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Sample records for quality research initiative

  1. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  2. Evaluating a community-based program to improve healthcare quality: research design for the Aligning Forces for Quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Beich, Jeff; Christianson, Jon B; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; McHugh, Megan C; Mittler, Jessica N; Shi, Yunfeng; Bodenschatz, Laura J

    2012-09-01

    The Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) initiative is the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's (RWJF's) signature effort to increase the overall quality of healthcare in targeted communities throughout the country. In addition to sponsoring this 16-site, complex program, the RWJF funds an independent scientific evaluation to support objective research on the initiative's effectiveness and contributions to basic knowledge in 5 core programmatic areas. The research design, data, and challenges faced in the evaluation of this 10-year initiative are discussed. A descriptive overview of the evaluation research design for a multi-site, community based, healthcare quality improvement initiative is provided. The multiphase research design employed by the evaluation team is discussed. Evaluation provides formative feedback to the RWJF, participants, and other interested audiences in real time; develops approaches to assess innovative and under-studied interventions; furthers the analysis and understanding of effective community-based collaborative work in healthcare; and helps to differentiate the various facilitators, barriers, and contextual dimensions that affect the implementation and outcomes of community-based health interventions. The AF4Q initiative is arguably the largest community-level healthcare improvement demonstration in the United States to date; it is being implemented at a time of rapid change in national healthcare policy. The implementation of large-scale, multi-site initiatives is becoming an increasingly common approach for addressing problems in healthcare. The evaluation research design for the AF4Q initiative, and the lessons learned from its approach, may be valuable to others tasked with evaluating similar community-based initiatives.

  3. Overview of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Lynn; Mittman, Brian S.; Demakis, John G.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)'s Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) is an innovative integration of health services research, policy, and clinical care delivery designed to improve the quality, outcomes, and efficiency of VHA health care through the identification and implementation of evidence-based practices in routine care settings. A total of eight condition-specific QUERI centers are currently in operation, each pursuing an integrated portfolio of activities designed to identify and correct gaps in clinical quality and performance and to derive generalizable scientific knowledge regarding quality improvement processes and methods and their effectiveness. This overview article describes QUERI's mission, history, structure, and activities and provides a brief summary of key findings and impacts. PMID:15187071

  4. QUALITY OF INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION: REFLECTIONS ON WHAT IS BEING RESEARCHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar de Aparecido Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is discussed, in general, the state of knowledge on research dealing with the quality of the initial training of teachers. Presents an analytical and critical reading of the situation of the quality of the initial training of teachers from the analysis of the theoretical bases produced in the last decade. For this, initially, are presented some considerations on the development of this process, followed by an analysis on the issue of training. Following are considered some of the dilemmas or problems that have been addressed in the study area, suggesting mechanisms or alternative solutions. The main source of data used is the Bank of the CAPES Theses which is available on the home page http://servicos.capes.gov.br/capesdw/, for the period from 2004 until 2006. Was used to search by typing the words "initial teacher training" in the "subject", which in 2004 were examined 33 abstracts were selected and these 15, in 2005 were examined 42 abstracts, of which 07 were deployed in 2006 and were seen 44 abstracts of which 21 have been considered because they relate to the quality of initial teacher education. Involved in this analysis, this study points out some principles and data that can help with the process of initial teacher training, pointing to possible review some indicators of pedagogical projects of degree courses. Emphasizes that the specificity and multidimensionality of the performance of the teacher raises the formulation of a set of information relevant to the qualification of objectives and practices of the initial key step in the process of learning to teach. Key words: Quality of education, initial training, university education, state of knowledge; indicators.

  5. Nursing Home Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses quality...

  6. Nursing Home Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses...

  7. Quality Initiatives - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a standardized approach for the development of quality measures that it uses in its quality initiatives. Known as the Measures Management System...

  8. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  9. Money matters: exploiting the data from outcomes research for quality improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Bizzini, Mario; Leunig, Michael; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Mannion, Anne F

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in studies that have sought to identify predictors of treatment outcome and to examine the efficacy of surgical and non-surgical treatments. In addition to the scientific advancement associated with these studies per se, the hospitals and clinics where the studies are conducted may gain indirect financial benefit from participating in such projects as a result of the prestige derived from corporate social responsibility, a reputational lever used to reward such institutions. It is known that there is a positive association between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance. However, in addition to this, the research findings and the research staff can constitute resources from which the provider can reap a more direct benefit, by means of their contribution to quality control and improvement. Poor quality is costly. Patient satisfaction increases the chances that the patient will be a promoter of the provider to friends and colleagues. As such, involvement of the research staff in the improvement of the quality of care can ultimately result in economic revenue for the provider. The most advanced methodologies for continuous quality improvement (e.g., six-sigma) are data-driven and use statistical tools similar to those utilized in the traditional research setting. Given that these methods rely on the application of the scientific process to quality improvement, researchers have the adequate skills and mind-set to embrace them and thereby contribute effectively to the quality team. The aim of this article is to demonstrate by means of real-life examples how to utilize the findings of outcome studies for quality management in a manner similar to that used in the business community. It also aims to stimulate research groups to better understand that, by adopting a different perspective, their studies can be an additional resource for the healthcare provider. The change in perspective should stimulate

  10. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  11. Ethnic Disparities in Graduate Education: A Selective Review of Quantitative Research, Social Theory, and Quality Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Somer L.; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyzed research studies in the field of graduate education. In particular, we explored the issue of inequity in graduate education through three key lenses of social science analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed selected quantitative research studies that undertook a comparative examination of aggregate trends in enrollment and…

  12. Quality initiative at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Gero; Arsenault, Robin; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Kraus, Maximilian; Sivera, Paola; Tromp, Arnout; Verzichelli, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    An initiative is under way at ESO Headquarters to optimise operations, in particular in the engineering, technical and associated management areas. A systematic approach to strengthen the operating processes is in preparation, starting with a mapping of the extensive existing process network. Processes identified as sufficiently important and complex to merit an in-depth analysis will be properly specified and their implementation optimised to strike a sensible balance between organisational overhead (documentation) and efficiency. By applying methods and tools tried and tested in industry we expect to achieve a more unified approach to address recurrent tasks. This will enable staff to concentrate more on new challenges and improvement and avoid spending effort on issues already resolved in the past.

  13. INITIAL TRAINING OF RESEARCHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Cruz-Pallares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The document presents results of a research that used as strategy a complementary training project with thirty-three students of a Bachelors Degree in Primary School 1997(DPS,1997 of an Education Faculty for the initial training of investigators, applied by four teachers members of the academic research group in Mexico; that develops through process of action research methodology. Highlighted in results is the strengthening of the competition of reading, understanding and writing scientific texts, which is analogous to the first feature of the graduate profile called intellectual skills. Among the conclusions it is emphasized that the initial training of teachers in a task that is quite interesting, challenging and complex, as is the educational complex phenomenon.

  14. The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Leachables and Extractables Working Group Initiatives for Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Product (PODP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskiet, Diane; Jenke, Dennis; Ball, Douglas; Houston, Christopher; Norwood, Daniel L; Markovic, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) is a non-profit consortium of organizations working together to generate and share timely, relevant, and impactful information that advances drug product quality and development. The collaborative activities of PQRI participants have, in the case of orally inhaled and nasal drug products (OINDPs), resulted in comprehensive and widely-accepted recommendations for leachables assessments to help ensure patient safety with respect to this class of packaged drug products. These recommendations, which include scientifically justified safety thresholds for leachables, represent a significant milestone towards establishing standardized approaches for safety qualification of leachables in OINDP. To build on the success of the OINDP effort, PQRI's Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Products (PODP) Leachables and Extractables Working Group was formed to extrapolate the OINDP threshold concepts and best practice recommendations to other dosage forms with high concern for interaction with packaging/delivery systems. This article considers the general aspects of leachables and their safety assessment, introduces the PODP Work Plan and initial study Protocol, discusses the laboratory studies being conducted by the PODP Chemistry Team, outlines the strategy being developed by the PODP Toxicology Team for the safety qualification of PODP leachables, and considers the issues associated with application of the safety thresholds, particularly with respect to large-volume parenterals. Lastly, the unique leachables issues associated with biologics are described. The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) is a non-profit consortium involving industry organizations, academia, and regulatory agencies that together provide recommendations in support of regulatory guidance to advance drug product quality. The collaborative activities of the PQRI Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products Leachables and Extractables Working Group resulted in a

  15. Global cancer research initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Love

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard R LoveThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.Keywords: breast cancer, research, global, international, low-income, middle-income

  16. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  17. NICHD Research Initiative in Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Duane; Hanson, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Recent changes in genetics research have created new opportunities to improve the scope and quality of newborn screening services. Changes in newborn screening should be supported and directed by an organized program of research. The NICHD Research Initiative in Newborn Screening includes the development of systematic methods to identify…

  18. Lessons for non-VA care delivery systems from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Quality Enhancement Research Initiative: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Leif

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA may have a very different structure and function from the organizations and practices that provide medical care to most Americans, but those organizations and practices could learn a lot from the VHA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI. There are at least six topics of increasing importance for implementation research where QUERI experience should be of value to other non-VHA organizations, both within and external to the United States: 1 Researcher-clinical leader partnerships for care improvement; 2 Attention to culture, capacity, leadership, and a supportive infrastructure; 3 Practical economic evaluation of quality implementation efforts; 4 Human subject protection problems; 5 Sustainability of improvements; and 6 Scale-up and spread of improvements. The articles in Implementation Science's QUERI Series provide the details of those lessons for others who are willing to invest the time to translate them into their different settings.

