jayaraj; Nath, B Surendra; Ram, Chand

    2014-11-01

    Processing conditions were standardized for a carbonated sweetened fermented dairy beverage. The optimum level of carbonation for the beverage filled in 200 ml glass bottles was found to be at 50 psi pressure for 30 seconds. The beverage samples were stored under refrigerated conditions (7 °C) and evaluated at weekly intervals for their sensory, chemical and microbial quality. The uncarbonated control samples were found to keep well till 5 weeks of storage while the carbonated beverage was acceptable up to 12 weeks of storage. Carbonation did not significantly alter the pH of the beverage, while a marginal increase in titratable acidity was recorded for the carbonated samples. Carbonation was found to arrest the development of lipolysis and proteolysis in the beverage during storage. Microbiological investigations established the inhibition of yeast and mold growth due to dissolved CO2.

  7. Effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Zhou Linyan; Yi Jianyong; Feng Min; Li Li; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gu Guiqiang; Zhu Jiating

    2013-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers within shelf life were investigated. Chicken feet were irradiated by E-beam which max dose was 10 kGy, and all the samples were stored at 0 ∼ 10℃ and analyzed one month after irradiation treatment. Significant sterilizing effect was got for soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers by irradiation; The contents of protein and fat were changed after irradiation treatment; the contents of V_A, V_E and V_B_3 in irradiated chicken feet were increased; The total contents of amino acids increased when irradiation dose were more than 4 kGy; The contents of total acids decreased after irradiation treatment, but the contents of cholesterol and nitrite increased. Above all, irradiation treatment can be used to improve nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life. (authors)

  8. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  9. Seismic imaging of small horizontal scale structures of the shallow thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf (North-East Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piete, H.; Marié, L.; Marsset, B.; Gutscher, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recent development of the seismic oceanography technique has made possible the imaging of a variety of deep oceanographic structures (Holbrook et al., 2003); however, until now this method has remained ill suited for the study of shallow (environment) and 2- spectral contents offering high vertical resolutions (relevant to the mapping of small vertical wavelength structures). In this study we defined and tested a new experimental seismic acquisition system capable of imaging the ~10 m thick seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. To accomplish this task, we pursued two complementary approaches: 1. Analysis of legacy seismic data (multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired on the East-Corsican margin, Bahamas Plateau and Gulf of Cadiz in various oceanographic environments) featuring reflectors at depths between 25 and 150 m, in order to identify and quantify the influence of acquisition parameters (seismic trace length, offsets, emission level and frequency content). 2. Incorporation of new oceanographic data acquired during the FROMVAR cruise (July 28th to August 10th 2010) on the western Brittany shelf in thermally stratified waters for use in the simulation of the seismic acquisition, in order to further define the optimal parameters for the system. Finally a 3D seismic system has emerged and was tested during the ASPEX scientific cruise led from June 17th to 19th 2012 across the western Brittany shelf. The device featured: i- four seismic streamers, each consisting of 6 traces at a spacing of 1.80 m; ii- a 1000 J SIG Sparker producing a 400 Hz signal with a 220 dB re 1μPa @1m level of emission, towed at a 8 m distance of the first seismic trace. This survey provided high lateral resolution images of the seasonal thermocline located at a 30 m depth with vertical displacements induced by internal waves. References Holbrook, W.S., Paramo, P., Pearse, S. and Schmitt, R.W., 2003. Thermohaline Fine Structure in an Oceanographic

  10. Effect of irradiation on shelf - life and quality characteristics of two (2) solanum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riverson, N. M

    2013-07-01

    Garden eggs (solanum spp) are grown as a commercial crop for domestic consumption and also for export. In addition to major production challenges such as limited shelf-life, poor post-harvest handling and the lack of quality standards, garden eggs are prone to infection by pest and diseases at all stages of growth. This theses provides information on the effect of gamma radiation doses (1 - 3kGy) on the shelf life and some quality characteristics of three varieties of garden eggs Solanum aethiopicum GH 8772 and aethiopicum GH 8773, and aethiopicum torvum under two packaging conditions. Quality attributes of colour, firmness, and wrinkleness were assessed using a nine-point hedonic scale in decreasing order of acceptability. The numbers of rotten fruits were recorded on weekly basis throughout the storage period of four weeks. The physiochemical properties (moisture content, weight loss and pH) were determined by standard methods. The microbiological quality was assessed by estimating the population of aerobic mesophiles and yeast and moulds using the methods of serial dilution and pour plating. The three varieties of garden eggs used in the study responded differently to gamma radiation and storage. Salannum torvum showed discolouration and subsequent fungal spoilage in the first week of storage after irradiation under both unpackaged and packaged conditions; howbeit the unirradiated had acceptable scores (>4.33) in terms of colour, firmness, and wrinkleness throughout the storage period. At the end of the storage period samples of S. torvum had lower values in terms of moisture (26.78%), weight loss (9.3 g) and pH (2.9) under unpackaged condition, but high vitamin C content of 14.83 mg/100g. Samples S. torvum under packaged conditions had higher values in terms of colour, firmness, and wrinkleness as well as pH and vitamin C. However the effect of packaging was not significant with respect to the quality attributes and physiochemical properties. Decline in colour

  11. Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance shelf life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüceer, Muhammed; Aday, Mehmet Seçkin; Caner, Cengiz

    2016-06-01

    Eggs have long been recognised as a source of high-quality proteins. Many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment, which is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces in the food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 min during storage for 6 weeks at 24 °C. The effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs is also reported. Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 min can be applied to fresh eggs and extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24 °C storage period. Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results in maintaining internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) caused a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone treatments of 2, and especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya) in chilling storage

    OpenAIRE

    GULLIAN-KLANIAN,Mariel; SÁNCHEZ-SOLÍS,María José; TERRATS-PRECIAT,Montserrat; DELGADILLO-DÍAZ,Mariana; ARANDA,Javier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC) and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines). A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g) were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The h...

  13. Understanding critical factors for the quality and shelf-life of MAP fresh meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preeti; Wani, Ali Abas; Saengerlaub, Sven; Langowski, Horst-Christian

    2011-02-01

    Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas of research that has shown promise, and had success, is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The success of MAP-fresh meat depends on many factors including good initial product quality, good hygiene from the source plants, correct packaging material selection, the appropriate gas mix for the product, reliable packaging equipment, and maintenance of controlled temperatures and humidity levels. Advances in plastic materials and equipment have propelled advances in MAP, but other technological and logistical considerations are needed for successful MAP systems for raw chilled meat. Although several parameters critical for the quality of MA packed meat have been studied and each found to be crucial, understanding of the interactions between the parameters is needed. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely available, scattered information about the various integrated critical factors responsible for the quality and shelf life of MA packed meat with an interest to stimulate further research to optimize different quality parameters.

  14. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  16. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I.; El-Mongy, T.M.; Mabrouk, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 10 7 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (10 3 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 10 5 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 10 3 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  17. Influence of Barley Sourdough and Vacuum Cooling on Shelf Life Quality of Partially Baked Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Driven by the bakery industry urge to satisfy consumer demand for fresh, diverse and high quality bakery products, we investigated the influence of barley sourdough and vacuum cooling on shelf life quality of partially baked bread stored in modified atmosphere packaging at ambient conditions. Barley sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 20016, F275). Partially baked bread with sourdough was microbiologically acceptable during 30 days of storage, while bread without sourdough had detectable mould on the 30th day. Stored bread samples were rebaked after 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days to determine moisture content, physical and sensorial properties. Moisture loss (5%) was detected on the 15th day, after which it remained stable until the end of investigated storage period. Nevertheless, textural quality of stored bread continuously declined due to crumb firming. Bread flavour did not change during mould-free storage time. The principal component analysis identified major differences in the flavour of sour and control bread, also in crumb firmness and moisture content of samples. This study indicates the positive role of barley sourdough fermented with L. reuteri in improving crumb texture for at least 15 days, and ensuring mould- and bacteria-free partially baked bread for 30 days. Vacuum cooling combined with sourdough improved bread shape, porosity, and reduced sour taste, crust colouring and crumbliness. Hence, it can successfully extend shelf life quality of partially baked bread in modified atmosphere packaging. PMID:29540981

  18. Quality assessment and shelf life modeling of pulsed electric field pretreated osmodehydrofrozen kiwifruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimia Dermesonlouoglou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this workwas to investigate the potential use of pulsed electric field (PEF in combination with osmotic dehydration (OD as a pre-freezing step and to evaluate the effect on quality characteristics and shelf life of frozen kiwifruit. Peeled kiwifruit was subjected to PEF (1.8 kV/cm, sliced and treated in OD-solution [containing glycerol, maltodextrin, trehalose, ascorbic acid, calcium chloride, citric acid, sodium chloride; 1/5 (wfruit/wsolution] for 30 and 60 min at 35 °C. Combined, PEF only and OD only treated samples as well as nontreated and blanched (80 °C, 60 s samples were frozen and stored at constant (-5, -10, -15, -25 °C and dynamic temperature conditions (-18 °C-3 d, -8 °C-2.5 d, -15 °C-3 d. Quality of frozen samples was evaluated by means of drip loss, colour, texture, vitamin C and sensory evaluation (1-9 scale; and shelf life (SL was calculated. Nontreated and blanched samples presented high drip loss and tissue softening (instrumentally measured as Fmax decrease. The tissue integrity was well retained in all osmotically pretreated samples. PEF pretreatment caused increase of fruit whiteness (increase of L value and yellowness (a and/or b value increase; SL calculation was based on colour change. All OD samples had high vitamin content (24.6 mg/100 g fresh material compared to 138-154 mg/100 g osmodehydrated material; PEF led to 93% (of the initial vitamin retention; blanched samples showed the lowest retention (86.9% of the initial (criteria for SL calculation. OD and combined PEF-OD treatment increased the shelf life of frozen kiwifruit (up to 3 times; based on sensorial criteria. The developed kinetic models for colour change, vitamin loss, and sensory quality deterioration were validated at dynamic temperature conditions. PEF pretreated OD (at significantly shorter time, 30 min compared to 60 min kiwifruits retained optimum quality and sensory characteristics. PEF and OD could be used as a preprocessing

  19. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay shallow aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-02-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Spatial and temporal variations in shallow wetland groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schot, Paul P.; Pieber, Simone M.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryWetlands worldwide are threatened by environmental change. Differences in groundwater composition is one of the factors affecting wetland terrestrial floristic biodiversity. However, few studies discuss variations in wetland groundwater composition. This study presents an analysis of local-scale spatial and short-term temporal variations in 15 groundwater composition parameters of the 7 km2 Naardermeer wetland nature reserve in The Netherlands. Data is available from a network of 35 groundwater wells with 2-4 filters each, at depths between 50 and 800 cm, which were sampled about monthly over a 1-year period, totalling 1042 chemical analysis from 103 filter screens. Relative standard deviations indicate large differences in variation between parameters. Largest spatial and temporal variations were found for nutrients (NO3-, PO43-, NH4+) and redox sensitive parameters (Fe, Mn), and lowest variations for macroions and SiO2. A horizontal zonation in groundwater concentrations has been found related to soil type and soil wetness, with largest horizontal decrease in NO3- and SO42-, and largest increase in Fe and SiO2, going in the groundwater flow direction from dry sandy soils to wet peat/clay soils. No clear horizontal patterns have been found for the macroions. Spatial zonations in the north-south direction and with depth are absent for all parameters. Spatial and temporal variations were found to be related. 3D-maps indicate highest temporal fluctuations at filter screens with lowest median concentrations for NO3-, SO42- and Fe, but the reverse pattern for SiO2. High temporal variations of nutrients and redox sensitive parameters could not be traced back to a seasonal trend. The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality parameters as presented in this study, together with their reported effects on different vegetation types, may be used to design efficient monitoring schemes by nature managers having set specific vegetation development targets

  1. Microbial Quality and Shelf Life of Blueberry Purée Developed Using Cavitation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihua; Martynenko, Alex; Doucette, Craig; Hughes, Timothy; Fillmore, Sherry

    2018-03-01

    Blueberry purée was developed using hydrodynamic cavitation technology. The product was made from entire blueberries without adding any food additives. In this study, microbial reduction following each processing stage (at the industry setting) and after product pasteurization at 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, and 96 °C was investigated. Microbial quality including total plate counts, yeast and molds, and heat-resistant molds counts was determined. Shelf life of pasteurized products stored for up to 24 weeks at room temperature were assessed for microbial quality, soluble solids (°Brix), titratable acidity (citric acid %), pH, viscosity (cP) and flow rate (cm/30 s). Our results indicated that heat-resistant molds, initially present in frozen blueberries with counts at 2.03 log CFU/200g, were totally inactivated at 94 to 96 °C with 1 to 2 min holding time. Shelf life study showed that no product spoilage was caused by bacteria, yeasts and heat-resistant molds along with non-significant changes of textural characteristics. This study provided useful information for the food industry to develop variety of fruit purée products with no wastes of fruit materials. This study provides useful information for the food industry to develop safe liquid food products using cavitation technology without wasting any raw materials. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Effects of pre-and postharvest lighting on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Witkowska, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of pre-and postharvest lighting on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce was investigated. Lettuce was grown under different light intensities (120 and 250 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR from fluorescent tubes) and quality at harvest and subsequent postharvest

  3. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  4. Improvement of shelf-life and quality of mangoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul; Padwal Desai, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the studies on low dose gamma irradiation of mangoes in the dose range 10 to 200 krad alone or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments (i.e. hot water dipping and skin coating with 9 percent emulsion of acetylated monoglyceride) show that physiological, pathological and entomological factors can be controlled to extend the shelf-life of mangoes by one to two weeks. Organoleptic qualities of treated fruits are found to be comparable to those of unirradiated control mangoes. Texture qualities of the treated fruits are also retained at the end of 15 days after their transport over long distance. Irradiated fruits have the added advantage of disinfestation and reduction of stem end rot and anthracnose during ripening. Doses exceeding 75 krad are, however, found to be injurious to the fruits. (M.G.B.)

  5. The effect of a novel photodynamic activation method mediated by curcumin on oyster shelf life and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Li, Zhaojie; Cao, Binbin; Wu, Juan; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qing Juan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of photodynamic method mediated by curcumin (PDT) on the shelf life and quality of pacific oysters during storage at 5±1°C were analyzed. In our previous study we investigated the optimal treatment conditions of photodynamic method mediated by curcumin to sterilization were 10uM photosensitizer concentration and 5.4J/cm 2 light energy density. Under these conditions, the effect of a novel photodynamic activation method mediated by curcumin on oyster shelf life and quality was researched. The total bacterial counts, TVB-N content and sensory analysis were used to evaluate the effects on oyster shelf life. The oyster shelf life was prolonged from 8days to 12days after photodynamic treatment and the oysters in the treatment group displayed notable odor retention, produced fewer odor corrupting substances when the control group oysters reached the end of their shelf life (day 8). Texture, free amino acid contents and fatty acid levels were applied to estimate the quality of the treated oysters. The texture had no significant change after treated with PDT. At the end of oyster shelf life, compared PDT group (PDT) with control group (control), total free amino acid contents (control: 234.30mg/100g, PDT: 813.02mg/100g) was higher and free fatty acid levels (control: 0.071mEq/L, PDT: 0.0455mEq/L) displayed lower in PDT group. This indicated that the treated oysters oxidized minimally, decayed slowly, decomposed fewer nutrients and had lower metabolic levels of spoilage microorganisms. PDT has a positive effect on prolonging oyster shelf life and its quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The distribution of chydorids (Branchiopoda, Anomopoda)in European shallow lakes and its application to ecological quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyto, de E.; Irvine, K.; Garcia-Criado, F.; Gyllström, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Kornijow, R.; Miracle, M.R.; Nykänen, M.; Bareiss, C.; Cerbin, S.; Salujoe, J.; Franken, R.J.M.; Stephens, D.; Moss, B.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the chydorid (Branchiopoda, Anomopoda) assemblages from 66 European shallow lakes, and presents data relating the assemblages to lake type and ecological quality
    This study describes the chydorid (Branchiopoda, Anomopoda) assemblages from 66 European shallow lakes, and

  7. Effect of irradiation on quality, shelf life and consumer acceptance of traditional Nigerian meat and fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aworh, O.C.; Okparanta, R.N.; Oyedokun, E.O

    2002-01-01

    The effect of low dose irradiation, up to 6 kGy, on quality, shelf life and consumer acceptance of three traditional Nigerian meat and fish products was investigated. Irradiation inhibited microbial growth in 'suya' and 'kilishi' with substantial reduction in total aerobic counts, yeasts and molds and Staphylococcus aureus. Nonirradiated smoked-dried catfish (Clarias gariepinus) had a shelf life of less than one week at tropical ambient temperature (21-31 deg. C) due to insect infestation. Irradiated 'kilishi' and smoked dried catfish packed in sealed polyethylene bags (0.04 mm thick) were shelf stable for a period of 4-6 months and remained free from moldiness, infestation and were considered acceptable in sensory quality by a consumer panel of 32 assessors. There was a slight increase in TBA values of irradiated 'kilishi' stored for 4 months relative to non-irradiated controls. (author)

  8. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingridy Simone Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  9. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  10. Characteristics of Leachate and Their Effect on Shallow Groundwater Quality (Case Study : TPA Cipayung, Depok)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, Atika; Hartono, Djoko M.; Moersidik, Setyo S.; Gusniani, Irma

    2018-03-01

    The problems arising from landfill activity is leaked leachate that is not absorbed well into leachate stabilization pond which furthermore contaminates shallow groundwater around landfill, include Cipayung landfill. The aims of this study is to determine the characteristics of leachate and their effect on shallow groundwater quality around landfill based on temperature, pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), Mercury (Hg), and fecal coliform. Data were analyzed based on leachate samples at influent point, effluent point, and 7 sampling points of residents’s well with distance variation every 100 meters within 300 meters radius having leachate stabilization pond as benchmark. According to the standard of Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry law No. 59 of 2016, the results showed that leachate quality was still above the standard of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen parameters; 4178.0 mg/L, 70556.0 mg/L and 373.3 mg/L for influent point, and 3142.0 mg/L, 9055.2 mg/L, and 350 mg/L for the effluent point. Pollution Index of shallow groundwater is between lightly and moderately contaminated. This study showed that the further the distance between sampling point and leachate stabilization pond is, the lower the Polution Index is.

  11. Water quality in simulated eutrophic shallow lakes in the presence of periphyton under different flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Yang, Guolu; Lu, Jing; Wang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Although the effects of periphyton on water quality and its relationship with flow conditions have been studied by researchers, our understanding about their combined action in eutrophic shallow lakes is poor. In this research, four aquatic model ecosystems with different water circulation rates and hydraulic conditions were constructed to investigate the effect of periphyton and flow condition on water quality. The concentrations of NH 4 + , TP, and chlorophyll-a and flow conditions were determined. The results show that, as a result of the rising nutrient level at the early stage and the decline in the lower limit, the presence of periphyton can make the ecosystem adaptable to a wider range of nutrients concentration. In terms of the flow condition, the circulation rate and hydraulic condition are influential factors for aquatic ecosystem. Higher circulation rate in the ecosystem, on one hand, facilitates the metabolism by accelerating nutrient cycling which is beneficial to water quality; on the other hand, high circulation rate leads to the nutrient lower limit rising which is harmful to water quality improvement. At low velocities, slight differences in hydraulic conditions, vertical velocity gradient and turbulence intensity gradient could affect the quantity of phytoplankton. Our study suggests that, considering environmental effect of periphyton, flow conditions and their combined action is essential for water quality improvement and ecological restoration in eutrophic shallow lakes.

  12. Effect of Chitosan Coating Treatments and Calcium Dips on Quality and Shelf-life of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Strawberries are a highly perishable fruit and storage life may be less than a week. In these investigations strawberries were treated with one of the following treatments: I) 1 % calcium chloride dips (1 % CaCl 2 ), II) 2 % irradiated (150 kGy in the solid state) chitosan (CS) (2 % Irr. CS) and III) with a coating formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 . They were then stored at 6 degree C for up to 24 days. The effectiveness of the different treatments was assessed by evaluating the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberries during the storage period. Results indicated that no sign of strawberries decay were observed in the fruits treated with CS formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 up to 20 days, where 6.1 % wt loss was detected. This treatment slowed the ripening of strawberries as shown by their retention of firmness and delayed changes in their external colour anthocyanin. To a lesser extent titratable acidity and ph were also affected by coatings. This treatment decreased the initial log counts of total aerobic bacteria, mould and yeast, coliform and E. coli. After 20 days of cold storage, the log counts of these micro organisms were lower than the log count of uncoated strawberries. Thus, CS can be used as a natural antimicrobial coating on fresh strawberries to improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life. CS formulation contains 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 extended the shelf-life of strawberries to 20 days in cold storage at 6 degree C with acceptable appearance, firmness, flavour and colour, while uncoated strawberries only lasted for 4 days as a result of mould growth and loss of surface appearance

  13. Improving the Hygienic Quality and Shelf-Life of Minced Common Carp Fish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khawas, Kh.H.; Fawzia, M.; El-Nashaby; Abd El-daim, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation aimed to improve the hygienic quality and extend cold storage life of minced carp fish by gamma irradiation. The frozen samples were gamma irradiation at 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy doses and the effects of these treatments on the chemical properties, microbiological aspects and sensory properties were studied post treatments and during cold storage. Irradiation of samples at doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy greatly reduced its microbial counts and prolonged its shelf-life for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 4 ±degree, respectively against only 3 days for control samples. Moreover, 4 kGy dose completely destroyed Staph aureus. The chemical composition of samples did not alter neither by γirradiation treatments nor by cold storage. Furthermore, irradiation treatments had no effects on pH-value, TVBN and TMA contents, while a gradual increase in these chemical quality indexes was observed during cold storage. However, both irradiation treatments and cold storage increased the TBA value

  14. Evaluation of the quality and shelf life of gamma irradiated blueberries by quarantine purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lires, Carla M. L.; Docters, Andrea; Horak, Celina I.

    2018-02-01

    Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are considered one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds and are appreciated for their high antioxidant capacity. But they are hosts in Argentina of the quarantine pests Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, and have to be treated to avoid its spreading. Irradiation is being introduced in the Agricultural World trade, increasing exponentially on the last years. In order to guarantee the success of this process, it is required previous to the rutinary treatment, to define the irradiation dose range to be applied. The minimum dose for these pests has been already approved in the IPPC standard 28. The maximum dose depends on the tolerance of the fruit cultivars, maturity, pre-harvest conditions, harvest time, storage conditions, and interactions among these factors. The postharvest quality of Argentina´s blueberry treated with irradiation doses of 150 (generic quarantine dose used for fruit flies) and 300 Gy (to evaluate tolerance) was evaluated. The studies included blueberries from different harvest seasons 2009-2012). Misty, O'Neal and Emeral varieties were chosen, because they represent the biggest volume of exported blueberry from Argentina. The results indicated that irradiation at 150 Gy and 300 Gy did not significantly affect the postharvest quality and slightly improved shelf life of the different blueberries varieties. Therefore, it is possible to use irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment for Argentina´s blueberries, establishing a dose range appropriate to be applied on a commercial irradiation facility.

  15. Improving Multi-Objective Management of Water Quality Tipping Points: Revisiting the Classical Shallow Lake Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    Recent multi-objective extensions of the classical shallow lake problem are useful for exploring the conceptual and computational challenges that emerge when managing irreversible water quality tipping points. Building on this work, we explore a four objective version of the lake problem where a hypothetical town derives economic benefits from polluting a nearby lake, but at the risk of irreversibly tipping the lake into a permanently polluted state. The trophic state of the lake exhibits non-linear threshold dynamics; below some critical phosphorus (P) threshold it is healthy and oligotrophic, but above this threshold it is irreversibly eutrophic. The town must decide how much P to discharge each year, a decision complicated by uncertainty in the natural P inflow to the lake. The shallow lake problem provides a conceptually rich set of dynamics, low computational demands, and a high level of mathematical difficulty. These properties maximize its value for benchmarking the relative merits and limitations of emerging decision support frameworks, such as Direct Policy Search (DPS). Here, we explore the use of DPS as a formal means of developing robust environmental pollution control rules that effectively account for deeply uncertain system states and conflicting objectives. The DPS reformulation of the shallow lake problem shows promise in formalizing pollution control triggers and signposts, while dramatically reducing the computational complexity of the multi-objective pollution control problem. More broadly, the insights from the DPS variant of the shallow lake problem formulated in this study bridge emerging work related to socio-ecological systems management, tipping points, robust decision making, and robust control.

  16. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot....... The geology of the area described on the basis of 31 sediment cores appears relatively homogeneous. Large vertical and horizontal variations were observed. The vertical variations are strongly affected by the deviating composition of the agricultural infiltration water. The horizontal variations show very...

  17. Combination of irradiation with other treatments to improve the shelf-life and quality of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.; Chawla, S.P.; Kanatt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    The effects were studied of low dose gamma irradiation in combination with other treatments (acetic acid and a sodium tripolyphosphate dip for buffalo meat; a hot water dip for lamb meat; ascorbic acid for chicken and curing for meat products) on the shelf-life of prepacked meats at chilled and ambient temperatures in terms of the microbiological, chemical and sensory qualities. Meats irradiated at 2.5 kGy had a shelf-life of 4 weeks at 0-3 deg. C, 2 weeks at 7-10 deg. C and 42 h at 28-30 deg. C, and showed a remarkable improvement in the microbiological quality. irradiation resulted in the reduction/elimination of microorganisms of public health significance, e.g. Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella, staphylococci and faecal coliforms. In contrast, the corresponding control samples had a shelf-life of less than 2 weeks at 0-3 deg. C, 1 week at 7-10 deg. C and 18 h at ambient temperature (28-30 deg. C). A high level of microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, Salmonella and sulphite reducing Clostridia were detected in the control samples during storage. A combination of acetic acid/hot water pretreatment and irradiation further improved the microbiological quality of the meats, while a pretreatment of sodium tripolyphosphate enhanced the retention of colour and the juiciness of the meat samples. The effects were observed at all the storage temperatures. For the meat products, a low dose of irradiation reduced the total viable counts by 1-2 log cycles, and also eliminated Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and Salmonella throughout the storage period. The irradiated meat products had a shelf-life of 2 weeks at 0-3 deg. C and 24 h at 28-30 deg. C, while the non-irradiated meat products had a shelf-life of 1 week at 0-3 deg. C and 18 h at 28-30 deg. C. (author)

  18. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shelf-life extension and quality improvement of minimally processed pear by combination treatments with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.; Hammad, A.A.; Serag, M.S.; Mansour, F.A.; Abu El-Nour, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fresh-cut pears are not yet commercially available in Egypt. Thus, an attempt has been done to produce this minimally processed fruit manually at the laboratory. Fifteen samples of this manually prepared fresh-produce were evaluated for their microbiological quality. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TAPC) ranged from 7.5 x 10 to 3.5 x 10 cfu g-1, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from less than 10 to 3.2 x 10 cfu g-1; total mould and yeast counts (TM & Y) ranged from less than 10 to 5.3 x 10 cfu g-1 indicating good quality from the view point of microbiological population. Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were found in only 2 samples at levels of 20 to 43 and greater than 3 to 9 most probable numbers per gram (MPN g-1), respectively. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was found in also 2 samples at levels of 102. Aeromonas hydrohila, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., were not found in any of the samples. Fresh-cut pear s were dipped in water containing 2% ascorbic acid and 1% calcium lactate. The dipped fresh-cut pears were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy. Dipping fresh-cut pears in 2% ascorbic acid plus 1% calcium lactate prevented browning and enhanced firmness during refrigeration storage. Irradiation dose of 2 kGy was the optimum, since it reduced TAPC by 99.58% and LAB and TM and Y to un-detectable level. These combined treatments extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pears without affecting their chemical, physical and sensorial quality attributes

  20. Potential impacts of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Shiyu; Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-01

    To study the potential effects of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China, the field data analysis method is applied to data collected over a given monitoring period. Nine water quality parameters (water temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen) and three climate indicators for 20 years (1992-2011) are considered. The annual trends exhibit significant trends with respect to certain water quality and climate parameters. Five parameters exhibit significant seasonality differences in the monthly means between the two decades (1992-2001 and 2002-2011) of the monitoring period. Non-parametric regression of the statistical analyses is performed to explore potential key climate drivers of water quality in the reservoir. The results indicate that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive impacts on water quality. However, an extremely cold spring and high wind speed are likely to affect the self-stabilising equilibrium states of the reservoir, which requires attention in the future. The results suggest that land use changes have important impact on nitrogen load. This study provides useful information regarding the potential effects of climate change on water quality in developing countries.

  1. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  2. An Assessment of Peri-Urban Groundwater Quality from Shallow Dug Wells, Mzuzu, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, R.; Felsot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout Malawi, governmental, non-governmental, religious and civic organizations are targeting the human need for water. Diarrheal diseases, often associated with unsafe drinking water, are a leading cause of mortality in children under five in Malawi with over 6,000 deaths per year (World Health Organization, 2010). From January to March 2012, a field study was undertaken in Malawi to study water quality and develop a public health risk communication strategy. The region studied, Area 1B, represents a comparatively new peri-urban area on the edge of Mzuzu city. Area 1B is serviced by a piped municipal water supply, but many shallow dug wells are also used for household water. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 shallow dug well sites and analyzed for nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli, total hardness, total alkalinity and pH. In addition to water quality analyses, a structured household questionnaire was administered to address water use, sanitation, health, consumption patterns, and socioeconomics. Results showed that more than half of the groundwater samples would be considered of unacceptable quality based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards for E. coli contamination. Low levels of nitrate were found in groundwater, but only one well exceeded WHO standards. The structured questionnaire revealed that some residents were still consuming groundwater despite the access to safer municipal water. In general, the widespread E. coli contamination was not statistically correlated with well depth, latrine proximity, or surface features. Similarly, nitrate concentrations were not significantly correlated with proximity to latrines. On the other hand, nitrate was correlated with well depth, which is expected given the high potential for leaching of anionic highly water soluble compounds. E. coli was significantly correlated with nitrate concentration. Projects targeting the need for clean water need to recognize that households with access to a

  3. Antecedent conditions control carbon loss and downstream water quality from shallow, damaged peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E; Luscombe, D J; Anderson, K; Gatis, N; Benaud, P; Brazier, R E

    2014-09-15

    Losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drained peatlands are of concern, due to the effects this has on the delivery of ecosystem services, and especially on the long-term store of carbon and the provision of drinking water. Most studies have looked at the effect of drainage in deep peat; comparatively, little is known about the behaviour of shallow, climatically marginal peatlands. This study examines water quality (DOC, Abs(400), pH, E4/E6 and C/C) during rainfall events from such environments in the south west UK, in order to both quantify DOC losses, and understand their potential for restoration. Water samples were taken over a 19 month period from a range of drains within two different experimental catchments in Exmoor National Park; data were analysed on an event basis. DOC concentrations ranging between 4 and 21 mg L(-1) are substantially lower than measurements in deep peat, but remain problematic for the water treatment process. Dryness plays a critical role in controlling DOC concentrations and water quality, as observed through spatial and seasonal differences. Long-term changes in depth to water table (30 days before the event) are likely to impact on DOC production, whereas discharge becomes the main control over DOC transport at the time scale of the rainfall/runoff event. The role of temperature during events is attributed to an increase in the diffusion of DOC, and therefore its transport. Humification ratios (E4/E6) consistently below 5 indicate a predominance of complex humic acids, but increased decomposition during warmer summer months leads to a comparatively higher losses of fulvic acids. This work represents a significant contribution to the scientific understanding of the behaviour and functioning of shallow damaged peatlands in climatically marginal locations. The findings also provide a sound baseline knowledge to support research into the effects of landscape restoration in the future. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by

  4. Relationship of Shallow Groundwater Quality to Hydraulic Fracturing Activities in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansky, J. N.; Robertson, W. M.; Chappaz, A.; Babos, H.; Israel, S.; Groskreutz, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) of oil and natural gas (O&G) wells is a widely applied technology that can increase yields from tight geologic formations. However, it is unclear how fracking may impact shallow groundwater; previous research into its effects has produced conflicting results. Much of the worry over potential impacts to water quality arises from concerns about the produced water. The water produced from O&G formations is often salty, contains toxic dissolved elements, and can be radioactive. If fracking activities cause or increase connectivity between O&G formations and overlying groundwater, there may be risks to aquifers. As one part of a groundwater quality study in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI, samples were collected from the unconfined glacial aquifer (3-300 m thick) and produced water from the underlying Antrim formation, a shallow (180-670 m deep) natural gas producing black shale. Groundwater samples were collected between 200 to 10,000 m distance from producing Antrim gas wells and from a range of screened intervals (15-95 m). Samples were analyzed for major constituents (e.g., Br, Cl), pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The specific conductance of groundwater samples ranged from 230-1020 μS/cm; DO ranged from 0.4-100% saturation. Preliminary results show a slight inverse correlation between specific conductance and proximity to producing Antrim wells. The observed range of DO saturation in glacial aquifer groundwater appears to be related to both screened depth of the water wells and proximity to Antrim wells. During sampling, some well owners expressed concerns about the effects of fracking on groundwater quality and reported odd smells and tastes in their water after O&G drilling occurred near their homes. The results of this study and reported observations provide evidence to suggest a potential hydrogeological connection between the Antrim formation and the overlying glacial aquifer in some locations; it also raises

  5. Changes in quality and biochemical parameters in 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life and 1-MCP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Jan; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-01

    In this study, changes in quality and various biochemical parameters of 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life period after ultra-low oxygen (ULO) storage were investigated. Additionally, the impact of the postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on different parameters was evaluated. After the harvest, apples were stored in the ULO storage for 6 months and then exposed to room temperature. Fruit firmness, peel color, and changes in sugars, organic acids and phenolics were monitored during the 3 weeks of shelf life. Malic acid, sugars and firmness decreased at room temperature. However, the color of the apples remained unchanged. The level of citric and ascorbic acid remained constant. Levels of phenolics in the peel increased significantly, whereas remained constant in the pulp of apples. 1-MCP treatment resulted in higher amounts of fructose and glucose, malic acid and greater firmness of apples. However, 1-MCP did not influence the phenolic content, ascorbic acid or color. The results obtained indicate that the content of different health-promoting compounds of apples does not change dramatically at room temperature. At the same time these results suggest that 1-MCP could be useful for maintaining certain quality and biochemical parameters and might extend the shelf life of apples.

  6. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRESH PACKAGED TILAPIA FILLETS STORED UNDER DIFFERENT CHILL TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoli Cyprian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus farmed in recirculation aquaculture system (RAS was filleted and packaged in 100% air and 50% CO2: 50% N2 modified atmosphere (MA prior to storage at 1˚C and -1˚C for up to 27 days. Fillets were sampled regularly and analysed for headspace gas composition, sensory and microbial changes. Shelf life varied with apparent relation to storage temperature, package atmosphere and microflora. Pseudomonads were reported as the main spoilage organisms in tilapia fillets during chilled storage conditions. Sensory analysis of cooked samples as well as microbial growth indicated fillets packaged in 100% air had a shelf life of 13-15 days during storage at 1˚C and 20 days at -1˚C. At the end of shelf life in 100% air packaged groups, TVC and pseudomonads counts reached log 7 colony-forming units g-1 in flesh. Whereas in 50% CO2: 50% N2 packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria was extended and recorded counts of < log 4 colony-forming units g-1 up to 27 days of storage at both 1˚C and -1˚C. However, 50% CO2 : 50% N2 conditions restricted fillets shelf life to 23 days based on sensorial changes mainly fillets colour characteristics.

  8. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  9. Effects of electron beam irradiated natural casings on the quality properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2012-01-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 kGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage was evaluated. There were no significant differences in pH, instrumental color, sensory properties (overall acceptability), and hardness between all the samples. The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than that of the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation, and inhibited the formation of volatile basic nitrogen and the increase in total aerobic bacteria. In conclusion, the natural casings irradiated below at a dose of 3 kGy had no effect on physicochemical and sensory properties of the emulsion sausages, however, that improved the shelf-stability over 5 weeks. Therefore, natural casings irradiated at moderate doses are suitable for sausage production. - Highlights: ► The effect of E-beam irradiated natural casings on sausage quality was evaluated. ► The use of irradiated casings improved shelf stability of sausage. ► Natural casings irradiated below 3 kGy are suitable for sausage production.

  10. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene on mango fruit (Cv. Kesar): potential for shelf life enhancement and retention of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhale, B K; Gaikwad, S S; Chavan, R F

    2018-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of gaseous application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on quality and shelf life of mango fruits of Cv. Kesar. The freshly harvested matured mango fruits were washed, cleaned and treated with fungicide at 500 ppm concentration for 10 min. The fruits were then subjected to 1-MCP treatment at different concentrations (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppb) and exposed for 18 and 24 h at 20 °C temperature in an air tight chamber along with control sample. The results indicated that the ripening in the early stages of mango was delayed by 1-MCP and shelf life of the fruits was increased with increase in the concentration of 1-MCP, also the physico-chemical changes such as percent physiological loss in weight of fruit, total soluble solids and colour was slowly increased and ascorbic acid content was effectively reduced. 1-MCP treatment of 2000 ppb for 24 h exposure time gave the best results for percent physiological loss in weight of fruit from 6.1 to 13% and ascorbic acid content from 80.28 to 22.34 mg/100 g, total soluble solids increased from 7.3 to 16.23 °Brix and the colour was improved from 50.9 to 68.6 h with shelf life of 20 days.