  19. Hospital Quality Initiative - Outcome Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In the interest of promoting high-quality, patient-centered care and accountability, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and Hospital Quality...

  20. Health Insurance Marketplace Quality Initiatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act requires the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop quality data collection and reporting tools such as a Quality...

  1. Harmonisation Initiatives of Copernicus Data Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, F. D.; Lankester, T.; Coleman, E.; Ottavianelli, G.

    2015-04-01

    The Copernicus Space Component Data Access system (CSCDA) incorporates data contributions from a wide range of satellite missions. Through EO data handling and distribution, CSCDA serves a set of Copernicus Services related to Land, Marine and Atmosphere Monitoring, Emergency Management and Security and Climate Change. The quality of the delivered EO products is the responsibility of each contributing mission, and the Copernicus data Quality Control (CQC) service supports and complements such data quality control activities. The mission of the CQC is to provide a service of quality assessment on the provided imagery, to support the investigation related to product quality anomalies, and to guarantee harmonisation and traceability of the quality information. In terms of product quality control, the CQC carries out analysis of representative sample products for each contributing mission as well as coordinating data quality investigation related to issues found or raised by Copernicus users. Results from the product analysis are systematically collected and the derived quality reports stored in a searchable database. The CQC service can be seen as a privileged focal point with unique comparison capacities over the data providers. The comparison among products from different missions suggests the need for a strong, common effort of harmonisation. Technical terms, definitions, metadata, file formats, processing levels, algorithms, cal/val procedures etc. are far from being homogeneous, and this may generate inconsistencies and confusion among users of EO data. The CSCDA CQC team plays a significant role in promoting harmonisation initiatives across the numerous contributing missions, so that a common effort can achieve optimal complementarity and compatibility among the EO data from multiple data providers. This effort is done in coordination with important initiatives already working towards these goals (e.g. INSPIRE directive, CEOS initiatives, OGC standards, QA4EO

  2. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  3. [Quality of initial trauma care in paediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Pradas, Vicente; Pérez Montejano, Rut

    2017-04-18

    Trauma care in Spain is not provided in specific centres, which means that health professionals have limited contact to trauma patients. After the setting up of a training program in paediatric trauma, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the initial care provided to these patients before they were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a third level hospital (trauma centre), as an indirect measurement of the increase in the number of health professionals trained in trauma. Two cohorts of PICU admissions were reviewed, the first one during the four years immediately before the training courses started (Group 1, period 2001-2004), and the second one during the 4 years (Group 2, period 2012-2015) after nearly 500 professionals were trained. A record was made of the injury mechanism, attending professional, Glasgow coma score (GCS), and paediatric trauma score (PTS). Initial care quality was assessed using five indicators: use of cervical collar, vascular access, orotracheal intubation if GCS ≤ 8, gastric decompression if PTS≤8, and number of actions carried out from the initial four recommended (neck control, provide oxygen, get vascular access, provide IV fluids). Compliance was compared between the 2 periods. A P<.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 218 patient records were analysed, 105 in Group 1, and 113 in Group 2. The groups showed differences both in injury mechanism and in initial care team. A shift in injury mechanism pattern was observed, with a decrease in car accidents (28% vs 6%; P<.0001). Patients attended to in low complexity hospitals increased from 29.4% to 51.9% (P=.008), and their severity decreased when assessed using the GCS ≤ 8 (29.8% vs 13.5%; P=.004), or PTS≤8 (48.5% vs 29.7%; P=.005). As regards quality indicators, only the use of neck collar improved its compliance (17.3% to 32.7%; P=.01). Patients who received no action in the initial care remained unchanged (19% vs 11%%; P=.15

  4. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: * Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). * Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. * Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. * Developing a collaborative training network, through the placement of researchers for short periods in other GIONET organizations. Reliable, thorough and up-to-date environmental information is essential for understanding climate change the impacts it has on people's lives and ways to adapt to them. The GIONET researchers are being trained to understand the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers have been placed in industry and universities across Europe, as

  5. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Quality Initiative promotes ongoing CMS strategies to improve the quality of care provided to ESRD patients. This initiative...

  6. Study designs for PDSA quality improvement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Theodore; O'Connor, Gerald T

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strengths and weaknesses of quasi-experimental designs used in health care quality improvement research. The target groups for this article are investigators in plan-do-study-act (PDSA) quality improvement initiatives who wish to improve the rigor of their methodology and publish their work and reviewers who evaluate the quality of research proposals or published work. A primary purpose of PDSA quality improvement research is to establish a functional relationship between process changes in systems of health care and variation in outcomes. The time series design is the fundamental paradigm for demonstrating such functional relationships. The rigor of a PDSA quality improvement study design is strengthened using replication schemes and research methodology to address extraneous factors that weaken validity of observational studies. The design of PDSA quality improvement research should follow from the purpose and context of the project. Improving the rigor of the quality improvement literature will build a stronger foundation and more convincing justification for the study and practice of quality improvement in health care.

  7. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  8. Initiating Teachers' Action Research: Empowering Teachers' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The role of a teacher as an action researcher in Croatia is still insufficiently appreciated and promoted in initial teachers' training, school students learning and in the employed teachers' professional post-qualification development. In this country, teachers are most frequently perceived as mediators or technicians whose task is to prepare and…

  9. Quality-of-Life Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAs a fairly new interdisciplinary field of inquiry the quality of life research has benefited greatly from the discipline of sociology. The field consists of five overlapping traditions, namely 1) social indicators research, 2) happiness studies, 3) gerontology of successful aging, 4) ps

  10. Total Quality Management Initiatives in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maureen; Siggins, Jack A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines trends affecting higher education such as declining enrollments, replacement of faculty, rising costs, competition for enrollments, corporate education, work changes, and greater accountability and relates them to Total Quality Management (TQM). Relevant organizations, the role of leadership, and barriers to greater acceptance are…

  11. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  12. Air Force Engineering Research Initiation Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-21

    Wisconsin "Investigation of the Role of Structure in the Dynamic Response of Electrorheological Suspensions" RI-B-92-08 Prof. Yozo Mikata Old Dominion...on a direct output feedback control law. In this study, piezoelectric ceramic elements were used as both actuator and sensor. The rod vibration was... ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL SUSPENSIONS FINAL REPORT Air Force Engineering Research Initiation Grant RI-B-92-07 D. J. Klingenberg Department of Chemical

  13. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  14. Status of quality initiatives, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, J R; Scanlan, G F; Priselac, T M

    2001-01-01

    Speaking at the first national Summit on Medical Errors and Patient Safety Research last September, former American Hospital Association Chairman Gordon Sprenger called for plugging the research holes in several areas to improve patient safety. He identified critical areas where more research to improve patient safety would be helpful: changing the culture of health care, learning from other high-risk fields, studying the value of current safety practices, examining safety in nonhospital setting, closing the gaps between knowledge and practice, creating early warning systems, and looking at the human factors. Specifically, Sprenger raised the following questions to explore: What are the critical factors that make for a more open learning environment? What regulatory and legislative changes are necessary to create a nonpunitive, blameless environment? What has worked to improve safety in other fields? What is transferable to health care? Which of the current safety practices work well and how can they be improved? Which don't? How can systems solutions that prevent errors be adapted for settings outside of the hospital that are smaller and have less organizational structure? How can accepted standards of care and appropriate use of new technologies to improve care be better shared? Are they properly used? How can we make better use of precursor events to predict the occurrence of medical error? How can we involve patients in identifying potential errors? How can we advance our understanding of why humans err?

  15. Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality Simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the data used in Figures 1 – 6 and Table 2 of the technical note "Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality...

  16. POSNA Quality, Safety, Value Initiative 3 Years Old and Growing Strong. POSNA Precourse 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James J; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Schoettker, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) quality, safety, and value initiative (QSVI). Specifically, it will outline the history of the program, describe typical quality improvement techniques, and how they differ from traditional research techniques, and, finally, describe some of the many projects completed, currently underway, or in planning for POSNA QSVI.

  17. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  18. Transdisciplinary Research and Evaluation for Community Health Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W.; Neubauer, Leah C.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Francisco, Vincent T.

    2010-01-01

    Transdisciplinary research and evaluation projects provide valuable opportunities to collaborate on interventions to improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Given team members’ diverse backgrounds and roles or responsibilities in such projects, members’ perspectives are significant in strengthening a project’s infrastructure and improving its organizational functioning. This article presents an evaluation mechanism that allows team members to express the successes and challenges incurred throughout their involvement in a multisite transdisciplinary research project. Furthermore, their feedback is used to promote future sustainability and growth. Guided by a framework known as organizational development, the evaluative process was conducted by a neutral entity, the Quality Assurance Team. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to garner feedback and clarify how the research project goals could be achieved more effectively and efficiently. The multiple benefits gained by those involved in this evaluation and implications for utilizing transdisciplinary research and evaluation teams for health initiatives are detailed. PMID:18936267

  19. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research.

  20. Energy Technologies Research and Education Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Abbas [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ranade, Satish [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2014-12-31

    For this project, the intended goal of the microgrid component was to investigate issues in policy and technology that would drive higher penetration of renewable energy, and to demonstrate implementation in a utility system. The work accomplished on modeling the dynamics of photovoltaic (PV) penetration can be expanded for practical application. Using such a tool those involved in public policy can examine what the effect of a particular policy initiative, e.g., renewable portfolio standards (RPS) requirements, might be in terms of the desired targets. The work in the area of microgrid design, protection, and operation is fundamental to the development of microgrids. In particular the “Energy Delivery” paradigm provides new opportunities and business models for utilities. Ultimately, Energy Delivery could accrue significant benefits in terms of costs and resiliency. The experimental microgrid will support continued research and allow the demonstration of technology for better integration of renewables. The algal biofuels component of the project was developed to enhance the test facility and to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a commercial-scale geothermal algal biofuels operation for replication elsewhere in the arid Southwest. The project was housed at New Mexico State University’s (NMSU’s) Geothermal Aquaculture Facility (GAF) and a design for the inoculation train and algae grow-out process was developed. The facility was upgraded with modifications to existing electrical, plumbing and structural components on the GAF and surrounding grounds. The research work was conducted on biomass-processing, harvesting, dewatering, and extraction. Additionally, research was conducted to determine viability of using low-cost, wastewater from municipal treatment plants in the cultivation units as make-up water and as a source of nutrients, including nitrogen and soluble phosphorus. Data was collected on inputs and outputs, growth evaluation and

  1. Software Quality Metrics for Geant4: An Initial Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Giacomini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the context of critical applications, such as shielding and radiation protection, ensuring the quality of simulation software they depend on is of utmost importance. The assessment of simulation software quality is important not only to determine its adoption in experimental applications, but also to guarantee reproducibility of outcome over time. In this study, we present initial results from an ongoing analysis of Geant4 code based on established software metrics. The analysis evaluates the current status of the code to quantify its characteristics with respect to documented quality standards; further assessments concern evolutions over a series of release distributions. We describe the selected metrics that quantify software attributes ranging from code complexity to maintainability, and highlight what metrics are most effective at evaluating radiation transport software quality. The quantitative assessment of the software is initially focused on a set of Geant4 packages, which play a key role in a wide...

  2. A qualidade do processo de formação inicial de professores: reflexões sobre o que está sendo pesquisado / Quality of initial teacher education: reflections on what is being researched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar de Aparecido Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é abordado, em linhas gerais, o estado de conhecimento sobre pesquisas que tratam da qualidade do processo de formação inicial de professores. Apresenta uma leitura crítica e analítica da situação da qualidade do processo de formação inicial de professores a partir da análise das bases teóricas produzidas na última década. Para isto, inicialmente, são apresentadas algumas considerações sobre o desenvolvimento deste processo, seguidas de uma análise sobre a questão da formação profissional. Na seqüência são analisados alguns impasses ou problemas sobre os quais tem se debruçado a pesquisa na área, sugerindo mecanismos ou alternativas de solução. A principal fonte dos dados utilizados refere-se ao Banco de Teses da CAPES que se encontra disponível no home page http://servicos.capes.gov.br/capesdw/, relativas ao período do ano 2004 até 2006. Foi utilizada a busca através da digitação da expressão “formação inicial de professores” na opção “assunto”, sendo que no ano de 2004, foram analisados 33 resumos e destes foram selecionados 15, no ano de 2005 foram examinados 42 resumos, sendo que 07 foram destacados e no ano de 2006 foram vistos 44 resumos dos quais 21 deles foram considerados, pois se referem à qualidade da formação inicial de professores. Envolvido nesta análise, este trabalho aponta alguns princípios e dados que podem contribuir com o processo de formação inicial de professores, apontando algunsindicadores para possíveis revisões de projetos pedagógicos dos cursos de licenciaturas. Destaca que a especificidade e a multidimensionalidade da atuação do professor suscitam a formulação de um conjunto de indicações importantes para a qualificação dos objetivos e práticas da formação inicial, etapa fundamental do processo de aprender a ensinar.Abstract This work is discussed, in general, the state of knowledge on research dealing with the quality of the initial

  3. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  4. African primary care research: Quality improvement cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Van Deventer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of clinical care and translating evidence into clinical practice is commonly a focus of primary care research. This article is part of a series on primary care research and outlines an approach to performing a quality improvement cycle as part of a research assignment at a Masters level. The article aims to help researchers design their quality improvement cycle and write their research project proposal.

  5. African primary care research: quality improvement cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, Claire; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-24

    Improving the quality of clinical care and translating evidence into clinical practice is commonly a focus of primary care research. This article is part of a series on primary care research and outlines an approach to performing a quality improvement cycle as part of a research assignment at a Masters level. The article aims to help researchers design their quality improvement cycle and write their research project proposal.

  6. Considerations of Quality in Phenomenographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers issues of quality in phenomenographic research. Research rigor, which is traditionally evaluated by validity and reliability criteria, ensures that research findings reflect the object of study. Quality in research subsumes rigor and extends considerably beyond satisfying the criteria for rigor. A piece of research has to convince readers of its quality when evaluated against criteria that have been developed through contributions and agreements within the research community. This paper tackles the quality issue in phenomenographic research in three steps. First, criteria for quality in qualitative research are discussed. Second and drawing on the literature, related issues when the criteria are applied to phenomenographic studies and the ways of addressing the issues are examined. Finally, the phenomenographic process is analyzed and suggestions are made for enhancing quality at each stage of the process. New phenomenographic researchers especially will find this paper as a useful guide.

  7. New Research initiatives for Imaging the Iberian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, R.

    2006-12-01

    Topo-Iberia is a research program that involves more than 100 PhD researchers from 10 different groups and institutions in Spain. It corresponds to the willingness and interest of the Spanish scientific community to establish an integrated framework to develop multidisciplinary geoscientific studies in our country with an unprecedented resolution. The ˜micro-continent" formed by the Iberian Peninsula and its margins constitutes a most suitable natural laboratory, well identified by the international scientific community, to develop innovative, frontier research on its topography and 4-D evolution. The objective of Topo-Iberia is to understand the interaction between deep, surficial and atmospheric processes, by integrating research on geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. The knowledge on the relief changes and its causes is of great social impact concerning the climate change and the evaluation of natural resources and hazards. A major aim of this programme is to significantly increase the high-quality information available, by deploying a technological observatory platform, IberArray, of high resolution multisampling. With this programme, our community could join the leading edge of international research, marked by similar initiatives, such as TopoEurope/EuroArray in Europe or the ongoing US programme Earthscope. Three major domains of research have been identified: the southern and northern borders of the Iberian plate (the Betic-Rif system and the Pyrenean-Cantabrian system) and its central core (Meseta and Central-Iberian systems). It is intended to build up a comprehensive, multidisciplinary base of data and results to tackle the key existing questions by developing novel interpretation strategies. In the southern Iberia domain, this project will provide a back bone seismic array of Broad-Band stations in the Peninsula, actively contributing to the on going multidisciplinary/multiproject PICASSO research initiative. PICASSO aims to understand the

  8. Alternative quality standards in qualitative research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Cindy Louise; Schildkamp, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative researchers often use other principles for judging the quality of their study than quantitative researchers. This inhibits a straightforward assessment of the quality and comparability of different types of studies, as well as decision-making about their usefulness for further research

  9. Efficiency Improvement and Quality Initiatives Application in Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ajtene Avdullahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions in today’s economy have no longer the luxury to improve profit simply by increasing revenue. These firms, due to the significant measuring reductions in the financial services industry needed to improve operational efficiencies and merely support existing processes with fewer resources. This paper explains the benefits of Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and Lean Six Sigma that have improved organization's performance, by cutting costs and waste, improving their products or services, increasing profitability as well as enhancing customer satisfaction. The applicability of quality management practices in financial institutions in Kosovo is presented and also their efficiency and effectiveness. By analyzing data from Raiffeisen Bank Kosovo, this paper highlights the benefits of Individual and Micro companies customer segment as the result of organizational change and successful application of quality initiatives from financial institutions in Kosovo.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO PUBLIC EDUCATION QUALITY: EFFECTIVENESS ACCORDING TO THE PARAMETERS OF STUDENT COST INITIAL QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The right to education, despite being present in the Brazilian legislation, still suffers on being applied. This article deals with the dimensions of the education quality, which are at the same time understandable to the population and judicially enforceable.  It analyzes the relevant legislation, and based on different authors, discusses the fundamental right to education and the pattern of the quality in Student Cost Initial Quality (CAQi) in Portuguese acronym). It also discusses the righ...