  11. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the quality and shelf life of refrigerated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Sohrab; Tahergorabi, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Rabbani, Mohammad; Tahergorabi, Zoya; Feás, Xesús; Aflaki, Fereidoon

    2009-07-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, and 5 kGy) on the shelf life of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets that were treated with sodium acetate and vacuum packaged and subsequently stored under refrigeration was studied by measuring microbiological, chemical, and organoleptic changes. Radiation affected populations of bacteria, namely, H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae (P biochemical indicators, thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated trout were higher than for nonirradiated fish (P biochemical indices of O. mykiss for up to 4 weeks at refrigerator temperature without adverse effects on quality and acceptability.

  13. Effect of irradiation on shelf life and nutritional quality of sauce buck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing; Han Yan; Wang Xinghai; Bao Jianzhong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum-packed sauce duck were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays, and total bacteria number and nutrition contents of treated samples were determined. The results showed that the sauce duck was irradiated at 6 kGy, and stored at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C, it could be stored for 90 days; and if the sauce duck was firstly processed by pasteurization at 90 degree C ∼ 95 degree C for 30 min, then irradiated at 6 kGy, the shelf life could be prolonged to 120 days at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C. Irradiation could make the sauce duck to meet the commercial hygienic requirement within the shelf life, and would not impact the nutritive value significantly. It is concluded that irradiated sauce duck has the potential commercial application. (authors)

  14. Combination of ozone and packaging treatments maintained the quality and improved the shelf life of tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri; Jayaputra; Sauqi, A.; Sjah, T.; Desiana, R. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is very important vegetable crop but has short shelf life. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ozone and packaging combination treatment on the quality and the storage life of tomato fruit. There were six treatments including: control (without ozone and packaging); without ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; without ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet; with ozone but without packaging; with ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; and with ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet. Each treatment was made into 3 replications. Tomato samples were harvested at turning stage. Ozone treatment was applied for 60 seconds. Tomatoes were then treated with and without packaging. The fruit were then stored at room temperature for up to 12 days. The parameters for assessment were water content, color, texture, weight loss and the population of naturally contamination Escherichia coli. Each parameter was assessed on day 0, 6 and 12 of storage. The results indicated that combination of ozone and packaging treatments significantly affected the physical and biochemical changes (water content, color, texture and weight loss) of the fruit, suppressed the microbiological contamination on the fruit and maintained fruit freshness or quality after 12 days of storage. The combination of ozone and perforated polyethylene packaging treatment was the best treatment to maintain the quality and prolonged the shelf life of tomato fruit to be 12 days at room temperature.

  15. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (eggs (with a final B grade) 3 wk longer than non-coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Effects of temperature and salt on the shelf quality of cured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different drying temperatures (60oC, 75oC, 90oC, 105oC, 120oC) and salting, on the preservation and shelf life of smoked Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus caught from the upper reaches of the Cross River was studied. Freshly caught fishes with weight ranges of 150-230g were randomly sorted into two batches, ...

  17. The microbiological quality and shelf-life of the irradiated chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbayraktar, V.; Kozat, P.; Halkman, H.B.D.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Chicken breast and leg meats were packaged. Immediately after packaging, both sets of breast and legs meat were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 kGy. All the samples were stored at +8 deg. C and were analyzed for populations of mesophilic, total molds and yeasts, Coliform Bacteria, E. coli, Salmonella every 5 days for 20 days. By using a mesophilic populations of 10 7 cells/g as a criteria for spoilage, fresh breast and leg meats receiving a dose of 0 kGy had shelf a live of 5 days with packaging-Both breast and leg meats that received a dose of 3 kGy had shelf lives that were greater than 10 days at + 8 deg. C using packaging. This study showed that 1.0 kGy irradiation can inactivate 10 4 g /Coliform Bacteria and 10 3 g/E. coli. The shelf life of meat is largely dependent upon the level of microbiological contamination that occurs during processing especially in the slaughterhouse in Turkey. Irradiation has the potential to emerge as one of today's most significant food-preservation technologies

  18. Shelf-life extension and improving micro-biological quality of mixed peas with diced carrot by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S. M.; Hammad, A. A.; Amal, S. M.; Gebreel, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed peas with diced carrot were collected and examined for their microbiological quality. All the examined samples had high level of microbial load. All examined samples contained Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis). Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was detected in only 4 of samples (26.3%). The tested samples were free from Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), Listeria monocytogenes (L monocytogenes) and Salmonella species. Gamma irradiation caused a great reduction in all microbial loads. During refrigerated storage, the counts of all microorganisms increased, but the rate of increase was slower as the irradiation dose increased. Irradiation dose of 3 kGy was the optimum dose for preservation of mixed peas with diced carrot which extended the refrigeration shelf-life up to 21 days and it was sufficient in eliminating pathogenic bacteria without affecting their sensory quality and with negligible effect on chemical quality.

  19. Radiation processing for enhancing shelf life and quality characteristics of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnav, Jasraj; Adiani, Vanshika; Variyar, Prasad S.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cauliflower samples were irradiated, stored at 4℃ for 21 days. The samples were analyzed for nutritional, physiochemical and sensory quality periodically at intervals of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. An irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy enhanced the microbial quality and extended shelf life by 7 days without significant losses in quality attributes. Non irradiated control samples showed the highest total bacterial counts (TBC) and yeast - mold count (YMC), around 5 log cfu g -1 respectively over the period of 21 days of storage, while in all irradiated samples TBC and YMC were maintained in the range of 1-2 log cfu g -1 till 21st days. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were significantly increased on irradiation (0.5 kGy) while no significant effect was noted in texture, total ascorbate content and flavonoid content. (author)

  20. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  1. Effects of topographic data quality on estimates of shallow slope stability using different regolith depth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.

    2017-01-01

    Thickness of colluvium or regolith overlying bedrock or other consolidated materials is a major factor in determining stability of unconsolidated earth materials on steep slopes. Many efforts to model spatially distributed slope stability, for example to assess susceptibility to shallow landslides, have relied on estimates of constant thickness, constant depth, or simple models of thickness (or depth) based on slope and other topographic variables. Assumptions of constant depth or thickness rarely give satisfactory results. Geomorphologists have devised a number of different models to represent the spatial variability of regolith depth and applied them to various settings. I have applied some of these models that can be implemented numerically to different study areas with different types of terrain and tested the results against available depth measurements and landslide inventories. The areas include crystalline rocks of the Colorado Front Range, and gently dipping sedimentary rocks of the Oregon Coast Range. Model performance varies with model, terrain type, and with quality of the input topographic data. Steps in contour-derived 10-m digital elevation models (DEMs) introduce significant errors into the predicted distribution of regolith and landslides. Scan lines, facets, and other artifacts further degrade DEMs and model predictions. Resampling to a lower grid-cell resolution can mitigate effects of facets in lidar DEMs of areas where dense forest severely limits ground returns. Due to its higher accuracy and ability to penetrate vegetation, lidar-derived topography produces more realistic distributions of cover and potential landslides than conventional photogrammetrically derived topographic data.

  2. Modelling sensorial and nutritional changes to better define quality and shelf life of fresh-cut melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Amodio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh-cut produce is mostly determined by evaluating the external appearance since this is the major factor affecting consumer choice at the moment of purchase. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation kinetics of the major quality attributes in order to better define the shelf life of fresh-cut melons. Melon pieces were stored for eight days in air at 5°C. Sensorial and physical attributes including colour, external appearance, aroma, translucency, firmness, and chemical constituents, such as soluble solids, fructose, vitamin C, and phenolic content, along with antioxidant activity were monitored. Attributes showing significant changes over time were used to test conventional kinetic models of zero and first order, and Weibullian models. The Weibullian model was the most accurate to describe changes in appearance score, translucency, aroma, firmness and vitamin C (with a regression coefficient always higher than 0.956, while the other parameters could not be predicted with such accuracy by any of the tested models. Vitamin C showed the lowest kinetic rate among the model parameters, even though at the limit of marketability (appearance score 3, estimated at five days, a loss of 37% of its initial content was observed compared to the fresh-cut product, indicating a much lower nutritional value. After five days, the aroma score was already 2.2, suggesting that this quality attribute, together with the vitamin C content, should be taken into account when assessing shelf life of fresh-cut melons. In addition, logistical models were used to fit the percentage of rejected samples on the basis of non-marketability and non-edibility (appearance score <3 and <2, respectively. For both parameters, correlations higher than 0.999 were found at P<0.0001; for each mean score this model helps to understand the distribution of the samples among marketable, nonmarketable, and non-edible products.

  3. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality and shelf life of 'Robusta' banana (Musa sp.) stored at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudachikar, V B; Kulkarni, S G; Prakash, M N Keshava

    2011-06-01

    Banana (Musa sp var. 'Robusta') stored under active and passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 12 ± 1°C and 85-90% RH for 2 seasons were evaluated for fruit quality and shelf-life. A steady state of about 8.6 and 8.2% of CO2 and 2.8 and 2.6% of O2 in passive MAP and MAP+GK (Green Keeper) packages, respectively, were established after 3 weeks of storage. Passive MAP and MAP+GK treatments of banana resulted in reduction in physiological loss in weight (PLW) of 0.7 and 0.8% after 5 and 7 weeks of storage, respectively as against 5% PLW in openly kept green banana after 3 weeks. Both MAP and MAP+GK treatments delayed colour, texture, pulp to peel ratio and total soluble solids (TSS) content as compared to openly kept control banana. Results indicated that the shelf life of fruits packed under MAP and MAP+GK could be extended up to 5 and 7 weeks, respectively as compared to 3 weeks for openly kept control fruits. Sensory quality of fully ripe fruits of both passive MAP and MAP+GK treatments, 5 days after ethrel dip was very good. Thus, MAP+GK at 12 ± 1°C and 85-90% RH could be commercially used for long term storage and long distance transportation of banana with maximum shelf-life of 7 weeks.

  4. Shallow groundwater quality in the Village of Patchogue, Suffolk County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbene, Irene J.

    2010-01-01

    The onsite disposal of wastewater within the Patchogue River Basin-a riverine estuary that discharges into Great South Bay, Suffolk County, Long Island, N.Y. -has adversely affected water quality and aquatic habitats within both the tidal and non-tidal portions of the river. In response to increased development within the approximately 14 square mile basin, the Village of Patchogue has expanded efforts to manage and protect the local groundwater resources, which sustain freshwater base flow and aquatic habitats. Water-quality samples from 10 shallow wells within the Village were collected in March 2009, before the start of seasonal fertilizer application, to document the effects of onsite wastewater disposal on groundwater discharging into the Patchogue River. Each sample was analyzed for physical properties (pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature), nutrients, organic carbon, major ions, and trace elements. Water samples from eight wells were analyzed for stable isotopes of nitrogen. The nitrate concentration in one well was 40 milligrams per liter (mg/L), which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) maximum contamination level in drinking water of 10 mg/L. Sodium concentrations at nine wells exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Advisory Taste Threshold of 60 mg/L. Dissolved iron concentrations at three wells exceeded the NYSDOH and USEPA Secondary Drinking Water Standard of 300 micrograms per liter (?g/L). Nitrogen isotope signatures (d15N) were determined and compared with those reported from previous studies in Nassau and Suffolk Counties to identify possible sources of the nitrate. Local variations in measured ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations and d15N signatures indicate that nitrate enters the surficial aquifer from several sources (fertilizer, septic waste, and animal waste) and reflects biogeochemical processes such as

  5. Effect of methionine supplementation in chicken feed on the quality and shelf life of fresh poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Antonia; Herbert, Ulrike; Miskel, Dennis; Heinemann, Celine; Braun, Carina; Dohlen, Sophia; Zeitz, Johanna O; Eder, Klaus; Saremi, Behnam; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different methionine sources and concentrations on the quality and spoilage process of broiler meat. The trial was comprised of 7 treatment groups: one basal group (suboptimal in Methionine+Cysteine; i.e., 0.89, 0.74, 0.69% in DM SID Met+Cys in starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively) and 3 doses (0.10, 0.25, and 0.40%) of either DL-Methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) on an equimolar basis of the DLM-supplemented groups. The broilers were fed the diets for 35 d, then slaughtered and processed. The filets were aerobically packed and stored under temperature controlled conditions at 4°C. Meat quality investigations were comprised of microbial investigations (total viable count and Pseudomonas spp.), pH and drip loss measurements of the filets. The shelf life of the meat samples was determined based on sensory parameters. After slaughtering, all supplemented meat samples showed a high quality, whereby no differences between the 2 methionine sources could be detected for the microbial load, pH, and drip loss. In comparison to the control group, the supplemented samples showed a higher sensory quality, characterized by a fresh smell and fresh red color. Methionine supplementation had a significant influence on meat quality parameters during storage. The microbial load, pH and drip loss of the chicken filets were positively correlated to the methionine concentration. Additionally, the microbial load at the end of storage was positively correlated to pH and drip loss values. Nevertheless, the microbial parameters were in a normal range and the positive correlation to methionine concentration did not affect the sensory shelf life. The mean sensory shelf life of the broiler filets varied between 7 to 9 d. During storage, no difference in the development of sensory parameters was observed between the supplemented groups, while the spoilage process of the basal group

  6. Shallow groundwater quality and associated non-cancer health risk in agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Sun, Zhanxue; Maier, Sofya; Drebot, Valeriia; Gao, Bai

    2018-03-24

    Owing to their accessibility, shallow groundwater is an essential source of drinking water in rural areas while usually being used without control by authorities. At the same time, this type of water resource is one of the most vulnerable to pollution, especially in regions with extensive agricultural activity. These factors increase the probability of adverse health effects in the population as a result of the consumption of shallow groundwater. In the present research, shallow groundwater quality in the agricultural areas of Poyang Lake basin was assessed according to world and national standards for drinking water quality. To evaluate non-cancer health risk from drinking groundwater, the hazard quotient from exposure to individual chemicals and hazard index from exposure to multiple chemicals were applied. It was found that, in shallow groundwater, the concentrations of 11 components (NO 3 - , NH 4 + , Fe, Mn, As, Al, rare NO 2 - , Se, Hg, Tl and Pb) exceed the limits referenced in the standards for drinking water. According to the health risk assessment, only five components (NO 3 - , Fe, As, rare NO 2 - and Mn) likely provoke non-cancer effects. The attempt to evaluate the spatial distribution of human health risk from exposure to multiple chemicals shows that the most vulnerable area is associated with territory characterised by low altitude where reducing or near-neutral conditions are formed (lower reaches of Xiushui and Ganjiang Rivers). The largest health risk is associated with the immune system and adverse dermal effects.

  7. The effect of irradiation temperature on the quality improvement of Kimchi, Korean fermented vegetables, for its shelf stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Gyu [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Jae-Nam [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Duk [CJ Food Research and Development, CJ Corp., Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wang-Geun [Department of Application Science and Technology, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Han-Joon [Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-04-15

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irradiation temperature on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 deg. C for 30 days. Kimchi samples were N{sub 2}-packaged and heated at 60 deg. C and then gamma irradiated at 20 kGy under various temperatures (room temperature, ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen). In the results of microbial, pH, and acidity analysis, combination treatment of heating and irradiation was able to sterilize microbes in Kimchi regardless of irradiation temperature. When Kimchi was irradiated under frozen temperatures, especially dry ice, the softening of texture and the deterioration of sensory quality of Kimchi were reduced. Also, ESR signal intensities were weakened due to the decrease of irradiation dose and temperature.

  8. The effect of irradiation temperature on the quality improvement of Kimchi, Korean fermented vegetables, for its shelf stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Jae-Nam; Kim, Young-Duk; Kim, Wang-Geun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Hwang, Han-Joon; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irradiation temperature on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 deg. C for 30 days. Kimchi samples were N 2 -packaged and heated at 60 deg. C and then gamma irradiated at 20 kGy under various temperatures (room temperature, ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen). In the results of microbial, pH, and acidity analysis, combination treatment of heating and irradiation was able to sterilize microbes in Kimchi regardless of irradiation temperature. When Kimchi was irradiated under frozen temperatures, especially dry ice, the softening of texture and the deterioration of sensory quality of Kimchi were reduced. Also, ESR signal intensities were weakened due to the decrease of irradiation dose and temperature

  9. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-annual Technical Report October 6, 2002 - April 5, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; McClure, Kevin; Morgan, Craig D.

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone. Examination of upper Ismay cores

  10. Influence of gamma irradiation and low temperature storage on the quality and shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjanaik, B.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is considered as an efficient method for the reduction of microorganisms in food. It has been used to improve the safety and shelf life of food products. The present investigation is aimed at studying the influence of gamma irradiation (3 and 5 kGy and subsequent storage at refrigeration temperature (4oC on the chemical, microbial qualities and extended shelf life of squid (Doryteuthis sibogae. The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N and trimethyl amine nitrogen values (TMA-N of the irradiated squid samples significantly decreased in comparison with the control (non-irradiated stored at 4oC. The thiobarbituric acid values for the irradiated squid was significantly lower than of the non-irradiated samples stored at 4oC (p<0.05. The pH value of the squid was affected significantly by both, irradiation dose and storage temperature (p<0.05. The total microbial load for the non-irradiated squid samples was higher than those of irradiated samples at 4oC temperature. The results revealed that the combination of irradiation and refrigerated storage resulted in a significant reduction of microbial growth and stabilized the biochemical characteristics of squid.

  11. Influence of hydroponic and soil cultivation on quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L. Laterr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Foschia, Martina; Tomasi, Nicola; Maifreni, Michela; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Marino, Marilena; Cortella, Giovanni; Cesco, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the hydroponic floating system to cultivate leafy vegetables for ready-to-eat salads. It is reasonable that different growing systems could affect the quality and shelf life of these salads. The quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce grown in protected environment in soil plot or in soil-less system over hydroponic solution with or without the addition of 30 µmol L⁻¹ silicon were evaluated. Minimum effects were observed on colour, firmness and microbial counts. Hydroponic cultivation largely affected plant tissue hydration, leading to weight loss and structural modifications during refrigerated storage. The shelf life of lamb's lettuce was limited by the development of visually detectable unpleasant sensory properties. Shelf life, calculated by survival analysis of consumer acceptability data, resulted about 7 days for soil-cultivated salad and 2 days for the hydroponically grown ones. The addition of silicon to the hydroponic solution resulted in an interesting strategy to increase plant tissue yield and reduce nitrate accumulation. Although hydroponic cultivation may have critical consequences on product quality and shelf life, these disadvantages could be largely counterbalance by increased yield and a reduction of nitrate accumulation when cultivation is performed on nutritive solutions with supplemental addition of silicon. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Overall quality and shelf life of minimally processed and modified atmosphere packaged 'ready-to-eat' pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Zehra; Eştürk, Okan

    2009-06-01

    Minimally processed ready-to-eat pomegranate arils have become popular due to their convenience, high value, unique sensory characteristics, and health benefits. The objective of this study was to monitor quality parameters and to extend the shelf life of ready-to-eat pomegranate arils packaged with modified atmospheres. Minimally processed pomegranate arils were packed in PP trays sealed with BOPP film under 4 atmospheres including low and super atmospheric oxygen. Packaged arils were stored at 5 degrees C for 18 d and monitored for internal atmosphere and quality attributes. Atmosphere equilibrium was reached for all MAP applications except for high oxygen. As a general trend, slight or no significant change was detected in chemical and physical attributes of pomegranate arils during cold storage. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria were in the range of 2.30 to 4.51 log CFU/g at the end of the storage, which did not affect the sensory quality. Overall, the pomegranate arils packed with air, nitrogen, and enriched oxygen kept quality attributes and were acceptable to sensory panelists on day 18; however, marketability period was limited to 15 d for the low oxygen atmosphere. PP trays sealed with BOPP film combined with either passive or active modified atmospheres and storage at 5 degrees C provided commercially acceptable arils for 18 d with high quality and convenience.

  13. Irradiation of Ananas comosus: shelf life improvement, nutritional quality and assessment of genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susheela, K.; Damayanti, M.; Sharma, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation in improving the shelf life of three-quarter ripe and fully ripe pineapple fruit by reducing the incidence of fungal infection, predominantly caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa, is described. Ananas comosus irradiated at 50, 100 and 150 Gy and stored at 25-29°C with 90-97% relative humidity maintained their texture better than the controls. The maximum tolerable dose was about 250 Gy. There was, no significant loss of sugar and ascorbic acid contents in fruit irradiated at the optimum dose, i.e. 150 Gy. At the same time, the irradiated pineapple fruit (250 Gy) did not induce any harmful genotoxic effect on rats fed daily with the irradiated pineapples for 30 days

  14. Quality and shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in retort pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-12-01

    The shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in 3-ply retort pouches at Fo = 12.13 in a stock sterilizer were evaluated at 15 days interval for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a period of 3 months. The pH of the product was 6.28 at 0 day and a gradual decline was noticed during storage. Texture of the product as indicated by shear force values had decreased slowly. The residual nitrite content had significantly declined from 82.67 ppm at 0 day to 45.00 ppm on 90th day of storage. The TBARS values were 0.24 and 0.67 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively at 0 day and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine value had significantly increased from 0.37 mg/100 g at 0 day to 0.58 mg/100 g during storage. Free aminoacid content increased gradually from an initial level of 124.32 to 217.51 at 90(th) day of storage. The SDS-PAGE hydrolysis pattern showed barely discernible 205 KDa protein and presence of subfragments in the molecular range of 63 KDa to 29 KDa protein. The sensory studies indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days. As the storage period increased pH, reidual nitrite, sensory attributes declined significantly and TBARS value, tyrosine value and free aminoacid content significantly increased. Mesophillic aerobes and anerobes were found to be absent. The shelf life study indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days based on the assessment of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  15. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the shallow groundwater quality in a typical irrigation area with reclaimed water, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yong; Yin, Shiyang; Pan, Xingyao; Niu, Yong; Shao, Jingli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Qiulan; Hao, Qichen

    2017-09-22

    In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater were analyzed to get insight into the factors affecting groundwater quality in a typical agricultural dominated area of the North China Plain. Forty-four shallow groundwater samples were collected for chemical analysis. The water type changes from Ca·Na-HCO 3 type in grass land to Ca·Na-Cl (+NO 3 ) type and Na (Ca)-Cl (+NO 3 +SO 4 ) type in construction and facility agricultural land, indicating the influence of human activities. The factor analysis and geostatistical analysis revealed that the two major factors contributing to the groundwater hydrochemical compositions were the water-rock interaction and contamination from sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers. The major ions (F, HCO 3 ) and trace element (As) in the shallow groundwater represented the natural origin, while the nitrate and sulfate concentrations were related to the application of fertilizer and sewage discharge in the facility agricultural area, which was mainly affected by the human activities. The values of pH, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, and conventional component (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cl) in shallow groundwater increased from grass land and cultivated land, to construction land and to facility agriculture which were originated from the combination sources of natural processes (e.g., water-rock interaction) and human activities (e.g., domestic effluents). The study indicated that both natural processes and human activities had influences on the groundwater hydrochemical compositions in shallow groundwater, while anthropogenic processes had more contribution, especially in the reclaimed water irrigation area.

  17. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr. Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells

  18. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Goukh, A. A.; Shattir, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  19. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  20. Effect of postharvest spray of apple polyphenols on the quality of fresh-cut red pitaya fruit during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Panhui; Huber, Donald J; Su, Zihan; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; Li, Min; Shi, Xuequn; Zhang, Zhengke

    2018-03-15

    Fresh-cut (FC) red pitaya fruit were treated with 5ga.i.l -1 apple polyphenols (APP) and then stored at 20°C for up to 4days to evaluate the effects on attributes. Results showed that FC pitaya fruit with APP treatment showed greater colour retention, delayed softening, reduced loss of soluble solids content, titratable acidity, betacyanin and total phenolics compared with untreated FC fruit. APP treatment also maintained antioxidant activity, as indicated by higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power compared with untreated FC pitaya fruit. APP treatment strongly suppressed microbial growth, contributing to improvement of product safety. Because APP is a natural product, we propose that application of APP could be a convenient, safe and low-cost approach to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of FC red pitaya fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECT OF IRRADIATION AND PACKAGING MATERIALS TYPES ON SHELF-LIFE AND QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF MINCED MEAT DURING COLD STORAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSHEBA, A.S.; NAGY, KH.S.; ANWAR, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Minced meat is considered one of the most meat products that exposed to contamination which led to many changes in its quality and reduced its shelf-life.Therefore, this investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life of minced meat for consumption and maintaining its quality during cold storage by using irradiation with various doses (3, 6 and 9 kGy) and different packing materials. The results indicated that irradiation,especially at 3 and 6 kGy, had no effect on chemical composition and some physical properties of minced meat. On the other hand, pH values of all irradiated samples were slightly decreased with decreasing irradiation doses.Irradiation at the highest dose used, i.e. 9 kGy, slightly increased total volatile nitrogen (TVN) of minced meat. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of irradiated samples was tended to increase with increasing irradiation dose from 3 to 9 kGy either directly after irradiation or during storage.Regardless of irradiation effect on TVN and TBA values at zero time, there were no marked differences in TVN and TBA values of irradiated minced meat according to differentiate packaging materials (PE, PA/PE and PET/Al/PE). During cold storage, the TVN and TBA values of all minced meat samples either non-irradiated or irradiated were progressively increased as the time of cold storage increased. The higher increasing rate in TVN and TBA of irradiated samples was recorded for samples packaged in PE (one layer) followed by PA/PE (two layers) and finally PET/Al/PE (three layers) at the same irradiation dose. Irradiation of minced meat with 3 kGy reduced the counts of total bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds counts as well as eliminating Salmonella spp. Irradiation doses of 6 and 9 kGy completely eliminated coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds. Also, type of packaging materials which used had no effect on counts of all studied microorganisms. Irradiation of minced meat with

  2. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been

  3. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  4. Effect of pectin edible coating enriched with essential oils of citrus on strawberry quality during refrigerated storage and shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Abdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest life of strawberry fruit is very short due to humidity and high metabolic activity. In order to extend the shelf life and quality of strawberry (cv. parous, effects of pectin coating enriched with different concentrations of lemon and orange peel essential oil were assessed at 20˚C for 6 days or 5˚C to 12 days. The experiment conducted based on a complete randomized design (CDR in 3 replications with 6 treatments including control (distilled water, pectin (1%, pectin enriched with orange peel essential oil (0.5 and 1% and pectin containing lemon peel essential oil (0.5 and 1%. Fruit quality was evaluated by marketing, weight loss, anthocyanin content, ascorbic acid content, total protein and chlorophyll of calyx every 3 days. Based on results coating fruits with citrus essential oil carried by pectin delayed the change in weight loss, total protein, anthocyanin content, maintained ascorbic acid content of fruits and also reduced chlorophyll destruction of calyx. The results showed that pectin coating containing lemon essential oil had a significant effect on the maintaining the visual quality of the fruit during the storage, delayed the weight loss and showed better results compared to the other coatings and to the control fruit. In addition, the maximum content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin were obtained for strawberries coated with pectin containing lemon essential oil 1% after 12 days storage of fruits at 5˚C. All coatings significantly reduced weight loss of fresh strawberries during storage at 5˚C and 20˚C compared to the uncoated fruits. Results indicated that adding high concentrations (1% of orange peel essential oil into pectin coatings did not improve quality of fruits. In addition, it was found that adding orange peel essential oil to pectin coating accelerate decay of fruits. Based on results, pectin coating containing 1% lemon essential oil considered an appropriate treatment to improve shelf life and storage

  5. Development of nuclear technology for improving quality and shelf-life on food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati

    2007-01-01

    The availability and sustain ability food regarding safety, nutritive, and remaining good palatability are the basic needs of human in order to stay alive and keep healthy. The process must follow the existing standard-guidelines (Good Manufacturing Practices/GMP and Good Irradiation Practices/GIP) if ionizing radiation will be implemented for such purposes because of its effectiveness, efficient, and practical in comparison with conventional methods. Nevertheless application of nuclear technique for improving the safety and extending the shelf-life of foods for human consumption, a proper regulation and legalization from the local government is needed. Commercialization of irradiated food in Indonesia has been stipulated under decree of PERMENKES No. 826/MENKES /PER/XII/1987, No.152/MENKES/SK/II/1995 and Food Law of the Republic of Indonesia No.7/1996. Commercially, besides Indonesia, other countries within Asia and the Pacific region such as India, Thailand, and Vietnam have implemented nuclear technique on food commodities for quarantine, sanitation and sterilization purposes both for local consumption and export to European Countries, USA and Australia. Public education should be more conducted in some effective ways and keep on going to avoid misconception about the technology itself. (author)

  6. Intensive rice agriculture deteriorates the quality of shallow groundwater in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Yuyuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xinliang; Gong, Dianlin; Ma, Qiumei; Li, Wei; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-09-01

    High nitrogen (N) concentrations in rural domestic water supplies have been attributed to excessive agricultural N leaching into shallow groundwater systems; therefore, it is important to determine the impact of agriculture (e.g., rice production) on groundwater quality. To understand the impact of agricultural land use on the N concentrations in the shallow groundwater in subtropical central China, a large observation program was established to observe ammonium-N (NH4-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), and total N (TN) concentrations in 161 groundwater observation wells from April 2010 to November 2012. The results indicated that the median values of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN concentrations in the groundwater were 0.15, 0.39, and 1.38 mg N L(-1), respectively. A total of 36.3 % of the water samples were categorized as NH4-N pollution, and only a small portion of the samples were categorized as NO3-N pollution, based on the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater of GB/T 14848-93 (General Administration of Quality Supervision of China, 1993). These results indicated of moderate groundwater NH4-N pollution, which was mainly attributed to intensive rice agriculture with great N fertilizer application rates in the catchment. In addition, tea and vegetable fields showed higher groundwater NO3-N and TN concentrations than other agricultural land use types. The factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) suggested that the flooded agricultural land use types (e.g., single-rice and double-rice) had potential to impose NH4-N pollution, particularly in the soil exhausting season during from July to October. And, the great N fertilizer application rates could lead to a worse NO3-N and TN pollution in shallow groundwater. Hence, to protect groundwater quality and minimize NH4-N pollution, managing optimal fertilizer application and applying appropriate agricultural land use types should be implemented in the region.

  7. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the

  8. Quality and shelf life evaluation of fermented sausages of buffalo meat with different levels of heart and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Srivastava, P K

    2007-04-01

    Investigations were carried to study the effect of heart incorporation (0%, 15% and 20%) and increasing levels of fat (20% and 25%) on physicochemical (pH, moisture content and thiobarbituric acid, TBA number) and microbiological (total plate count and yeast and mold count) quality and shelf life of semi dry sausages of buffalo meat during refrigerated storage (4°C). Different levels of fat significantly (p<0.05) increased the pH of the sausage samples. However different levels of heart incorporation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect pH, moisture content and TBA number of sausage samples. Fresh samples had pH, moisture content and TBA number in the range of 5.15-5.28, 42.4-47.4% and 0.073-0.134 respectively. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) increased TBA number of control samples while storage did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the TBA number of sodium ascorbate (SA) treated samples. Total plate counts of twelve sausage samples were f under the TFTC (too few to count) limit at the initial stage. Incorporation of different levels of heart and also increasing levels of fat did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the log TPC/g values. Yeast and molds were not detected in twelve samples of semi dry fermented sausages in their fresh condition. Storage revealed that there was a consistent decrease in pH, and moisture content. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) reduced both pH and moisture contents. TBA number and total plate counts and yeast and mold counts of controls were found to increase significantly (p<0.05) during refrigerated storage. However, in SA treated sausage, only TPC and yeast and mold count significantly (p<0.05) increased during refrigerated storage. Shelf life of the sausages was found to be 60 days under refrigerated storage (4°C).

  9. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefarth, Caroline; Tran, Thi Bich Thao; Mittermaier, Peter; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%), showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt. PMID:28234322

  10. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  11. Changes in the fish community and water quality during seven years of stocking piscivorous fish in a shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Perrow, M.R.; Berg, Søren

    2002-01-01

    evaluated between predatory fish and potential prey and between zooplanktivorous or benthivorous fish and water quality parameters. In addition, potential consumption of piscivorous fishes was calculated. 3. The density of fish feeding on larger zooplankton or benthos (roach >15 cm, crucian carp >15 cm......1. Piscivores (annual stocking of 1000 individuals ha(-1) of 0+ pike and a single stocking of 30 kg ha(-1) of large 20-30 cm perch) were stocked in seven consecutive years in a shallow eutrophic lake in Denmark. The stocking programme aimed at changing food-web structure by reducing...... zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish, with resultant effects on lower trophic levels and ultimately water quality. 2. The fish community and water quality parameters (Secchi depth, concentrations of total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and suspended solids) were monitored between 1996 and 2000 and relationships were...

  12. Effect of irradiation on the shelf life and nutritional quality of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon L.) powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuobi-Yeboah, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycoersicon L.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 153 million metric tons. It is the most important fruit vegetable and the second most widely cultivated crop in the world after potato, with a total production of about 141 million tons. In 2009, the average total yield in Ghana was 7.5 Mt ha -1 compared to the achievable yield of 15.0 Mt ha -1 . The tomato industry in Ghana for the past decade has been bedevilled by a myriad of problems of which post-havest losses range between 30% and 70% in the major season of production, hence a study was conducted into the preservation of S. lycoersicon L. through drying and packaging to reduce post-havest losses. Two drying methods comprising of solar and freeze drying were employed for three varieties of tomato which are cultivated locally. The methods were compared to determine the more efficient for the three varieties used for the study and the impact of drying and radiation on some physio-chemical properties, microbial load as well as shelf-life of the samples. Evaluation of the packaging material for the dried samples was also carried out. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at 0 kGy, 1 kGy, 2kGy, 3 kGy. The parameters determined included moisture content, pH, titratable acidity; total soluble solids carotenoids, lycopene, lutein and beta carotene. Microbial analysis carried out included total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count, total coliform count and moulds and yeast using standard methods. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Storage had significant effect (p 00.05) the moisture content, total soluble solids of Akoma variety irrespective of the drying method used. However gamma irradiation had a significant effect (p<0.05) effect on pH, colour, total aerobic mesophilic counts, total coliforms, moulds and yeast, total carotenoid content, lutein and beta carotene. Storage had significant (p<0.05) effect on the colour, total carotenoid content, and lycopene of

  13. Evaluating the Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH and Pasteurization effects on the quality and shelf life of donkey milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cephas Nii Akwei Addo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk has functional properties of great interest to human nutrition. The effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH at 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa in comparison with different pasteurization treatments of 70 °C for 1 min and 85 °C for 1 min on the physicochemical quality and shelf-life of treated and raw (untreated donkey milk were studied. Gross composition and pH, total mesophilic counts, lysozyme activity and physical stability were studied during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. The compositional profile showed resemblance to that of human milk characterized by high lactose, low fat and low protein content and was least affected by the treatments. UHPH treatments at 200 MPa, 300 MPa and 85 °C were able to maintain steady pH during storage whereas the low intensity treatments showed a significant decrease. The observed lysozyme activity in the samples was generally high and appeared to have been enhanced by the applied UHPH and pasteurization treatments with no significant change during storage. Although the raw milk showed good initial microbial quality, extensive growth of mesophilic microorganisms occurred after 7 days of storage, unlike the treated samples which were able to maintain significantly low counts throughout the storage period. The physical stability of milk was negatively influenced by the higher UHPH treatments of 200 MPa and 300 MPa which exhibited sedimentation phenomenon, while creaming was insignificant.

  14. Effect of ionizing radiation and modified atmosphere packaging on shelf-life and quality of tomato stored at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Aneesh; Kudachikar, V.B.; Ravi, R.