  11. Organising Quality Function in Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function may be summarised as quality generation, quality control, and qualityassurance. The quality generation and quality control, because of their fuactional nature, arecomparatively easy to organise, however, the challenge is to organise quality assurance in theorganisation. It is the challenge because quality assurance should seamlessly merge with theR&D process. In future, the organisations, whether real or virtual, are going to bepredominantly, research and development (R&D oriented rather than pure manufacturing orservice providers. However, the nature and intensity of the R&D may differ. It could be fromsimple improvement to innovation, to exploitation of inventions.Organising quality function in R&D means organising its various dimensions against thestipulated criteria such as the realisation of the quality system; realisation of quality duringproduct development, including system engineering; staffing of quality generation, quality control,and quality assurance; balancing of the quality function; harnessing of project quality, functionalquality, staff quality and line quality; application of the RHR principle; exploitation of the toolsof organising, democratic organisation; and so on. The basic purpose of organising the qualityfunction is to inculcate the sense of pride in quality among the scientists so that they feelpassionate about it. It is the passion and love for quality that generates, sustains, and maintainsquality.

  12. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David; Beckett, Paul; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gaga, Mina; Gamarra, Fernando; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Hansen, Niels C G; Hubbard, Richard; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Jovanovic, Dragana; Konsoulova, Assia; Kollmeier, Jens; Massard, Gilbert; McPhelim, John; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Milroy, Robert; Paesmans, Marianne; Peake, Mick; Putora, Paul-Martin; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Sitter, Helmut; Skaug, Knut; Spiro, Stephen; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Taright, Samya; Thomas, Michael; van Schil, Paul E; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe. The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe.

  13. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  14. Participant-centric initiatives: Tools to facilitate engagement in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical genomic research faces increasing challenges in establishing participant privacy and consent processes that facilitate meaningful choice and communication capacity for longitudinal and secondary research uses. There are an evolving range of participant-centric initiatives that combine web-based informatics tools with new models of engagement and research collaboration. These emerging initiatives may become valuable approaches to support large-scale and longitudinal research studies. We highlight and discuss four types of emerging initiatives for engaging and sustaining participation in research.

  15. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  16. Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assum

  17. Designing a Clinical Data Warehouse Architecture to Support Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelico, John D; Wilcox, Adam B; Vawdrey, David K; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data warehouses, initially directed towards clinical research or financial analyses, are evolving to support quality improvement efforts, and must now address the quality improvement life cycle. In addition, data that are needed for quality improvement often do not reside in a single database, requiring easier methods to query data across multiple disparate sources. We created a virtual data warehouse at NewYork Presbyterian Hospital that allowed us to bring together data from several source systems throughout the organization. We also created a framework to match the maturity of a data request in the quality improvement life cycle to proper tools needed for each request. As projects progress in the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control stages of quality improvement, there is a proper matching of resources the data needs at each step. We describe the analysis and design creating a robust model for applying clinical data warehousing to quality improvement.

  18. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    will take place at the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography in Warsaw (Poland), on 'Remote Sensing Applications for environmental modelling and classification' and the final event, in Ispra (Italy) in 2014 will focus on 'Monitoring the Earth for Environmental Policy and Decision Making'. A selected sample of preliminary results from GIONET will be presented: Reed die-back mapping from hyperspectral imagery, and Active and passive sensor water quality mapping of Lake Balaton aim to improve knowledge of the water quality dynamics. SAR mapping of the Congo basin and a concept for a Global Biomass Information System aim to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation under REDD+. The use of TerraSAR-X for rapid land cover change mapping in Darfur supports humanitarian crisis management. The range of research topics and initial results show the large potential of operational remote sensing applications for environmental policies and emergency management. The ESA Sentinel satellite missions provide the first fully operational European space component in history apart from meteorological satellites. A parallel research and development programme such as that provided by GIONET provides methodological advances, demonstrates new applications and validates pre-operational products, as well as informing future mission designs.

  19. Establishing a research agenda for Foundation Phasei initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-08-19

    Aug 19, 2016 ... between researching classrooms and researching initial teacher education, especially as it relates to the foundation phase, ... initially being the only university open to 'black'iii students (Kerr, 1968). .... Trends in International Maths and Science Study .... approaches to diversity in schools and a description.

  20. Review of NCVER Building Researcher Capacity Initiative. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Ashlea; Stanwick, John; Loveder, Phil

    2010-01-01

    In mid-2010 NCVER undertook a review of its building researcher capacity initiative in order to inform its direction into the future. The review found that the initiative had achieved a high profile among vocational education and training (VET) practitioners. The scholarship programs had heightened awareness about the role research can play in…

  1. Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Roselle, Shawn J.; Bash, Jesse O.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assumed that commonly-used spin-up periods are necessarily sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions on model results to an acceptable level. What constitutes an acceptable level of difference cannot be generalized and will depend on the particular application, time period and species of interest. Moreover, as the application of air quality models is being expanded to cover larger geographical domains and as these models are increasingly being coupled with other modeling systems to better represent

  2. The quality of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingridge, Dave S; Gantt, Edwin E

    2008-01-01

    In general, an appreciation of the standards of qualitative research and the types of qualitative data analyses available to researchers have not kept pace with the growing presence of qualitative studies in medical science. To help rectify this problem, the authors clarify qualitative research reliability, validity, sampling, and generalizability. They also provide 3 major theoretical frameworks for data collection and analysis that investigators may consider adopting. These 3 approaches are ethnography, existential phenomenology, and grounded theory. For each, the basic steps of data collection and analysis involved are presented, along with real-life examples of how they can contribute to improving medical care.

  3. Researching quality of life in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Tonón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of quality of life considers at the same time objective and subjective circumstances of people life. In 1995 was created the International Society for Quality of Life Studies (ISQOLS whose purposes are to promote and encourage research in the field of quality-of-life studies and provide an organization through which all academic and professional researchers interested in QOL studies may coordinate their efforts to advance the field of QOL studies within various disciplines. In the case of Argentina since 2004, the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora has organized the Research Program in Quality of life to develop different kind of projects about quality of life in different fields, trying to be considered by national institutions that decide public policies. 

  4. Quest II produce quality research overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Harkema, H.; Otma, E.C.; Paillart, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Quest II control algorithm (patent pending), developed by Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research together with Maersk Line and Carrier Transicold, reduces the energy consumption of reefer containers by approx. 65% without impairing produce quality.

  5. International Business Research: Coauthorship Patterns and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kam C; Fung, Hung-Gay; Leung, Wai K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate published international business research in four international business journals over a 10-year period, 1995-2004: (a) patterns of coauthorship across regions, and (b) the relation between coauthorship patterns and the quality of international business (IB) articles. A cross-region coauthorship enhances the quality of an…

  6. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Resources Resources for Women’s Health Private Performance Feedback Reporting for Physicians Research Initiative in Clinical Economics ... Search ahrq.gov Health IT Health Information Technology Portfolio Comparative Effectiveness Effective Health Care Program Electronic Preventive ...

  7. Implementing quality/productivity improvement initiatives in an engineering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quality/Productivity Improvement (QPI) initiatives in the engineering environment at McDonnell Douglas-Houston include several different, distinct activities, each having its own application, yet all targeted toward one common goal - making continuous improvement a way of life. The chief executive and the next two levels of management demonstrate their commitment to QPI with hands-on involvement in several activities. Each is a member of a QPI Council which consists of six panels - Participative Management, Communications, Training, Performance/Productivity, Human Resources Management and Strategic Management. In addition, each manager conducts Workplace Visits and Bosstalks, to enhance communications with employees and to provide a forum for the identification of problems - both real and perceived. Quality Circles and Project Teams are well established within McConnel Douglas as useful and desirable employee involvement teams. The continued growth of voluntary membership in the circles program is strong evidence of the employee interest and management support that have developed within the organization.

  8. Nursing Home Medication Reconciliation: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Monica; Oh, Hye Young; Thomas, Jennifer; Patel, Sheila; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Brandt, Nicole J

    2017-04-01

    The current quality improvement initiative evaluated the medication reconciliation process within select nursing homes in Washington, DC. The identification of common types of medication discrepancies through monthly retrospective chart reviews of newly admitted patients in two different nursing homes were described. The use of high-risk medications, namely antidiabetic, anticoagulant, and opioid agents, was also recorded. A standardized spreadsheet tool based on multiple medication reconciliation implementation tool kits was created to record the information. The five most common medication discrepancies were incorrect indication (21%), no monitoring parameters (17%), medication name omitted (11%), incorrect dose (10%), and incorrect frequency (8%). Antidiabetic agents in both sites were the most used high-risk medication. This initiative highlights that medication discrepancies on admission are common in nursing homes and may be clinically impactful. More attention needs to be given to work flow processes to improve medication reconciliation considering the increased risk for adverse drug events and hospitalizations. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing and Mental Health Services, 43(4), 9-14.].

  9. Quality and Research Evaluation in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    A central issue in science policy today is the changing role and function ofresearch evaluation. How is quality selected, has local organizational traditionsand managerial practices influence on the research evaluation? Who isperceived as peers or evaluators by the researchers and by managers...

  10. Teaching Graduate and Undergraduate Research Methods: A Multipronged Departmental Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Sara; Girouard, Jennifer; Cunningham, David; Cadge, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a departmental initiative designed to integrate the teaching of graduate and undergraduate sociology through research methodology and the completion of actual research projects. The goal was to develop a multilevel team approach within which faculty, graduate students, and undergraduates would view their work as part of a…

  11. The interplay of management accounting research and NPM health initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit

    This paper investigates the development of management accounting research in the context of New Public Management (NPM) initiatives in health care. Drawing on concepts from diffusion theory and earlier literature reviews, the paper examines the interplay between management accounting research...... and health care reforms in relation to country of origin, development, theoretical approach, research method and topic. The study thus establishes a different focus; namely the interrelationship between the development of management accounting research and practical socio-political NPM innovations. The study...... shows that management accounting techniques are increasingly adopted in governmental health reforms and diffused across nations, themes and initiatives through time with the result that wider social practices become more and more integrated in management accounting research themes...

  12. The interplay of management accounting research and NPM health initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit

    This paper investigates the development of management accounting research in the context of New Public Management (NPM) initiatives in health care. Drawing on concepts from diffusion theory and earlier literature reviews, the paper examines the interplay between management accounting research...... and health care reforms in relation to country of origin, development, theoretical approach, research method and topic. The study thus establishes a different focus; namely the interrelationship between the development of management accounting research and practical socio-political NPM innovations. The study...... shows that management accounting techniques are increasingly adopted in governmental health reforms and diffused across nations, themes and initiatives through time with the result that wider social practices become more and more integrated in management accounting research themes...

  13. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes.

  14. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    : it leads to improved research quality, and it is the more fair of the two approaches in the worst case. On the other hand, contribution-based ordering results in a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications than is achieved using alphabetical author ordering. Furthermore, authors can...... overcome some of the limitations of contribution-based ordering by performing rotations, alternating who is the first author on joint papers. This often allows authors to achieve optimal research quality and perfect fairness under any given contribution scheme; however, this is obtained at the expense...

  15. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  16. Quality assurance in the treatment of colorectal cancer: the EURECCA initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; Boelens, P G; van den Broek, C B M; Cervantes, A; Van Cutsem, E; Schmoll, H J; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J H

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe. Over the past few decades, important advances have been made in screening, staging and treatment of colorectal cancer. However, considerable variation between and within European countries remains, which implies that further improvements are possible. The most important remaining question now is: when are we, health care professionals, delivering the best available care to patients with colon or rectal cancer? Currently, quality assurance is a major issue in colorectal cancer care and quality assurance awareness is developing in almost all disciplines involved in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Quality assurance has shown to be effective in clinical trials. For example, standardisation and quality control were introduced in the Dutch TME trial and led to marked improvements of local control and survival in rectal cancer patients. Besides, audit structures can also be very effective in monitoring cancer management and national audits showed to further improve outcome in colorectal cancer patients. To reduce the differences between European countries, an international, multidisciplinary, outcome-based quality improvement programme, European Registration of Cancer Care (EURECCA), has been initiated. In the near future, the EURECCA dataset will perform research on subgroups as elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, which are often excluded from trials. For optimal colorectal cancer care, quality assurance in guideline formation and in multidisciplinary team management is also of great importance. The aim of this review was to create greater awareness and to give an overview of quality assurance in the management of colorectal cancer.

  17. Quality in Qualitative Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the quality of Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management (QRAM) is manifested through the conceptualization of knowledge about functioning actions that are applicable for local management accounting practices. Design...... functional actions within the practice of inter-organizational cost management. Together, the articles provide conceptual rigour with a complexity in content that can encompass the four dimensions of integration. Research limitations/implications: In providing a framework for analyzing practice relevance......, the paper has implications for contemporary discussions on doing research that is relevant for practice. Originality/value: The paper provides novel insight into the analysis of quality in management accounting research. Additionally, it provides a framework for reflecting on the accumulation of practice...

  18. Initiatives for Medical Education Research at the International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Jutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical Education research is a relativelynew field but one that is progressing rapidly worldwide.This article is an attempt to take stock of the currentstatus of Medical Education research in InternationalMedical University and to explore the various factorsthat have influenced its direction. It also shares some ofthe initiatives that have been instituted or intended tobe instituted at our university.

  19. Quality Open Access market and other initiatives: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle van Gerestein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently academic publishing has entered in a new era, namely that of open access publishing. This has resulted in the appearance of numerous new open access journals. Scholars who want to publish their work today have endless publishing possibilities to choose from, but who is able to tell them which journal is reliable? This used to be the job of librarians, but with approximately 17000 journals they are no longer able to keep up. For this reason several websites and services have started to gather information about open access journals in order to make an overview of reliable and unreliable journals. One of these services is called Quality Open Access Market (QOAM. In this article six other services (Directory of Open Access Journals, JournalReviewer, SciRev, Journalysis, Journalguide, PRE-val and Eigenfactor will be compared to QOAM in order to find out which service offers the best results. QOAM is taken as a starting point here because the research presented in this article was commissioned by them (namely: Saskia de Vries and Leo Waaijers in order to find out what value they can actually add.

  20. Research-Based Insights on Initial Teacher Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Gil, Juana M.; Sánchez-Valero, Joan-Anton; Domingo-Coscollola, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds on two research projects on initial and in-service education of teachers, their professional experience, and the pathways they travelled to become teachers. The policy documents analysed and the teachers' professional histories, the micro-ethnographies and the discussion groups developed, allowed us to draw a broad picture of the…

  1. APPLICATION OF DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND MEASUREMENT QUALITY OBJECTIVES TO RESEARCH PROJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper assists systematic planning for research projects. It presents planning concepts in terms that have some utility for researchers. For example, measurement quality objectives are more familiar to researchers than data quality objectives because these quality criteria are...

  2. Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, C; Doyle, J; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M.J.; Bear Don't Walk, U.J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S C; Camper, A K; Fitch, R; Ford, T.E.; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A.R.; Richards, C L; Young, S.L.; Eggers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about w...

  3. NIH Precision Medicine Initiative: Implications for Diabetes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Judith E; Hanlon, Mary C; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2016-07-01

    In his January 2015 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama announced a new Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) to personalize approaches toward improving health and treating disease (www.whitehouse.gov/precision-medicine). He stated that the goal of such an initiative was "to bring us closer to curing diseases like cancer and diabetes, and to give all of us access to the personalized information we need to keep ourselves and our families healthier." Since that time, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken a leadership role in implementing the President's vision related to biomedical research (www.nih.gov/precisionmedicine). Here, we discuss the NIH component of the PMI, related ongoing diabetes research, and near-term research that could position the diabetes field to take full advantage of the opportunities that stem from the PMI.