    2007-01-01

    Investigation was conducted to extend the shelf-life and maintain the fruit quality characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) under the influence of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in low density polyethylene (LDPE) film pouches, γ-irradiation at 0, 1,2, 3 and 4 KGy and low temperature (12±1 deg.C) storage at 90-95% RH. Changes in gas composition of modified atmosphere (MA) packages, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, lycopene content, ascorbic acid, reducing and total sugars of MA packed tomatoes with or without irradiation treatments during storage were recorded at 0,7,14 and 21 days. Results revealed that tomatoes packed with LDPE pouches alone as well as treatment with MAP and low doses (1 and 2 KGy) of γ-irradiation showed good storability up to 21 days at 12±1 deg.C and 90- 95% RH with maximum retention of fruit quality characteristics as compared to 7 days for openly kept control tomatoes. (author)

  15. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Quality changes of pasteurised mango juice during storage. Part I: Selecting shelf-life markers by integration of a targeted and untargeted multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Grauwet, Tara; Gedefa, Getnet Belete; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, a multivariate approach combining targeted and untargeted data was used to obtain insight into quality changes in pasteurised mango juice (cv. 'Totapuri') as a function of storage (42°C for 8weeks). Mango juice samples were formulated with addition of different potential precursors for different quality-related chemical reactions: ascorbic acid, citric acid and sugars. Control (diluted mango puree with water), ascorbic acid-enriched (AA 250 and AA 500 ), citric acid-enriched (CA, CA+AA 250 and CA+AA 500 ) and sugar-enriched (S) samples were characterised for a range of targeted quality parameters as well as for a volatile fingerprint (untargeted). Selection of shelf-life markers or quality parameters significantly changing during shelf-life was performed over all formulations as well as per mango juice formulation. Our study showed that a common trend over all formulations was observed for colour values (VID>│0.90│), while specific shelf-life markers were selected for each formulation. In acidified mango juice samples (CA, CA+AA 250 , CA+AA 500 ), more terpene oxides were selected compared to other formulations. In ascorbic acid-enriched samples (AA 250 , AA 500 , CA+AA 250 , CA+AA 500 ), furfural and ascorbic acid were significantly changing during shelf-life. It seems that the reaction pathways for compounds being formed or degraded upon shelf-life are clearly affected by the acidity level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  18. Shelf-life extension and improvement of the microbiological quality of smoked salmon by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, A.A.I.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Cold-smoked salmon locally available was irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (2-3 degrees C). Microbiological and sensory qualities were studied immediately after irradiation and during storage. Irradiation at 2 kGy caused a great reduction in all the tested microbial population, thus improving the hygienic quality of smoked salmon to meet the microbiological limits for the top-grade quality. Moreover, irradiated samples at 4 kGy were free from coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci and Staph. aureus over the entire storage period. Unirradiated samples reached the maximum accepted mesophilic plate count after only one month of storage, while those irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy reached this level after 3 and 4 months, respectively. No differences in sensory qualities were found by the taste panel between unirradiated samples and those irradiated at 2 kGy, but they observed a distinct loss in normal cherry red color of the samples irradiated at 4 kGy

  19. Formulation, quality control and shelf life of the experimental cytostatic drug cyclopentenyl cytosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, Kirsten; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van Kan, Erik

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation and quality control of an aqueous sterilized formulation of the experimental cytostatic drug cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) to be used in Phase I/II clinical trials. The raw drug substance was extensively tested. A High Pressure Liquid Chromotography (HPLC) method

  20. Chemometric correlation of shelf life, quality measurements, and visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using pr...

  1. Natural vitamin B12 and fucose supplementation of green smoothies with edible algae and related quality changes during their shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Noelia; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Goffi, Valentina; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Some algae are an excellent sources of vitamin B12, of special interest for vegetarian/vegan consumers, and of fucose to supplement fruit and vegetable beverages such as smoothies. Nevertheless, supplementation of smoothies with algae may lead to possible quality changes during smoothie shelf life that need to be studied. Therefore, the quality changes in fresh green smoothies supplemented (2.2%) with nine edible algae (sea lettuce, kombu, wakame, thongweed, dulse, Irish moss, nori, Spirulina and Chlorella) were studied throughout 24 days at 5 °C. The initial vitamin C content - 238.7-326.0 mg kg -1 fresh weight (FW) - of a 200 g portion of any of the smoothies ensured full coverage of its recommended daily intake, and still supplying 50-60% of the recommended intake after 7 days. Chlorella and Spirulina smoothies showed the highest vitamin B12 content (33.3 and 15.3 µg kg -1 FW, respectively), while brown algae showed fucose content of 141.1-571.3 mg kg -1 FW. These vitamin B12 and fucose contents were highly maintained during shelf life. The Spirulina supplementation of a 200 g smoothie portion ensured full coverage of the recommended vitamin B12 intake, with lower vitamin C degradation, during a shelf life of 17 days. Furthermore, thongweed and kombu are also considered as excellent fucose sources with similar shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The effects of season and sand mining activities on thermal regime and water quality in a large shallow tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharip, Zati; Zaki, Ahmad Taqiyuddin Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Thermal structure and water quality in a large and shallow lake in Malaysia were studied between January 2012 and June 2013 in order to understand variations in relation to water level fluctuations and in-stream mining activities. Environmental variables, namely temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, chlorophyll-A and transparency, were measured using a multi-parameter probe and a Secchi disk. Measurements of environmental variables were performed at 0.1 m intervals from the surface to the bottom of the lake during the dry and wet seasons. High water level and strong solar radiation increased temperature stratification. River discharges during the wet season, and unsustainable sand mining activities led to an increased turbidity exceeding 100 NTU, and reduced transparency, which changed the temperature variation and subsequently altered the water quality pattern.

  3. Quality changes and shelf-life extension of ready-to-eat fish patties by adding encapsulated citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Ricard; Claret, Anna; Stamatakis, Antonios; Martínez, Brigitte; Guerrero, Luis

    2017-12-01

    Citric acid is commonly used as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages. The effect of adding citric acid directly or encapsulated (each at 1 and 2 g kg -1 ) on the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat sea bass patties was evaluated during storage at 4 °C in vacuum skin packaging. Microbial growth and total basic volatile nitrogen were maintained at relatively low levels up to 8 weeks of storage. With respect to oxidative stability, the addition of encapsulated citric acid minimized secondary oxidation values more efficiently than its direct addition, regardless of the concentration. This is in agreement with the decreased fishy odor observed in those patties containing encapsulated citric acid. Accordingly, sensory analysis showed that the addition of encapsulated citric acid at 1 g kg -1 resulted in lower scores in fish aroma compared to that of the control. Sourness is dependent on the amount of citric acid added, regardless of the form (direct or encapsulated). The form of citric acid addition, rather than the amount of citric acid added, caused changes in texture. Therefore, the use of encapsulated citric acid represents a suitable strategy that is of great interest in the seafood industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of Gamma Radiations on the Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruit of the Uttrakhand Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prianka; Rastogi, Meetu

    2016-08-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiations on the quality and shelf life of strawberries. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation doses in range of 0.3- 1.5 kGy. The irradiated strawberries were stored in ambient (temperature 25 +- 2oC, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (3 +-1oC, RH 80%) conditions. In samples treated with dose 1.2-1.5 kGy no decay was recorded up to 9 days of ambient conditions. Under refrigerated conditions, strawberry samples of unirradiated and irradiated in the range of 0.3-0.9 kGy started decaying after 14 days of storage. No decay was observed in the samples treated with 1.2-1.5 kGy up to 28 days of refrigerated storage. Dose of 1.2 kGy was significantly effective in reducing the weight loss and in maintaining the higher overall acceptability under both the storage conditions compared to the other treatments. This dose also proved effective in retention of significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to the other treatments. Thus, it was established that irradiating strawberries with dose of 1.2 kGy can prove beneficial in facilitating the marketing of the fruit to distant places other than the local markets, thereby benefiting the growers.

  5. Influence of packaging and storage conditions on quality parameters and shelf life of solar-dried banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Phothapaeree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of packaging materials (metalized or polylactic acid, PLA, based pouches, storage temperatures (30-50°C and time (up to 6 months on quality of solar-dried banana were investigated. At 30°C in both packaging materials, change in moisture content, water activity (a w and hardness were minimal while darkening of the surface color progressed. No microbial spoilage was found. Hedonic scores of color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptance of the 6th month aged samples were lowest (p≤0.05. Based on the sensory test, product packed in both packaging materials had shelf life of 5 months at 30°C. Higher storage temperature greatly induced time-dependent decrease in moisture content and a w with an increase in hardness, especially for the samples in PLA-based pouches. Fractional conversion model was used to predicted time-dependent change in total color difference (ΔE (R2 ≥ 0.84. Temperature dependence of the rate constant followed Arrhenius-type relationship (R2 ≥ 0.99.

  6. Radiation processing: An effective quality control tool for hygienization and extending shelf life of a herbal formulation, Amritamehari churnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amritamehari churnam (AC is an antidiabetic polyherbal formulation constituting of four herbal medicinal plants namely Phyllanthus emblica, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa. The feasibility of using gamma irradiation at doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy to reduce microbial load and enhance shelf life of this formulation was investigated. The irradiated and non-irradiated products were stored at room temperature (25–32 °C and 50–85% R.H., 1.5 years. Acceptability of the irradiated product was assessed based on sensory, microbial, physical and chemical attributes as well as their antioxidant status. A dose 7.5 kGy was sufficient to maintain microbial quality within acceptable limit up to 18 months of storage. No significant differences in sensory properties were observed between the non-irradiated and irradiated sample. The applied dose did not cause any significant qualitative and quantitative changes in the chemical constituents, antioxidant activities as well as physical properties when measured by EPR spectroscopy.

  7. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  8. Trace fossils and sedimentary facies from a Late Cambrian‐Early Ordovician tide‐dominated shelf (Santa Rosita Formation, northwest Argentina): Implications for ichnofacies models of shallow marine successions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mángano, M. Gabriela; Buatois, Luis A.; Aceñolaza, Guillermo F.

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Rosita Formation is one the most widely distributed lower Paleozoic units of northwest Argentina. At the Quebrada del Salto Alto section, east of Purmamarca, Jujuy Province, it is represented by four sedimentary facies: thick‐bedded planar cross‐stratified quartzose sandstones (A), thin‐bedded planar cross‐stratified quartzose sandstones and mudstones (B), wave‐rippled sandstones and bioturbated mudstones (C), and black and greenish gray shales (D). Paleocurrent data, sandstone architecture, and sedimentary structures from faciès A and B indicate bipolar/bimodal paleoflows, suggesting the action of tidal currents. The succession is interpreted as that of a tide‐dominated shelf, with only secondary influence of wave processes. Trace fossils are restricted to facies B and C.The Cruziana ichnocoenosis is preserved on the soles of thin‐bedded planar cross‐stratified quartzose sandstones (faciès B). This ichnocoenosis consists of Conostichus isp., Cruziana omanica, C. semiplicata, C. cf. tortworthi, Cruziana isp. Helminthopsis abeli, Monomorphichnus bilinearis, M. multilineatus, Palaeophycus tubularis, Rusophycus carbonarias, R. latus, and R. isp. The occurrence of Cruziana semiplicata, C. omanica, C. cf. tortworthi, and Rusophycus latus supports a Late Cambrian‐Tremadoc age. Slabbing of Cruziana shows complex interactions between biologic and sedimentologic processes, and suggests a predominance of exhumed traces, washed out and recast by tractive sand deposition. Sandstone soles are densely packed with biogenic structures and exhibit distinctive clusters of Rusophycus isp. that most likely represent trilobite nesting burrows. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis records the resident fauna of a protected, lower intertidal to subtidal interbar setting.The Skolithos ichnocoenosis is represented by high to low density vertical burrows of Skolithos linearis, which extend downwards to the quartzose sandstone soles of faciès B and

  9. Accelerated shelf-life testing of quality loss for a commercial hydrolysed hen egg white powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-11-15

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages for both protein supplementation and clinical use has significantly increased. However, few studies have explored the moisture-induced effects on food protein hydrolysates, and the resulting changes in the structure and texture of the food matrix as well as the loss in functional properties of bioactive peptides during storage. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of water activity (a(w)) on the storage quality of a commercial spray-dried hydrolysed hen egg white powder (HEW). During storage at 45 °C for two months at different a(w)s (0.05-0.79), the selected physicochemical properties of the HEW samples were analysed. Overall, the effect of a(w) on the colour change of HEW at 45 °C for one month was similar to that of HEW after four months at 23 °C due to the presence of a small amount of glucose in HEW. Several structural changes occurred at a(w)s from 0.43 to 0.79 including agglomeration, stickiness and collapse. Kinetic analysis showed a first-order hyperbolic model fit for the change in the L(∗) value, the total colour difference (ΔE(∗)) and the fluorescence intensity (FI). There was a high correlation between colour change and fluorescence, as expected for the Maillard reaction. The reduction in the remaining free amino groups was about 5% at a(w) 0.50 and 6% at a(w) 0.79 after one month storage. In summary, during storage, the Maillard reaction and/or its resulting products could decrease the nutritional value and the quality of HEW. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  11. An improved 99mTc-Aprotinin kit formulation: quality control analysis of cold kit shelf life and radiotracer stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.R.; Tsopelas, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aprotinin is a small protein that inhibits serine proteases and has been shown to bind to amyloid fibrils of varying chemical composition in-vitro. 99 mTc-aprotinin has demonstrated potential for imaging cardiac and pleuropulmonary AL amyloidosis and other forms of amyloidosis present as deposits in joints, the tongue or intestines and other sites excluding the kidneys and liver. Radiolabelling of aprotinin was previously achieved by addition of 99 mTc-pertech-netate to an alkaline mixture of Trasylol (aprotinin injection) and stannous chloride, followed by a necessary filtration step after 20-30 minutes. We have developed a modified cold kit formulation, utilising pharmaceutical starting materials, that provides a more convenient and efficient radiolabelling procedure where filtration is not required prior to injection. The shelf life of the cold kits was validated after storage in a freezer. The reducing agent used was stannous-pyrophosphate (PYP) and the alkaline buffer was a phosphate-glycine mixture (pH 10.5). Quality control testing of the cold kits was performed after 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months storage by assessing the % RCP of 99 mTc-apro-tinin by ITLC-SG. Radiotracer stability was examined in the same way 25, 85 and 265 minutes post reconstitution (pr) via a three strip system employing acetone, saline and ammonia:ethanol:water mixture (1:2:5). A rapid quality control cartridge method was also investigated. Radiolabelling of the cold kits yielded RCP > 95% at 25 mins pr and all other time points, from a formulation that avoided a filtration step. The impurities were quantified as TcO., ( 99 mTc-PYP (< 0.7%) by paper methods. The improved Tc-aprotinin kit formulation has greater convenience and efficiency in the clinical setting

  12. Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2013 (NCEI Accession 0162440)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two sets of CTD data were taken during the 2013 Shelfwide Hypoxia cruise off the Louisiana continental shelf. Hydrographic data were obtained with the LUMCON SeaBird...

  13. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (pmacrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  14. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermo...

  15. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the overall quality of Pêra-Rio orange juice during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Paz; Bisconsin-Junior, Antonio; Rosenthal, Amauri; Monteiro, Magali

    2018-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, physicochemical characteristics, color, pectin methylesterase activity, and microbiological count were evaluated during the shelf life of Pêra-Rio orange juice. Pressurized (520 MPa, 60 ℃, for 360 s), non-processed and pasteurized (95 ℃/30 s) orange juice were compared at zero time of storage. Pressurized and pasteurized juices were studied during a refrigerated 90-day shelf life. Pressurization did not cause expressive change in physicochemical characteristics of Pêra-Rio orange juice along shelf life, but significantly reduced pectin methylesterase residual activity to 13% and microbiological counts below detection levels up to 68 days of storage, with small counts (30.0 × 10 CFU/mL mesophilic aerobic bacteria and 20.7 × 10 CFU/mL yeast and mold) at 90 days, capable of ensuring the juice's stability along shelf life. Lightness ( L*) and b* values were significantly reduced by high hydrostatic pressure during shelf life, while a* values were significantly higher. Ascorbic acid decreased around 80% during shelf life. Antioxidant activity remained stable after processing and during storage.

  16. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells in two rural communities in Benue state, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terngu, A.J.; Hyacinth, O.A.; Rufus, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams) in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health -related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2- 1600.0 ILS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0 - 55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001- 0.210 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53 mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82 mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0 mg/L; while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 1 07.4-1375 LS/cmp, H 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2- 1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi), the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. (author)

  17. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological quality of ground water from boreholes and shallow wells in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the

  18. Radiochemical quality of water in the shallow aquifer in Mortandad Canyon, 1967-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Hansen, W.R.; Peters, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Mortandad Canyon receives treated industrial liquid effluents that contain trace amounts of radionuclides. The effluents, other waste water, and storm runoff recharge a shallow aquifer in the alluvium of the canyon. The aquifer lies within the Los Alamos National Laboratory boundaries. Analyses for gross alpha, gross beta, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 90 Sr, 3 H, and total U have been made of water in the aquifer from 1967 through 1978. Average concentrations of the radionuclides in solution decrease downgradient in the canyon with the exception of 3 H. Average 3 H concentrations were highest in the Middle Canyon. Inventories of most radionuclides in the water indicate that in 1978 less than 1% of the total amount released with the effluents in the canyon from 1963 through 1978 remained in solution. The amount of total U in solution in 1978 was about 16% of the total amount released. If there is no significant change in the amounts of radionuclides received at the treatment plant and methods of treatment remain the same, the projected estimates of radionuclide concentrations in the aquifer will increase about 80% from 1978 to 1990. The average concentrations in 1978 and projected concentrations in 1990 of gross alpha, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 90 Sr, 3 H, and total U are less than 1% of the Department of Energy's concentration guides (CG) for areas with controlled public access. Gross beta radioactivity in 1978 was 2% of the CG and is projected to increase to 3% of the CG by 1990

  19. Diagenesis and reservoir quality evolution of palaeocene deep-water, marine sandstones, the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansurbeg, H. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Salem, A. [Faculty of Education at Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University, Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); Marfil, R.; Caja, M.A. [Departmento Petrologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); El-ghali, M.A.K. (Geology Department, Al-Fateh University, P.O. Box 13696, Libya); Nystuen, J.P. [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Amorosi, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 67, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Garcia, D. [Centre SPIN, Department GENERIC, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne 158, Cours Fauriel 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); La Iglesia, A. [Instituto de Geologia Economica (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The Palaeocene, deep-water marine sandstones recovered from six wells in the Shetland-Faroes Basin represent lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tract turbiditic sediments. Mineralogic, petrographic, and geochemical analyses of these siliciclastics are used to decipher and discuss the diagenetic alterations and subsequent reservoir quality evolution. The Middle-Upper Palaeocene sandstones (subarkoses to arkoses) from the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf are submarine turbiditic deposits that are cemented predominantly by carbonates, quartz and clay minerals. Carbonate cements (intergranular and grain replacive calcite, siderite, ferroan dolomite and ankerite) are of eogenetic and mesogenetic origins. The eogenetic alterations have been mediated by marine, meteoric and mixed marine/meteoric porewaters and resulted mainly in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-10.9 permille and -3.8 permille), trace amounts of non-ferroan dolomite, siderite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-14.4 permille to -0.6 permille), as well as smectite and kaolinite in the lowstand systems tract (LST) and highstand systems tract (HST) turbiditic sandstone below the sequence boundary. Minor eogenetic siderite has precipitated between expanded and kaolinitized micas, primarily biotite. The mesogenetic alterations are interpreted to have been mediated by evolved marine porewaters and resulted in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.9 permille to -7.8 permille) and Fe-dolomite/ankerite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.1 permille to -6.3 permille) at temperatures of 50-140 and 60-140 C, respectively. Quartz overgrowths and outgrowth, which post- and pre-date the mesogenetic carbonate cements is more common in the LST and TST of distal turbiditic sandstone. Discrete quartz cement, which is closely associated with illite and chlorite, is the final diagenetic phase. The clay minerals include intergranular and grain replacive

  20. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value gas extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical

  1. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Two Rural Communities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaahan, Terngu J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health-related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2-1600.0 µS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0-55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.210mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0mg/L, while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 107.4-1375 µS/cm, pH 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2-1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi, the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. It is concluded that, while ground water abstraction may be a safety measure against guinea worm infestation it, nevertheless presents other health challenges to the rural population in the area, as the quality of the ground water is generally low.

  2. Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0162101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two sets of CTD data were taken during the 2012 surveys of the Louisiana continental shelf—Transect C off Terrebonne Bay and Transect F off Atchafalaya Bay and the...

  3. Determination of the Quality and Shelf Life of Sous Vide Cooked Turkey Cutlet Stored at 4 and 12ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IT Akoğlu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the quality and shelf life of sous vide turkey cutlet stored at 4 and 12ºC. Samples were packaged under vacuum into polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked using sous vide technology (65ºC/40 min, chilled at 3ºC and stored at 4 and 12ºC for 5 weeks. Microbial (TMAB, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Cl. perfringens, physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, L*a*b* colour, texture profile analysis and shear force and sensory (appearance, colour, odour, flavour, juiciness, chewiness and acceptance parameters were determined. According to the results of mesophilic bacterial counts and sensory analysis, the shelf life of the sous vide turkey cutlet, cooked at 65ºC for 40 min, was determined as 28 days at 4ºC while 15 days at 12ºC. Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Cl. perfringens were not detected in turkey cutlet samples during the storage period. It was detected that sous vide cooked provided convenient ready-to-eat foods and a long shelf life for turkey cutlet.

  4. Study on groundwater quality and potential use in shallow coastal East Surabaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyudi; Arief Setiyono; Onie Wiwid Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of coastal area is one of the fast growing urban area in Surabaya. Increasing in population and industrial growth have driven increasing demands for natural resources, particularly water. The objectives of this study are to identify the quality of the coastal groundwater through in situ measurement and laboratory analyses, and to find out its potential to be utilized as a source of water for coastal aquaculture. Groundwater samples from 70 sampling station have been taken from east Surabaya coastal area. Measurements of the temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the samples carried out directly in situ, and measurements of concentration of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, sulphide, and phosphate conducted in the Environmental Laboratory of ITS. The results show that coastal groundwater in west part of the study area, in only very small area, can be used as a drinking water, and in almost all area of the east Surabaya coastal area is not permitted. In the central and south part can be utilized as a source of the coastal aquaculture, however in the north part is not potential, in the central area is medium, and in the south part is categorized as a high potential. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes, Case Study of Lake Uluabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet İLERİ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Uluabat, located 20 km south of the Marmara Sea, between 42° 12' North latitude, 28° 40'East longitude and is located in the province of Bursa. The Lake is one of the richest lakes in terms of aquatic plants besides fish and bird populations in Turkey. In this study, water quality of the Lake was monitored from June 2008 to May 2009 during the 12 month period with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake and spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were examined. pH, temperature (T, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, secchi depth (SD, water level (WL, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P, total phosphorus (TP, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a were the monitoring parameters. As a result, concentrations of the parameters were found at high levels especially the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th stations and temporally were found at high levels often in the summer. According to the results of analysis of variance, regional and temporal variations of all parameters were found important except SS and NO3-N

  6. Effects of electron beam irradiated natural casings on the quality properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2012-05-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 kGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage was evaluated. There were no significant differences in pH, instrumental color, sensory properties (overall acceptability), and hardness between all the samples. The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than that of the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation, and inhibited the formation of volatile basic nitrogen and the increase in total aerobic bacteria. In conclusion, the natural casings irradiated below at a dose of 3 kGy had no effect on physicochemical and sensory properties of the emulsion sausages, however, that improved the shelf-stability over 5 weeks. Therefore, natural casings irradiated at moderate doses are suitable for sausage production.

  7. Application of Tragacanth gum impregnated with Satureja khuzistanica essential oil as a natural coating for enhancement of postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, M; Barzegar, M; Sahari, M A; Niakousari, M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Tragacanth gum (TG) coating incorporated with 100, 500 and 1000ppm Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SEO) on the postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 4±1°C for 16days was investigated. Weight loss, firmness, browning index (BI), total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial and sensory quality were measured. The results indicated that treatment with TG containing SEO (TGSEO) maintained 92.4% tissue firmness, and reduced microorganism counts, such as yeasts and molds and Pseudomonas, compared to uncoated samples. Furthermore, mushrooms treated with TGSEO coating exhibited up to 57.1% decreased in BI, significantly higher levels of total phenolics (85.6%) and ascorbic acid accumulation (71.8%) than control and its efficiency was better than that TG coating alone. Sensory evaluation demonstrated the capability of TGSEO coating for preserving the quality of mushroom during the storage. The results obtained endorse that application of TGSEO coating might be a simple and effective technique for prolonging their postharvest shelf life of mushroom by up to 16days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring a newly re-born patient: water quality and cyanotoxin occurrence in a reconstructed shallow Mediterranean lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Gkelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Karla (Central Greece is a unique example - at European scale - of a shallow lake ecosystem that was dried in the 1960s and in 2009 started to be restored. The lake is listed in the network of the Greek protected areas as it is considered a vital aquatic ecosystem, in terms of biodiversity. It has, however, already been adversely affected by both agricultural and industrial land uses in the surrounding area, leading to eutrophication and shifting algal community towards bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterial species. After repeated heavy-blooms, cyanotoxin occurrence and mass fish kills, the local ecosystem management authority has implemented a water quality monitoring program (July 2013 - July 2015 to assess environmental pressures and the response of aquatic biota in the lake. Microscopic, immunological, and molecular techniques combined with physico-chemical parameters, complemented by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, were used to monitor cyanobacteria blooms and the associated cyanotoxin production from three different sites in Lake Karla and from the adjacent Kalamaki Reservoir. Water quality was also assessed by the structure of benthic invertebrate community on the sediment. Cyanobacteria were the main phytoplankton component, representing more than 70% of the total phytoplankton abundance; dominant taxa belonged to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Limnothrix redekei, Anabaenopsis elenkinii, and Microcystis spp. Euglenophytes (Euglena, diatoms (Nitzschia, and chlorophytes (Scenedesmus were also important phytoplankton constituents. LC-MS/MS confirmed the co-occurrence of microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, neo-saxitoxin and anatoxin-a. The occurrence of cyanotoxins in relation to the persistent and dominant cyanobacteria and the impact of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms on the newly constructed lake along with the land uses and the emergent mitigation measures are discussed.

  9. Inland-coastal water interaction: Remote sensing application for shallow-water quality and algal blooms modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa; Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Blakey, Tara

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Landsat 8 and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) sensors were used to model the spatiotemporal changes of four water quality parameters: Landsat 8 (turbidity, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), total phosphate, and total nitrogen) and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) (algal blooms). The study was conducted in Florda bay, south Florida and model outputs were compared with in-situ observed data. The Landsat 8 based study found that, the predictive models to estimate chl-a and turbidity concentrations, developed through the use of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR), gave high coefficients of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.86(0.66) for chl-a and R2 = 0.84(0.63) for turbidity). Total phosphate and TN were estimated using best-fit multiple linear regression models as a function of Landsat TM and OLI,127 and ground data and showed a high coefficient of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.74(0.69) for total phosphate and R2 = 0.82(0.82) for TN). Similarly, the ability of SeaWIFS for chl-a retrieval from optically shallow coastal waters by applying algorithms specific to the pixels' benthic class was evaluated. Benthic class was determined through satellite image-based classification methods. It was found that benthic class based chl-a modeling algorithm was better than the existing regionally-tuned approach. Evaluation of the residuals indicated the potential for further improvement to chl-a estimation through finer characterization of benthic environments. Key words: Landsat, SeaWIFS, water quality, Florida bay, Chl-a, turbidity

  10. Effects of peatland drainage on water quality: a case study of the shallow blanket bogs of Exmoor, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Peatlands are widely represented in the South West of England (i.e. Exmoor, Dartmoor and Bodmin moors), but their existence is currently under threat due to both climate change and the impact of historical human activities. Peat cutting and intensive drainage for agricultural reclamation in the 19th and 20th century, have modified the hydrological behaviour of these shallow peats and dried out the upper layers, causing oxidation, erosion and vegetation change. Such anthropogenic impacts directly affect the storage of carbon, but also the provision of other ecosystem services, such as the supply of drinking water, and the support of specific and rare habitats. Blocking drainage ditches to restore the hydrological behaviour of peatlands has mostly been undertaken in the North of England, but to date, little is still known about the consequences of such management approaches on the overall Carbon stocks. The need to monitor restoration of peatlands in the South West of England arises due to the specific characteristics of the peat - it is often shallower than more northerly peat and dominated by Purple Moor Grass. In addition, and in part because of the shallowness of the resource, the peat has been damaged differently, often with very dense networks of hand-cut ditches which behave as highly efficient drainage networks. Most importantly, their location at the southernmost margin of the UK peatlands' geographical extent makes them extremely vulnerable to climate change, and so it is hypothesised that monitoring of these peatlands may provide an 'early warning system' for climatic impacts that affect more northerly sites in years to come. This study focuses upon the current impact of peatland degradation on water quality on Exmoor. Our experimental approach employs detailed, high resolution monitoring of selected ditches that are representative of damaged conditions on Exmoor, from small- (30 x 30cm ditches) through medium- (50x50cm), large- (1-2m ditches) and finally

  11. PRESERVING THE QUALITY AND PROLONGATION THE SHELF-LIFE OF BEEF PACKED UNDER VACUUM OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE USING TERNARY ANTIOXIDANT BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stoyanov Staykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the quality and prolongation the shelf-life of stored at 0  0.5ºC packed under vacuum or modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere beef m. semimembranosus sprayed with 0.02% solution, containing 10 g.l-1 dihydroquercetin from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, 5 g.l-1 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract and 1 g.l-1 L-ascorbic acid was studied. The experiments were carried out with five samples: control - air packaged; vacuum packaged; vacuum packaged and treated with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend; packaged under modified atmosphere (80%O2/20%CO2; and packaged under rich in oxygen modified atmosphere, after spaying with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend. Samples were stored 28 days (to 32 d post mortem at 0  0.5ºC. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend preserve the sensory scores and colour properties of beef, and inhibited total microbial growth, and development of Brochothrix termosphacta and pathogens to the end of storage (28 d at 0  0.5ºC, was found. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend was not main factors which can affect the pH and free amino nitrogen changes in fresh beef. The pre-treatment of beef with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend may be successfully used for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf-life of beef m. semimembranosus packed under modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere. The shelf-life can extend with 75% compared to air packed meat, and with 7 days against only vacuum- or modified atmosphere packed beef.

  12. The use of high pressure processing to enhance the quality and shelf life of reduced sodium naturally cured restructured cooked hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Johnston, S P

    2016-06-01

    The combined effect of partial salt replacement with modified potassium chloride and high pressure processing (600 MPa for 3 min at 8°C) on the quality and shelf life of naturally-cured restructured hams was investigated over a 12 week storage period. Instrumental, microbiological and consumer acceptability testing was performed. A partial salt substitution with modified potassium chloride adversely affected textural and water binding characteristics of hams and led to a decrease in the consumer acceptance compared to regular salt hams. Celery powder used as a curing agent had beneficial effects on water holding and moisture retention and improved bind of restructured hams; however the consumer acceptability of flavor and aftertaste received significantly lower scores compared to nitrite. No significant differences in all consumer acceptability parameters resulted for hams subjected to HPP compared to non-HPP for all storage periods indicating that HPP can effectively extend shelf-life of restructured ham without compromising eating quality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Georgiev Dragoev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions (P0.05. According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at 0±0.5°C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem.

  14. Evaluation of pulsed light treatments on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinang; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-11-02

    Blueberry have a short shelf life when fully ripe and susceptible to contamination of various pathogens. Our study investigated the effect of pulsed light (PL) on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. Dry PL (6J/cm 2 ) and water-assisted PL (samples were agitated in water during PL treatment; 9J/cm 2 ) along with two controls, dry control (untreated) and water-assisted control (water washing without PL), were applied to blueberries with subsequent storages at room temperature (3days) or 5°C (7days). For Salmonella inactivation, dry PL treatment achieved 0.9 and 0.6 log reduction of Salmonella for spot and dip inoculation, respectively; while the water-assisted PL treatment reduced Salmonella by 4.4 log and 0.8 log for spot and dip inoculation, respectively. The water-assisted PL treatment resulted in Salmonella populations significantly lower than the dry control after storage regardless of the storage temperature and inoculation method. Neither dry nor water-assisted PL treatments improved the shelf life of blueberries even though direct inactivation of natural yeasts and molds were achieved. Surface lightness was instantly reduced after both dry and water-assisted PL treatments. Compared with the dry control, the two PL treatments did not reduce the firmness of blueberries. Weight loss was increased for the dry PL treated samples, but not for the water-assisted PL treatment for both storage conditions. Delayed anthocyanins accumulation and reduced total antioxidant activity were induced by both PL treatments at the end of storage at room temperature, while slight enhancement in total phenolics content was achieved by water-assisted PL treatment. In conclusion, the water-assisted PL treatment could effectively decontaminate Salmonella on blueberries while showed minimal or no impact on the shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. PL

  15. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  16. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Potential Applications of Real-Time Monitoring of Water Quality in a Large Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China) Using a Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Cheng; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study presents results from field surveys performed over various seasons in a large, eutrophic, shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China) using an in situ chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence sensor as a surrogate for other water quality parameters. These measurements identified highly significant empirical relationships between CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen ...

  18. Studies on the effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of squid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojayanaik, Manjanaik; Naroth, Kavya; Shetty, Veena; Hiriyur, Somashekarappa

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the combined effect of low dose gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at refrigeration (+4℃) and frozen (-18℃) temperatures, on the shelf life extension of fresh squid. The study was based on microbiological and physico-chemical changes occurring in the squid samples. The biochemical parameters such as total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen values for irradiated squid samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose of 3 and 5 kGy (p<0.05). pH values of squid samples were affected by both irradiation dose and storage temperature (p<0.05). Total microbial load for non- irradiated (control) squid samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures. The results revealed that the combination of irradiation and low temperature storage resulted in a significant reduction of microbial growth and extend the shelf life of squid at refrigeration and frozen temperature to about 12 and 90 days respectively. (author)

  19. Effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Ivelina; Denkova, Rositsa; Chochkov, Rosen; Teneva, Desislava; Denkova, Zapryana; Dessev, Tzvetelin; Denev, Petko; Slavov, Anton

    2018-07-01

    The effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on preparation, characteristics and shelf life of bread was investigated. It was found that lavender and melissa waste, generated yearly in large amounts, were rich on polyphenols (especially rosmarinic acid) and aroma compounds, and exhibited high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The bread with 2.5% lavender waste was characterized with the highest loaf volume and loaf specific volume. The total dietary fiber increased three times and the polyphenols and flavonoids increased more than four times for breads with added 5% lavender and melissa waste, compared to control sample. The breads with 2.5% and 5% added lavender waste had increased shelf life (up to 96 h) compared to control, and no fungal or bacterial spoilage was observed during storage at 22 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C for four days. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that the consumers preferred mainly bread with 2.5% lavender waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low dose gamma irradiation to maintain storage quality, inhibit fungal growth and extend shelf-life of cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Rather, S A; Suradkar, P; Parveen, S; Mir, M A; Shafi, F

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality, inhibiting fungal incidence and extending shelf-life of cherry fruit. Two commercial cherry varieties viz. Misri and Double after harvest at commercial maturity were coated with CMC at levels 0.5-1.0 % w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.2 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80 %) conditions for evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters. Fruits were evaluated after every 3 and 7 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. CMC coating alone at levels 0.5 and 0.75 % w/v was not found effective with respect to mold growth inhibition under either of the two conditions. Individual treatment of CMC coating at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation proved helpful in delaying the onset of mold growth up to 5 and 8 days of ambient storage. During post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %, irradiation alone at 1.2 kGy gave further 4 days extension in shelf-life of cherry varieties following 28 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of cherry fruit during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 % but, combination of CMC at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation was found significantly ( p  ≤ 0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of cherry fruit. The above combinatory treatment besides maintaining storage quality resulted in extension of 6 days in shelf life of cherry varieties during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 80 % following 28 days of refrigeration. Above Combination treatment gave a maximum of 2.3 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count of cherry fruits after 9 and 28

  1. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  2. Effect of vacuum-packaging and low dose gamma irradiation on the microbial, bio-chemical quality and shelf life of peeled shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ice storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojayanaik, Manjanaik; Naroth, Kavya; Prasad, Surjith; Shetty, Veena; Hiriyur, Somashekarappa; Patil, Rajashekar

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to see the combined effect of vacuum packaging and low dose gamma irradiation (3kGy) on the shelf life of peeled and undeveined shrimp (Litopeanus vannamie) during ice storage. The fresh farm raised shrimps were peeled and un deveined, packed in high density polyethylene bags (aerobic and vacuum packaging) and were divided into four groups viz. control (C), Irradiated (I), Vacuum packed (V) and vacuum-packed with irradiation (VI). The two groups (I and VI) were irradiated at 3 kGy (Dose rate at the rate 6.043 kGy/hr) and aseptically stored in ice in an insulated polystyrene box. All the samples were periodically analysed for microbial (Total bacterial load, total Coliform, Faecal Coliforms, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Vibrios and E. coli) and bio chemical (TVB-N, TMA, TBARS and pH) quality. The results revealed that the combination of low dose gamma irradiation and vacuum packaging had a significant effect on microbial load (p>0.05). The TVB-N, TMA-N, TBARS and pH were significantly lower in vacuum packed with irradiation when compare to non-irradiated and aerobically packed shrimp (p> 0.05), and shelf life of peeled shrimp extended up to 21 days in ice storage. (author)

  3. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula A. Argyri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products.

  4. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Gordon L

    2010-01-01

    .... Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide provides package developers with the information they need to specify just the right amount of protective packaging to maintain food quality and maximize shelf life...

  5. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Nes, van E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer, the

  7. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Van Nes, E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer,

  8. On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeholders tend to focus (e.g., a single-dosage unit, a batch, a production process, etc.). The article also highlights a key missing element in the discussion of shelf life-a Quality Statement, which defines the quality standard for all key stakeholders. Arguments are presented that for regulatory and statistical reasons the true product shelf life should be defined in terms of a suitably small quantile (e.g., fifth) of the distribution of batch shelf lives. The choice of quantile translates to an upper bound on the probability that a randomly selected batch will be nonconforming when tested at the storage time defined by the labeled shelf life. For this strategy, a random-batch model is required. This approach, unlike a fixed-batch model, allows estimation of both within- and between-batch variability, and allows inferences to be made about the entire production process. This work was conducted by the Stability Shelf Life Working Group of the Product Quality Research Institute.