  4. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode biases in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Chen, Chao Ying

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated survey response factors (particularly initial nonresponse and survey mode) that may be associated with bias in survey research. We examined prevention-related beliefs and outcomes for initial mail survey responders (n=209), follow-up mail survey responders (n=78), and follow-up telephone survey responders (n=74). The Pearson chi-square test and analysis of variance identified beliefs and behavioral outcomes associated with survey response mode. Follow-up options to the initial mail survey improved response rates (22.0-38.0 percent). Initial mail survey responders more strongly believed topical fluoride protects teeth from cavities than others (P=0.04). A significantly larger proportion of parents completing a follow-up telephone survey (30.8 percent) refused topical fluoride for their child than those completing mail surveys (10.3-10.4 percent) (Psurveys with follow-up improve response rates. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode may be associated with biases in survey research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. [Potentials of cooperative quality management initiatives: BQS Institute projects, January 2010 - July 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Christof; Bungard, Sven; Hertle, Dagmar; Grothaus, Franz-Josef; Kötting, Joachim; Arnold, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Alongside the projects of internal quality management and mandatory quality assurance there is a variety of quality driven projects across institutions initiated and run by various partners to continuously improve the quality of care. The multiplicity and characteristics of these projects are discussed on the basis of projects run by the BQS Institute between 2010 and 2013. In addition, useful interactions and linking with mandatory quality benchmarking and with internal quality management are discussed. (As supplied by publisher).

  6. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Matsuo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated from the metal foil explosion. Secondly, in high energy explosive processing, there are several applications, such as shock compaction, explosive welding, food processing and explosive forming. In these explosive applications, a high sensitive explosive has been mainly used. The high sensitive explosive is so dangerous, since it can lead to explosion suddenly. So, for developing explosives, the safety is the most important thing as well as low manufacturing cost and explosive characteristics. In this work, we have focused on the initiation sensitivity of a solid explosive and performed numerical analysis of sympathetic detonation. The numerical analysis is calculated by LS-DYNA 3D (commercial code. To understand the initiation reaction of an explosive, Lee-Tarver equation was used and impact detonation process was analyzed by ALE code. Configuration of simulation model is a quarter of circular cylinder. The donor type of explosive (SEP was used as initiation explosive. When the donor explosive is exploded, a shock wave is generated and it propagates into PMMA, air and metallic layers in order. During passing through the layers, the shock wave is attenuated and finally, it has influence on the acceptor explosive, Comp. B. Here, we evaluate the initiation of acceptor explosive and discuss about detonation pressure, reactive rate of acceptor explosive and attenuation of impact pressure.

  7. Marketing research of medical services quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Alkaravani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify and to analyze the characteristics of medical services quality and marketing research of medical services quality. The results of the analysis. The task of medical services is the proper control of health of the population and application of the necessary efforts to treat and prevent disease by providing quality and affordable medical services. In this regard, an important question is what characteristics of the medical services quality consumers consider the most significant and the most important, because the answer to this question will allow to develop marketing strategy to promote medical services. A lot of works of national and international scientists and economists are dedicated to problems of the theory and practice of medical services promotion. These researches have made a significant contribution to development of theoretical and practical instruments and technologies of development of marketing medical services, but there is a practical need and scientific interest in developing an approach for promoting medical services adapted to the present Ukrainian realities. To study the problems associated with the development, promotion and implementation of the medical services the survey of Donetsk region population was conducted. Analysis and data processing was performed using the software package IBM SPSS Statistics and Microsoft Excel. The survey was attended by 450 respondents of sexes, all ages, social status and income level. The research of medical services quality was made in Donetsk region in 1990. The results of it showed that 0,3% of respondents recognized the quality of medical services excellent, 1,5% – well, 36,9% – satisfactory, and 58,0% – unsatisfactory. Today the majority of respondents is not satisfied with medical services quality, analysis revealed no correlation answers the question of gender, education level and social status of the respondents. As

  8. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  9. The NIMH Research Domain Criteria Initiative: Background, Issues, and Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Michael J; Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. The description includes background, rationale, goals, and the way the initiative has been developed and organized. The central RDoC concepts are summarized and the current matrix of constructs that have been vetted by workshops of extramural scientists is depicted. A number of theoretical and methodological issues that can arise in connection with the nature of RDoC constructs are highlighted: subjectivism and heterophenomenology, desynchrony and theoretical neutrality among units of analysis, theoretical reductionism, endophenotypes, biomarkers, neural circuits, construct "grain size," and analytic challenges. The importance of linking RDoC constructs to psychiatric clinical problems is discussed. Some pragmatics of incorporating RDoC concepts into applications for NIMH research funding are considered, including sampling design.

  10. Watershed Academy Webcast: USDA's National Water Quality Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a description and documentation associated with the webcast on how USDA’s NWQI is working in priority watersheds to help farmers, ranchers and forest landowners improve water quality.

  11. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is an innovative, multidisciplinary program that began in 2000 in response to a congressional directive for the Department of the Interior to address the issue of amphibian declines in the United States. ARMI’s formulation was cross-disciplinary, integrating U.S. Geological Survey scientists from Biology, Water, and Geography to develop a course of action (Corn and others, 2005a). The result has been an effective program with diverse, yet complementary, expertise.

  12. Quality research in healthcare: are researchers getting enough statistical support?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambler Gareth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviews of peer-reviewed health studies have highlighted problems with their methodological quality. As published health studies form the basis of many clinical decisions including evaluation and provisions of health services, this has scientific and ethical implications. The lack of involvement of methodologists (defined as statisticians or quantitative epidemiologists has been suggested as one key reason for this problem and this has been linked to the lack of access to methodologists. This issue was highlighted several years ago and it was suggested that more investments were needed from health care organisations and Universities to alleviate this problem. Methods To assess the current level of methodological support available for health researchers in England, we surveyed the 25 National Health Services Trusts in England, that are the major recipients of the Department of Health's research and development (R&D support funding. Results and discussion The survey shows that the earmarking of resources to provide appropriate methodological support to health researchers in these organisations is not widespread. Neither the level of R&D support funding received nor the volume of research undertaken by these organisations showed any association with the amount they spent in providing a central resource for methodological support for their researchers. Conclusion The promotion and delivery of high quality health research requires that organisations hosting health research and their academic partners put in place funding and systems to provide appropriate methodological support to ensure valid research findings. If resources are limited, health researchers may have to rely on short courses and/or a limited number of advisory sessions which may not always produce satisfactory results.

  13. [Methodology, method, and quality of qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Jörg; Rennie, David L

    2006-05-01

    Over the last ten years qualitative research approaches have been increasingly recognized and applied to the fields of psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine in German-speaking countries, although this development has lagged behind what has occurred at the same time in English-speaking countries. In the former, especially, a misunderstanding prevails that qualitative research methods are at best preliminary to real science. This misunderstanding has roots in the philosophy of science and the sociology of knowledge. It comes from the lack of recognition that the human sciences, unlike the natural sciences, entail a double rather than single hermeneutic and that qualitative research methods are logically coherent ways of working systematically and rigorously with this double hermeneutic. Indeed, this nature of qualitative research is generally not well understood by many qualitative researchers themselves. In this article, the need for qualitative research is shown and its methodology is seen as an integration of method and hermeneutics, or methodical hermeneutics, which in turn is distinguished from alternative qualitative research methodologies. The article closes with considerations of quality criteria and publication standards.

  14. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe....... The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...

  15. The Community Research Scholars Initiative: A Mid-Project Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Jacqueline; Pike, Earl; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Fischer, Robert L; Collins, Cyleste

    2015-08-01

    Community organizations addressing health and human service needs generally have minimal capacity for research and evaluation. As a result, they are often inadequately equipped to independently carry out activities that can be critical for their own success, such as conducting needs assessments, identifying best practices, and evaluating outcomes. Moreover, they are unable to develop equitable partnerships with academic researchers to conduct community-based research. This paper reports on the progress of the Community Research Scholar Initiative (CRSI), a program that aims to enhance community research and evaluation capacity through training of selected employees from Greater Cleveland community organizations. The intensive 2-year CRSI program includes didactic instruction, fieldwork, multiple levels of community and academic engagement, leadership training, and a mentored research project. The first cohort of CRSI Scholars, their community organizations, and other community stakeholders have incorporated program lessons into their practices and operations. The CRSI program evaluation indicates: the importance of careful Scholar selection; the need to engage executive leadership from Scholar organizations; the value of a curriculum integrating classwork, fieldwork, and community engagement; and the need for continual scholar skill and knowledge assessment. These findings and lessons learned guide other efforts to enhance community organization research and evaluation capacity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Implementing an organization-wide quality improvement initiative: insights from project leads, managers, and frontline nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne P; Lo, Joyce; Beswick, Susan; Campbell, Heather

    2013-01-01

    With the movement to advance quality care and improve health care outcomes, organizations have increasingly implemented quality improvement (QI) initiatives to meet these requirements. Key to implementation success is the multilevel involvement of frontline clinicians and leadership. To explore the perceptions and experiences of frontline nurses, project leads, and managers associated with an organization-wide initiative aimed at engaging nurses in quality improvement work. To address the aims of this study, a qualitative research approach was used. Two focus groups were conducted with a total of 13 nurse participants, and individual interviews were done with 10 managers and 6 project leads. Emergent themes from the interview data included the following: improving care in a networked approach; driving QI and having a sense of pride; and overcoming challenges. Specifically, our findings elucidate the value of communities of practice and ongoing mentorship for nurses as key strategies to acquire and apply QI knowledge to a QI project on their respective units. Key challenges emerged including workload and time constraints, as well as resistance to change from staff. Our study findings suggest that leaders need to provide learning opportunities and protected time for frontline nurses to participate in QI projects.