  9. Investigations into the shelf life and nutritional quality of fresh tomato fruit (solanum Lycopersicon) following two post-harvest treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyimah, L. A

    2013-07-01

    Tomato production in Ghana is characterized by a glut and high post - harvest losses during the major season followed by scarcity and high prices during the off season. This is the result of the absence of a standard method for preservation of fresh fruits. This research was conducted to determine an effective method for the post - harvest treatment of fresh tomato fruits to enhance shelf life while preserving its physiochemical and nutritional properties. Two experiments were conducted, each with a factorial design of 5x2. In experiment one, the fruits were subjected to 0,1,2,3,and 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. In experiment two, CaCl 2 dissolved in distilled water at 0, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% concerntrations were used to coat tomato fruits and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. Gamma radiation at 4kGy extended the shelf life of tomato by 5 and 9 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. The use of CaCl 2 at 2.5% greatly extended the shelf life of tomato by 11days and 18 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. For both treatments, shelf life increased with increasing dose of radiation/ concentraionn of CaCl 2 . Weight loss was higher in control fruits as well as fruits treated with gamma radiation or CaCl 2 coating stored at 28±1°C temperature than treated fruits stored at 10±1°C. Tomato fruits treated with gamma radiation at 1 and 2 kGy and untreated fruits showed an increased in pH and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) which was paralleled by a decrease in Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) as storage period advance at both storage temperatures. However, fruits treated with CaCl 2 at 1.00% had little effect on pH and TTA of tomato during the storage period. Nutritionally, CaCl 2 coating significantly maintained the vitamin C and Iycopene concentrations in tomato fruit more than control and gamma irradiation which reduced vitamin C and Iycopene contents in the fruits significantly

  10. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  11. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  12. Effects of Packaging on Shelf Life and Postharvest Qualities of Radish Roots during Storage at Low Temperature for an Extended Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Chandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of packaging on the quality aspects of radish, Korean radish roots (Raphanus sativus L. var. Kwandong were stored at 0°C after different packaging treatments such as keeping in paper cartoon box (control, keeping in plastic crates (PC, packaging with micro perforated HDPE film in PC (HDPE + PC, curing followed by keeping in PC (Curing + PC, and curing followed by packaging with micro perforated HDPE film in PC (Curing + HDPE + PC. Weight losses of radish roots were remarkably lower (<3% in both HDPE film packaged samples compared to that of control (10% or without film (≈18%. L⁎ values, whiteness index, total soluble solids, and flesh and skin firmness were better maintained in Curing + HDPE + PC treatment compared to other treatments. Lower color difference values were also found in this treatment. Both film packaged samples had lower scores of black spot, surface shrinkage, and fungal infection incidence which revealed significantly longer marketable periods. HDPE film packaged samples exhibited longer shelf life more than one and two months compared to control and unpacked samples, respectively. Results suggest that HDPE film packaging can extend postharvest life of radish while curing might have little but beneficial effects in maintaining the quality characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report on quality evaluation of Korean radish during an extended storage period simulating the Korean industrial practices.

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2012–13: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Wright, Michael

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 7,820-square-kilometer (km2) Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer (MS-SA) study unit was investigated from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the second phase of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in the central coast region of California in the counties of Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The MS-SA study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems. The assessment was based on water-quality samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 100 groundwater sites and 70 household tap sites, along with ancillary data such as land use and well-construction information. The shallow aquifer systems were defined by the depth interval of wells associated with domestic supply. The MS-SA study unit consisted of four study areas—Santa Cruz (210 km2), Pajaro Valley (360 km2), Salinas Valley (2,000 km2), and Highlands (5,250 km2).This study had two primary components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first primary component of this study—the status assessment—assessed the quality of the groundwater resource indicated by data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the shallow aquifer system of the MS-SA study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. As opposed to the public wells, however, water from private wells, which often tap the shallow aquifer, is usually consumed without any treatment. The second

  14. Influence of 1-MCP treatments on eating quality and consumer preferences of ‘Qinmei’ kiwifruit during shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers and growers in China sometime complain that Kiwifruits treated with an ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP are difficult to ripen and show poor eating quality. This study addresses the quality parameters affecting consumer preferences and reevaluates the necessity of 1-MCP application for stor...

  15. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  16. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  17. Development of shelf stable pork sausages using hurdle technology and their quality at ambient temperature (37±1°C) storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2008-05-01

    Shelf stable pork sausages were developed using hurdle technology and their quality was evaluated during ambient temperature (37±1°C) storage. Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also studied. Reheating increased the pH of the sausages by 0.17units as against 0.11units in controls. Incorporation of hurdles significantly decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture and fat percent, yellowness and hardness, while increasing the protein percent and redness. Hurdle treatment reduced quality deterioration during storage as indicated by pH, TBARS and tyrosine values. About 1 log reduction in total plate count was observed with the different hurdles as were reductions in the coliform, anaerobic, lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus counts. pH, a(w) and reheating hurdles inhibited yeast and mold growth up to day 3, while additional dipping in 1% potassium sorbate solution inhibited their growth throughout the 9 days storage. Despite low initial sensory appeal, the hurdle treated sausages had an overall acceptability in the range 'very good' to 'good' up to day 6.

  18. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  19. Endmembers of Ice Shelf Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, A.; Child, S. F.; Kingslake, J.; Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of surface melt on ice shelves have defined a spectrum of meltwater behavior. On one end the storage of meltwater in persistent surface ponds can trigger ice shelf collapse as in the 2002 event leading to the disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. On the other, meltwater export by rivers can stabilize an ice shelf as was recently shown on the Nansen Ice Shelf. We explore this dichotomy by quantifying the partitioning between stored and transported water on two glaciers adjacent to floating ice shelves, Nimrod (Antarctica) and Peterman (Greenland). We analyze optical satellite imagery (LANDSAT, WorldView), airborne imagery (Operation IceBridge, Trimetrogon Aerial Phototography), satellite radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation models (DEMs) to categorize surface meltwater fate and map the evolution of ice shelf hydrology and topographic features through time. On the floating Peterman Glacier tongue a sizable river exports water to the ocean. The surface hydrology of Nimrod Glacier, geometrically similar to Peterman but with ten times shallower surface slope, is dominated by storage in surface lakes. In contrast, the Nansen has the same surface slope as Nimrod but transports water through surface rivers. Slope alone is not the sole control on ice shelf hydrology. It is essential to track the storage and transport volumes for each of these systems. To estimate water storage and transport we analyze high resolution (40 cm - 2 m) modern and historical DEMs. We produce historical (1957 onwards) DEMs with structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The DEMs are used to constrain water storage potential estimates of observed basins and water routing/transport potential. We quantify the total volume of water stored seasonally and interannually. We use the normalize difference water index to map meltwater extent, and estimate lake water depth from optical data. We also consider the role of stored water in subsurface aquifers in recharging surface water after

  20. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of natural antimicrobials to improve the quality characteristics of fresh "Phyllo" - A dough-based wheat product - Shelf life assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiraki, Maria I; Karam, Layal; Abiad, Mohamad G; Yehia, Hany M; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the effects of chitosan and natamycin on the quality of fresh "Phyllo" - a dough-based wheat product, by monitoring the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters. Four different lots of phyllo samples stored under aerobic packaging conditions, in the absence or presence of the aforementioned antimicrobials, were prepared and stored at 4 °C. Microbiological data suggested that, the combination of chitosan and natamycin resulted in significant reductions (1-3 log cfu/g) of the microbial species examined (mesophilic total viable counts; TVC), yeasts/molds, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms) by day 10. The pH values of treated phyllo samples were lower on final day 10, as compared to the untreated phyllo, and of the Hunter color parameters (L*, b* and a*) that were evaluated, mostly the combined treatment of chitosan and natamycin maintained the original lightness (L*) and color (yellowness) stability (b*) of phyllo product during the storage period. Sensory data, based on overall acceptability (mean values of appearance and odor) scores confirmed the superiority of combined treatment of chitosan and natamycin, resulting in almost a doubling of the shelf-life of fresh phyllo, while retaining excellent sensorial characteristics (appearance and odor) even on final storage day (10). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-pressure treatment for shelf-life extension and quality improvement of oysters cooked in a traditional Taiwanese oyster omelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kung-Ming; Chi, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Whole oysters were processed using high-pressure (HP) treatment at 250 and 300 MPa for 0 to 10 min and stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up to 28 days. HP-treated oysters and untreated oysters were evaluated for lipid oxidation, growth of microorganisms, and sensory characteristics after cooking at 160 degrees Celsius for 90 s. Microbial counts after HP treatment revealed that the bacterial load was initially reduced at all pressures. HP-treated oysters had significantly higher pH and moisture (P oysters during storage. HP treatment increased lipid oxidation with unpleasant odor during storage compared with the control. HP treatment decreased redness but did not significantly affect the brightness and yellowness of cooked oysters. From tests of mechanical properties, 300 MPa-treated oysters after cooking had significantly increased toughness as measured by cutting force. HP-treated oysters after cooking received higher quality scores than did the control during the storage trial. Results indicated that 300 MPa for 2 min is the optimum HP treatment that results in oysters most acceptable for oyster omelets during storage at 4 degrees Celsius, and this treatment may extend the shelf life of these oysters to 21 days.

  3. Improving the nutritional quality and shelf life of broiler meat by feeding diets supplemented with fermented pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S T; Ko, S-Y; Yang, C-J

    2017-12-01

    1. Four experimental diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% fermented pomegranate by-products (FPB) were supplied to 320d-old broilers to evaluate the effects of FPB on growth performance, nutritional composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat. 2. Dietary supplementation of FPB linearly increased the weight gain and feed intake of broilers with linear reduction in feed conversion ratio. 3. The crude protein, iron, magnesium, and sodium content were linearly higher, whereas cholesterol was linearly lower in the breast meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. In thigh meat, linearly lower ether extract and cholesterol with higher moisture was noted in response to increasing levels of FPB. 4. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was both linearly and quadratically lower in breast and thigh meat, whereas those of monounsaturated fatty acids of breast (linear and quadratic) and n-3 fatty acids of breast and thigh (linear) meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented broilers. The n-6/n-3 ratio of breast meat was linearly lower in response to FPB supplementation. The hypocholesterolaemic to hypercholesterolaemic ratio of thigh meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented groups. 5. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pH value were lower in the breast and thigh meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. 6. Thus, additive supplementation of the diet with up to 2% FPB improved the nutritional quality, fatty acid profile and shelf life of broiler meat.

  4. Application of Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme in shelf-life study of farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2002-01-01

    measurements (compression test). Maximum storage time in ice was determined with QDA and fat content by Soxhlet extraction. A high correlation between QIM and storage time in ice was found. Storage time could be predicted with +/- 2 d. TVC increased exponentially with storage and was dominated by H2S......Salmon (Salmo salar) was stored in ice up to 24 d, and changes during storage were observed with sensory evaluation using the Quality Index Method (QIM), and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), total viable counts (TVC), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing bacteria, and instrumental texture......-producing bacteria after 20 d in ice, which was the maximum storage time. Texture measurements indicated softening of salmon flesh with storage...

  5. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18 0 C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18 0 C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found

  6. Effect of calcium chloride and calcium lactate on quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut guava slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheem, M.I.U.; Huma, N.; Anjum, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of chemical treatments at low temperature on the quality of fresh-cut guava slices during 2011-12. Uniform sized guava slices were made free from seeds and treated with calcium chloride and calcium lactate with concentration 0.9%, 1.8%, 2.7% or 3.6%. After packing in plastic boxes, all treated samples were stored at 5 degree C + 2 degree C in a refrigerator for 24 days with 6 day interval between different removals. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis showed decrease in firmness (111.67-12.67gf) and increase in browning (1.19-1.93nm) of guava slices compared to control with the passage of storage interval. Moreover, scores in taste (7.33-1.00), flavour (7.33-1.00), colour (7.50-1.00) and texture (7.67-1.00) of guava slices was also decreased with respect to interaction of treatments and storage period. Calcium chloride at the rate 2.7% showed significantly higher stability than other concentrations of calcium chloride and calcium lactate in delaying firmness and browning of fresh-cut guava slices along with maintaining their organoleptic properties for longer storage period. However, calcium chloride imparted undesirable bitterness to fresh-cut guava slices at the concentration of 3.6%. Based on the overall quality performance, 2.7% calcium chloride and 3.6% calcium lactate exhibited better results than other concentrations and control with storage life of 8 days at 5 degree C + 2 degree C. (author)

  7. Groundwater-quality data for the Madera/Chowchilla–Kings shallow aquifer study unit, 2013–14: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-02-03

    Groundwater quality in the 2,390-square-mile Madera/Chowchilla–Kings Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey from August 2013 to April 2014 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program’s Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems of the Madera, Chowchilla, and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. The shallow aquifer system corresponds to the part of the aquifer system generally used by domestic wells and is shallower than the part of the aquifer system generally used by public-supply wells. This report presents the data collected for the study and a brief preliminary description of the results.Groundwater samples were collected from 77 wells and were analyzed for organic constituents, inorganic constituents, selected isotopic and age-dating tracers, and microbial indicators. Most of the wells sampled for this study were private domestic wells. Unlike groundwater from public-supply wells, the groundwater from private domestic wells is not regulated for quality in California and is rarely analyzed for water-quality constituents. To provide context for the sampling results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks established for drinking-water quality by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the State of California, and the U.S. Geological Survey.Of the 319 organic constituents assessed in this study (90 volatile organic compounds and 229 pesticides and pesticide degradates), 17 volatile organic compounds and 23 pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in groundwater samples; concentrations of all but 2 were less than the respective benchmarks. The fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP

  8. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana

    2017-01-01

    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  9. Development and quality characteristics of shelf-stable soy-agushie: a residual by-product of soymilk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nti, Christina A; Plahar, Wisdom A; Annan, Nana T

    2016-03-01

    A process was developed for the production of a high-protein food ingredient, soy-agushie, from the residual by-product of soymilk production. The product, with a moisture content of about 6%, was evaluated for its quality characteristics and performance in traditional dishes. The protein content was about 26% with similar amino acids content as that of the whole soybean. Lysine remained high in the dehydrated product (6.57 g/16 g N). While over 60% of the original B vitamins content in the beans was extracted with the milk, high proportions of the minerals were found to be retained in the residual by-product. The process adequately reduced the trypsin inhibitor levels in the beans from 25 to 1.5 mg/g. High sensory scores were obtained for recipes developed with soy-agushie in traditional dishes. The scope of utilization of the soy-agushie could be widened to include several traditional foods and bakery products for maximum nutritional benefits.

  10. Glacigenic landforms and sediments of the Western Irish Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier; Toms, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Vibrocoring of possible glacigenic landforms identified from high resolution bathymetric coverage of the Irish Shelf by the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) has provided several clusters of short (<3m) cores that, due to a regional post-glacial erosional event, comprise last glacial age stratigraphies. In addition, new shallow seismic data and sedimentological information from across the Western Irish Shelf provide new insights into aspects of the nature, timing and pattern of shelf occupation by grounded lobate extensions of the last Irish Ice Sheet. Restricted chronological control of deglacial sequences in several cores indicates that northern parts of the western mid-shelf (south of a prominent outer Donegal Bay ridge) were ice free by ~24 ka B.P., and that ice had also probably retreated from outer shelf positions (as far west as the Porcupine Bank) at or before this time.

  11. Functional quality, sensorial and shelf life characteristics of Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora (L.Poir leaves enriched breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Mesa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our modern life, theburdensof non-communicable diseases such as obesity, cancer, cardiovasculardisease,and type-2 diabetes haveincreased. By contrast, life expectancy and also cost of healthcare has increased. Therefore, individuals search other ways to improve or maintain their well-being. Inthis regard, food and pharmaceutical industriesoffer functional foods (FFs with health promotingand disease-preventing properties.Sesbania grandifloraL.Poiris a small, loosely branching tree alsoknown as the local name,Agathi. Agathibelongs to the Fabaceaefamily, and is one of the most popular green vegetables andtraditional medicinal plantsof India.The chemical analysis of Sesbania grandifloraleaves reveal it to be a rich source of nutrientsand beneficial bioactive compounds,such as antioxidants and polyphenols.Bread has been regarded as one of the most popular foodfor centuries, as agood source of calories and othernutrients. Bread is traditionally made from wheat flour.The addition of Agathi leaves led to the enhancementof functionality of common bread.Objective: Against the background of thisinformation, the present investigation was undertaken withaclear objective of evaluatingthe effects of the additionof Agathi leaves on the sensory, textural, andbaking characteristics,byexamining their microbial quality on a 5-daystorage period,at an ambient temperature,in different packaging materials, and assessingthe improvement, if any, in their antioxidant content.Methods: Shade dried Agathi leaf powder was analysedfor proximate,mineral,and phytochemical composition. Bread samples were prepared with ingredients such as yeast, salt, sugar, water,shortening, baking time,temperature using straight dough process,and varying levels ofshade dried Agathi leaves.Physical parameters such as loaf weight, loaf volume,and color values were recorded. Breads were subjected to a sensory evaluation, andin vitroanti-oxidant capacitywas evaluated. Results

  12. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  13. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  14. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2000 - October 5, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite plugging

  15. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  16. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  17. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Madera–Chowchilla and Kings subbasins, San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-08

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Many households and small communities in the Madera– Chowchilla and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley rely on private domestic wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  18. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  19. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2003 - October 5, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the thickest part of the mound facies of

  20. Impact of radionuclide spatial variability on groundwater quality downstream from a shallow waste burial in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; de Fouquet, C.; Courbet, C.; Simonucci, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of spatial variability of hydraulic parameters and initial groundwater plume localization on the possible extent of groundwater pollution plumes have already been broadly studied. However, only a few studies, such as Kjeldsen et al. (1995), take into account the effect of source term spatial variability. We explore this question with the 90Sr migration modeling from a shallow waste burial located in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to the underlying sand aquifer. Our work is based upon groundwater sampled once or twice a year since 1995 until 2015 from about 60 piezometers and more than 3,000 137Cs soil activity measurements. These measurements were taken in 1999 from one of the trenches dug after the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the so-called "T22 Trench", where radioactive waste was buried in 1987. The geostatistical analysis of 137Cs activity data in soils from Bugai et al. (2005) is first reconsidered to delimit the trench borders using georadar data as a covariable and to perform geostatistical simulations in order to evaluate the uncertainties of this inventory. 90Sr activity in soils is derived from 137Cs/154Eu and 90Sr/154Eu activity ratios in Chernobyl hot fuel particles (Bugai et al., 2003). Meanwhile, a coupled 1D non saturated/3D saturated transient transport model is constructed under the MELODIE software (IRSN, 2009). The previous 90Sr transport model developed by Bugai et al. (2012) did not take into account the effect of water table fluctuations highlighted by Van Meir et al. (2007) which may cause some discrepancies between model predictions and field observations. They are thus reproduced on a 1D vertical non saturated model. The equiprobable radionuclide localization maps produced by the geostatistical simulations are selected to illustrate different heterogeneities in the radionuclide inventory and are implemented in the 1D model. The obtained activity fluxes from all the 1D vertical models are then injected in a 3D

  1. Sediment transport, light and algal growth in the Markermeer : a two-dimensional water quality model for a shallow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, van E.H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis reports on a study of the water quality in the Markermeer, focusing on the relationships between sediment transport, the light field and the growth of Oscillatoria agardhii . The study comprises two aspects: an extensive data collection program with the data

  2. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Lokesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and residual sodium carbonate (RSC values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  3. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  4. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  5. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  6. Combination treatment of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat to ensure microbial safety, shelf-life and sensory quality of shredded carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S M E; Jin, Yong-Guo; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the synergistic effect of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat against background and pathogenic microorganisms on carrots. Shredded carrots were inoculated with approximately 6-7 log CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (932, and 933) and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116, and 19111) and then dip treated with alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), deionized water (DaIW), or 1% citric acid (CA) alone or with combinations of AlEW and 1% CA (AlEW + CA). The populations of spoilage bacteria on the carrots were investigated after various exposure times (1, 3, and 5 min) and treatment at different dipping temperatures (1, 20, 40, and 50 °C) and then optimal condition (3 min at 50 °C) was applied against foodborne pathogens on the carrots. When compared to the untreated control, treatment AcEW most effectively reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast and fungi, followed by AlEW and 100 ppm NaOCl. Exposure to all treatments for 3 min significantly reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast and fungi on the carrots. As the dipping temperature increased from 1 °C to 50 °C, the reductions of total bacteria, yeast and fungi increased significantly from 0.22 to 2.67 log CFU/g during the wash treatment (p ≤ 0.05). The combined 1% citric acid and AlEW treatment at 50 °C showed a reduction of the total bacterial count and the yeast and fungi of around 3.7 log CFU/g, as well as effective reduction of L. monocytogenes (3.97 log CFU/g), and E. Coli O157:H7 (4 log CFU/g). Combinations of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid better maintained the sensory and microbial quality of the fresh-cut carrots and enhanced the overall shelf-life of the produce. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Potential Applications of Real-Time Monitoring of Water Quality in a Large Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China) Using a Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Cheng; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study presents results from field surveys performed over various seasons in a large, eutrophic, shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China) using an in situ chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence sensor as a surrogate for other water quality parameters. These measurements identified highly significant empirical relationships between CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. CDOM concentration expressed in quinine sulfate equivalent units, was highly correlated with the CDOM absorption coefficient (r2 = 0.80, p CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor could act as a substitute for the CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence measured in the laboratory. Similarly, CDOM concentration was highly correlated with DOC concentration (r2 = 0.68, p CDOM fluorescence sensor measurements could be a proxy for DOC concentration. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between laboratory CDOM absorption coefficients and COD (r2 = 0.83, p CDOM fluorescence sensor. PMID:24984060

  8. The potential applications of real-time monitoring of water quality in a large shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China) using a chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Cheng; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang

    2014-06-30

    This study presents results from field surveys performed over various seasons in a large, eutrophic, shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China) using an in situ chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence sensor as a surrogate for other water quality parameters. These measurements identified highly significant empirical relationships between CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. CDOM concentration expressed in quinine sulfate equivalent units, was highly correlated with the CDOM absorption coefficient (r(2) = 0.80, p CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor could act as a substitute for the CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence measured in the laboratory. Similarly, CDOM concentration was highly correlated with DOC concentration (r(2) = 0.68, p CDOM fluorescence sensor measurements could be a proxy for DOC concentration. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between laboratory CDOM absorption coefficients and COD (r(2) = 0.83, p CDOM fluorescence sensor.

  9. The Potential Applications of Real-Time Monitoring of Water Quality in a Large Shallow Lake (Lake Taihu, China Using a Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Niu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents results from field surveys performed over various seasons in a large, eutrophic, shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China using an in situ chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM fluorescence sensor as a surrogate for other water quality parameters. These measurements identified highly significant empirical relationships between CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total phosphorus (TP concentrations. CDOM concentration expressed in quinine sulfate equivalent units, was highly correlated with the CDOM absorption coefficient (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.001, fluorescence intensities (Ex./Em. 370/460 nm (r2 = 0.91, p < 0.001, the fluorescence index (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001 and the humification index (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.001, suggesting that CDOM concentration measured using the in situ fluorescence sensor could act as a substitute for the CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence measured in the laboratory. Similarly, CDOM concentration was highly correlated with DOC concentration (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.001, indicating that in situ CDOM fluorescence sensor measurements could be a proxy for DOC concentration. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between laboratory CDOM absorption coefficients and COD (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.001, TP (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.001 concentrations, suggesting a potential further application for the real-time monitoring of water quality using an in situ CDOM fluorescence sensor.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria as bio-preservatives in bakery – Role of sourdough systems in the quality, safety and shelf life of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Koy, Rebaz

    2017-01-01

    Microbial contamination and survival during storage of bread are a cause of both health concerns and economic losses. Traditional fermentation systems were studied as sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antagonistic potential against foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, with the aim to improve the safety and shelf life of bakery products. The antagonistic activity of four types of buttermilk (BM) products fermented with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was evaluated against a...

  11. Shallow-water loading tides in Japan from superconducting gravimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Hoyer, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    energetic constituents in the tide gauge observations are also seen in the gravity observations due to their loading effects on the deformation of the Earth. Even though the shallow-water tides at the Japanese east coast have an amplitude of only a few millimetres. they are still able to Generate a loading...... signal at gravity sites located several hundred kilometres inland. In particular, the S-3, S-4 and S-5 solar tides occur in both gravity and tide gauge observations. It is indicated that in other shelf regions with large shallow water tides, the shallow water loading signals account for a significant...

  12. Nutrient Dynamics in the Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. T.; Guo, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) is situated in the sub-tropics along the southern Chinese coast between the southern end of the Taiwan Strait and the Hainan Island. Samples were collected in four cross-shelf transects in summer, 2010 and two cross-shelf transects in winter, 2011 in this Shelf-sea. The shelf may be sub-divided into the inner shelf (1 μM in NO3- and >0.1 μM in soluble reactive phosphate) stretched across the shelf at least to the middle shelf. Thus, vertical mixing, even to relatively shallow depths, on the shelf may supply nutrients to and play a critical role in determining the primary production in the mixed layer. At least three such processes were observed. Through the year, internal waves of various strengths generated at the Luzon Strait propagated westward along the bottom of the mixed layer and dissipated along the middle and outer shelf. The effects of these waves were especially conspicuous north of the Dongsha Atoll and their action enhances vertical mixing. In the summer, upwelling occurred in the inner/middle shelf off Dongshan in response to the along shore southwest monsoon and the topographic forcing by the ridge extending offshore from Dongshan to the Taiwan Bank. In the winter, surface cooling and the strong northeast monsoon led to complete overturn in the shelf. The maximum density, reaching 24.6, in the surface waters was found offshore in the inner and middle shelf. This density was equivalent to the density of the water at >100 m offshore. As a result, this dense water also appeared as a layer of bottom water that extended across the shelf to the shelf edge.

  13. Radiation stress and mean drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jan Erik H.; Drivdal, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E̅̅ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S̅11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio S̅11/E̅ depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of latter depends on ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deepwater drilling accidents.

  14. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  15. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  16. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  17. Assessing the quality of bottom water temperatures from the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Tanaka, Kisei R.; Chen, Yong; Brady, Damian C.; Thomas, Andrew C.

    2017-09-01

    The Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) is an advanced coastal circulation model widely utilized for its ability to simulate spatially and temporally evolving three-dimensional geophysical conditions of complex and dynamic coastal regions. While a body of literature evaluates model skill in surface fields, independent studies validating model skill in bottom fields over large spatial and temporal scales are scarce because these fields cannot be remotely sensed. In this study, an evaluation of FVCOM skill in modeling bottom water temperature was conducted by comparison to hourly in situ observed bottom temperatures recorded by the Environmental Monitors on Lobster Traps (eMOLT), a program that attached thermistors to commercial lobster traps from 2001 to 2013. Over 2 × 106 pairs of FVCOM-eMOLT records were evaluated by a series of statistical measures to quantify accuracy and precision of the modeled data across the Northwest Atlantic Shelf region. The overall comparison between modeled and observed data indicates reliable skill of FVCOM (r2 = 0.72; root mean squared error = 2.28 °C). Seasonally, the average absolute errors show higher model skill in spring, fall and winter than summer. We speculate that this is due to the increased difficulty of modeling high frequency variability in the exact position of the thermocline and frontal zones. The spatial patterns of the residuals suggest that there is improved similarity between modeled and observed data at higher latitudes. We speculate that this is due to increased tidal mixing at higher latitudes in our study area that reduces stratification in winter, allowing improved model accuracy. Modeled bottom water temperatures around Cape Cod, the continental shelf edges, and at one location at the entrance to Penobscot Bay were characterized by relatively high errors. Constraints for future uses of FVCOM bottom water temperature are provided based on the uncertainties in temporal-spatial patterns. This study is

  18. Influence of nutrient solutions in an open-field soilless system on the quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut red and green lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María C; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Selma, María V; Tudela, Juan A; Baixauli, Carlos; Gil, María I

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available about the impact of nutrient solution ion concentration on quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce grown in soilless systems in open field. Three lettuce genotypes, lollo rosso and red oak leaf as red-leafed genotypes and butterhead as green-leafed genotype, were studied. The influence of three nutrient solutions with low, medium and high ion concentrations, which varied in the macroanion (NO₃⁻) and macrocations (K⁺, Ca²⁺ and NH₄⁺), were compared in summer and winter. The nutrient solutions evaluated in this study for the production of lettuce in a soilless system did not strongly influence the quality characteristics of the raw material. When the ion concentration of the nutrient solution was increased, fresh weight decreased, although it depended on the genotype and season. Maturity index and dry matter content varied with the season but independently of the nutrient solution. In summer, maturity index was higher and dry matter lower than in winter. Initial texture and visual quality were not influenced by the nutrient solution. Medium ion concentration provided the highest content of vitamin C and phenolic compounds. Our observations pointed out that the genotype had a strong influence on the shelf life of the fresh-cut product with minor differences among nutrient solutions. In general, red-leafed lettuces showed the highest antioxidant content, helping the maintenance of sensory characteristics throughout storage. The combination of optimal nutrient solution ion concentration and suitable cultivar is considered essential to ensure lettuce post-cutting life. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  20. Hydrology and water quality of Shell Lake, Washburn County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of diversion and changes in water level on the water quality of a shallow terminal lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Shell Lake is a relatively shallow terminal lake (tributaries but no outlets) in northwestern Wisconsin that has experienced approximately 10 feet (ft) of water-level fluctuation over more than 70 years of record and extensive flooding of nearshore areas starting in the early 2000s. The City of Shell Lake (City) received a permit from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in 2002 to divert water from the lake to a nearby river in order to lower water levels and reduce flooding. Previous studies suggested that water-level fluctuations were driven by long-term cycles in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, although questions about the lake’s connection with the groundwater system remained. The permit required that the City evaluate assumptions about lake/groundwater interactions made in previous studies and evaluate the effects of the water diversion on water levels in Shell Lake and other nearby lakes. Therefore, a cooperative study between the City and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was initiated to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the area and evaluate potential effects of the diversion on water levels in Shell Lake, the surrounding groundwater system, and nearby lakes. Concerns over deteriorating water quality in the lake, possibly associated with changes in water level, prompted an additional cooperative project between the City and the USGS to evaluate efeffects of changes in nutrient loading associated with changes in water levels on the water quality of Shell Lake. Numerical models were used to evaluate how the hydrology and water quality responded to diversion of water from the lake and historical changes in the watershed. The groundwater-flow model MODFLOW was used to simulate groundwater movement in the area around Shell Lake, including groundwater/surface-water interactions. Simulated results from the MODFLOW model indicate that groundwater flows generally northward in the area around Shell Lake, with flow locally converging

  1. Qualidade e vida útil pós-colheita de melancia Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró Quality and postharvest shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil pós-colheita de melancia cv. Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró, RN. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada por local de venda e tamanho de fruto. As melancias de tamanho grande e médio apresentaram melhor aparência externa e maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis que aquelas de tamanho pequeno, enquanto as comercializadas na ocasião do desembarque apresentaram melhor aparência e maior firmeza. A avaliação da vida útil pós-colheita foi feita com frutos provenientes de um plantio comercial instalado em Mossoró, RN. A perda de peso foi de apenas 3,79%, o pH da polpa aumentou de 4,89 para 5,20, a acidez total titulável decresceu durante o armazenamento e os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis e açúcares solúveis totais não apresentaram correlação com o armazenamento, sendo que o primeiro variou de 7,63 a 9,55%. Os açúcares redutores apresentaram leve diminuição no final do armazenamento. A vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos foi avaliada em 12 dias.The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality and shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró-RN. The quality of the fruits was evaluated by locality and fruit size. The large and middle sized watermelons presented better external appearance and higher soluble solids content than those of small size, while those marketed directly upon off loading, presented better appearance and higher firmness. The evaluation of the postharvest shelf life was done with fruits of a commercial plantation in Mossoró-RN. The weight loss was of 3.79%, the pH of the fruits increased from 4.89 to 5.20, the total titrable acidity decreased during storage. The soluble solids content and total soluble sugars did not present correlation with the storage, and the first varied from 7.63 to 9.55%. The reducing sugars a presented slight decrease at the end of the storage. The postharvest shelf life of the fruits was

  2. Effect of pectin methyl esterase and Ca²⁺ ions treatment on antioxidant capacity, shelf-life and quality of minimally processed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ramesh; Nambi, V E

    2016-03-01

    Pomegranate fruits are difficult to peel and once peeled, extracted arils have very short shelf-life. Therefore, present investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of minimally processed pomegranate arils using pectin methyl esterase (PME) and CaCl2 treatment during refrigerated storage. The arils of freshly harvested pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum L.) were treated with different concentrations of food-grade PME (50-300 units) and calcium ions (0.5-2.0% CaCl₂) for a period of 5-30 min using response surface methodology. Treated and untreated arils were then packed in low density polyethylene bags (25 μ) and maintained under low temperature (5°C; 90% RH) for evaluating the physical, biochemical and microbial quality of pomegranate arils at four day interval. Physiological loss in weight increased during storage but no food-borne pathogens were found during 28 day of cold storage in treated arils. Color and firmness of both treated and untreated arils decreased during storage but it was better maintained in treated arils. The firmness was found to be 0.630 N in treated samples compared to untreated one (0.511 N) after 20 d of storage. Total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase activities increased during storage. Treatment with 249.33 units of PME and 1.70% CaCl₂for an immersion time of 24.93 min was found to be most effective treatment for maintaining the quality of minimally processed arils for longer period. Sensory score was also higher in treated pomegranate arils that were quite acceptable even after 20 day of referigerated storage as against 12 day for untreated ones.

  3. Nonthermal physical technologies to decontaminate and extend the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables: Trends aiming at quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-07-03

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are one of the major growing sectors in food industry. This growing demand for healthy and convenient foods with fresh-like properties is accompanied by concerns surrounding efficacy of the available sanitizing methods to appropriately deal with food-borne diseases. In fact, chemical sanitizers do not provide an efficient microbial reduction, besides being perceived negatively by the consumers, dangerous for human health, and harmful to the environment, and the conventional thermal treatments may negatively affect physical, nutritional, or bioactive properties of these perishable foods. For these reasons, the industry is investigating alternative nonthermal physical technologies, namely innovative packaging systems, ionizing and ultraviolet radiation, pulsed light, high-power ultrasound, cold plasma, high hydrostatic pressure, and dense phase carbon dioxide, as well as possible combinations between them or with other preservation factors (hurdles). This review discusses the potential of these novel or emerging technologies for decontamination and shelf-life extension of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Advantages, limitations, and challenges related to its use in this sector are also highlighted.

  4. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf

  5. Reconstructing the trophic history of the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunev, Oleg; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    In the last 50 years the Black Sea has undergone large changes driven by increasing anthropogenic pressures. We estimated the integrated annual primary production (APP) for different shelf regions during the early eutrophication phase (1963-1976) using chlorophyll a and winter nitrate concentrations as proxy observations of primary production to describe its seasonal variation. For comparison, APP was estimated during the period when eutrophication peaked (1985-1992). In the early eutrophication period APP was estimated at 64-89 g C m-2 yr-1 for most part of the shelf, except the shelf part influenced by the Danube River (the shallow waters off the Romanian and Bulgarian coasts) where APP was ∼126 g C m-2 yr-1. In these two different shelf parts, APP increased to 138-190 and 266-318 g C m-2 yr-1 during the peak eutrophication period. These spatial differences are attributed to the large nutrient inputs from the Danube River. The APP estimates provide new insight into the eutrophication history of the Black Sea shelf, documenting stronger signs of eutrophiction than observed in other enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea. Since the peak eutrophication period APP is estimated to have decreased by approximately 15-20%.

  6. Signatures of Late Quaternary sea-level changes and Neo-tectonic activity over Visakhapatnam - Gopalpur shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Reddy, N.P.C; PremKumar, M.K.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    High-resolution shallow seismic and echo sounding profiles of the continental shelf between Visakhapatnam and Gopalpur reveal prominent morphological features like terraces, reefs and pinnacles at different water depths of 80-100 m, 50-30 m...

  7. Seasonal cycle of circulation in the Antarctic Peninsula and the off-shelf transport of shelf waters into southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingshun; Charette, Matthew A.; Measures, Christopher I.; Zhu, Yiwu; Zhou, Meng

    2013-06-01

    The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (˜2 km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 years) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun-up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.

  8. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  9. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever

  10. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  11. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL under fluctuating postharvest temperatures. A box of 12 - 24 lettuce heads constituted a sample unit. The end of the shelf life of each head was determined when it showed initial signs of decay or yellowing. Air temperatures inside a shipping box were recorded. Daily average temperatures in storage and averaged shelf life of each box were used as inputs, and the RSL was modeled as an output. An R2 of 0.57 could be observed when a simple NN structure was employed. Since the "future" (or remaining storage temperatures were unavailable at the time of making a prediction, a second NN model was introduced to accommodate a range of future temperatures and associated shelf lives. Using such 2-stage NN models, an R2 of 0.61 could be achieved for predicting RSL. This study indicated that NN modeling has potential for cold chain quality control and shelf life prediction.

  12. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    were collected in May and September of each year; samples were collected at the outlet of the control and treatment basins and at three upstream sites, two in the treatment basin and one in the control basin. For each benthic-macroinvertebrate sample: Stream riffles and pools were sampled using the kick-net method; habitat was characterized using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP); water-quality samples were collected for nutrients and suspended sediment; stream field parameters were measured; and multiple biological metrics were calculated. The experimental design to study the effects of fencing on the quality of near-stream shallow ground water involved a nested well approach. Two well nests were in the treatment basin, one each at surface-water sites T-1 and T-2. Within each well nest, the data from one deep well and three shallow wells (no greater than 12 ft deep) were used for regional characterization of ground-water quality. At each site, two of the shallow wells were inside the eventual fence (treated wells); the other shallow well was outside the eventual fence (control well). The wells were sampled monthly, primarily during periods with little to no recharge, for laboratory analysis of nutrients and fecal streptococcus; field parameters of water quality also were measured.

  13. Microgreens: Production, shelf life, and bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Maqbool

    2017-08-13

    Microgreens are emerging specialty food products which are gaining popularity and increased attention nowadays. They are young and tender cotyledonary leafy greens that are found in a pleasing palette of colors, textures, and flavors. Microgreens are a new class of edible vegetables harvested when first leaves have fully expanded and before true leaves have emerged. They are gaining popularity as a new culinary ingredient. They are used to enhance salads or as edible garnishes to embellish a wide variety of other dishes. Common microgreens are grown mainly from mustard, cabbage, radish, buckwheat, lettuce, spinach, etc. The consumption of microgreens has nowadays increased due to higher concentrations of bioactive components such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants than mature greens, which are important for human health. However, they typically have a short shelf life due to rapid product deterioration. This review aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality, potential bioactive compounds, and shelf life of microgreens for proper management of this specialty produce.

  14. Effects of irradiation-degradated chitosan coating on quality and shelf-life of the fruits of Shatang Mandarin, Fortunella Margariat (LOUR) swingle and Lycopersicon Esculentum MILL. var. cerasiforme alef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Gao Peng; Gao Ya; Yang Zhirong; Sun Qun

    2008-01-01

    Effects of irradiation-degradated chiotosan of different molecular weight on weight loss, rotting rate, total acid, soluble solid content, and ascorbic acid in Shatang mandarin, Fortunella margarita (lour) Swingle, and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme Alef during storage were investigated. The result showed that, compared to control, all chitosan treatment could significantly reduce weight loss and rotting rate, and maintain the content of total acid, soluble solid, and ascorbic acid. After 18 days of storage, treatment of chitosan with molecular weight of 6.6 x 10 4 Da showed the highest capability of decreasing the rotting rate in S. mandarin, F. margarita, L. esculentum by 71.11%, 66.01% and 70.22%, respectively; increasing total acid by 55.60%, 36.75% and 36.68%, soluble solid content by 49.06%, 25.75% and 49.46%, and ascorbic acid by 42.80%, 41.65% and 51.70%, respectively. Accordingly, irradiation-degradated chitosan coating could effectively prevent the rotting rate and preserve the quality of the three kinds of fruit during storage and thus prolong their shelf life to 18 days. (authors)

  15. Influence of salting and drying, and gamma irradiation on the quality and shelf life of salted and dried Silver belly (Leiognathus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uikey, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    In India about 17% of the total fishes caught are being used for salting and drying. On the global basis, 74% of the marine landings are processed by curing. Fresh Silver belly (Leognathus spp.) were procured from the fish landing centre and washed with potable water. Salting was done using food grade salt in the ratio of 1:3 (Fish to salt) in perforated steel pans by keeping the salt and fish in layer by layer fashion for 24 hrs. Drying of salted fishes was done in solar biomass hybrid drier, the final moisture content in the dried fish was 20.03%. The quality of both fresh, salted and dried fishes were analysed for chemical (Protein, fat, moisture, ash, TVB-N, TMA-N, TBARS, FFA, PV, pH) and microbial quality (TPC, halophilic count). Batches of salted and dried silver bellies were packed in high density polyethylene bags aseptically and exposed to low dose gamma irradiation (1 and 3 kGy), the non-irradiated samples were kept as control and stored at room temperature. The irradiated and control samples were analysed periodically (upto 90 days) for chemical and microbial quality. The results showed that the combined effect of salting and drying, and low dose gamma irradiation had a significant effect on microbial load (p< 0.05). The chemical parameters such as TMA-N, TVB-N and TBARS values for irradiated samples were significantly lower than the non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). The results revealed that the combination of salting and drying, and low dose gamma irradiation resulted in a significant reduction of microbial growth and chemical parameters were within the limit up to 90 days at room temperature. (author)

  16. Inclusion of Palmaria palmata (red seaweed) in Atlantic salmon diets: effects on the quality, shelf-life parameters and sensory properties of fresh and cooked salmon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Natasha C; Wan, Alex H L; Soler-Vila, Anna; FitzGerald, Richard D; Johnson, Mark P; Kerry, Joe P

    2015-03-30

    The use of Palmaria palmata (PP) as a natural ingredient in farmed Atlantic salmon diets was investigated. The effect of salmon diet supplementation with P. palmata (0, 5, 10 and 15%) or synthetic astaxanthin (positive control, PC) for 16 weeks pre-slaughter on quality indices of fresh salmon fillets was examined. The susceptibility of salmon fillets/homogenates to oxidative stress conditions was also measured. In salmon fillets stored in modified atmosphere packs (60% N2 /40% CO2 ) for up to 15 days at 4 °C, P. palmata increased surface -a* (greenness) and b* (yellowness) values in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a final yellow/orange flesh colour. In general, the dietary addition of P. palmata had no effect on pH, lipid oxidation (fresh, cooked and fillet homogenates) and microbiological status. 'Eating quality' sensory descriptors (texture, odour and oxidation flavour) in cooked salmon fillets were not influenced by dietary P. palmata. Salmon fed 5% PP showed increased overall acceptability compared with those fed PC and 0% PP. Dietary P. palmata was ineffective at providing red coloration in salmon fillets, but pigment deposition enhanced fillets with a yellow/orange colour. Carotenoids from P. palmata may prove to be a natural pigment alternative to canthaxanthin in salmon feeds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  18. Application of ESL (Extended Shelf Life) Technology in Drinking Milk Production

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNVER, Naciye; ÇELİK, Şerafettin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays pasteurization andUHT are the best known and most commonly used technologies in milk production.While products which have shorter shelf life and fresh taste are obtained byusing pasteurization, products which have longer shelf life but less desirabletaste are obtained by UHT technology. ESL technology is a new method which wasdeveloped to obtain a longer shelf life product than pasteurized milk andbetter sensory quality product than UHT milk. ESL milk includes technologiessuch as mic...

  19. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  1. Effect of high carbon dioxide atmosphere packaging and soluble gas stabilization pre-treatment on the shelf-life and quality of chicken drumsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nehlawi, A; Saldo, J; Vega, L F; Guri, S

    2013-05-01

    The effects of an aerobic modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (70% CO2, 15% O2 and 15% N2) with and without a CO2 3-h soluble gas stabilization (SGS) pre-treatment of chicken drumsticks were determined for various package and product quality characteristics. The CO2 dissolved into drumsticks was determined. The equilibrium between CO2 dissolved in drumsticks and CO2 in head space was reached within 48h after packaging, showing highest values of CO2 in SGS pre-treated samples. This greater availability of CO2 resulted in lower counts of TAB and Pseudomonas in SGS than in MAP drumsticks. Package collapse was significantly reduced in SGS samples. The average of CO2 dissolved in the MAP treatment was 567mg CO2kg(-1) of chicken and, 361mg CO2kg(-1) of chicken during the MAP treatment, in SGS pre-treated samples. This difference could be the quantity of CO2 dissolved during SGS pre-treatment. These results highlight the advantages of using SGS versus traditional MAP for chicken products preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  3. SprayQc: a real-time LC-MS/MS quality monitoring system to maximize uptime using off the shelf components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Richard A; Mann, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    With the advent of high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, the magnitude and complexity of the performed experiments has increased dramatically. Likewise, investments in chromatographic and MS instrumentation are a large proportion of the budget of proteomics laboratories. Guarding measurement quality and maximizing uptime of the LC-MS/MS systems therefore requires constant care despite automated workflows. We describe a real-time surveillance system, called SprayQc, that continuously monitors the status of the peripheral equipment to ensure that operational parameters are within an acceptable range. SprayQc is composed of multiple plug-in software components that use computer vision to analyze electrospray conditions, monitor the chromatographic device for stable backpressure, interact with a column oven to control pressure by temperature, and ensure that the mass spectrometer is still acquiring data. Action is taken when a failure condition has been detected, such as stopping the column oven and the LC flow, as well as automatically notifying the appropriate operator. Additionally, all defined metrics can be recorded synchronized on retention time with the MS acquisition file, allowing for later inspection and providing valuable information for optimization. SprayQc has been extensively tested in our laboratory, supports third-party plug-in development, and is freely available for download from http://sourceforge.org/projects/sprayqc .

  4. Addition of seaweed (Laminaria digitata) extracts containing laminarin and fucoidan to porcine diets: influence on the quality and shelf-life of fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, N C; O'Grady, M N; O'Doherty, J V; Kerry, J P

    2012-12-01

    A seaweed extract containing laminarin (L) and fucoidan (F) (L/F) was manufactured from brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata) in spray-dried (L/F-SD) and wet (L/F-WS) forms. The effect of supplementation of pig diets with L/F-SD and L/F-WS (L, 500 mg/kg feed; F, 420 mg/kg feed) for 21 days pre-slaughter, on quality indices of fresh M. longissimus dorsi (LD) steaks was examined. Susceptibility of porcine liver, heart, kidney and lung tissue homogenates to iron-induced (1mM FeSO₄) lipid oxidation was also investigated. Dietary supplementation with L/F did not increase plasma total antioxidant status (TAS). In LD steaks stored in modified atmosphere packs (80% O₂:20% CO₂) (MAP) for up to 15 days at 4 °C, muscle pH, surface colour (CIE 'L*' lightness, 'a*' redness and 'b*' yellowness values) and microbiology (psychrotrophic and mesophilic counts, log CFU/g pork) were unaffected by dietary L/F. In general, levels of lipid oxidation (TBARS, mg MDA (malondialdehyde)/kg pork) followed the order: C>LF-SD>L/F-WS. A statistically significant reduction in lipid oxidation (Pfoods via the animal's diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-dose irradiation of fresh, non-frozen chicken and other preservation methods for shelf-life extension and for improving its public-health quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahan, R.S.; Howker, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Fresh eviscerated broiler chicken, both with salt treatment (part of kosher processing) and without, were gamma irradiated and stored at -1, 0, +1.6 and +4.4 0 C for up to 31 days. At intervals samples were withdrawn for microbial, physical and sensory evaluations. Combination of a 250 krad irradiation dose and storage at 1.6 0 C were adequate for a radurized chicken process. The product was free from microbial spoilage and of excellent quality for at least 15 days and, in addition, was essentially free from Salmonella and other organisms of public-health significance. It is therefore proposed that the doses recommended recently by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Committee are unnecessarily high and should be markedly reduced. A 500 krad dose caused marked flesh discolouring without improving the microbiological or enzymatic preservation, and this is likely to be found generally true for commercial poultry flocks under veterinary inspection. Flesh discolouring of chicken treated with 300 krad is unlikely to be detectable by the untrained eye and a maximum dose of 300 krad should be the target for non-frozen chicken irradiation processes. (author)

  6. Shelf life of packaged bakery goods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, K; Curić, D; Gabrić, D

    2009-05-01

    Packaging requirements for fresh bakery goods are often minimal as many of the products are for immediate consumption. However, packaging can be an important factor in extending the shelf life of other cereal-based goods (toast, frozen products, biscuits, cakes, pastas). Some amount of the texture changes and flavor loss manifest over the shelf life of a soft-baked good can usually be minimized or delayed by effective use of packaging materials. The gains in the extension of shelf life will be application specific. It is recognized that defining the shelf life of a food is a difficult task and is an area of intense research for food product development scientists (food technologists, microbiologists, packaging experts). Proper application of chemical kinetic principles to food quality loss allows for efficiently designing appropriate shelf-life tests and maximizing the useful information that can be obtained from the resulting data. In the development of any new food product including reformulating, change of packaging, or storage/distribution condition (to penetrate into a new market), one important aspect is the knowledge of shelf life.

  7. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  8. Probe into the origin, development and evolution model of shelf desertizational environment in the last stage of Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jing-Pu; Shan, Qiu-Mei

    1998-12-01

    Based on study of China's shelf paleoenvironment, this paper summarises the definition of shelf desertization that occurred in the last stage of Late Pleistocene, and discusses the background of its formation and evolution process. Study of shallow layer profiler records and core data revealed that cold-dry aeolian erosion was the major exogenic force on the exposed shelf. Under the prevailing paleo-winter monsoon, part of the exposed marine stratum disintegrated into sand and then desertization occurred. The fine sediments were blown away and deposited on the leeward to form derivative loess deposits.

  9. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  10. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  11. Shallow-crack toughness results for reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiss, T.J.; Shum, D.K.M.; Rolfe, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) is investigating the influence of flaw depth on the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. To complete this investigation, techniques were developed to determine the fracture toughness from shallow-crack specimens. A total of 38 deep and shallow-crack tests have been performed on beam specimens about 100 mm deep loaded in 3-point bending. Two crack depths (a ∼ 50 and 9 mm) and three beam thicknesses (B ∼ 50, 100, and 150 mm) have been tested. Techniques were developed to estimate the toughness in terms of both the J-integral and crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD). Analytical J-integral results were consistent with experimental J-integral results, confirming the validity of the J-estimation schemes used and the effect of flaw depth on fracture toughness. Test results indicate a significant increase in the fracture toughness associated with the shallow flaw specimens in the lower transition region compared to the deep-crack fracture toughness. There is, however, little or no difference in toughness on the lower shelf where linear-elastic conditions exist for specimens with either deep or shallow flaws. The increase in shallow-flaw toughness compared with deep-flaw results appears to be well characterized by a temperature shift of 35 degree C

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Long-Term Change in Contamination Hazards and Shallow Well Quality in Two Neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Okotto-Okotto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013–2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = −1.98, p = 0.048. Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = −3.296, p = 0.001, but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings.

  13. A longitudinal study of long-term change in contamination hazards and shallow well quality in two neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okotto-Okotto, Joseph; Okotto, Lorna; Price, Heather; Pedley, Steve; Wright, Jim

    2015-04-17

    Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013-2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = -1.98, p = 0.048). Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = -3.296, p = 0.001), but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings.

  14. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE 00 ) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  15. Shelf life extension of ground beef by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization was investigated as a technique in the shelf life extension of ground beef. Although radurization does not necessarily kill off all meat spoilage bacteria, this process may be used for extending the bacteriological keeping quality of fresh meat. The materials and methods used in the investigation are also discussed

  16. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-19

    LE O CEAN RAPHIC I TITUTI Appli d Oc:ean Physics and E11gi1i,ering Depar1111,11t vember 9, 2017 Dr. Robert Headrick ffice of Naval Resear h, ode...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department...2015). [3] J.F. Lynch and A.E. Newhall, "Shallow water acoustics", book chapter in "Practical Underwater Acoustics," L. Bjorno, T. Neighbors, and D

  17. Seabed geology of the Canadian eastern continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David J. W.

    1991-08-01

    The physiography of the continental shelf off eastern Canada is irregular, developed by glacial erosion of a previously fluvially-dominated landscape. Northern shelves are deeper than southern shelves. Most surficial sediments on the shelf are relict or palimpsest. The principal modern source of sediment to the northern shelves is ice rafting and iceberg scour reworking of Quaternary sediments. Southern shelves receive sediment through erosion of Quaternary sediments; only small amounts of fine-grained sediment derived from coastal erosion and rivers escape from the coastal zone. Regional maps of sediment texture, carbonate content and heavy mineralogy consequently show differences between the northern and southern shelves. Large areas of the shelf show little net deposition. On the northern shelves, there is a surface veneer up to 0.5 m thick derived from ice rafting and iceberg turbation of underlying Quaternary sediment, modified by south-flowing currents [ WOODWORTH-LYNASet al. (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 939-961]. The overall effects of former iceberg turbation may extend to a depth of 10 m sub-bottom. On the southern shelves, bioturbation and perhaps storm-related currents rework exposed Quaternary sediments more slowly. Muds accumulate in deep basins on the shelves at rates of about 0.5 m per 1000 years; this accumulation is probably episodic and related to major storms reworking sediment from the surface sediment veneer in shallower areas of little net deposition. In water depths less than 110 m sand and gravel have formed as a result of reworking in the coastal zone during the post-glacial transgression. Over large areas of Georges Bank, the eastern Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, such sands are mobilized during storms to form a wide suite of bedforms [ AMOS and JUDGE (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1037-1068]. Elsewhere, particularly in deeper water, sandy surfaces appear moribund or inactive and large

  18. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  19. Biological, physical and chemical properties at the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelbert, José H.; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Reta, Raúl; Braga, Elisabete S.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Berasategui, Alejandro; Gomez-Erache, Mónica; Ramírez, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf were previously described. However, only scarce data on the biology of the front is available in the literature. The main goal of this paper is to describe the physical, chemical and biological properties of the STSF found in winter 2003 and summer 2004. A cross-section was established at the historically determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled in winter and seven in summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations where water samples from selected depths were filtered for nutrient determination. Surface samples were taken for chlorophyll a (Chl- a) determination and plankton net tows carried out above and below the pycnocline. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner-shelf salinity front and that the STSF was located on the mid-shelf. The low salinity waters in the inner-shelf indicated a strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (72 μM), suspended matter (45 mg l -1), phosphate (2.70 μM) and low nitrate (1.0 μM) levels. Total dissolved nitrogen was relatively high (22.98 μM), probably due to the elevated levels of organic compound contribution close to the continental margin. Surface Chl -a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 8.0 mg m -3 were registered, to offshore waters. Towards the open ocean, high subsurface nutrients values were observed, probably associated to South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW). Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton abundance followed the same trend; three different groups associated to the inner-, mid- and outer-shelf region were identified. During summer, diluted waters extended over the shelf to join the STSF in the upper layer; the concentration of inorganic nutrients decreased in shallow waters; however, high values were observed between 40 and 60 m and in deep offshore waters. Surface Chl -a ranged 0.07-1.5 mg m -3

  20. Circumpolar Deep Water transport and current structure at the Amundsen Sea shelf break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen M.; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Heywood, Karen J.; Jenkins, Adrian; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an increasing rate over the past decades. Ocean heat transport to the ice-ocean interface has been identified as an important contributor to this mass loss and the role it plays in ice sheet stability makes it crucial to understand its drivers in order to make accurate future projections of global sea level. While processes closer to the ice-ocean interface modulate this heat transport, its ultimate source is located in the deep basin off the continental shelf as a core of relatively warm, salty water underlying a colder, fresher shallow surface layer. To reach the marine terminating glaciers and the base of floating ice shelves, this warm, salty water mass must cross the bathymetric obstacle of the shelf break. Glacial troughs that intersect the Amundsen shelf break and deepen southwards towards the ice shelf fronts have been shown to play an important role in transporting warm, salty Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) towards the ice shelves. North of the shelf break, circulation in the Amundsen Sea occupies an intermediate regime between the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current that impinges on the shelf break in the Bellingshausen Sea and the westward southern limb of the Ross Gyre that follows the shelf break in the Ross Sea. Hydrographic and mooring observations and numerical model results at the mouth of the central shelf break trough leading to Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers show a westward wind-driven shelf break current overlying an eastward undercurrent that turns onto the shelf in the trough. It is thought that the existence of the latter feature facilitates the on-shelf transport of CDW. A less clearly defined shelf break depression further west acts as the main pathway for CDW to Dotson and eastern Getz Ice shelves. Model results indicate that a similar eastward undercurrent exists here driving the on-shelf transport of CDW. Two moorings on the upper slope east of the trough entrance show a

  1. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efeito do retardamento da colheita, na qualidade e na vida útil do melão Orange Flesh Effect of the harvest delay on the quality and post-harvest shelf-life of Orange Flesh melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vinícius de S. Mendonça

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do retardamento da colheita na qualidade e na vida útil dos frutos do meloeiro foi avaliado. Os frutos, tipo Honey Dew Orange Flesh, foram colhidos no dia adotado pelos produtores como maturidade comercial, um, dois, três e quatro dias após e, foram armazenados a 7 ± 1ºC e UR de 90 ± 5%. O experimento foi conduzido obedecendo delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com cinco repetições, cinco tempos de retardamento (0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 dias após o adotado para a colheita e cinco tempos de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após a colheita. Foram avaliado a aparência externa e interna, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de sólidos solúveis e incidência de rachadura no pedúnculo. Foi observada perda gradativa de firmeza da polpa para todos os retardamentos durante o armazenamento. Ao final do experimento os frutos ainda apresentavam aparência própria à comercialização. O conteúdo de sólidos solúveis ficou entre 9 e 12% e a incidência de rachaduras foi menor para os frutos colhidos aos 59; 60 e 61 dias após o plantio.The effect of harvesting delay on quality and postharvest shelf-life of Honey Dew Orange Flesh melons was examined. Fruits were harvested at the stage of commercial maturity and, one, two, three and four days after this period. Fruits were kept at 7 ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity. A 5 x 5 factorial scheme in a completely randomized design with five replications was used, with five harvesting dates (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 days after the stage of commercial harvest and five storage periods (0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days. During this period we evaluated the external and internal appearances, flesh firmness, soluble solid content and crack incidence of the peduncle. There occurred reduction of the flesh firmness for all harvest delaying dates. Fruits presented appropriate marketing appearance until the end of the experiment. The soluble solids content varied from 9 to 12%, and the cracking

  3. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  4. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  5. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  7. Impacts of Suspended Sediment and Estuarine - Shelf Exchange Pathways on Shelf Ecosystem Dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Pan, C.; Dinniman, M. S.; Lau, Y.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; O'Brien, S. J.; Bouchard, C.; Quas, L. M.; Miles, T. N.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Dykstra, S. L.; Dzwonkowski, B.; Jacobs, G. A.; Church, I.; Hofmann, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    A circulation model based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System, with coupled biogeochemical and sediment transport modules, has been implemented for Mississippi Sound and the adjacent continental shelf region. The model has 400-m horizontal resolution, 24 vertical layers, and includes wetting/drying capability to resolve shallow inshore regions. The circulation model was spun-up using oceanographic initial and lateral boundary conditions provided by a 1-km resolution regional implementation of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) in the Gulf of Mexico. The biogeochemical module includes multiple size classes of phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus, a fish larvae compartment, and explicitly tracks dissolved oxygen with benthic cycling interaction. The sediment transport model is implemented based on benthic mapping data that provides bottom sediment type distributions and spatio-temporal validation. A regionally specific atmospheric forcing product that provides improved spatial and temporal resolution, including diurnal sea breeze impacts, has been developed and applied. Model experiments focus on periods when comprehensive ship-based sampling was deployed by the CONCORDE (Consortium for Coastal River-Dominated Ecosystems) research program, which was established to investigate the complex fine-scale biological, chemical and physical interactions in a marine system controlled by pulsed-river plume dynamics. Biophysical interactions and biogeochemical variability associated with estuarine - shelf exchanges between nearshore lagoonal estuarine waters and the continental shelf revealed by the model provide new insight into how seasonal variation of hydrological forcing conditions influence ecological and biogeochemical processes in the highly productive Northern Gulf region. Application of the COAWST-based model system with and without inclusion of the sediment transport module demonstrates how suspended sediment in the

  8. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  9. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Shallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    north towards the Atlantic Ocean in the south. This gentle slope is ... in clean sterilized 1000 ml plastic bottles with tight fitting caps. .... Sand, fine grained o. Clay, plastic. Sandy Clay. Sand, fine grained o. Sand, fine – medium grained. Sand, coarse grained o o. o o o o o o. Fig. 4: Ogoloma Sandfill Borehole Log. Depth. (m).

  10. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  11. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  12. SHELF LIFE OF THAWED CRUSTACEANS TREATED WITH SULPHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Smaldone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish and fish products is closely related to their freshness. Aim of this research was to evaluate the shelf life of thawed crustaceans (Aristeomorpha foliacea and Nefrops norvegicus which had been treated with sulphites and frozen on board. Organoleptic characteristics and microbiological and chemical parameters were judged favourably up to day 6 and 7 for the shrimps and Norway lobsters, respectively.

  13. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...models and methods that explain observed material and acoustic properties of different physical types of shallow-ocean mud sediments. Other goals...are to assess prior data relating to the acoustic properties of mud and to provide guidance in the development and interpretation of experiments. A

  14. Multi-shelf domestic solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet; Dhaliwal, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The solar dryer described in this paper can be used for drying various products at home under hygienic conditions with the self guarantee of adulteration free product. This solar dryer is of multi-shelf design, consisting of three perforated trays arranged one above the other. The drying air flows through the product by natural circulation. One of its novel features is variable inclination to capture more solar energy in different seasons. Another novel feature is the option to dry product under shade or without shade as per requirement. The rate of drying is uniform in all the trays due to heating of the air by solar energy in between the trays. The maximum stagnation temperature of this solar dryer was found to be 100 deg. C in the month of November at Ludhiana (31 o N). The moisture evaporation on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd drying day for drying fenugreek leaves was 0.23, 0.18 and 0.038 kg/m 2 h. To overcome the problem of reduction in efficiency on the second and third drying day, a semi-continuous mode of loading has been investigated, in which the efficiency remains almost the same on all drying days. The drying rate in the dryer was more than double that in open shade drying. Moreover, the final moisture content of the product was low enough (7.3% wb) for grinding it to a powder form and for good shelf life (1 year). An uncertainty analysis was performed, and the uncertainty in the efficiency was found to be 1.35%. An economic analysis was performed by three methods. The cost of drying fenugreek leaves in the domestic solar dryer turned out to be about 60% of that in an electric dryer. The cumulative present worth of the savings are much higher (18,316 Rupees) than the capital cost of the dryer (1600 Rupees). The payback period is also very low (<2 years) as compared to the life of the dryer (20 years), so the dryer will dry product free of cost during almost its entire life period. The quality and shelf life of the dried products are comparable to those of

  15. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    CERN Document Server

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  16. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  17. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  18. Ice gouging effects on the eastern Arctic shelf of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libina N. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of the latest geological and geophysical marine cruises indicate activating of natural risks (or hazards processes connected with ice gouging, permafrost melting, landslides, coastal thermoerosion and seismic activity. These processes represent great risks for all human marine activities including exploitation of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. One of the most dangerous natural processes is ice gouging, which results in the ploughing of the seabed by an underwater part of ice bodies. Ice gouging processes can create some emergency situation in the construction and operation of any underwater engineering structures. Natural seismoacoustic data obtained within the eastern Arctic shelf of Russia have recorded numerous ice gouging trails both in the coastal shallow and deep parts of the shelf as well. Modern high-resolution seismic devices have allowed receive detailed morphology parameters of underwater ice traces. The actual depth and occurrence of traces of the effect of ice formations on the bottom significantly exceed the calculated probability of occurrence according to ice conditions. Seismic data have allowed classify all these traces and subdivide them on modern coastal and ancient (or relict deep ones. During Late Quaternary sea level down lifting the absence of cover glaciation did not exclude the presence of powerful drifting ice that produced ice gouging processes in the present deep part of the sea. Afterwards during sea level up lifting ice gouging follows to the sea level changes. In this case there could be destructed some dense clay dewatered sediment layer formed during the regression period. Further, during the repeated transgressive-regressive sea level fluctuations the generated ice traces could be frozen and thus preserved until our days. Modern coastal ice traces into marine shallow are the result of nowadays interaction of drifting ice and seabed that in conditions of global climate warming are activated and represent

  19. Development of shelf-stable radiation processed Ready-to-Cook (RTC) Indian vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, Vivekanand; Variyar, P.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Use of radiation processing in combination with packaging and low temperature storage aided in extending shelf-life of RTC Indian vegetables without affecting their organoleptic and sensory quality. An extension in shelf-life of 15 days in case of RTC french beans and pumpkin and in RTC ash gourd and drumstick of 8 and 5 days respectively was achieved when cling wrapped, irradiated at a dose of 2 kGy and stored at 10 deg C. (author)

  20. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco, S.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  1. Shallow End Response from ATEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Different geological, hydrological, environmental and engineering targets are located shallow underground. The information collected with ATEM systems might be very useful for their study; although there are many deeper targets that the ATEM systems are traditionally used for. The idea to raise magnetic moment output and get deeper penetration response was one of the goals of ATEM systems development during the last decade. The shallow geology response was a trade for such systems, which sometimes were almost blind in the first hundred meter under surface. The possibility to achieve shallow end response from ATEM systems has become significant subject in last years. Several airborne TDEM systems got second higher frequency and lower magnetic moment signal to pick up shallow response together with deep one. Having a potential advantage such implementation raises complication and cost of the system. There's no need to receive 500 meter deep response when exploring shallow geology. P-THEM system having a compact size transmitter and relatively light weight is working on one base frequency at a time, but this frequency can be preset before a flight considering survey goals. A study of shallow geology response of the P-THEM system working on different base frequency has been conducted in 2014 in Ontario. The Alliston test area located in Southern Ontario has been flown with the P-THEM system working on base frequencies 30Hz and 90Hz. Results of the observations will be discussed in the presentation. The shallow end data can be used for mineral exploration applications and also for hydrological and environmental studies.

  2. Short commentary on marine productivity at Arctic shelf breaks: upwelling, advection and vertical mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Randelhoff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The future of Arctic marine ecosystems has received increasing attention in recent years as the extent of the sea ice cover is dwindling. Although the Pacific and Atlantic inflows both import huge quantities of nutrients and plankton, they feed into the Arctic Ocean in quite diverse regions. The strongly stratified Pacific sector has a historically heavy ice cover, a shallow shelf and dominant upwelling-favourable winds, while the Atlantic sector is weakly stratified, with a dynamic ice edge and a complex bathymetry. We argue that shelf break upwelling is likely not a universal but rather a regional, albeit recurring, feature of the new Arctic. It is the regional oceanography that decides its importance through a range of diverse factors such as stratification, bathymetry and wind forcing. Teasing apart their individual contributions in different regions can only be achieved by spatially resolved time series and dedicated modelling efforts. The Northern Barents Sea shelf is an example of a region where shelf break upwelling likely does not play a dominant role, in contrast to the shallower shelves north of Alaska where ample evidence for its importance has already accumulated. Still, other factors can contribute to marked future increases in biological productivity along the Arctic shelf break. A warming inflow of nutrient-rich Atlantic Water feeds plankton at the same time as it melts the sea ice, permitting increased photosynthesis. Concurrent changes in sea ice cover and zooplankton communities advected with the boundary currents make for a complex mosaic of regulating factors that do not allow for Arctic-wide generalizations.

  3. Short commentary on marine productivity at Arctic shelf breaks: upwelling, advection and vertical mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelhoff, Achim; Sundfjord, Arild

    2018-04-01

    The future of Arctic marine ecosystems has received increasing attention in recent years as the extent of the sea ice cover is dwindling. Although the Pacific and Atlantic inflows both import huge quantities of nutrients and plankton, they feed into the Arctic Ocean in quite diverse regions. The strongly stratified Pacific sector has a historically heavy ice cover, a shallow shelf and dominant upwelling-favourable winds, while the Atlantic sector is weakly stratified, with a dynamic ice edge and a complex bathymetry. We argue that shelf break upwelling is likely not a universal but rather a regional, albeit recurring, feature of the new Arctic. It is the regional oceanography that decides its importance through a range of diverse factors such as stratification, bathymetry and wind forcing. Teasing apart their individual contributions in different regions can only be achieved by spatially resolved time series and dedicated modelling efforts. The Northern Barents Sea shelf is an example of a region where shelf break upwelling likely does not play a dominant role, in contrast to the shallower shelves north of Alaska where ample evidence for its importance has already accumulated. Still, other factors can contribute to marked future increases in biological productivity along the Arctic shelf break. A warming inflow of nutrient-rich Atlantic Water feeds plankton at the same time as it melts the sea ice, permitting increased photosynthesis. Concurrent changes in sea ice cover and zooplankton communities advected with the boundary currents make for a complex mosaic of regulating factors that do not allow for Arctic-wide generalizations.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) F2 population segregation for improving shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H

    2013-02-27

    Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.

  5. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  6. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkon Christensen, Kai; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  7. The “shallow-waterness” of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Christensen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  8. Shallow seismic studies on the inner continental shelf off selected bays, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    LEGEND I .A.~ .~ " Temple . .G "~ RATNAGIRI BAY i, 90a'---a-A"'~"~- '~6 L L I L L ,I .a" I~ LA'rlglII LINE 22o. ...... ¢- ........ o- o .... t.o. ..... ?°P::"~az° ~0 Bll:r..,~ Tlt~eS. o-'" ~-,.<,.~,-.~ ' L L L L L # P BEACH ROCK j o .~los ,6...

  9. Pennsylvanian carbonate buildups, Paradox basin: Increasing reserves in heterogeneous, shallow-shelf reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Chidsey, T.C.; Eby, D.E.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.

  10. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  11. Determinants of biodiversity in subtropical shallow lakes (Atlantic coast, Uruguay)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruk, C.; Rodriguez-Gallego, L.; Meerhoff, M.; Quintans, F.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Scasso, F.; Paggi, J.C.; Peeters, E.; Marten, S.

    2009-01-01

    P> Shallow lakes and ponds contribute disproportionally to species richness relative to other aquatic ecosystems. In-lake conditions (e.g. presence of submerged plants) seem to play a key role in determining diversity, as has been demonstrated for temperate lakes. When water quality deteriorates

  12. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC method ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    66

    ... water flow directions are affecting shallow groundwater quality. The low risk to negligible risk zones are present on lower half part of the region. 3.2 Sensitivity analysis of the DRASTIC model. It is believed to limit the impacts of errors or uncertainties of the individual parameters on the final output (Evans and Myers, 1990; ...

  13. Shallow flows with bottom topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, van G.J.F.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Theunissen, R.; Rodi, W.; Uhlmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of dipolar vortex flows in a shallow fluid layer with bottom topography. Two cases are considered: a step topography and a linearly sloping bottom. It is found that viscous effects – i.e., no-slip conditions at the non-horizontal

  14. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving

  15. Shallow Aquifer Methane Gas Source Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, R. B.; Murgulet, D.; Rose, P. S.; Hay, R.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas can contribute significantly to the world's energy demand. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on horizontal drill lines developed over the last 15 years makes formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons economically available. From 2000 to 2035 shale gas is predicted to rise from 1% to 46% of the total natural gas for the US. A vast energy resource is available in the United States. While there is a strong financial advantage to the application of fracking there is emerging concern about environmental impacts to groundwater and air quality from improper shale fracking operations. Elevated methane (CH4) concentrations have been observed in drinking water throughout the United States where there is active horizontal drilling. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing can increase CH4 transport to aquifers, soil and the vadose zone. Seepage can also result from casing failure in older wells. However, there is strong evidence that elevated CH4 concentrations can be associated with topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction processes. Carbon isotope geochemistry can be applied to study CH4source(s) in shallow vadose zone and groundwater systems. A preliminary TAMU-CC isotope data set from samples taken at different locations in southern Texas shows a wide range of CH4 signatures suggesting multiple sources of methane and carbon dioxide. These data are interpreted to distinguish regions with methane contributions from deep-sourced horizontal drilling versus shallow system microbial production. Development of a thorough environmental assessment using light isotope analysis can provide understanding of shallow anthropogenic versus natural CH4sources and assist in identifying regions that require remedial actions.

  16. Optical properties of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) on the East Siberian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Pugach, S.; Pipko, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Siberian Rivers integrate meteorological and hydrological changes in their watersheds and play a significant role in the physical and biogeochemical regime of the Arctic Ocean. Given the magnitude of Siberian Arctic dissolved organic matter (DOM) export and the uncertain extent to which it is degraded to greenhouse gases, intensified studies to better quantify and understand this large carbon pool and processes acting on it are urgently needed. The East Siberian Arctic shelf is characterized by the highest rate of coastal erosion and significant volume of the riverine discharge which derived terrigenous DOM in the Arctic Ocean. DOM plays a significant role in freshwater and marine aquatic ecosystems including its effects on nutrients and carbon cycling. The colored fraction of DOM, CDOM, directly affects the quantity and spectral quality of available light, thereby impaction both primary production and UV exposure in aquatic ecosystems. Since 2003 we measure CDOM in the East Siberian Arctic Seas (ESAS) in situ using the WETStar fluorometer which doesn't require prefiltration of sample. Combined analysis of CDOM and DOC data obtained at near-annual basis in (2003-2011) demonstrate a high degree of correlation between these parameters. For all the measured samples taken during the ISSS cruises (2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2011), there is an overall linear relationship between DOC concentration, CDOM, and salinity. Here we report the spatial-time variability of river-borne DOM in the ESAS using CDOM as a proxy parameter. Higher absorption coefficients (a254), spectral slope parameter over range 275-295 nm (S275-295) and CDOM concentrations reflect the dominant contribution of terrigenous DOM. It is shown that the attenuation light coefficient in the shallow ESAS is mostly determined by riverine CDOM.