  17. Practice based research networks impacting periodontal care: PEARL Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curro, Frederick A; Thompson, Van P; Grill, Ashley; Vena, Don; Terracio, Louis; Naftolin, Frederick

    2013-05-01

    In 2005, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research /National Institutes of Health funded the largest initiative to date to affect change in the delivery of oral care. This commentary provides the background for the first study related to periodontics in a Practice Based Research Network (PBRN). It was conducted in the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research & Learning (PEARL) Network. The PEARL Network is headquartered at New York University College of Dentistry. The basic tenet of the PBRN initiative is to engage clinicians to participate in clinical studies, where they will be more likely to accept the results and to incorporate the findings into their practices. This process may reduce the translational gap that exists between new findings and the time it takes for them to be incorporated into clinical practice. The cornerstone of the PBRN studies is to conduct comparative effectiveness research studies to disseminate findings to the profession and improve care. This is particularly important because the majority of dentists practice independently. Having practitioners generate clinical data allows them to contribute in the process of knowledge development and incorporate the results in their practice to assist in closing the translational gap. With the advent of electronic health systems on the horizon, dentistry may be brought into the mainstream health care paradigm and the PBRN concept can serve as the skeletal framework for advancing the profession provided there is consensus on the terminology used.

  18. Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: a longitudinal study of research and development project team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert T

    2006-01-01

    Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and selected substitutes for leadership were studied as longitudinal predictors of performance in 118 research and development (R&D) project teams from 5 firms. As hypothesized, transformational leadership predicted 1-year-later technical quality, schedule performance, and cost performance and 5-year-later profitability and speed to market. Initiating structure predicted all the performance measures. The substitutes of subordinate ability and an intrinsically satisfying task each predicted technical quality and profitability, and ability predicted speed to market. Moderator effects for type of R&D work were hypothesized and found whereby transformational leadership was a stronger predictor of technical quality in research projects, whereas initiating structure was a stronger predictor of technical quality in development projects. Implications for leadership theory and research are discussed.

  19. Research about Quality Life in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available he life quality research is in fact a major field of the analysis on the social and economic evolution of a country. The living standard (life quality keeps on being a quite sensitive issue as it implies a number of both methodological and or organizational aspects. The most frequently the life quality is studied on the basis of the surveys being organized at the households level.These surveys (investigations at random must be achieved in such a way that, by extending the data, they allow us to stick with the fore casted margin of error. This is specifically the reason for this material to briefly bring up the methodology which is applying when organizing a survey. Out of the immensity of data we have selected, after processing them, those conclusions which we considered as being the most significant for suggesting the life quality in Romania. The work includes tables and graphs, being abundantly thrown into relief by absolute and relative data.

  20. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's Manufacturing R&D Initiative, which supports projects aimed at developing better-performing, lower-cost solid-state lighting while encouraging engineering and manufacturing in the United States.

  1. Research on Coupling Method of Watershed Initial Water Rights Allocation in Daling River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fengping, W.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is now a common occurrence in many countries. The situation of watershed initial water rights allocation has caused many benefit conflicts among regions and regional water sectors of domestic and ecology environment and industries in China. This study aims to investigate the method of watershed initial water rights allocation in the perspective of coupling in Daling River Watershed taking provincial initial water rights and watershed-level governmental reserved water as objects. First of all, regarding the allocation subsystem of initial water rights among provinces, this research calculates initial water rights of different provinces by establishing the coupling model of water quantity and quality on the principle of "rewarding efficiency and penalizing inefficiency" based on the two control objectives of water quantity and quality. Secondly, regarding the allocation subsystem of watershed-level governmental reserved water rights, the study forecasts the demand of watershed-level governmental reserved water rights by the combination of case-based reasoning and water supply quotas. Then, the bilaterally coupled allocation model on water supply and demand is designed after supply analysis to get watershed-level governmental reserved water rights. The results of research method applied to Daling River Watershed reveal the recommended scheme of watershed initial water rights allocation based on coordinated degree criterion. It's found that the feasibility of the iteration coupling model and put forward related policies and suggestions. This study owns the advantages of complying with watershed initial water rights allocation mechanism and meeting the control requirements of water quantity, water quality and water utilization efficiency, which help to achieve the effective allocation of water resources.

  2. Efficiency Improvement and Quality Initiatives Application in Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Ajtene Avdullahi; MSc. Vjosa Fejza

    2015-01-01

    Financial institutions in today’s economy have no longer the luxury to improve profit simply by increasing revenue. These firms, due to the significant measuring reductions in the financial services industry needed to improve operational efficiencies and merely support existing processes with fewer resources. This paper explains the benefits of Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and Lean Six Sigma that have improved organization's performance, by cutting costs and waste, improving thei...

  3. Towards the development of a comprehensive framework: Qualitative systematic survey of definitions of clinical research quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Mi Bonde, Marie; Brunner, Nicole; Hemkens, Lars G; Rutquist, Marielle; Bhatnagar, Neera; Guyatt, Gordon H; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Briel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    To systematically survey existing definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality, both developed by stakeholder groups as well as in the medical literature. This study serves as a first step in the development of a comprehensive framework for the quality of clinical research. We systematically and in duplicate searched definitions, concepts and criteria of clinical research quality on websites of stakeholders in clinical research until no further insights emerged and in MEDLINE up to February 2015. Stakeholders included governmental bodies, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, academic and commercial contract research organizations, initiatives, research ethics committees, patient organizations and funding agencies from 13 countries. Data synthesis involved descriptive and qualitative analyses following the Framework Method on definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality. Descriptive codes were applied and grouped into clusters to identify common and stakeholder-specific quality themes. Stakeholder concepts on how to assure quality throughout study conduct or articles on quality assessment tools were common, generally with no a priori definition of the term quality itself. We identified a total of 20 explicit definitions of clinical research quality including varying quality dimensions and focusing on different stages in the clinical research process. Encountered quality dimensions include ethical conduct, patient safety/rights/priorities, internal validity, precision of results, generalizability or external validity, scientific and societal relevance, transparency and accessibility of information, research infrastructure and sustainability. None of the definitions appeared to be comprehensive either in terms of quality dimensions, research stages, or stakeholder perspectives. Clinical research quality is often discussed but rarely defined. A framework defining clinical research quality across stakeholders

  4. Architectural quality: innovation, technological research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Campioli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Architectural redevelopment and the revival of the construction sector are conditional on the incentivisation and bolstering of innovation processes. Thus the partial declensions that have been attached to these processes over the last few years have seen research and experimentation being tailored to the spectacularisation of shapes or the hidden performance optimisation of materials and components. Genuine improvement in the quality of architecture and its construction in this day and age depends on the abilities of designers to adopt the entire life cycle of buildings as a reference framework and on the willingness of all those working in the construction supply chain to activate virtuous cooperation.

  5. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    The order in which authors are listed on an academic paper determines the credit that each receives on a co-authored publication, influencing hiring, tenure and promotions. Two of the prevalent author ordering schemes are alphabetical, which involves listing authors in lexicographical order...... overcome some of the limitations of contribution-based ordering by performing rotations, alternating who is the first author on joint papers. This often allows authors to achieve optimal research quality and perfect fairness under any given contribution scheme; however, this is obtained at the expense...

  6. Catching goldfish: quality in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, R; Murphy, E; Watson, P; Greatbatch, D; Parker, S

    1998-07-01

    This paper reviews the contribution of qualitative methods to health services research (HSR) and discusses some of the issues involved in recognizing quality in such work. The place of qualitative work is first defined by reference to Archie Cochrane's agenda for HSR and the limitations of the recent focus on randomized trials as the standard method. Health care practice involves large elements of improvisation which cannot be captured by evidence-based approaches. Qualitative methods offer ways of understanding this improvisation and of identifying more efficient and effective practices, as well as considering the traditional topics of equity and humanity. The methodological procedures of qualitative work reflect a long-established inductive tradition in scientific practice. The logic of grounded theory provides a contemporary specification. In its application, it is quite different from the methodological anarchy of postmodernism. The use of qualitative research and the theoretically stated generalizations which arise from it inform reflective work by health service managers, planners and clinicians.