  17. Direct observations of American eels migrating across the continental shelf to the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Castonguay, Martin; Shan, Shiliang; Benchetrit, José; Dodson, Julian J

    2015-10-27

    Since inferring spawning areas from larval distributions in the Sargasso Sea a century ago, the oceanic migration of adult American eels has remained a mystery. No adult eel has ever been observed migrating in the open ocean or in the spawning area. Here, we track movements of maturing eels equipped with pop-up satellite archival tags from the Scotian Shelf (Canada) into the open ocean, with one individual migrating 2,400 km to the northern limit of the spawning site in the Sargasso Sea. The reconstructed routes suggest a migration in two phases: one over the continental shelf and along its edge in shallow waters; the second in deeper waters straight south towards the spawning area. This study is the first direct evidence of adult Anguilla migrating to the Sargasso Sea and represents an important step forward in the understanding of routes and migratory cues.

  18. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area

  19. Shelf life of irradiated minimally processed (MP) watercress (Nasturtium officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.G.; Behrens, J.H.; Aragon-Alegro, L.C.; Vieira, V.S.; Costa-Sobrinho, P.S.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.; Franco, B.D.G. de M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life of minimally processed (MP) watercress exposed to gamma radiation with doses of 1.0; 3.0; 4.0 kGy. Packaged irradiated and non-irradiated MP watercress was subject to sensory analysis. A panel consisting of 25-30 non-trained members, aged 20-55 years, was used. Sensory evaluation was carried out on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 9 and 12 after treatment with packages maintained at 7 °C. The members of the panel rated each sample for overall liking on a hybrid 10 hedonic scale (0 = extremely dislike; 10 = extremely like). Microbiological analyses were also conducted. Compared to the non-irradiated sample, 1 kGy irradiated watercress increased its shelf life by one day (16 days). Shelf lives of samples exposed to higher doses were reduced to 9 days (3 kGy) and 6 days (4 kGy) due to changes in appearance. The microbiological quality was good throughout the experiment

  20. Simulating shelf life determination by two simultaneous criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    The shelf life of food and pharmaceutical products is frequently determined by a marker's concentration or quality index falling below or surpassing an assigned threshold level. Naturally, different chosen markers would indicate different shelf life for the same storage temperature history. We demonstrate that if there are two markers, such as two labile vitamins, the order in which their concentrations cross their respective thresholds may depend not only on their degradation kinetic parameters but also on the particular storage temperature profile, be it isothermal or non-isothermal. Thus, at least theoretically, the order observed in accelerated storage need not be always indicative of the actual order at colder temperatures, except where the two degradation reactions follow the same kinetic order and their temperature-dependence rate parameter is also the same. This is shown with simulated hypothetical degradation reactions that follow first or zero order kinetics and whose rate constant's temperature-dependence obeys the exponential model. It is also demonstrated with simulated hypothetical Maillard reaction's products whose synthesis rather than their degradation follows pseudo zero order kinetics. The software developed to do the simulations and calculate the thresholds crossing points has been posted on the Internet as a freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstration, which can be used as a tool in storage studies and shelf life prediction. In principle, the methodology can be extended from two to any number of markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Eddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange with open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, T.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Nøst, O. A.; Lilly, J. M.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.

    2014-10-01

    Melting at the base of floating ice shelves is a dominant term in the overall Antarctic mass budget. This study applies a high-resolution regional ice shelf/ocean model, constrained by observations, to (i) quantify present basal mass loss at the Fimbul Ice Shelf (FIS); and (ii) investigate the oceanic mechanisms that govern the heat supply to ice shelves in the Eastern Weddell Sea. The simulations confirm the low melt rates suggested by observations and show that melting is primarily determined by the depth of the coastal thermocline, regulating deep ocean heat fluxes towards the ice. Furthermore, the uneven distribution of ice shelf area at different depths modulates the melting response to oceanic forcing, causing the existence of two distinct states of melting at the FIS. In the simulated present-day state, only small amounts of Modified Warm Deep Water enter the continental shelf, and ocean temperatures beneath the ice are close to the surface freezing point. The basal mass loss in this so-called state of "shallow melting" is mainly controlled by the seasonal inflow of solar-heated surface water affecting large areas of shallow ice in the upper part of the cavity. This is in contrast to a state of "deep melting", in which the thermocline rises above the shelf break depth, establishing a continuous inflow of Warm Deep Water towards the deep ice. The transition between the two states is found to be determined by a complex response of the Antarctic Slope Front overturning circulation to varying climate forcings. A proper representation of these frontal dynamics in climate models will therefore be crucial when assessing the evolution of ice shelf basal melting along this sector of Antarctica.

  2. Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life of Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Bisen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on shelf life of Kagzi lime fruits were studied. The results revealed that most of the physical and chemical parameters of fruits were significantly influenced by 100 Gy gamma radiation up to 22 days without affecting fruit quality. Higher doses of gamma irradiation (> 200 Gy) deteriorated the fruit quality and organoleptic parameters of the fruit. Thus, irradiation of lime fruits with 100 Gy gamma radiation extended shelf life of lime fruits and also helps in maintaining the chemical constituents viz., T.S.S. Acidity, Vitamin C, pH and juice content. (author)

  3. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  4. 3D seismic surveys for shallow targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Stewart, R.R.; Bertram, M.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    Although 3D seismic surveys are generally used to map deep hydrocarbon plays, this study demonstrated that they can be useful for characterizing shallow targets, such as oilsands deposits. A high-resolution 3D seismic survey was undertaken to map shallow stratigraphy near Calgary, Alberta. The project demonstrated the efficacy of reflection seismic surveys for shallow targets ranging from 100 to 500 metres. The purpose of the program was to map shallow stratigraphy and structure to depths of up to 500m, and to investigate shallow aquifers in the study area. The results of the survey illustrated the opportunity that 3D seismic surveys provide for mapping shallow reflectors and the acquisition geometry needed to image them. Applications include mapping the distribution of shallow aquifers, delineating shallow coals and investigating oilsands deposits. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  6. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  7. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, R.; Watts, M.F.; Plested, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications

  8. Tidal Mixing at the Shelf Break

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hogg, Nelson; Legg, Sonya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study mixing forced by tidal flow over sudden changes in topographic slope such as near the shelf-break, using high-resolution nonhydrostatic numerical simulations employing the MIT gem...

  9. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  10. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  11. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    % of shelf waters, were moved into the deep-sea region, respectively. Due to the high intensity of cross-shelf exchanges, the average renewal time for the NW shelf in the Black Sea was only 28 days in the summer of 2005 (Zhou et al. 2014). Mechanism 3: exchanges due to assisted cascading. Using the model run for 2003 as an example, we examine the fate of the tracer after 5.5 months of model integration. At 100m depth we identify four anti-cyclonic eddies: two eddies west of the Crimea peninsula, one north of Sinop and one west of Batumi. These eddies can be seen to assist cascading into the basin interior of cold waters formed on a shallow NW shelf to a depth greater than at which they were originally formed. The important result is that for many of the 24 studied years a significant proportion of dense shelf water does not cascade locally off the NW shelf, but is transported by the Rim Current over hundreds of kilometres before cascading into the deep basin in the southern and southeastern Black Sea. This work has been supported by EU FP7 PERSEUS, EU H2020 Sea Basin checkpoints Lot4 - Black Sea and a number of Chinese and Russian national projects. References Zhou, F., G. I. Shapiro, and F. Wobus, 2014: Cross-shelf exchange in the northwestern Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119, 2143-2164.

  12. Shelf Life of Food Products: From Open Labeling to Real-Time Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Maria G

    2018-03-25

    The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply. Selection of appropriate kinetic models and data-analysis techniques is essential to predict shelf life, to account for variability in environmental conditions, and to allow real-time monitoring. Novel analytical tools to determine safety and quality attributes in situ coupled with modern tracking technologies and appropriate predictive tools have the potential to provide accurate estimations of the remaining shelf life of a food product in real time. This review summarizes the necessary steps to attain a transition from open labeling to real-time shelf-life measurements.

  13. Impact of urbanization coupled with drought situations on groundwater quality in shallow (basalt) and deeper (granite) aquifers with special reference to fluoride in Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation, Nanded District, Maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Madhnure; Kaplay, R D; Potdar, S S; Sangnor, H; Rao, A D

    2017-09-01

    Rapid expansion in urbanization and industrialization coupled with recent drought conditions has triggered unplanned groundwater development leading to severe stress on groundwater resources in many urban cities of India, particularly cities like Nanded, Maharashtra. In the quest of tapping drinking water requirement, due to recent drought conditions, people from the city are piercing through entire thickness of shallow basalt aquifers to reach productive deeper granite aquifers. Earlier reports from Nanded and surrounding districts suggest that deeper granite aquifer is contaminated with fluoride (geogenic). The study aimed to find out variations in fluoride concentration in shallow basalt (10-167 m) and deeper granite aquifers (below 167 m) and to find out the relationship between fluoride and other ions. Study suggests that concentration of fluoride in shallow basalt aquifer is within maximum permissible limits of Bureau of Indian Standards and deeper granite aquifer contains as high as 4.9 mg/l of fluoride and all samples from granite aquifers are unfit for human consumption. The groundwater from basalt aquifer is mainly Ca-HCO 3- Cl type, and from granite aquifer, it is Ca-Na-Cl type. The correlation plot between F - vs. pH, Na + and HCO 3 - shows a positive correlation and an inverse relationship with Ca 2+ in both aquifers. As recommendations, it is suggested that granite aquifers should not be tapped for drinking purposes; however, in drought situations, water from this aquifer should be blended with treated surface water before supplying for drinking purposes. Efforts may be made to utilize 1.35 MCM of rainwater from available rooftop, which is sufficient to cater for the needs of ~40,800 people annually. Most effective defluoridation techniques like electrolytic de-fluoridation (EDF), ion exchange and reverse osmosis may be adopted along with integrated fluorosis mitigation measures.

  14. Electrostatically Tunable Nanomechanical Shallow Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.

    2017-11-03

    We report an analytical and experimental study on the tunability of in-plane doubly-clamped nanomechanical arches under varied DC bias conditions at room temperature. For this purpose, silicon based shallow arches are fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The experimental results show good agreement with the analytical results with a maximum tunability of 108.14% for 180 nm thick arch with a transduction gap of 1 μm between the beam and the driving/sensing electrodes. The high tunability of shallow arches paves the ways for highly tunable band pass filtering applications in high frequency range.

  15. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  16. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  17. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  18. Angular dependence of shallow dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical response of a detector is discussed and compared to measurements of shallow dose with tissue and phantom response detectors. A definite energy dependent angular response of dose and measurement was observed which could not be explained by simple trigonometric arguments. The response is back scatter dependent and must be considered in detector design and dose measurements. It is not possible for standard detectors to follow this response

  19. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  20. Evaluating Current Practices in Shelf Life Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Huynh-Ba, Kim; LeBlond, David; Liu, Oscar; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Rajagopalan, Radhika; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter

    2018-02-01

    The current International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) methods for determining the supported shelf life of a drug product, described in ICH guidance documents Q1A and Q1E, are evaluated in this paper. To support this evaluation, an industry data set is used which is comprised of 26 individual stability batches of a common drug product where most batches are measured over a 24 month storage period. Using randomly sampled sets of 3 or 6 batches from the industry data set, the current ICH methods are assessed from three perspectives. First, the distributional properties of the supported shelf lives are summarized and compared to the distributional properties of the true shelf lives associated with the industry data set, assuming the industry data set represents a finite population of drug product batches for discussion purposes. Second, the results of the ICH "poolability" tests for model selection are summarized and the separate shelf life distributions from the possible alternative models are compared. Finally, the ICH methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to manage risk. Shelf life estimates that are too long result in an unacceptable percentage of nonconforming batches at expiry while those that are too short put the manufacturer at risk of possibly having to prematurely discard safe and efficacious drug product. Based on the analysis of the industry data set, the ICH-recommended approach did not produce supported shelf lives that effectively managed risk. Alternative approaches are required.

  1. An Altimetry-Derived Index of the Offshore Forcing on the "Pressure Point" of the West Florida Shelf: Anomalous Upwelling and Its Influence on Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Zheng, L.; Hubbard, K.; Walsh, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC) interactions with the West Florida Shelf (WFS) slope play an important role in shelf ecology through the upwelling of new inorganic nutrients across the shelf break. This is particularly the case when the LC impinges upon the shelf slope in the southwest portion of the WFS near the Dry Tortugas. By contacting shallow water isobaths at this "pressure point" the LC forcing sets the entire shelf into motion. Characteristic patterns of LC interactions with the WFS and their occurrences are identified from altimetry data using unsupervised neural network, self-organizing map. The duration of the occurrences of such LC patterns is used as an indicator of offshore forcing of anomalous upwelling. Consistency is found between the altimetry-derived offshore forcing and the occurrence and severity of WFS coastal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis: years without major blooms tend to have prolonged LC contact at the "pressure point," whereas years with major blooms tend not to have prolonged offshore forcing. Resetting the nutrient state of the shelf by the coastal ocean circulation in response to deep-ocean forcing demonstrates the importance of physical oceanography in shelf ecology. A satellite altimetry-derived seasonal predictor for major K. brevis blooms is also proposed.

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  3. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    medium properties, so horizontal refraction and reflection of sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation ...by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers ...surface waves, internal waves and shelfbreak fronts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Continental Shelf; 3-D Acoustics , Surface Waves, Sound Propagation 16

  4. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moura Dos Reis

    Full Text Available The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  5. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Vanessa Moura Dos; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  6. Comparison of Shallow Survey 2012 Multibeam Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Shallow Survey common dataset is a comparison of the different technologies utilized for data acquisition in the shallow survey marine environment. The common dataset consists of a series of surveys conducted over a common area of seabed using a variety of systems. It provides equipment manufacturers the opportunity to showcase their latest systems while giving hydrographic researchers and scientists a chance to test their latest algorithms on the dataset so that rigorous comparisons can be made. Five companies collected data for the Common Dataset in the Wellington Harbor area in New Zealand between May 2010 and May 2011; including Kongsberg, Reson, R2Sonic, GeoAcoustics, and Applied Acoustics. The Wellington harbor and surrounding coastal area was selected since it has a number of well-defined features, including the HMNZS South Seas and HMNZS Wellington wrecks, an armored seawall constructed of Tetrapods and Akmons, aquifers, wharves and marinas. The seabed inside the harbor basin is largely fine-grained sediment, with gravel and reefs around the coast. The area outside the harbor on the southern coast is an active environment, with moving sand and exposed reefs. A marine reserve is also in this area. For consistency between datasets, the coastal research vessel R/V Ikatere and crew were used for all surveys conducted for the common dataset. Using Triton's Perspective processing software multibeam datasets collected for the Shallow Survey were processed for detail analysis. Datasets from each sonar manufacturer were processed using the CUBE algorithm developed by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC). Each dataset was gridded at 0.5 and 1.0 meter resolutions for cross comparison and compliance with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) requirements. Detailed comparisons were made of equipment specifications (transmit frequency, number of beams, beam width), data density, total uncertainty, and

  7. Shallow Investigations of the Deep Seafloor: Quantitative Morphology in the Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, M.; Ketter, T.; Tibor, G.; Schattner, U.

    2017-12-01

    We aim to characterize the seafloor morphology and its shallow sub-surface structures and deformations in the deep part of the Levant basin (eastern Mediterranean) using recently acquired high-resolution shallow seismic reflection data and multibeam bathymetry, which allow quantitative analysis of morphology and structure. The Levant basin at the eastern Mediterranean is considered a passive continental margin, where most of the recent geological processes were related in literature to salt tectonics rooted at the Messinian deposits from 6Ma. We analyzed two sets of recently acquired high-resolution data from multibeam bathymetry and 3.5 kHz Chirp sub-bottom seismic reflection in the deep basin of the continental shelf offshore Israel (water depths up to 2100 m). Semi-automatic mapping of seafloor features and seismic data interpretation resulted in quantitative morphological analysis of the seafloor and its underlying sediment with penetration depth up to 60 m. The quantitative analysis and its interpretation are still in progress. Preliminary results reveal distinct morphologies of four major elements: channels, faults, folds and sediment waves, validated by seismic data. From the spatial distribution and orientation analyses of these phenomena, we identify two primary process types which dominate the formation of the seafloor in the Levant basin: structural and sedimentary. Characterization of the geological and geomorphological processes forming the seafloor helps to better understand the transport mechanisms and the relations between sediment transport and deposition in deep water and the shallower parts of the shelf and slope.

  8. Subsurface Permian reef complexes of southern Tunisia: Shelf carbonate setting and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Adel; Haddad, Sofiene; Mannaî-Tayech, Beya

    2017-05-01

    2-D seismic reflection sections, borehole data as well as published and unpublished data have been investigated to reconstruct the paleogeography of southern Tunisia during Middle to Late Permian times. Paleogeographical reconstruction based on the integration of petroleum well data and 2-D seismic facies interpretation shows three main depositional areas with very contrasting sedimentary pile. These are 1) a subsiding basin; 2) an outer shelf carbonate, and 3) an inner shelf carbonate. Based on typical electric responses of reef buildups to seismic wave, we shall urge that during Middle Permian times, the outer carbonate shelf was subject of reef barrier development. Lithology evidences from core samples show that reef framework correspond mainly to fossiliferous limestone and dolomite. The WNW-ESE recognized reef barrier led between latitudes 33° 10‧ 00″N and 33° 20‧ 00″N. The Tebaga of Medenine outcrop constitutes the northern-edge of this barrier. Westward it may be extended to Bir Soltane area whereas its extension eastward is still to be determined. Biogenic buildups took place preferentially over faulted Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic paleohighs resulting likely from the Hercynian orogeny. The subsiding basin is located north of Tebaga of Medenine outcrop where Upper Permian sedimentary sequence is made entirely of 4000 m deep marine green silty shale facies. These are ascribed to unorganized and chaotic reflectors. Inner carbonate shelf facies succession corresponds to a typical interbedding of shallow marine carbonate deposits, shale, dolomite, and anhydrite inducing parallel-layered of strong amplitude and good continuity reflectors. Also within the inner carbonate shelf patch reef or reef pinnacles have been identified based on their seismic signature particularly their low vertical development as compared to reef complexes. Southward, towards Sidi Toui area, the Upper Permian depositional sequence thins out and bears witness of land

  9. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  10. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pinto de Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  11. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  12. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2014-06-13

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics.

  13. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics. PMID:24797134

  14. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the

  15. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  16. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  17. Seismic modelling of shallow coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C. (University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics.)

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to determine whether reflection seismic surveys can be used to map stratigraphic and structural detail of shallow Plains-type coal deposits. Two coalfields in central Alberta were used to examine and determine optimum acquisition parameters for reflection seismic surveys in such settings. The study was based on 1-D and 2-D numerical seismic modelling using sonic and density well logs to formulate a layered earth model. Additional objectives were to interpret the reflection seismic data in terms of geologic features in the study area, and to investigate the relationship between vertical resolution and field acquisition geometry. 27 refs., 41 figs.

  18. Microseismicity along major Ross Ice Shelf rift resulting from thermal contraction of the near-surface firn layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, S.; Wiens, D.; Aster, R. C.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity within ice shelves arises from a variety of sources, including calving, rifting, and movement along internal discontinuities. In this study, we identify and locate cryoseisms in the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) to better understand ice shelf internal stress and deformation. We use data from a two-year 34-station deployment of broadband seismographs operational from December 2014 - November 2016. Two lines of seismographs intersect near 79Sº, 180º close to a large rift, and cryoseisms were recorded by up to 10 seismographs within 40 km of the rift tip. We identified 3600 events from 2015 and grouped them by quality based on the number of stations recording and signal-to-noise ratio. The events show a long-period character compared to similar magnitude tectonic earthquakes, with peak amplitudes at 1-4 Hz and P, S, longitudinal, and surface wave arrivals. Cross correlation analysis shows that the events cannot be divided into a small number of repeating event clusters with identical waveforms. 262 A-quality events were located with a least-squares algorithm using P and S arrivals, and the resulting locations show strong spatial correlation with the rift, with events distributed along the rift rather than concentrated at the tip or any other specific feature. The events do not show teleseismic triggering, and did not occur with increased frequency following the Illapel earthquake (8.3 Mw) or subsequent tsunami. Instead, we note a concentration of activity during the winter months, with several days exhibiting particularly high seismicity rates. We compare the full catalog of events with temperature data from the Antarctic Weather Stations (Lazzara et al, 2012) and find that the largest swarms occur during the most rapid periods of seasonal temperature decline. Internal stress in ice floes and shelves is known to vary with air temperature; as temperature drops, the upper layer of ice thermally contracts, causing near-surface extensional stress to accumulate. We

  19. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Melini; Francesca Melini

    2018-01-01

    Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been...

  20. Extending the shelf life of flower bulbs and perennials in consumer packages by modiefied atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.; Miller, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of flower bulbs and herbaceous perennials in consumer packages declines rapidly due to sprouting and drying out. The present study was undertaken to develop Modified Atmosphere Packages (MAP) with suitable filling materials for a prolonged shelf life of different species of flower bulbs

  1. 78 FR 59263 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ..., Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer continental shelf, Ozone, Particulate matter, Permits, Reporting... Solvents (Adopted 10/23/78) Rule 325 Crude Oil Production and Separation (Adopted 07/19/01) Rule 326... (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 805 Air Quality Impact Analysis and Modeling (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 808 New Source...

  2. Shallow irradiation of Citrus Unshiu by cathod ray, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Koji; Umeda, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 150 Krad cathode ray irradiation on the shelf life and quality of ''Citrus Unshiu'' was investigated. Citrus Unshiu (Japanese mandarin orange ''Satsuma'') were kept at 5 0 C for 2 months without pretreatment and irradiated. Both irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored in the special storage boxes in which temperature, humidity and sterile air circulation were controlled. After 44 days, the percentage of spoiled oranges in irradiated and non-irradiated samples stored at 8 0 C were 57.5% and 64% respectively, on the other hand when stored at 3 0 C the percentage were 26% and 51% respectively. Rate of spoilage was significantly lower in the irradiated samples than non-irradiated ones. Irradiated effect on the shelf life extension was more conspicuous when the storage temperature was kept at 3 0 C. By the sensory examination, any difference for taste and flavor between irradiated and non-irradiated samples was not detected. The taste and flavor of the oranges stored at 8 0 C changed worse after long time storage but when stored at 3 0 C, such tendency was not observed. Undesirable odor and flavor were not detected by the panel with the irradiated samples in this experiment. The results showed that shelf life of the ''Citrus Unshiu'' could be extended by the combination of irradiation with 150 Krad cathode ray and storage at 3 0 C. (auth.)

  3. Highly tunable NEMS shallow arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.

    2017-11-30

    We report highly tunable nanoelectromechanical systems NEMS shallow arches under dc excitation voltages. Silicon based in-plane doubly clamped bridges, slightly curved as shallow arches, are fabricated using standard electron beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. By designing the structures to have gap to thickness ratio of more than four, the mid-plane stretching of the nano arches is maximized such that an increase in the dc bias voltage will result into continuous increase in the resonance frequency of the resonators to wide ranges. This is confirmed analytically based on a nonlinear beam model. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with that of the results from developed analytical model. A maximum tunability of 108.14% for a 180 nm thick arch with an initially designed gap of 1 μm between the beam and the driving/sensing electrodes is achieved. Furthermore, a tunable narrow bandpass filter is demonstrated, which opens up opportunities for designing such structures as filtering elements in high frequency ranges.

  4. Rogue waves in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomere, T.

    2010-07-01

    Most of the processes resulting in the formation of unexpectedly high surface waves in deep water (such as dispersive and geometrical focusing, interactions with currents and internal waves, reflection from caustic areas, etc.) are active also in shallow areas. Only the mechanism of modulational instability is not active in finite depth conditions. Instead, wave amplification along certain coastal profiles and the drastic dependence of the run-up height on the incident wave shape may substantially contribute to the formation of rogue waves in the nearshore. A unique source of long-living rogue waves (that has no analogues in the deep ocean) is the nonlinear interaction of obliquely propagating solitary shallow-water waves and an equivalent mechanism of Mach reflection of waves from the coast. The characteristic features of these processes are (i) extreme amplification of the steepness of the wave fronts, (ii) change in the orientation of the largest wave crests compared with that of the counterparts and (iii) rapid displacement of the location of the extreme wave humps along the crests of the interacting waves. The presence of coasts raises a number of related questions such as the possibility of conversion of rogue waves into sneaker waves with extremely high run-up. Also, the reaction of bottom sediments and the entire coastal zone to the rogue waves may be drastic.

  5. Sedimentation Deposition Patterns on the Chukchi Shelf Using Radionuclide Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Sediment core collections and assays of the anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes, 137Cs and 210Pb, respectively, are providing long-term indications of sedimentation and current flow processes on the Chukchi and East Siberian sea continental shelf. This work, which has been integrated into interdisciplinary studies of the Chukchi Sea supported by both the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (COMIDA Hanna Shoal Project) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Russian-US Long Term Census of the Arctic, RUSALCA) includes studies of total radiocesium inventories, sedimentation rate determinations, where practical, and depths of maxima in radionuclide deposition. Shallow maxima in the activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide in sediment cores reflect areas with higher current flow (Barrow Canyon and Herald Canyon; 3-6 cm) or low sedimentation (Hanna Shoal; 1-3 cm). The first sedimentation studies from Long Strait are consistent with quiescent current conditions and steady recent sedimentation of clay particles. Elsewhere, higher and more deeply buried radionuclide inventories (> 2 mBq cm-2 at 15-17 cm depth) in the sediments correspond to areas of high particle deposition north of Bering Strait where bioturbation in productive sediments is also clearly an important influence. Radiocesium activities from bomb fallout dating to 1964 are now present at low levels (20 cm. Independent sedimentation rate measurements with the natural radionuclide 210Pb are largely consistent with the radiocesium measurements.

  6. Further studies of the nature, composition and ages of contemporary phosphorite from the Namibian Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.; Calvert, S.E.; Mukherjee, S.; Burnett, W.C.; Bremner, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Major and minor element and radiochemical data are examined for a set of phosphorite concretions and other phosphatic material from the Namibian Shelf. The concretions were separated on a morphological basis from grab samples taken in a transect of shallowing depth over the diatomaceous ooze belt. Compositional data indicate that the samples are fairly pure carbonate-fluorapatite, and trend towards a maximum 32% P 2 O 5 content. A range of compositional variability similar to other samples from the Namibian Shelf is observed. Radiochemical systematics confirm that pelletal phosphorite and glauconitized pelletal phosphorite from depths > 170 m are at radioactive equilibrium, and are therefore old and reworked. The concretions, collected from depths shallower than 78 m, are entirely Recent, with maximum ages in the range 500-3800 years. They may be much younger. Despite distinct textural and small compositional differences, similar are found for separates from the same grab. Samples of fish scales and an unidentified high-magnesian phosphate mineral are also shown to have incorporated uranium recently. (orig.)

  7. Shelf-life extension of gilthead seabream fillets by osmotic treatment and antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, T N; Taoukis, P S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of selected antimicrobial agents on the shelf life of osmotically pretreated gilthead seabream and to establish reliable kinetic equations for shelf-life determination validated in dynamic conditions. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (HDM, DE 47) plus 5% NaCl and 0·5% carvacrol, 0·5% glucono-δ-lactone or 1% Citrox (commercial antimicrobial mix). Untreated and treated slices were aerobically packed and stored isothermally (0-15°C). Microbial growth and quality-related chemical indices were modelled as functions of temperature. Models were validated at dynamic storage conditions. Osmotic pretreatment with the use of antimicrobials led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth and organoleptic deterioration. The shelf life was 7 days for control samples at 5°C. The osmotic pretreatment with carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone and Citrox allowed for shelf-life extension by 8, 10 and 5 days at 5°C, respectively. The results of the study show the potential of adding carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone or Citrox in the osmotic solution to extend the shelf life and improve commercial value of chilled osmotically pretreated fish products. The developed models can be a reliable tool for predicting the shelf life of fresh or minimally processed gilthead seabream fillets in the real chill chain. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Seasonal and interannual cross-shelf transport over the Texas and Louisiana continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyng, Kristen M.; Hetland, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical drifters are tracked in a hydrodynamic simulation of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf to analyze patterns in cross-shelf transport of materials. While the important forcing mechanisms in the region (wind, river, and deep eddies) and associated flow patterns are known, the resultant material transport is less well understood. The primary metric used in the calculations is the percent of drifters released within a region that cross the 100 m isobath. Results of the analysis indicate that, averaged over the eleven years of the simulation, there are two regions on the shelf - over the Texas shelf during winter, and over the Louisiana shelf in summer - with increased seasonal probability for offshore transport. Among the two other distinct regions, the big bend region in Texas has increased probability for onshore transport, and the Mississippi Delta region has an increase in offshore transport, for both seasons. Some of these regions of offshore transport have marked interannual variability. This interannual variability is correlated to interannual changes in forcing conditions. Winter transport off of the Texas shelf is correlated with winter mean wind direction, with more northerly winds enhancing offshore transport; summer transport off the Louisiana shelf is correlated with Mississippi River discharge.

  9. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  10. Numerical modelling of the M2 tide on the northern Patagonian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, P. D.; Simpson, J. H.

    1994-02-01

    The previously reported occurrence of tidal fronts on the Patagonian Shelf ( CARRETOet al., 1986 , Journal of Plankton Research, 8, 15-28; GLORIOSO, 1987 , Continental Shelf Research, 7, 27-34), motivated the application of a numerical model to solve the shallow-water equations with external forcing by the principal-lunar semidiurnal tide (M2) prescribed along the open boundary. The mean width of the Patagonian Shelf is comparable with a quarter wavelength of the semidiurnal tide, giving the conditions for standing wave resonance at that frequency ( WEBB, 1975 , Deep-Sea Research, 23, 1-15). The region is well recognized by its large tidal elevations and by the speed of the tidal wave changing phase very rapidly. Some of the results obtained from the modelling exercise include the mapping of the M2 tidal constants, the Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter, the mean sea surface elevation, and the distribution of tidal energy dissipation by bottom friction. These results agree qualitatively with the ship data available and with satellite infrared imagery.

  11. Steady flow in shallow channel bends

    OpenAIRE

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Making use of a mathematical model solving the complete NavierStokes equations for steady flow in coiled rectangular pipes, fully-developed laminar flow in shallow curved channels is analysed physically and mathematically. Transverse convection of momentum by the secondary flow is shown to cause important deformations of the main velocity distribution. The model is also used to investigate simplified computation methods for shallow channels. The usual 'shallow water approximation' is shown to...

  12. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  13. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  14. Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, K Khanah; Tang, Juming

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is one of the best known flexible thermoplastic oxygen barrier materials in use today. It is especially important for refrigerated and shelf-stable foods where oxygen deteriorates the quality of packaged products and reduces their shelf life. EVOH accounts for a majority of thermoplastic barrier materials used for rigid or semi-rigid retortable food containers. However. it is of limited use in flexible packages or lid films for rigid trays used for packaging thermally processed shelf-stable low acid foods due to its moisture sensitivity. Nevertheless, current use of other oxygen barrier materials such as polyvinylidene chloride and aluminum foil creates environmental concerns. Innovations in food processing technologies provide opportunities for increased use of EVOH in food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of research on the oxygen barrier properties of EVOH from the perspective of structure-barrier property relationships and the consequences of food processing conditions.

  15. Shelf-life modeling of bakery products by using oxidation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Sonia; Manzocco, Lara; Kravina, Giuditta; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2007-03-07

    The aim of this work was to develop a shelf-life prediction model of lipid-containing bakery products. To this purpose (i) the temperature dependence of the oxidation rate of bakery products was modeled, taking into account the changes in lipid physical state; (ii) the acceptance limits were assessed by sensory analysis; and (iii) the relationship between chemical oxidation index and acceptance limit was evaluated. Results highlight that the peroxide number, the changes of which are linearly related to consumer acceptability, is a representative index of the quality depletion of biscuits during their shelf life. In addition, the evolution of peroxides can be predicted by a modified Arrhenius equation accounting for the changes in the physical state of biscuit fat. Knowledge of the relationship between peroxides and sensory acceptability together with the temperature dependence of peroxide formation allows a mathematical model to be set up to simply and quickly calculate the shelf life of biscuits.

  16. Combination of potassium sorbate and irradiation treatments to extend the shelf-life cured fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.; Sudarman, H.; Chosdu, R.; Siagian, E.G.; Nasran, S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on shelf-life extension of three kinds of cured fish product, i.e. salted chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been done using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combined treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, content of volatile reducing substances and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf-life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that potassium sorbate residue of 0.1% level followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy could retard mould growth on the products and extend the shelf-life considerably in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author)

  17. Combination of potassium sorbate and irradiation treatments to extend the shelf life of cured fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.; Sudarman, H.; Chosdu, R.; Siagian, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on shelf life extension of three kinds of cured fish products, i.e. salted chub mackeral (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been made using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combination treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, volatile reducing substances, and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that 0.1% potassium sorbate followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy retards mould growth on the products and extends the shelf life to a considerable length of time in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Incipiently drowned platform deposit in cyclic Ordovician shelf sequence: Lower Ordovician Chepultepec Formation, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.A.; Read, J.F.

    1983-03-01

    The Chepultepec interval, 145 to 260 m (476 to 853 ft) thick, in Virginia contains the Lower Member up to 150 m (492 ft) thick, and the Upper Member, up to 85 m (279 ft) thick, of peritidal cyclic limestone and dolomite, and a Middle Member, up to 110 m (360 ft) thick, of subtidal limestone and bioherms, passing northwestward into cyclic facies. Calculated long term subsidence rates were 4 to 5 cm/1000 yr (mature passive margin rates), shelf gradients were 6 cm/km, and average duration of cycles was 140,00 years. Peritidal cyclic sequences are upward shallowing sequences of pellet-skeletal limestone, thrombolites, rippled calcisiltites and intraclast grainstone, and laminite caps. They formed by rapid transgression with apparent submergence increments averaging approximately 2 m (6.5 ft) in Lower Member and 3.5 m (11.4 ft), Upper Member. Deposition during Middle Member time was dominated by skeletal limestone-mudstone, calcisiltite with storm generated fining-upward sequences, and burrow-mixed units that were formed near fair-weather wave base, along with thrombolite bioherms. Locally, there are upward shallowing sequences, of basal wackestone/mudstone to calcisiltite to bioherm complexes (locally with erosional scalloped tops). Following each submergence, carbonate sedimentation was able to build to sea level prior to renewed submergence. Large submergence events caused tidal flats to be shifted far to the west, and they were unable to prograde out onto the open shelf because of insufficient time before subsidence was renewed, and because the open shelf setting inhibited tidal flat deposition. The Middle Member represents an incipiently drowned sequence that developed by repeated submergence events.

  19. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  20. Shallow-land-burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Davis, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The initial draft of the Shallow-Land Burial Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. The Handbook informs the reader of the current way in which low-level wastes are being handled, outlines the legal and institutional problems that would be involved in developing and licensing such a facility, and describes in some detail the considerations and data needs for siting, designing, operating, and closing such a facility. The initial draft is not a Handbook that provides answers to all questions, nor insures that following the steps detailed in the Handbook guarantees that the facility will be licensed. It does illustrate the types of actions that must be considered and the types of information required to achieve successful operations

  1. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    knolls. A transition zone with tonal variations is present between 40 and 60 m water depth. Ground-truth data sediment and rock distribution maps indicate depositional (inner shelf), nondepositional or erosional (outer shelf) environments and a...

  2. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  3. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  4. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  5. Near-surface elastic changes in the Ross Ice Shelf arising from transient storm and melt forcing observed with high-frequency ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Baker, M. G.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.; Wiens, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ice shelf collapse can herald subsequent grounded ice instability. However, robust understanding of external mechanisms capable of triggering rapid changes remains elusive. Improved understanding therefore requires improved remote and in-situ measurements of ice shelf properties. Using nearly three years of continuous data from a recently deployed 34-station broadband seismic array on the Ross Ice Shelf, we analyze persistent temporally varying, anisotropic near-surface resonant wave modes at frequencies above 1 Hz that are highly sensitive to small changes in elastic shelf properties to depths of tens of m. We further find that these modes exhibit both progressive (on the scale of months) and rapid (on the scale of hours) changes in frequency content. The largest and most rapid excursions are associated with forcing from local storms, and with a large regional ice shelf melt event in January 2016. We hypothesize that temporally variable behavior of the resonance features arises from wind slab formation during storms and/or to porosity changes, and to the formation of percolation-related refrozen layers and thinning in the case of surface melting. These resonance variations can be reproduced and inverted for structural changes using numerical wave propagation models, and thus present an opportunity for 4-D structural monitoring of shallow ice shelf elasticity and structure using long-duration seismic recordings.

  6. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  7. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  8. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area cosmetics is more limited than for other products. Because of repeated microbial exposure during use by the consumer and the risk of eye infections, some industry experts recommend replacing mascara 3 months after purchase. ...

  9. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  10. An integrated fingerprinting and kinetic approach to accelerated shelf-life testing of chemical changes in thermally treated carrot puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Magpusao, Johannes; Palmers, Stijn; Michiels, Chris; Hendrickx, Marc; Loey, Ann Van

    2015-07-15

    To have a better understanding of chemical reactions during shelf-life, an integrated analytical and engineering toolbox: "fingerprinting-kinetics" was used. As a case study, a thermally sterilised carrot puree was selected. Sterilised purees were stored at four storage temperatures as a function of time. Fingerprinting enabled selection of volatiles clearly changing during shelf-life. Only these volatiles were identified and studied further. Next, kinetic modelling was performed to investigate the suitability of these volatiles as quality indices (markers) for accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT). Fingerprinting enabled selection of terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, fatty acid derivatives, Strecker aldehydes and sulphur compounds as volatiles clearly changing during shelf-life. The amount of Strecker aldehydes increased during storage, whereas the rest of the volatiles decreased. Out of the volatiles, based on the applied kinetic modelling, myristicin, α-terpinolene, β-pinene, α-terpineol and octanal were identified as potential markers for ASLT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of water quality in subtropical shallow lakes, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas como indicadores da qualidade da água em pequenos lagos rasos subtropicais, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Amaral Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: We evaluated the potential of aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators in six small shallow lakes. METHODS: The sampling was conducted monthly for one year, during which all macrophytes were surveyed, and the water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, total nitrogen (Nt and total phosphorus (Pt were measured. RESULTS: In total, forty-three species were recorded, and there were significant differences in the species richness and limnological conditions among the lakes studied. A canonical correspondence analysis showed that the concentration of nutrients (Nt and Pt, chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important predictors of the distribution of macrophytes. Some emergents were related to the high concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and suspended matter. Moreover, the most submersed species were associated with environments with low nutrient concentrations and the lowest values chlorophyll-a and suspended matter. In addition, some species submerged and floating were related to low values pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Limnological differences between lakes may be cited as the main causes of the observed heterogeneous distribution of macrophytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the importance of limnological characteristics of the different environments in the macrophyte community composition and the potential role of this community as a bioindicator in shallow lakes in southern Brazil.OBJETIVO: Foi avaliado o potencial bioindicador da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em seis pequenos lagos rasos. MÉTODOS: O acompanhamento foi mensal durante um ano, sendo que em cada coleta, além do registro de todas as espécies de macrófitas foram determinadas a temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade elétrica, alcalinidade total, clorofila-a, material em suspensão, nitrogênio total (Nt e fósforo total

  12. The Northeast Greenland Shelf - Evidence of the existence of a pronounced salt-province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, T.; Jokat, W.

    2003-04-01

    The Northeast Greenland shelf (NEGS) is the part of the continental margin of east Greenland located between the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone at about 72°N in the south and the Spitzbergen Fracture Zone at 81°N in the north. The eastern boundary, at the shelf edge, is the approximate position of the boundary between continental and oceanic crust and the western boundary is the coastline of Greenland. The shelf has a N-S orientation, is about 1000 km long, and between 125 km (southern part) and 380 km (at 78°N) wide. Based on present data the NEGS can be subdivided into a southern part influenced by Tertiary tectonism and volcanism (approx. 72°N to 75°N) and a northern, nonvolcanic, part (approx. 75°N to 81°N). Today the sedimentary history, stratigraphy, structure and origin of the basement below the sedimentary shelf south of 74°N are reasonable known, but only sparse information exists about the northern part of the shelf. Until 1990 there weren't any seismic lines north of 74°N, and all interpretations of stratigraphy and basin structures of the northern part of the NEGS were based on aeromagnetic data. During the last decade, the first seismic lines were shot over the northern part of the shelf to give more detailed information about sediment thickness, stratigraphy, and the structure of the sedimentary shelf. The area under investigation lies on the nonvolcanic northern part of the shelf between 78°30'N and 81°N. The sea floor topography indicates some submarine banks with water depth as shallow as 30 m, which are separated by valleys up to 500 m deep. These valleys were formed through erosion processes caused by cyclic movements of big grounded glacier tongues during the last ice-ages with a maximum expansion during the Wisconsin-Weichselian glaciation. During two scientific expeditions with the German research icebreaker Polarstern in 1997 and 1999, more than 1100 km of multichannel seismic data were collected. The cruise tracks during seismic

  13. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks. Copyright © 2013 American

  14. Duality of Ross Ice Shelf systems: crustal boundary, ice sheet processes and ocean circulation from ROSETTA-Ice surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Das, I.; Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Siegfried, M. R.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Bathymetry beneath Antarctic ice shelves controls sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation and has a major influence on the stability and dynamics of the ice sheets. Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, the sea-floor bathymetry is a product of both tectonics and glacial processes, and is influenced by the processes it controls. New aerogeophysical surveys have revealed a fundamental crustal boundary bisecting the Ross Ice Shelf and imparting a duality to the Ross Ice Shelf systems, encompassing bathymetry, ocean circulation and ice flow history. The ROSETTA-Ice surveys were designed to increase the resolution of Ross Ice Shelf mapping from the 55 km RIGGS survey of the 1970s to a 10 km survey grid, flown over three years from New York Air National Guard LC130s. Radar, LiDAR, gravity and magnetic instruments provide a top to bottom profile of the ice shelf and the underlying seafloor, with 20 km resolution achieved in the first two survey seasons (2015 and 2016). ALAMO ocean-profiling floats deployed in the 2016 season are measuring the temperature and salinity of water entering and exiting the sub-ice water cavity. A significant east-west contrast in the character of the magnetic and gravity fields reveals that the lithospheric boundary between East and West Antarctica exists not at the base of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), as previously thought, but 300 km further east. The newly-identified boundary spatially coincides with the southward extension of the Central High, a rib of shallow basement identified in the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic side is characterized by lower amplitude magnetic anomalies and denser TAM-type lithosphere compared to the West Antarctic side. The crustal structure imparts a fundamental duality on the overlying ice and ocean, with deeper bathymetry and thinner ice on the East Antarctic side creating a larger sub-ice cavity for ocean circulation. The West Antarctic side has a shallower seabed, more restricted ocean access and a more complex history of

  15. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeth, Hilton

    2017-11-20

    Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B * (inactivation of thermophilic spores), of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  16. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Deeth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extended shelf-life (ESL or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores, of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  17. Physical processes and sedimentation on a broad, shallow bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. P.; Hsu, S. A.; Roberts, H. H.; Owens, E. H.; Crout, R. L.

    1982-02-01

    An integrated study of the meteorology, physical oceanography, sedimentationand coastal morphology on the broad, shallow Miskito Bank off the eastern coast of Nicaragua has uncovered systematic interrelationships between driving forces. Bank geometry and sedimentologic environments on the Bank. Extremely high rainfall results from an interaction between meteorological processes over the Bank and topographic effects along the coast. Both acoustic and radio sounding of the lower atmosphere have documented the feedback between convective plumes, inversion layers and the incessant rainfall, which brings three times more freshwater and 15 times more sediment down to a unit length of coast than on the U.S. Atlantic shore. The resultant brackish, turbid coastal water moves as a highly organized band of water parallel to the coast. Seaward of this coastal boundary layer, offshore water from the Caribbean Current rides up on the Bank and provides an environment ideal for carbonate production. A zone of fine-grained terrigenous sediment underlying the coastal boundary current merges abruptly into a smooth carbonate plain covering most of the surface of the Bank. These central Bank carbonates are composed primarily of the disintegration products of prolific calcareous green algae. A trend of high relief, luxuriant coral reef growth is aligned along the steep dropoff at the Bank edge, a zone of observed upwelling of cooler and saltier basin water. A threefold southerly increase in wave energy at the shoreline due to the decreasing width of the shallow shelf results in wave-dominated coastal morphologies in the south compared to fluvial domination in the north and a systematic change from straight, linear bars and beaches in the north to rhythmic topography in the south.

  18. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  19. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  20. Sources, degradation and transport of terrigenous organic carbon on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the present hydrological regime increase observed in the Arctic rivers is mainly the consequence of the changes in permafrost conditions as a result of climate warming. Given the enormous amount of carbon stored in coastal and terrestrial permafrost the potentially increased supply from this large carbon pool to the coastal Arctic Ocean, possibly associated with a translocated release to the atmosphere as CO2, is considered a plausible scenario in a warming climate. However, there is not sufficient information regarding the reactivity of terrigenous material once supplied to the Arctic Ocean. In this study, we address this critical issue by examining the organic composition of surface sediments collected over extensive scales on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) as part of the International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS). The ESAS represents by far the largest shelf of the Arctic Ocean. Samples were collected from the inner- to the outer-shelf following the sediment transport pathway in a region between the Lena and the Kolyma rivers. The analytical approach includes the characterization of marine and land-derived carbon using a large number of molecular biomarkers obtained by alkaline CuO oxidation such as lignin-phenols, cutin-derived products, p-hydroxy benzenes, benzoic acids, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids. Our results indicated high concentrations of terrigenous material in shallow sediments and a marked decrease of terrestrial biomarkers with increasing distance from the coastline. In parallel, lignin-based degradation proxies suggested highly altered terrigenous carbon in mid- and outer-shelf sediments compared to coastal sediments. Furthermore, the ratio of cutin-derived products over lignin significantly increased along the sediment transport pathway. Considering that cutin is considered to be intrinsically more reactive compared to lignin, high values of this ratio off the coastal region were interpreted as selective

  1. Simulating Ice Shelf Response to Potential Triggers of Collapse Using the Material Point Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, A.; Smith, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Weakening or collapse of an ice shelf can reduce the buttressing effect of the shelf on its upstream tributaries, resulting in sea level rise as the flux of grounded ice into the ocean increases. Here we aim to improve sea level rise projections by developing a prognostic 2D plan-view model that simulates the response of an ice sheet/ice shelf system to potential triggers of ice shelf weakening or collapse, such as calving events, thinning, and meltwater ponding. We present initial results for Larsen C. Changes in local ice shelf stresses can affect flow throughout the entire domain, so we place emphasis on calibrating our model to high-resolution data and precisely evolving fracture-weakening and ice geometry throughout the simulations. We primarily derive our initial ice geometry from CryoSat-2 data, and initialize the model by conducting a dual inversion for the ice viscosity parameter and basal friction coefficient that minimizes mismatch between modeled velocities and velocities derived from Landsat data. During simulations, we implement damage mechanics to represent fracture-weakening, and track ice thickness evolution, grounding line position, and ice front position. Since these processes are poorly represented by the Finite Element Method (FEM) due to mesh resolution issues and numerical diffusion, we instead implement the Material Point Method (MPM) for our simulations. In MPM, the ice domain is discretized into a finite set of Lagrangian material points that carry all variables and are tracked throughout the simulation. Each time step, information from the material points is projected to a Eulerian grid where the momentum balance equation (shallow shelf approximation) is solved similarly to FEM, but essentially treating the material points as integration points. The grid solution is then used to determine the new positions of the material points and update variables such as thickness and damage in a diffusion-free Lagrangian frame. The grid does not store

  2. Seismic stratigraphy and late Quaternary shelf history, south-central Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J.L.; Clifton, H.E.; Mullins, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The south-central Monterey Bay shelf is a high-energy, wave-dominated, tectonically active coastal region on the central California continental margin. A prominent feature of this shelf is a sediment lobe off the mouth of the Salinas River that has surface expression. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles reveal that an angular unconformity (Quaternary?) underlies the entire shelf and separates undeformed strata above it from deformed strata below it. The Salinas River lobe is a convex bulge on the shelf covering an area of approximately 72 km2 in water depths from 10 to 90 m. It reaches a maximum thickness of 35 m about 2.5 km seaward of the river mouth and thins in all directions away from this point. Adjacent shelf areas are characterized by only a thin (2 to 5 m thick) and uniform veneer of sediment. Acoustic stratigraphy of the lobe is complex and is characterized by at least three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Acoustically, these sequences are relatively well bedded. Acoustic foresets occur within the intermediate sequence and dip seaward at 0.7?? to 2.0??. Comparison with sedimentary sequences in uplifted onshore Pleistocene marine-terrace deposits of the Monterey Bay area, which were presumably formed in a similar setting under similar processes, suggests that a general interpretation can be formulated for seismic stratigraphic patterns. Depositional sequences are interpreted to represent shallowing-upwards progradational sequences of marine to nonmarine coastal deposits formed during interglacial highstands and/or during early stages of falling sea level. Acoustic foresets within the intermediate sequence are evidence of seaward progradation. Acoustic unconformities that separate depositional sequences are interpreted as having formed largely by shoreface planation and may be the only record of the intervening transgressions. The internal stratigraphy of the Salinas River lobe thus suggests that at least several late Quaternary

  3. Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incoronato, A L; Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimicrobial packaging system containing active nanoparticles on the quality deterioration of Fior di Latte cheese. To this aim, 3 concentrations of silver montmorillonite embedded in agar were used. The cell loads of spoilage and useful microorganisms were monitored during a refrigerated storage period. Moreover, cheese sensory quality (i.e., odor, color, consistency, and overall quality) was evaluated by means of a panel test. Results showed that the active packaging system markedly increased the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese, due to the ability of silver cations to control microbial proliferation, without affecting the functional dairy microbiota and the sensory characteristics of the product. The active packaging system developed in this work could be used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte and boost its distribution beyond local market borders. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Christina A. Mireles; Oliveira, Alexandra C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology. PMID:28231143

  5. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  6. Rapid sedimentation and overpressure in shallow sediments of the Bering Trough, offshore southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Pore pressures in sediments at convergent margins play an important role in driving chemical fluxes and controlling deformation styles and localization. In the Bering Trough offshore Southern Alaska, extreme sedimentation rates over the last 140 kyr as a result of glacial advance/retreats on the continental shelf have resulted in elevated pore fluid pressures in slope sediments overlying the Pamplona Zone fold and thrust belt, the accretionary wedge resulting from subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American Plate. Based on laboratory experiments and downhole logs acquired at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1421, we predict that the overpressure in the slope sediments may be as high as 92% of the lithostatic stress. Results of one-dimensional numerical modeling accounting for changes in sedimentation rate over the last 130 kyr predicted overpressures that are consistent with our estimates, suggesting that the overpressure is a direct result of the rapid sedimentation experienced on the Bering shelf and slope. Comparisons with other convergent margins indicate that such rapid sedimentation and high overpressure are anomalous in sediments overlying accretionary wedges. We hypothesize that the shallow overpressure on the Bering shelf/slope has fundamentally altered the deformation style within the Pamplona Zone by suppressing development of faults and may inhibit seismicity by focusing faulting elsewhere or causing deformation on existing faults to be aseismic. These consequences are probably long-lived as it may take several million years for the excess pressure to dissipate.

  7. DONKEY MILK SHELF LIFE: MICROBIOLOGY AND VOLATILE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptics properties are important to evaluate the shelf life of food products. Sensory analysis is generally used for this purpose. In this study psychrotrophic, mesophilic bacteria, and pH values were correlated to volatile compounds. The quality of raw donkey milk stored for 3, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days at two different temperatures (3°C and 7°C was tested. Donkey milk volatiles for the first time in this study were identified. Different volatiles distribution were detected by Smart Nose and GCO during the trials and a correlation with bacteriological and pH data were shown. On the basis of the results the acceptability of 10 days storing at +3°C, and of 3-4 days at +7°C, for milk samples, was pointed out.

  8. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  9. Relationships between Charpy impact shelf energies and upper shelf Ksub(IC) values for reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charpy shelf data and lower bound estimates of Ksub(IC) shelf data for the same steels and test temperatures are given. Included are some typical reactor pressure vessel steels as well as some less tough or degraded steels. The data were evaluated with shelf estimates of Ksub(IC) up to and exceeding 550 MPa√m. It is shown that the high shelf fracture toughness representative of tough reactor pressure vessel steels may be obtained from a knowledge of the Charpy shelf energies. The toughness transition may be obtained either by testing small fracture toughness specimens or by Charpy energy indexing. (U.K.)

  10. Impacts of Sea-Level Rise and Human Activity on a Tropical Continental Shelf, RN State, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, H.; Barros Pereira, T. R.; Lira, H. F.; Tabosa, W. F.; Eichler, P.; Stattegger, K.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Gomes, M. P.; Nogueira, M. L. D. S.; Pierri, G. C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The northeastern Brazilian, tropical coast-shelf system along the Atlantic Ocean is a sediment-starved zone, because of low relief, small drainage basins, and a semiarid climate. This work presents the major results of a study of environmental changes, particularly those related to Holocene sea-level rise, affecting the coast and shallow waters of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) State, NE Brazil. The methods included bottom-sediment characterization, bioindicator tracking, and integrated shallow-water geophysical investigation. This coastline is marked by active sea cliffs carved into tablelands alternating with reef- or dune-barrier sections, beach rocks and lagoons, whereas the shelf is a narrow, very shallow, and highly energetic system. Overall, the area is under the natural influence of tides (with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime) and the anthropogenic influence of salt exploration, oil industry, shrimp farms, tourism, and wind-farms. Sedimentation during the Holocene has been controlled mainly by sea-level variation, longshore currents, and the advance and westward propagation of active dunes along the coast. As in other areas around the world, growing numbers of permanent and seasonal residents choose to live at or near the ocean. Coastal erosion is a cause for concern along many Brazilian beaches, and several erosion hot spots are already recognized in RN State. Curves of Holocene relative sea-level variation were established for RN State, but the absence of long-term oceanographic observations in the last centuries or that of detailed altimetry maps hinders the evaluation of different risk scenarios at the local level. Nevertheless, impacts of the current sea-level rise and human activity can be observed along the RN coastal-shelf system. Particular aspects of the study, such as oil-spill monitoring, coastal-water sewage contamination, and coastal erosion, will be highlighted.

  11. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  12. Shallow land burial technology: humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m 3 experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m 3 of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  13. Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid Project is being conducted for the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program with the objective of identifying and demonstrating improved technology for disposing of low-level solid waste in humid environments. Two improved disposal techniques are currently being evaluated using nine demonstration trenches at the Engineered Test Facility (ETF). The first is use of a cement-bentonite grout applied as a waste backfill material prior to trench closure and covering. The second is complete hydrologic isolation of waste by emplacement in a trench that is lined on all four sides, top and bottom using synthetic impermeable lining material. An economic analysis of the trench grouting and lining demonstration favored the trench lining operation ($1055/demonstration trench) over trench grouting ($1585/demonstration trench), with the cost differential becoming even greater (as much as a factor of 6 in favor of lining for typical ORNL trenches) as trench dimensions increase and trench volumes exceed those of the demonstration trenches. In addition to the evaluation of trench grouting and lining, major effort has centered on characterization of the ETF site. Though only a part of the overall study, characterization is an extremely important component of the site selection process; it is during these activities that potential problems, which may obviate the site from further consideration, are found. Characterization of the ETF has included studies of regional and site-specific geology, the physical and chemical properties of the soils in which the demonstration trenches are located, and hydrology of the small watershed of which the ETF is a part. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  14. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  15. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  16. Methane-oxidizing seawater microbial communities from an Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kirkpatrick, John B.; D'Hondt, Steven; Loose, Brice

    2018-06-01

    Marine microbial communities can consume dissolved methane before it can escape to the atmosphere and contribute to global warming. Seawater over the shallow Arctic shelf is characterized by excess methane compared to atmospheric equilibrium. This methane originates in sediment, permafrost, and hydrate. Particularly high concentrations are found beneath sea ice. We studied the structure and methane oxidation potential of the microbial communities from seawater collected close to Utqiagvik, Alaska, in April 2016. The in situ methane concentrations were 16.3 ± 7.2 nmol L-1, approximately 4.8 times oversaturated relative to atmospheric equilibrium. The group of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the natural seawater and incubated seawater was > 97 % dominated by Methylococcales (γ-Proteobacteria). Incubations of seawater under a range of methane concentrations led to loss of diversity in the bacterial community. The abundance of MOB was low with maximal fractions of 2.5 % at 200 times elevated methane concentration, while sequence reads of non-MOB methylotrophs were 4 times more abundant than MOB in most incubations. The abundances of MOB as well as non-MOB methylotroph sequences correlated tightly with the rate constant (kox) for methane oxidation, indicating that non-MOB methylotrophs might be coupled to MOB and involved in community methane oxidation. In sea ice, where methane concentrations of 82 ± 35.8 nmol kg-1 were found, Methylobacterium (α-Proteobacteria) was the dominant MOB with a relative abundance of 80 %. Total MOB abundances were very low in sea ice, with maximal fractions found at the ice-snow interface (0.1 %), while non-MOB methylotrophs were present in abundances similar to natural seawater communities. The dissimilarities in MOB taxa, methane concentrations, and stable isotope ratios between the sea ice and water column point toward different methane dynamics in the two environments.

  17. The Seabed and Shallow Geology Mapping of the Porcupine Bank, West of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaudeau, B.; Monteys, X.; McCarron, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The "Porcupine Bank" is a bathymetric high of over 40,000 km2 linked to the western shelf of Ireland which lies between 51-54° N and 11-15° W approximately 100 km west of Ireland. Water depths are as shallow as 145 m over the "Porcupine Ridge". The Bank's location on the north eastern fringe of the Atlantic Ocean, in a critical position between the shelf edge and the main land and along the line of the Polar Front, means it may contain significant indications of glacial/interglacial changes in northern hemisphere climate and in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. But it also means that it consists of strategically important marine environments with very likely future developmental pressures. Peer-reviewed publications on the geology of the Bank are very limited and this current state of knowledge will hamper any marine ecosystem research and protection. This paper will describe the first results of a research project aiming at filling the gap of our understanding of the region's shallow geology and subseabed resources and characteristics. As a first step, seabed geomorphology mapping using high resolution MBES and sub bottom data have highlighted a wealth of glacially derived features such as iceberg scours and elongated ridges whose formation could be directly influenced by the presence of ice on or nearby the bank. Other features interpreted as sand waves could help understand relict or modern currents. In addition to these surface features, this paper introduces recent geological mapping of the shallow stratigraphy of the bank using 2D seismic and sub bottom profiler data collected at a high density correlated with recently collected vibro-cores. The seismic units and corresponding lithofacies (some with radiocarbon dates) are consistently described and a regional correlation built.

  18. Methods for preservation and extension of shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G W

    1996-11-01

    There is potential for spoilage of all foods at some rate or other following harvest, slaughter or manufacture and spoilage may occur at any of the stages between the acquisition of raw materials and the eventual consumption of a food product. These stages include processing, packaging, distribution, retail display, transport, storage and use by the consumer. They are under varying degrees of control that aim to deliver a satisfactory shelf life, to ensure that the finally-consumed product is of high quality and to ensure that it is safe. Spoilage may be caused by a wide range of reactions including some that are essentially physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of microbiological spoilage are preventable to a large degree by a wide range of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or inhibiting microbial growth (e.g., chilling, freezing, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting and adding preservatives). A smaller number of techniques act by inactivating microorganisms (e.g., pasteurization, sterilization and irradiation). Additional techniques restrict the access of microorganisms to products (e.g., aseptic processing and packaging. A major trend is that new and emerging preservation techniques which are coming into use or are under development include more that act by inactivation (e.g., ultrahigh pressure, electroporation, manothermosonication and addition of bacteriolytic enzymes). A further trend is towards the use of procedures that deliver products that are less heavily preserved, have higher quality, are more natural, freer from additives and nutritionally healthier. Less severe preservation procedures are therefore being developed that make use of preservative factors in combinations to deliver (a) less damage to product quality (hurdle technologies); (b) new methods of heating that are better controlled and therefore deliver milder

  19. Transient Localization in Shallow Water Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brune, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    .... A full-wave PE model is used to produce broadband replicas. Both model-generated synthetic signals, which provide baseline results, and measured pulses in a shallow water environment are analyzed...

  20. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow Wells of the ... of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Ilorin. ... moment correlation, multiple and stepwise multiple regression analysis.

  1. Is evaporative colling important for shallow clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Park, S. B.; Davini, P.; D'Andrea, F.

    2017-12-01

    We here investigate and test using large-eddy simulations the hypothesis that evaporative cooling might not be crucial for shallow clouds. Results from various Shallow convection and stratocumulus LES experiments show that the influence of evaporative cooling is secondary compared to turbulent mixing, which dominates the buoyancy reversal. In shallow cumulus subising shells are not due to evaporative cooling but rather reflect a vortical structure, with a postive buoyancy anomaly in the core due to condensation. Disabling evaporative cooling has negligible impact on this vortical structure and on buoyancy reversal. Similarly in non-precipitating stratocumuli evaporative cooling is negeligible copmared to other factors, especially turbulent mixing and pressure effects. These results emphasize that it may not be critical to icnlude evaporative cooling in parameterizations of shallow clouds and that it does not alter entrainment.

  2. Some problematic shallow-marine structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    The lowermost Devonian beds in Gotland (Sweden) were deposited in a very shallow marine environment, close to the coast. In these beds three structures were observed, whose mode of formation cannot be explained by the author.

  3. Shallow moonquakes - How they compare with earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Of three types of moonquakes strong enough to be detectable at large distances - deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts and shallow moonquakes - only shallow moonquakes are similar in nature to earthquakes. A comparison of various characteristics of moonquakes with those of earthquakes indeed shows a remarkable similarity between shallow moonquakes and intraplate earthquakes: (1) their occurrences are not controlled by tides; (2) they appear to occur in locations where there is evidence of structural weaknesses; (3) the relative abundances of small and large quakes (b-values) are similar, suggesting similar mechanisms; and (4) even the levels of activity may be close. The shallow moonquakes may be quite comparable in nature to intraplate earthquakes, and they may be of similar origin.

  4. Justification of Shallow-Water Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The basic conservation laws of shallow-water theory are derived from multidimensional mass and momentum integral conservation laws describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above the horizontal bottom. This conclusion is based on the concept of hydrostatic approximation, which generalizes the concept of long-wavelength approximation and is used for justifying the applicability of the shallow-water theory in the simulation of wave flows of fluid with hydraulic bores.

  5. Surveying the Alentejo continental shelf for minerals and Quaternary environmental changes: preliminary results of the MINEPLAT project survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Neres, Marta

    2017-04-01

    assessment of good quality sand deposits between approximately 30m and 50m below sea level aims at minimizing this problem that affects the economy of littoral of Alentejo. The MINEPLAT project (Assessment of the mineral resources potential in the continental shelf of Alentejo and of the environmental conditions caused by the tectonic uplift in the Pliocene-Quaternary) aims at assessing the existence of mineral deposits off the Alentejo. The MINEPLAT-1 geophysical survey acquired very high resolution multi-channel reflection seismics, swath bathymetry, backscatter and magnetic data in a test area. The preliminary results show: previously unknown NNW-SSE aligned magnetic anomalies, possibly corresponding to buried Late Cretaceous alkaline rocks; faults affecting recent sediments; well defined patches of sediments associated to morphologic traps. Future work will involve ground-truthing to characterize the shallow deposits. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by Alentejo 2020 contract ALT20-03-0145-FEDER-000013

  6. Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashie, I N; Smith, J P; Simpson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish-processing industry is actively seeking alternative methods of shelf life preservation and marketability of fresh, refrigerated fish and at the same time economizing on energy costs. Additional methods that could fulfill these objectives include chemical decontamination, low-dose irradiation, ultra-high pressure, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This review focuses on the biochemical and microbiological composition of fresh fish/shellfish, the spoilage patterns in these products, factors influencing spoilage, and the combination treatments that can be used in conjunction with refrigeration to extend the shelf life and keeping quality of fresh fish/shellfish. The safety concerns of minimally processed/MAP fish, specifically with respect to the growth of Clostridium botulinum type E, is also addressed.

  7. Shelf life extension of whole-wheat breadsticks: Formulation and packaging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Cappa, Carola; Ratti, Simona; Limbo, Sara; Signorelli, Marco; Fessas, Dimitrios; Lucisano, Mara

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was the shelf life extension of whole-wheat breadsticks through the addition of a rosemary extract and packaging under nitrogen. Shelf life was studied at four temperatures (20, 27, 35, 48°C) for up to 200 storage days. The minimal changes observed in moisture, water activity and texture of the samples, coupled with the high peroxide values (13-539meqO 2 /kg fat ) measured at the end of storage, and the exponential increase of hexanal concentrations (up to 13-34mg/kg) confirmed that quality decay of whole-wheat breadsticks is mainly associated to lipid oxidation. The kinetic study of oxidation development and the consumer sensory acceptance determined by the survival analysis demonstrated that the rosemary extract addition yields a 42% shelf life extension, higher than that observed using nitrogen in the package (24-29%). The combination of the formulation and packaging strategies gave the best result (83% shelf life extension at 25°C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pendugaan Umur Simpan Benih Kedelai Menggunakan Metode Accelerated Shelf-life Testing (ASLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Rahmi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the shelf-life of soybean seed using Accelerated Shelf-life Testing (ASLT model. Seed germination was used as parameter to predict the shelf-life of soybean seed. ASLT method was performed using five different temperature treatments 35oC, 40oC, 45oC, 50oC, and 55oC respectively with 80 % Relative Humidity (RH. Another parameter measured in identifying decrease of soybean seed quality was moisture content. The results showed that moisture content of soybean seed during storage at all temperatures was increased. On the other hand, the seed germination decreased during period of accelerated storage. Based on data from decreasing soybean seed germination, the estimated shelf-life of seeds stored at room temperature of 25oC was 431 days or 14.3 months and 160 days or 5.3 months when stored on 300C.

  9. Quality Improvement Project for Shelf Stable Bakery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    noodle -making properties Instron UTM, Scanning electron microscopy, DSC Flour with lower swelling power and small starch granules resulted in...Iodized STE-1803 0.75 0.75% 68.0 gram Starch, Instant , Granular STE-715 1.00 1.00% 90.7 gram Vanilla Flavor, Liquid RUT-1450 0.09 0.09% 8.2 gram...0.73% 66.2 gram Starch, Instant , Granular STE-715 0.99 0.99% 89.8 gram Vanilla Flavor, Liquid RUT-1450 0.09 0.09% 8.2 gram Bicarbonate of Soda RUT-901

  10. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Pareek, Sunil; Sagar, Narashans Alok; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, Maria

    2017-08-17

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI) in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  11. Export of a Winter Shelf Phytoplankton Bloom at the Shelf Margin of Long Bay (South Atlantic Bight, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Seim, H.; Edwards, C. R.; Lockhart, S.; Moore, T.; Robertson, C. Y.; Amft, J.

    2016-02-01

    A winter 2012 field study off Long Bay (seaward of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina) investigated exchange processes along the shelf margin. Topics addressed included mechanisms of nutrient input (upper slope to outer shelf), phytoplankton blooms and community characteristics (mid-to-outer shelf), and possible export of shelf bloom material (transport to and across the shelf break to the upper slope). Observations utilized three moorings (mid-shelf, shelf break, upper slope), two gliders and ship operations (repeat cruises with profiling, water sampling and towed body surveys) along with satellite SST and ocean color imagery and near-by NOAA buoy records. Here we focus on the late January to early February period, when a mid-shelf bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (which forms large gelatinous colonies) was transported to the shelf break. The presence of Phaeocystis colonies resulted in strong spiking in chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence profiles. A partitioning approach was adapted to estimate chl in colonies (spikes) and small forms (baseline signal) and to account for an apparent difference in measured in vivo fluorescence per unit chl (lower in colonies). Up to 40-50% of chl in the bloom (surface to bottom on the mid-shelf) was estimated to be in the colonies. In late January, there a pronounced seaward slumping of relatively dense mid-shelf water along the bottom under warmer surface water derived from the inshore edge of a broad jet of Gulf Stream water flowing southwestward along the upper slope. We describe the evolution of this event and the conditions which set up this mechanism for episodic near-bed transport of fresh bloom material produced on the shelf to the upper slope off Long Bay. Down-slope transport may have been enhanced in this case by the high phytoplankton biomass in gelatinous colonies, which appeared to be settling in the water column on the shelf prior to the transport event.

  12. Shelf-life extension of pre-packed whole wheat flour using low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Marathe, S.A.; Pednekar, M.D.; Machaiah, J.P.; Rao, B.Y.K.; Adhikari, H.R.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Storage studies on irradiated (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and non-irradiated prepacked whole wheat flour have shown that wheat flour irradiated at 0.25 kGy and stored at room temperature for 6 months did not show significant changes in the functional qualities and acceptability of the product, thereby extending the shelf-life and marketability of the product. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  13. Upper Silurian reef mounds on a shallowing carbonate ramp, Devon Island, Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, O A [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada); Graf, G C [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1992-03-01

    Near Gascoyne Inlet, the topmost Douro and lowermost Barlow Inlet formations record overall upward shallowing from ramp to shallow shelf conditions. This transitional sequence contains bioherms of various sizes, from small isolated reef mounds 1-2 m across to larger, compound reef mounds over 50 m thick and 60 m across, as well as distictive inter- and pre-reef mound facies. The larger reef mounds show stages intermediate in character between those in sponge-dominated reef mounds of the Douro Formation and in larger stromatoporoid-crinoid dominated reefs in the Barlow Inlet Formation. Three principal reef mounds developed in turn. An initial partly lithified lime mudstone, containing scattered corals and apparently relict sponge-cryptomicrobial fabrics, developed on sheets of oncolitic storm debris in mainly low energy conditions between storm and fairweather wave bases. With gradual shallowing and progressively higher energy conditions above fairweather wave base, a middle facies of coral- and crinoid-rich mudstone developed. An abrupt deepening restored conditions of low energy, and the ensuing upper facies of the reef mounds is more varied, comprising sparsely fossiliferous and locally fenestral lime mudstones, patchy coral bafflestone and bindstone, coarse encrinites and substantially culminating stromatoporoid bindstone. 36 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  15. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Mapping and Characterization of Paleoshoreline Features on the West Florida Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzolara, J. L.; Gray, J. W.; Locker, S. D.; Brooks, G.; Hommeyer, M.; Larson, R. A.; Lembke, C.; Grasty, S.; Murawski, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetry data is limited to less than 5% coverage of the wide, shallow West Florida Shelf. The Continental Shelf Characterization and Mapping Project (C-SCAMP) has collected over 1200km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data from 2015 to 2017, amounting to an additional 1%, and mapping efforts are ongoing. Complementary data sets including sediment analysis of Shipek grab samples and visual analysis of towed-underwater video from the Camera-Based Assessment Survey System (C-BASS) help to further identify seafloor characteristics and habitat assemblages in these areas. Multibeam data reveal three paleoshoreline complexes of similar character between 40m and 80m water depth. These paleo-peninsulas extend 30-40km oblique to regional contours. Each area includes a main ridge axis with smaller ridge complexes splitting off on the southern end, and a prominent ridge along the steeper western margin of the feature. Preserved features observed in bathymetry within these paleo-peninsulas include shorelines, dune complexes, shoals, tidal deltas, and spit formations. Preliminary analysis of sediment samples shows that higher backscatter on the shallower portions of these features corresponds with coarser-grained sediments. The high-relief ridges apparent in bathymetry are shown to be moderate- to high-relief hard bottom in towed-underwater video. The analysis of these different data types will result in detailed description of the geomorphology and benthic habitat characteristics, including relationships between depth, slope, rugosity, backscatter, and bottom types. These characteristics are influenced by paleoshoreline structures. Previously collected sub-surface data, as well as modern analogs, such as the west coast of Florida, western Australia and other low-latitude, low-relief coasts provide insight into the geologic origin of these features.

  17. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  18. Shelf life prediction of apple brownies using accelerated method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulungan, M. H.; Sukmana, A. D.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life of apple brownies. Shelf life was determined with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing method and Arrhenius equation. Experiment was conducted at 25, 35, and 45°C for 30 days. Every five days, the sample was analysed for free fatty acid (FFA), water activity (Aw), and organoleptic acceptance (flavour, aroma, and texture). The shelf life of the apple brownies based on FFA were 110, 54, and 28 days at temperature of 25, 35, and 45°C, respectively.

  19. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  20. Tectonic structure of the Tuscany-Latium Continental Shelf (Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartole, R.

    1988-08-01

    An old regional seismic multicoverage reflection survey (Zone E) provides useful information on the shallow structure of the southern Tuscany-northern Latium shelf located between Elba Island and Anzio. Three main seismic units have been recognized on the grid, directly tied to the Matilde-1 offshore drilling and correlated to onshore wells and outcrops. The upper unit, characterized by continuous and generally undisturbed reflectors, is constituted by the postorogenic sedimentary cover of late Neogene-Quaternary age. This sequence unconformably lies on an intermediate unit or, when absent, a basal one. These two units, characterized by good-to-poor seismic response, are constituted by the tectonized geologic units of the Northern and Central Apennines. The intermediate unit corresponds to the Ligurids and Sicilids allochthonous complexes, while the basal unit may be attributable to the Tuscan nappe and/or the Tuscan autochthon in the shelf sector north of the Tiber River mouth, and the Umbro-Sabina units south of the same mouth. The widespread distribution and consistent thickness of the allochthonous cover (up to 1,000 msec two-way traveltime) lying over a structured substratum might be of some interest in hydrocarbon prospecting.

  1. Turbulent mixing over a shelf sea bank: linking physics to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew; Davis, Clare; Sharples, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    The interaction between stratified flow and topography has previously been seen to generate enhanced vertical mixing both locally and far field by breaking of an intensified wave field close to the generation point and from waves propagating energy away from the source. Here we present a new series of measurements made during the summer of 2008 that includes transect data from a Scanfish towed CTD that provides a snapshot of the vertical density structure and distribution of chlorophyll over the Celtic Sea from beyond the shelf break to 250km onshelf. The transect supports previous findings of a persistent level of primary production identifiable as a subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM). Intensification of chlorophyll is seen at the shelf break region and provides a biological indicator of mixing. Similarly, we identify a high concentration of chlorophyll over Jones Bank 200km from the shelf break in 120m depth. Measurements from an array of acoustic current profilers, thermistor stings and a turbulence profiler reveal that the shallow sloping bank and strong tides regularly interact to produce hydraulic jumps in the lee of the bank during spring periods identifying Jones Bank as a mixing hotspot. The energy dissipated during these events act to erode the base of the strong thermocline and result in a vertical flux of nutrients into the stable, stratified environment. We suggest that it is the spring-neap modulation of this process which promotes intensified mixing over the bank. Nutrient measurements made during the experiment reveal that the ever changing mixing environment has significant influence on the phytoplankton community at the bank and is likely the key component in promoting enhanced biological production.

  2. Qualitative Characteristics and Determining Shelf-Life of Milk Beverage Product Supplemented with Coffee Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Il; Kim, Ha-Na; Park, Jun-Hong; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Duk-Geun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the shelf-life of a milk beverage product supplemented with coffee extracts. Qualitative changes including peroxide value (PV), microorganism content, caffeine content, and sensory evaluation were measured periodically in beverages kept at 10, 20, and 30°C for 8 wk. Lipid oxidation of the product was measured by peroxide value analysis, and apparent changes were observed during a 4 wk storage period. Caffeine analysis revealed that the changes in caffeine content were negligible during the storage period. Total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli , yeast, and mold were not detected in the products during an 8 wk storage period. Sensory evaluation revealed that after 4 wk of storage overall acceptance was less than 3 points on a 5-point scale. In this study, PV was used as an indicator of the shelf-life of the milk beverage product. PV analysis revealed that a value of 20 meq/kg was the end of the shelf-life using the Arrhenius equation and the accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT). Assuming that the beverages are kept at 4°C during distribution, calculation of when the PV reached the quality limit point (20 meq/kg) was done with the equation ln(PV) = 0.3644X - 2.21834 and, using that equation, PV = e 0.3644X-2.21834 was calculated. Therefore, 14.3086 wk was determined to be the shelf-life of the milk beverage supplemented with coffee when stored at 4°C.

  3. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  4. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hajare, Sachin N.; Wadhawan, Surbhi; Mishra, B.B.; More, Varsha S.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  5. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina; Radenkovs Vitalijs

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO)-controlled atmosphere (CA) [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1) and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2)] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold st...

  6. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  7. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computational modeling of shallow geothermal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khoury, Rafid

    2011-01-01

    A Step-by-step Guide to Developing Innovative Computational Tools for Shallow Geothermal Systems Geothermal heat is a viable source of energy and its environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions is significantly lower than conventional fossil fuels. Shallow geothermal systems are increasingly utilized for heating and cooling of buildings and greenhouses. However, their utilization is inconsistent with the enormous amount of energy available underneath the surface of the earth. Projects of this nature are not getting the public support they deserve because of the uncertainties associated with

  9. Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation

  10. Influence of environmental properties on macrobenthos in the northwest Indian shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, K A; Jayalakshmi, K V; Saraladevi, K

    2007-04-01

    The paper deals with the standing stock of macrobenthic infauna and associated environmental factors influencing the benthic community in the shelf region of the northwest Indian coast. The data were collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada during the winter monsoon (January-February, 2003) to understand the community structure and the factors influencing the benthic distribution. The environmental parameters, sediment characteristics and macrobenthic infauna were collected at 26 stations distributed in the depths between 30 and 200 m extending from Mormugao to Porbander. Total benthic abundance was high in lower depths (50-75 m), and low values noticed at 30 m depth contour was peculiar. Polychaetes were the dominant group and were more abundant in shallow and middle depths with moderate organic matter, clay and relatively high dissolved oxygen. On the other hand crustaceans and molluscs were more abundant in deeper areas having sandy sediment and low temperature. High richness and diversity of whole benthic groups observed in deeper depths counter balanced the opposite trend shown by polychaete species. Generally benthos preferred medium grain sized texture with low organic matter and high organic matter had an adverse effect especially on filter feeders. Deposit feeding polychaetes dominated in shallow depths while carnivore species in the middle depths. Ecologically, benthos were controlled by a combination of factors such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, sand and organic matter and no single factor could be considered as an ecological master factor.

  11. DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR RETAIL SHELF SPACE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    B. RAMASESHAN; N. R. ACHUTHAN; R. COLLINSON

    2008-01-01

    Efficient allocation of shelf space and product assortment can significantly improve a retailer's profitability. This paper addresses the problem from the perspective of an independent franchise retailer. A Category Management Decision Support Tool (CMDST) is proposed that efficiently generates optimal shelf space allocations and product assortments by using the existing scarce resources, resulting in increased profitability. CMDST utilizes two practical integrated category management models ...

  12. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  13. The Statoil/Hydro fusion in a continental shelf perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter

    2007-01-01

    The article analysis the consequences of the Statoil/Hydro merger on the development on the Norwegian continental shelf. Various indicators of results of the market power the merger are presented and the effects of reduced competition on the markets are discussed. The advantages of the merger on the activities on the shelf are analyzed. (tk)

  14. Damage reduces shelf-life of sweetpotato during marketing | Mtunda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damage reduces shelf-life of sweetpotato during marketing. ... K. Mtunda, D. Chilosa, E. Rwiza, M. Kilima, H. Kiozya, R. Munisi, R. Kapinga, D. Rees. Abstract. Although sweetpotato is primarily grown for home consumption, marketing is becoming increasingly important, and in this case, short shelf-life of the roots is a major ...

  15. State of the soft bottoms of the continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Alvis, Angela I; Solano, Oscar David

    2002-01-01

    The presented information, it is based on studies carried out on the continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean, mainly in the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Magdalena and Guajira departments in the last ten years. A diagnostic is done of the soft bottoms of the Colombian continental shelf

  16. Geochemistry of sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The bulk and partition geochemistry of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Cu have been investigated in sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India. The results show that (1) the bulk geochemistry varies from one shelf unit to the other, (2) all...

  17. Impact of shelf life on content of primary and secondary metabolites in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberic, Robert; Schmitzer, Valentina; Petkovsek, Maja M; Stampar, Franci

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the changes in apple fruit quality during shelf life. After a month of cold storage, apples of cultivars "Jonagold" and "Golden Delicious" were exposed to ambient temperatures for 21 d, with subsequent sampling every 3 or 4 d. Fruit firmness, changes in amounts of sugars, malic acid, and phenolics were observed during shelf life. Chemical analyses were done with HPLC-PDA system. An interchange between various sugars was noticed, but in general, the sum of sugars remained at the same level. The content of malic acid remained stable or dropped, resulting in sweeter fruit. Levels of phenolics were more constant in the pulp of both cultivars analyzed, while in the peel, the changes were more pronounced. In the pulp, a peak in the content of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols was noticed on the 2nd or 3rd sampling and afterwards, the amounts remained constant. In the peel an initial decrease of all analyzed phenolic groups was observed in both cultivars, however it was more pronounced in "Jonagold." It can be concluded that changes in primary and secondary metabolites are not the main reason for the lower quality of fruit exposed to ambient temperatures. On the other hand, fruit firmness might be the limiting factor for shelf life duration. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Shelf-life dating of shelf-stable strawberry juice based on survival analysis of consumer acceptance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvé, Carolien; Van Bedts, Tine; Haenen, Annelien; Kebede, Biniam; Braekers, Roel; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann; Grauwet, Tara

    2018-07-01

    Accurate shelf-life dating of food products is crucial for consumers and industries. Therefore, in this study we applied a science-based approach for shelf-life assessment, including accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT), acceptability testing and the screening of analytical attributes for fast shelf-life predictions. Shelf-stable strawberry juice was selected as a case study. Ambient storage (20 °C) had no effect on the aroma-based acceptance of strawberry juice. The colour-based acceptability decreased during storage under ambient and accelerated (28-42 °C) conditions. The application of survival analysis showed that the colour-based shelf-life was reached in the early stages of storage (≤11 weeks) and that the shelf-life was shortened at higher temperatures. None of the selected attributes (a * and ΔE * value, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content) is an ideal analytical marker for shelf-life predictions in the investigated temperature range (20-42 °C). Nevertheless, an overall analytical cut-off value over the whole temperature range can be selected. Colour changes of strawberry juice during storage are shelf-life limiting. Combining ASLT with acceptability testing allowed to gain faster insight into the change in colour-based acceptability and to perform shelf-life predictions relying on scientific data. An analytical marker is a convenient tool for shelf-life predictions in the context of ASLT. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Spatio-temporal distribution of soft-bottom epibenthic fauna on the Cilician shelf (Turkey, Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Mutlu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal distribution of epifauna collected with a sledge was studied on the Cilician shelf of the Mediterranean Sea. There were two different communities: the shallow community was restricted to water at 5 and 10 m deep with sandy bottom inhabited abundantly by Conomurex persicus, Arnoglossus laterna and Murex trunculus. Conomurex persicus, an introduced tropical species predominated the shallow zone and distinguished it from the deep zone. The deep community (25-150 m lacked shallow water species and was dominated by Arnoglossus laterna, Goneplax rhomboides and Parapenaeus longirostris. Seasonality was not a major factor in the epibenthic community structure of the entire shelf, but it is in the shallow waters. Bottom depth was main factor for structuring the community on the shelf. Sediment size and organic content is also a controlling factor for the\tdistribution of the epibenthic fauna. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1919-1946. Epub 2008 December 12.Se estudió la distribución espacio-temporal de la epifauna recolectada con un trineo en la plataforma de Armenia Menor, Mar Mediterráneo. Hubo dos comunidades diferentes: una comunidad de aguas someras entre los 5 y 10 metros de profundidad con fondo arenoso\thabitado en forma abundante por Conomurex persicus, Arnoglossus laterna y Murex trunculus. Conomurex persicus, una especie tropical introducida, predominó en la zona de aguas someras, y la diferenció de la zona profunda. La comunidad profunda (25-150 m no presentaba especies de aguas someras y estaba dominada por Arnoglossus laterna, Goneplax rhomboides y Parapenaeus longirostris. La estacionalidad no fue un factor importante en la estructura de la comunidad epibentónica presente en toda la plataforma, pero sí lo fue en las aguas someras. La profundidad del fondo del mar fue el factor principal en la estructura de la comunidad en la plataforma. El tamaño del sedimento y el contenido de\tmateria orgánica es\ttambién un factor que

  20. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  1. Contribution of phytoplankton and benthic microalgae to inner shelf sediments of the north-central Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, M. A.; Fleeger, J. W.; Rabalais, N. N.; Condrey, R.; Carman, K. R.

    2010-03-01

    Marine sediment may contain both settled phytoplankton and benthic microalgae (BMA). In river-dominated, shallow continental shelf systems, spatial, and temporal heterogeneity in sediment type and water-column characteristics (e.g., turbidity and primary productivity) may promote spatial variation in the relative contribution of these two sources to the sediment organic matter pool available to benthic consumers. Here we use photosynthetic pigment analysis and microscopic examination of sediment microalgae to investigate how the biomass, composition, and degradation state of sediment-associated microalgae vary along the Louisiana (USA) inner shelf, a region strongly influenced by the Mississippi River. Three sandy shoals and surrounding muddy sediments with depths ranging from 4 to 20 m were sampled in April, August, and October 2007. Pigment composition suggested that sediment microalgae were primarily diatoms at all locations. We found no significant differences in sediment chlorophyll a concentrations (8-77 mg m -2) at the shoal and off-shoal stations. Epipelic pennate diatoms (considered indicative of BMA) made up a significantly greater proportion of sediment diatoms at sandy (50-98%) compared to more silty off-shoal stations (16-56%). The percentage of centric diatoms (indicators of settled phytoplankton) in the sediment was highest in August. Sediment total pheopigment concentrations on sandy stations (40 mg m -2), suggesting differences in sediment microalgal degradation state. These observations suggest that BMA predominate in shallow sandy sediments and that phytodetritus predominates at muddy stations. Our results also suggest that the relative proportion of phytodetritus in the benthos was highest where phytoplankton biomass in the overlying water was greatest, independent of sediment type. The high biomass of BMA found on shoals suggests that benthic primary production on sandy sediments represents a potentially significant local source of sediment

  2. QUALIY PARAMETERS AND SHELF LIFE OF GAME MEAT DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spaziani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the duration of frozen storage at –20°C on the game meat quality parameters, namely the pH, colour, thawing and cooking losses. The oxidative stability of game meat was evaluated by the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Frozen storage duration did not extensively influence either the quality properties, or the oxidative stability of game meat. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the higher amount of a- tocopherol in the muscles of game compared to pellet-fed animals could be mainly responsible for the lower lipid oxidation and longer shelf life.

  3. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The European water framework directive: A challenge for nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Ángel

    2005-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of the water resources management in Europe because, for the first time, water management is: (i) based mainly upon biological and ecological elements, with ecosystems being at the centre of the management decisions; (ii) applied to European water bodies, as a whole; and (iii) based upon the whole river basin, including also the adjacent coastal area. Although the marine water bodies affected by the WFD relate to only 19.8% of the whole of the European continental shelf, its application constitutes a challenge and an opportunity in nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research. This contribution highlights some of the main tasks and the research to be undertaken in the coming years, proposing investigations into: typologies; physico-chemical processes; indicator species; reference conditions; integration of the quality assessment; methodologies in determining ecological status, etc.

  5. Pleistocene events recrodEd. by shallow seismic profiling over the continental shelf off Krishna-Godavari Deltas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Quatern_Delta_India_1991_153.pdf.txt stream_source_info Quatern_Delta_India_1991_153.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  7. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  8. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  9. The Asymmetric Continental Shelf Wave in Response to the Synoptic Wind Burst in a Semienclosed Double-Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lixin; Lin, Xiaopei; Hetland, Robert D.; Guo, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the asymmetric structure of continental shelf wave in a semienclosed double-shelf basin, such as the Yellow Sea. Supported by in situ observations and realistic numerical simulations, it is found that in the Yellow Sea, the shelf wave response to the synoptic wind forcing does not match the mathematically symmetric solution of classic double-shelf wave theory, but rather exhibits a westward shift. To study the formation mechanism of this asymmetric structure, an idealized model was used and two sets of experiments were conducted. The results confirm that the asymmetric structure is due to the existence of a topographic waveguide connecting both shelves. For a semienclosed basin, such as the Yellow Sea, a connection at the end of the basin eliminates the potential vorticity barrier between the two shelves and hence plays a role as a connecting waveguide for shelf waves. This waveguide enables the shelf wave to propagate from one shelf to the other shelf and produces the asymmetric response in sea level and upwind flow evolutions.

  10. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  11. Shallow ground disposal - calculation of dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The ability of an existing shallow land burial systems model to meet AECB user requirements has been evaluated. The deficiencies of the program are identified and activities necessary to modify the code to fulfill the user requirements are outlined. Implementation plans for a number of likely scenarios have been constructed and possible cost-cutting measures have been recommended

  12. Steady flow in shallow channel bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Making use of a mathematical model solving the complete NavierStokes equations for steady flow in coiled rectangular pipes, fully-developed laminar flow in shallow curved channels is analysed physically and mathematically. Transverse convection of momentum by the secondary flow is shown to cause

  13. Shallow geothermal energy from a Danish standpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Shallow geothermal energy is sadly undeveloped in Denmark compared to the neighbouring countries. However, the general need for transformation to sustainable energy sources combined with what appears to be an increased willingness from the authorities to actively support ground source heating, may...

  14. Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...

  15. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  16. Floating offshore wind turbines for shallow waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulder, B.H.; Henderson, A.; Huijsmans, R.H.M.; Peeringa, J.M.; Pierik, J.T.G.; Snijders, E.J.B.; Hees, M.Th. van; Wijnants, G.H.; Wolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom mounted Offshore wind turbines seem to have a promising future but they are restricted to shallow waters of Northern Europe. Many projects are planned or are in the phase of construction on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. All projects that are planned have a water depth up to approximately

  17. Deformation analysis of shallow penetration in clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaseta, C.; Whittle, A. J.; Santagata, M.

    1997-10-01

    A new method of analysis is described for estimating the deformations and strains caused by shallow undrained penetration of piles and caissons in clay. The formulation combines previous analyses for steady, deep penetration, with methods used to compute soil deformations due to near-surface ground loss, and is referred to as the Shallow Strain Path Method (SSPM). Complete analytical solutions for the velocity and strain rates are given for a planar wall, an axisymmetric, closed-ended pile and unplugged, open-ended pile geometries. In these examples, the analyses consider a single source penetrating through the soil at a constant rate, generating a family of penetrometers with rounded tips, referred to as simple wall, pile and tube geometries. Soil deformations and strains are obtained by integrating the velocity and strain rates along the particle paths.The transition from shallow to deep penetration is analysed in detail. Shallow penetration causes heave at the ground surface, while settlements occur only in a thin veneer of material adjacent to the shaft and in a bulb-shaped region around the tip. The size of this region increases with the embedment depth. Deformations inside an open-ended pile/caisson are affected significantly by details of the simple tube wall geometry.

  18. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  19. Shallow foundation model tests in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feda, Jaroslav; Simonini, P.; Arslan, U.; Georgiodis, M.; Laue, J.; Pinto, I.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (1999), s. 447-475 ISSN 1436-6517. [Int. Conf. on Soil - Structure Interaction in Urban Civ. Engineering. Darmstadt, 08.10.1999-09.10.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC C7.10 Keywords : shallow foundations * model tests * sandy subsoil * bearing capacity * settlement Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  20. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  1. The Cross Surfzone/Inner-shelf Dye Exchange (CSIDE) Experiment Overview: Binational Dye Tracer Releases to Study Pollution Transport and Dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, F.; Giddings, S. N.; Kumar, N.; Grimes, D. J.; Pawlak, G. R.; Rivas, D.; Diaz, M.

    2016-02-01

    Per square km, the surfzone and inner-shelf are by far the most economically and ecologically important ocean regions, vital for recreation, food, and ecosystem services. Despite the importance of clean coastal waters to our economy and well-being, declining water quality threatens coastal ecosystem and human health worldwide. Healthy coasts are a significant priority to federal agencies, local government, and NGOs. In particular the San Diego US and Tijuana Mexico border region have unique and persistent water quality issues due to a range of pollution sources. Cross-shore exchange of tracers (e.g., pathogens, anthropogenic nutrients, harmful algal blooms - HABs, larvae) between the well-mixed surfzone and stratified inner-shelf is poorly understood. The surfzone, inner- and mid-shelf span drastically different dynamical regimes, with varying cross-shelf exchange mechanisms due to wave, wind, buoyancy, and tidal processes and intrinsic variability. The NSF funded CSIDE (Cross Surfzone/Inner-shelf Dye Exchange) experiment (Sept & Oct 2015) aims to increase our understanding of cross-shelf material exchange by performing 3 shoreline dye release experiments that are tracked for up to 20 km alongshore and over 48+ hrs. One dye release will be performed in Mexico and the dye transport tracked across the border. The dye will be tracked via a broad range of binational instrumentation. In this presentation, we present an overview of the CSIDE experiment, in particular the binational aspects of the study,

  2. Assessment of shallow groundwater quality and its suitability for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, water for drinking should be treated mildly, due to low pH and high iron content. Polyvinyl chloride materials (PVC) and other non-corrosive materials should be used for the construction of boreholes within the area to reduce damage to plumbing materials. Groundwater monitoring, effective and holistic ...

  3. Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial–interglacial timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, Claire L.; Hodgson, David M.; Plater, Andrew J.; Mauz, Barbara; Selby, Ian; Lang, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The erosional morphology preserved at the sea bed in the eastern English Channel dominantly records denudation of the continental shelf by fluvial processes over multiple glacial–interglacial sea-level cycles rather than by catastrophic flooding through the Straits of Dover during the mid-Quaternary. Here, through the integration of multibeam bathymetry and shallow sub-bottom 2D seismic reflection profiles calibrated with vibrocore records, the first stratigraphic model of erosion and deposition on the eastern English Channel continental shelf is presented. Published Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and 14C ages were used to chronometrically constrain the stratigraphy and allow correlation of the continental shelf record with major climatic/sea-level periods. Five major erosion surfaces overlain by discrete sediment packages have been identified. The continental shelf in the eastern English Channel preserves a record of processes operating from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to MIS 1. Planar and channelised erosion surfaces were formed by fluvial incision during lowstands or relative sea-level fall. The depth and lateral extent of incision was partly conditioned by underlying geology (rock type and tectonic structure), climatic conditions and changes in water and sediment discharge coupled to ice sheet dynamics and the drainage configuration of major rivers in Northwest Europe. Evidence for major erosion during or prior to MIS 6 is preserved. Fluvial sediments of MIS 2 age were identified within the Northern Palaeovalley, providing insights into the scale of erosion by normal fluvial regimes. Seismic and sedimentary facies indicate that deposition predominantly occurred during transgression when accommodation was created in palaeovalleys to allow discrete sediment bodies to form. Sediment reworking over multiple sea-level cycles (Saalian–Eemian–early Weichselian) by fluvial, coastal and marine processes created a multi-lateral, multi-storey succession of

  4. Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial-interglacial timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, Claire L; Hodgson, David M; Plater, Andrew J; Mauz, Barbara; Selby, Ian; Lang, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The erosional morphology preserved at the sea bed in the eastern English Channel dominantly records denudation of the continental shelf by fluvial processes over multiple glacial-interglacial sea-level cycles rather than by catastrophic flooding through the Straits of Dover during the mid-Quaternary. Here, through the integration of multibeam bathymetry and shallow sub-bottom 2D seismic reflection profiles calibrated with vibrocore records, the first stratigraphic model of erosion and deposition on the eastern English Channel continental shelf is presented. Published Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and 14 C ages were used to chronometrically constrain the stratigraphy and allow correlation of the continental shelf record with major climatic/sea-level periods. Five major erosion surfaces overlain by discrete sediment packages have been identified. The continental shelf in the eastern English Channel preserves a record of processes operating from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to MIS 1. Planar and channelised erosion surfaces were formed by fluvial incision during lowstands or relative sea-level fall. The depth and lateral extent of incision was partly conditioned by underlying geology (rock type and tectonic structure), climatic conditions and changes in water and sediment discharge coupled to ice sheet dynamics and the drainage configuration of major rivers in Northwest Europe. Evidence for major erosion during or prior to MIS 6 is preserved. Fluvial sediments of MIS 2 age were identified within the Northern Palaeovalley, providing insights into the scale of erosion by normal fluvial regimes. Seismic and sedimentary facies indicate that deposition predominantly occurred during transgression when accommodation was created in palaeovalleys to allow discrete sediment bodies to form. Sediment reworking over multiple sea-level cycles (Saalian-Eemian-early Weichselian) by fluvial, coastal and marine processes created a multi-lateral, multi-storey succession of

  5. Lack of cross-shelf transport of sediments on the western margin of India: Evidence from clay mineralogy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    transported long distances along the shelf, cross-shelf transport appears to be minimal. Confirmatory evidence of qualitative differences in outer and inner shelf clays is provided by sediment trap clay mineralogy on the outer shelf. Clay bound pollutant...

  6. The shallow water equations in Lagrangian coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in the collection of Lagrangian data from the ocean and results about the well-posedness of the primitive equations have led to a renewed interest in solving flow equations in Lagrangian coordinates. We do not take the view that solving in Lagrangian coordinates equates to solving on a moving grid that can become twisted or distorted. Rather, the grid in Lagrangian coordinates represents the initial position of particles, and it does not change with time. We apply numerical methods traditionally used to solve differential equations in Eulerian coordinates, to solve the shallow water equations in Lagrangian coordinates. The difficulty with solving in Lagrangian coordinates is that the transformation from Eulerian coordinates results in solving a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. The non-linearity is mainly due to the Jacobian of the coordinate transformation, which is a precise record of how the particles are rotated and stretched. The inverse Jacobian must be calculated, thus Lagrangian coordinates cannot be used in instances where the Jacobian vanishes. For linear (spatial) flows we give an explicit formula for the Jacobian and describe the two situations where the Lagrangian shallow water equations cannot be used because either the Jacobian vanishes or the shallow water assumption is violated. We also prove that linear (in space) steady state solutions of the Lagrangian shallow water equations have Jacobian equal to one. In the situations where the shallow water equations can be solved in Lagrangian coordinates, accurate numerical solutions are found with finite differences, the Chebyshev pseudospectral method, and the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The numerical results shown here emphasize the need for high order temporal approximations for long time integrations

  7. Extension of Space Food Shelf Life Through Hurdle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Sirmons, T. A.; Froio-Blumsack, D.; Mohr, L.; Young, M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The processed and prepackaged space food system is the main source of crew nutrition, and hence central to astronaut health and performance. Unfortunately, space food quality and nutrition degrade to unacceptable levels in two to three years with current food stabilization technologies. Future exploration missions will require a food system that remains safe, acceptable and nutritious through five years of storage within vehicle resource constraints. The potential of stabilization technologies (alternative storage temperatures, processing, formulation, ingredient source, packaging, and preparation procedures), when combined in hurdle approach, to mitigate quality and nutritional degradation is being assessed. Sixteen representative foods from the International Space Station food system were chosen for production and analysis and will be evaluated initially and at one, three, and five years with potential for analysis at seven years if necessary. Analysis includes changes in color, texture, nutrition, sensory quality, and rehydration ratio when applicable. The food samples will be stored at -20 C, 4 C, and 21 C. Select food samples will also be evaluated at -80 C to determine the impacts of ultra-cold storage after one and five years. Packaging film barrier properties and mechanical integrity will be assessed before and after processing and storage. At the study conclusion, if tested hurdles are adequate, formulation, processing, and storage combinations will be uniquely identified for processed food matrices to achieve a five-year shelf life. This study will provide one of the most comprehensive investigations of long duration food stability ever completed, and the achievement of extended food system stability will have profound impacts to health and performance for spaceflight crews and for relief efforts and military applications on Earth.

  8. Shallow Reflection Method for Water-Filled Void Detection and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, M. N. H.; Madun, A.; Dahlan, S. H.; Joret, A.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Mohammad, A. H.; Izzaty, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Shallow investigation is crucial in enhancing the characteristics of subsurface void commonly encountered in civil engineering, and one such technique commonly used is seismic-reflection technique. An assessment of the effectiveness of such an approach is critical to determine whether the quality of the works meets the prescribed requirements. Conventional quality testing suffers limitations including: limited coverage (both area and depth) and problems with resolution quality. Traditionally quality assurance measurements use laboratory and in-situ invasive and destructive tests. However geophysical approaches, which are typically non-invasive and non-destructive, offer a method by which improvement of detection can be measured in a cost-effective way. Of this seismic reflection have proved useful to assess void characteristic, this paper evaluates the application of shallow seismic-reflection method in characterizing the water-filled void properties at 0.34 m depth, specifically for detection and characterization of void measurement using 2-dimensional tomography.

  9. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  10. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  11. P-wave velocity models of continental shelf of East Siberian Sea using the Laplace-domain full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Jang, U.; Niessen, F.; Baranov, B.

    2017-12-01

    2016 IBRV ARAON Arctic Cruise Leg-2, Expedition ARA07C was a multidisciplinary undertaking carried out in the East Siberian Sea (ESS) from August 25 to September 10, 2016. The program was conducted as a collaboration between the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (IORAS), and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). During this expedition, the multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired on the continental shelf and the upper slope of the ESS, totaling 3 lines with 660 line-kilometers. The continental shelf of ESS is one of the widest shelf seas in the world and it is believed to cover the largest area of sub-sea permafrost in the Arctic. According to the present knowledge of the glacial history of the western Arctic Ocean, it is likely that during the LGM with a sea level approximately 120 m below present, the entire shelf area of the ESS was exposed to very cold air temperatures so that thick permafrost should have formed. Indeed, in water depths shallower than 80 m, sub-bottom profiles in the ESS recorded from the shelf edge to a latitude of 74°30' N in 60 m water depth exhibited acoustic facies, suggesting that at least relicts of submarine permafrost are present. In order to identify the existence and/or non-existence of subsea permafrost in our study area, we analyze the MCS data using the Laplace domain full waveform inversion (FWI). In case of the Canadian continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea, subsea permafrost has high seismic velocity values (over 2.6 km/sec) and strong refraction events were found in the MCS shotgathers. However, in the EES our proposed P-wave velocity models derived from FWI have neither found high velocity structures (over 2.6 km/sec) nor indicate strong refraction events by subsea permafrost. Instead, in 300 m depth below sea floor higher P-wave velocity structures (1.8 2.2 km/s) than normal subsea sediment layers were found, which are interpreted as cemented strata by glaciation activities.

  12. Stratigraphic framework of sediment-starved sand ridges on a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J.H.; Harrison, S.E.; Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.; Twichell, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and vibracores have revealed that an inner shelf, sand-ridge field has developed over the past few thousand years situated on an elevated, broad bedrock terrace. This terrace extends seaward of a major headland associated with the modern barrier-island coastline of west-central Florida. The overall geologic setting is a low-energy, sediment-starved, mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner continental shelf supporting a thin sedimentary veneer. This veneer is arranged in a series of subparallel, shore-oblique, and to a minor extent, shore-parallel sand ridges. Seven major facies are present beneath the ridges, including a basal Neogene limestone gravel facies and a blue-green clay facies indicative of dominantly authigenic sedimentation. A major sequence boundary separates these older units from Holocene age, organic-rich mud facies (marsh), which grades upward into a muddy sand facies (lagoon or shallow open shelf/seagrass meadows). Cores reveal that the muddy shelf facies is either in sharp contact or grades upward into a shelly sand facies (ravinement or sudden termination of seagrass meadows). The shelly sand facies grades upward to a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies, which forms the sand ridges themselves. This mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies differs from the sediment on the beach and shoreface, suggesting insignificant sediment exchange between the offshore ridges and the modern coastline. Additionally, the lack of early Holocene, pre-ridge facies in the troughs between the ridges suggests that the ridges themselves do not migrate laterally extensively. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that these sand ridges can form relatively quickly (???1.3 ka) on relatively low-energy inner shelves once open-marine conditions are available, and that frequent, high-energy, storm-dominated conditions are not necessarily required. We suggest that the two inner shelf depositional models presented (open-shelf vs. migrating barrier-island) may

  13. Marine geology and bathymetry of nearshore shelf of Chukchi Sea, Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Sainsbury, C.L.

    1960-01-01

    a distance of 15 miles from shore. A flat-bottomed trough, Ogotoruk Seavalley, heads about a quarter of a mile from shore off the mouth of Ogotoruk Creek. The shallow seavalley averages only 6 feet in relief and extends 15 miles from shore to a depth of 135 feet. A number of smaller channels also indent the gentle sloping inner Chukchi shelf east of the seavalley and nearshore west of it. Many outcrops of Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations on the nearshore shelf indicate that it is a wave-planed platform. Wave planation is thought to have taken place primarily in Sangamon and rpre-Sangamon time (approximately 100,000 to 1,000,000 years ago). Ogotoruk Seavalley is believed to be a drowned subaerial valley which was excavated by Ogotoruk Creek during periods of glacially depressed sea level. Unconsolidated sediments overlying the nearshore shelf are chiefly slightly rounded residual gravel which have been derived from submerged outcrops. Detrital sand and silt, contributed from the nearby coastal area during Recent time, overlie the shelf near shore and at depth as much as 50 feet seaward of segments of the coast underlain by fine-grained clastic rocks of Mesozoic age. Owing to a small volume of detrital clasts contributed by the coastal area detrital sedimentation is not prominent over the nearshore shelf. Beaches fronting the Ogotoruk Creek area are 30-260 feet wide, range from less than 10 to about 25 feet thick, and are composed of sandy gravel having a median diameter of about 10 mm. Rounded clasts of greywacke, siltstone, limestone, and chert are the principal constituents of the gravel. Longshore currents accompanying moderate storms transport gravel and sand parallel to shore at rates of 5 cubic yards per hour. Sediment transported by longshore currents accumulates as spits at stream mouths and as areas of new beach below rocky headlands.

  14. Ecomorphological and taphonomic gradients in clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages along a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf from the early Miocene of northern Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mancosu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clypeasteroid echinoids are widespread and abundant within Miocene sedimentary sequences of the Mediterranean area within both siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. Herein, three clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages from the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate succession of the Mores Formation (lower Miocene cropping out within the Porto Torres Basin (northern Sardinia are described. These assemblages were compared to previously described clypeasteroid-bearing deposits from the Miocene of northern Sardinia with the purpose of investigating their palaeoecology and taphonomy along a shelf gradient. These goals are accomplished by various methods including (i logging sedimentary facies, (ii analysing the functional morphology of sea urchin skeletons, (iii comparing the relative abundance of taxa and taphonomic features, and (iv studying associated fauna, flora, and trace fossils. The clypeasteroid-bearing deposits differ greatly with respect to echinoid diversity, accompanying fauna and flora, sedimentological signatures, and taphonomic features. They also show variations in depositional environments and the mechanism of formation of the deposits. Three different shelf settings are distinguished: littoral, inner sublittoral, and outer sublittoral environments. Furthermore, an ecomorphological gradient along the shelf is recognized with respect to echinoid taxa and their morphologies. This gradient ranges from shallow water to a moderately deep shelf and is interpreted with respect to both abiotic and biotic factors as well as the taphonomy of the echinoid tests.

  15. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  16. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  17. Supervised classification of continental shelf sediment off western Donegal, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, X.; Craven, K.; McCarron, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Managing human impacts on marine ecosystems requires natural regions to be identified and mapped over a range of hierarchically nested scales. In recent years (2000-present) the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland's Marine Resources programme (INFOMAR) (Geological Survey Ireland and Marine Institute collaborations) has provided unprecedented quantities of high quality data on Ireland's offshore territories. The increasing availability of large, detailed digital representations of these environments requires the application of objective and quantitative analyses. This study presents results of a new approach for sea floor sediment mapping based on an integrated analysis of INFOMAR multibeam bathymetric data (including the derivatives of slope and relative position), backscatter data (including derivatives of angular response analysis) and sediment groundtruthing over the continental shelf, west of Donegal. It applies a Geographic-Object-Based Image Analysis software package to provide a supervised classification of the surface sediment. This approach can provide a statistically robust, high resolution classification of the seafloor. Initial results display a differentiation of sediment classes and a reduction in artefacts from previously applied methodologies. These results indicate a methodology that could be used during physical habitat mapping and classification of marine environments.

  18. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C and elevated temperatures (14°C within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product, as well as sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and consistency, along with microbiological safety, were investigated. The investigations were performed in accordance with national legislation. The results indicate that the products stored at 14°C showed significant acidity (lower pH value, changed sensory properties, and had an increased number of aerobic bacteria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Improvement and development of hygienic and technological procedures in production of foodstuffs of animal origin with the aim of producing high-quality and safe products competitive on the global market

  19. Guidance Index for Shallow Landslide Hazard Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Avalon Cullen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are one of the most frequent hazards on slanted terrains. Intense storms with high-intensity and long-duration rainfall have high potential to trigger rapidly moving soil masses due to changes in pore water pressure and seepage forces. Nevertheless, regardless of the intensity and/or duration of the rainfall, shallow landslides are influenced by antecedent soil moisture conditions. As of this day, no system exists that dynamically interrelates these two factors on large scales. This work introduces a Shallow Landslide Index (SLI as the first implementation of antecedent soil moisture conditions for the hazard analysis of shallow rainfall-induced landslides. The proposed mathematical algorithm is built using a logistic regression method that systematically learns from a comprehensive landslide inventory. Initially, root-soil moisture and rainfall measurements modeled from AMSR-E and TRMM respectively, are used as proxies to develop the index. The input dataset is randomly divided into training and verification sets using the Hold-Out method. Validation results indicate that the best-fit model predicts the highest number of cases correctly at 93.2% accuracy. Consecutively, as AMSR-E and TRMM stopped working in October 2011 and April 2015 respectively, root-soil moisture and rainfall measurements modeled by SMAP and GPM are used to develop models that calculate the SLI for 10, 7, and 3 days. The resulting models indicate a strong relationship (78.7%, 79.6%, and 76.8% respectively between the predictors and the predicted value. The results also highlight important remaining challenges such as adequate information for algorithm functionality and satellite based data reliability. Nevertheless, the experimental system can potentially be used as a dynamic indicator of the total amount of antecedent moisture and rainfall (for a given duration of time needed to trigger a shallow landslide in a susceptible area. It is

  20. Maximizing Shelf Life of Paneer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sumit; Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-06-10

    Paneer resembling soft cheese is a well-known heat- and acid-coagulated milk product. It is very popular in the Indian subcontinent and has appeared in the western and Middle East markets. The shelf life of paneer is quite low and it loses freshness after two to three days when stored under refrigeration. Various preservation techniques, including chemical additives, packaging, thermal processing, and low-temperature storage, have been proposed by researchers for enhancing its shelf life. The use of antimicrobial additives is not preferred because of perceived toxicity risks. Modified atmosphere packaging has been recommended as one of the best techniques for maximizing the shelf life of paneer.