  7. Amphibian research and monitoring initiative: Concepts and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.; Adams, M.J.; Battaglin, W.A.; Gallant, A.L.; James, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Langtimm, C.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides the basis for discussion and subsequent articulation of a national plan for the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI). The authors were members of a task force formed from within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that included scientists with expertise in biology, cartography, hydrology, and statistics. The assignment of the task force was to extend work begun by the National Amphibian Leadership Group. This group, composed of senior USGS scientists, managers, and external authorities, met in Gainesville, Florida, in February 20001. The product of this meeting was a document outlining the framework for a national program to monitor amphibian populations and to conduct research into the causes of declines.

  8. Institutions for Quality Cooperation for Development: Clarifications and Initial Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grasa Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In his analysis of institutions for quality cooperation for development, focusing basically on the Spanish case, the author first clarifies and defines the concepts of “institution”, governance,and the so-called three sectors, that is, the State and administrations, the market and civil society. Good government depends on the capabilities and synergies among these threesectors as well as on their relationships with the different institutions and their social context, and this ensures governance, that is, development or, in this case, cooperation for development.The second part of the article poses the question: How are we doing in all of this in the case of Spanish cooperation for development and, therefore, in its ability to affect the generation or strengthening of development policies in the different sectors of the countries of the South? To answer this question, the author considers three aspects: a the chronic lack of institutions; b the excess of legislation and formality, rooted in Latin political and organisational culture, and c the need for new instruments and procedures, reflected, but only partially, in the new Directing Plan and in the proposals of Catalan cooperation, translated into institutional terms. Finally, the article makes reference to “decentralised” cooperation, its challenges and prospects, and a “decalogue” of good government which “only aims to serve to open debate on the need for new institutions for quality cooperation for development congruent with the development policies of the actors of the South.”

  9. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  10. Legitimizing basic research by evaluating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Malmberg, Rika; Eriksson, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use ethical arguments to strengthen the relationship between the concepts of legitimacy and evaluation. The analysis is based on the ethics of Levinas and Buber and is motivated by a sense of responsibility using dialogical ideology as a mediator. The main questions in this study consider the following: Does caring science as an independent academic discipline have the moral responsibility to develop a theory for evaluating the quality of basic research? and Will such a quality evaluation theory have a reasonable probability of introducing legitimization into caring science? On an ethical level, this study introduces a meaningful interaction inspired by social demands and is linked to the concept of research justification. Legitimization turns from an abstract idea to an achievable entity by an act. The act of evaluation has the likelihood of delegating legitimacy and empowers the foundation of caring science, which in turn will become a cornerstone of nursing. At this stage there is no intention to develop an evaluation theory, rather to create a meaningful discussion for the future development of an ethics-based theory.

  11. The first interview: Anxieties and research on initiating psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    A qualitative clinical study of preliminary interviews by the Working Party on Initiating Psychoanalysis (WPIP) of the European Psychoanalytic Federation suggests that the unconscious dynamics in first interviews are extraordinarily powerful and that they give rise to deep unconscious anxieties in both patient and analyst, with the corresponding defences against them. Furthermore, the group dynamics observed in the clinical workshops and in the research team doing the study suggest that both the anxieties and the defences are conveyed to these groups in the form of unelaborated 'session residues' provoking renewed anxieties and defences in them. These findings contribute to our understanding of what goes on in first interviews, but also raise interesting questions about the psychoanalytic research process in psychoanalysis and how confrontation with the unknown is dealt with in that context. Rather than as a means to avoid anxiety, method in clinical research can be seen as a way to help the research group to contain its reactions and to tolerate them until the group finds its way to further elaboration. These points are illustrated with a clinical case drawn from the study.

  12. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Sîrbu, Alina; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Bossche, Joris Van den

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights int...

  13. Measuring the "Quality" of Educational Research: Reflections on the Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta

    2014-01-01

    In the last ten years in Australia researchers have come under intense scrutiny as assessment measures of research quality have dominated their work. While these initiatives have made highly visible the work of some educational researchers, at the same time, they have made invisible the scholarship and work of many others in education faculties…

  14. Conceptual Design for the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W. A.; Langtimm, C. A.; Adams, M. J.; Gallant, A. L.; James, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    In 2000, the President of the United States (US) and Congress directed Department of Interior (DOI) agencies to develop a program for monitoring trends in amphibian populations on DOI lands and to conduct research into causes of declines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was given lead responsibility for planning and implementing the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS), Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bureau of Land Management. The program objectives are to (1) establish a network for monitoring the status and distribution of amphibian species on DOI lands; (2) identify and monitor environmental conditions known to affect amphibian populations; (3) conduct research on causes of amphibian population change and malformations; and (4) provide information to resource managers, policy makers, and the public in support of amphibian conservation. The ARMI program will integrate research efforts of USGS, other Federal, and non-federal herpetologists, hydrologists, and geographers across the Nation. ARMI will conduct a small number (~20) of intensive research efforts (for example, studies linking amphibian population changes to hydrologic conditions) and a larger number (~50) of more generalized inventory and monitoring studies encompassing broader areas such as NPS units. ARMI will coordinate with and try to augment other amphibian inventory studies such as the National Amphibian Atlas and the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program. ARMI will develop and test protocols for the standardized collection of amphibian data and provide a centrally managed database designed to simplify data entry, retrieval, and analysis. ARMI pilot projects are underway at locations across the US.

  15. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.

  16. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sîrbu

    Full Text Available The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use. Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach. This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.

  17. BRIE: The Penn State Biogeochemical Research Initiative for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.; Brantley, S. L.; Brenchley, J.

    2003-12-01

    Few scientists are prepared to address the interdisciplinary challenges of biogeochemical research due to disciplinary differences in vocabulary, technique, and scientific paradigm. Thus scientists and engineers trained in traditional disciplines bring a restricted view to the study of environmental systems, which can limit their ability to exploit new techniques and opportunities for scientific advancement. Although the literature is effusive with enthusiasm for interdisciplinary approaches to biogeochemistry, there remains the basic difficulty of cross-training geological and biological scientists. The NSF-IGERT funded Biogeochemical Research Initiative for Education (BRIE) program at Penn State is specifically designed to break down both disciplinary and institutional barriers and it has fostered cross-disciplinary collaboration and training since 1999. Students and faculty are drawn from environmental engineering, geochemistry, soil science, chemistry and microbiology, and the program is regarded on the Penn State campus as a successful example of how interdisciplinary science can best be promoted. There are currently 23 Ph.D. students funded by the program, with an additional 7 affiliated students. At present, a total of 6 students have completed doctoral degrees, and they have done so within normal timeframes. The program is "discipline-plus," whereby students enroll in traditional disciplinary degree programs, and undertake broad training via 12 credits of graduate coursework in other departments. Students are co-advised by faculty from different disciplines, and engage in interdisciplinary research facilitated by research "credit cards." Funding is available for international research experiences, travel to meetings, and other opportunities for professional development. Students help institutionalize interdisciplinary training by designing and conducting a teaching module that shares their expertise with a class in another department or discipline

  18. Community-based participatory research in Indian country: improving health through water quality research and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Crescentia; Doyle, John; Kindness, Larry; Lefthand, Myra J; Bear Dont Walk, Urban J; Bends, Ada L; Broadaway, Susan C; Camper, Anne K; Fitch, Roberta; Ford, Tim E; Hamner, Steve; Morrison, Athalia R; Richards, Crystal L; Young, Sara L; Eggers, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water because of visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the tribe, and academic partners, resulting in genuine community-based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about working together to examine surface and groundwater contaminants, assess routes of exposure, and use our data to bring about improved health of our people and our waters.

  19. Improving research on teacher quality in science and mathematics: Report of a symposium of scientists, educators, and researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Rolf K.

    Many initiatives designed to improve the quality of elementary and secondary teachers have been proposed and implemented at national, state, and local levels. It is unclear whether these initiatives are based on a common definition of teacher quality or adequate knowledge about the conditions that produce quality teaching. This article summarizes the results of a symposium of the National Research Council on the state of research knowledge on teacher quality. Topics for needed research that were identified in the symposium included studies on the effects of state and local policies which set new standards for teachers, studies on the subject-matter knowledge and preparation of teachers, analyses of alternative methods of developing teaching skills, and assessments of the effects of school conditions for teaching on career patterns of teachers.

  20. Quality Management. Global Conception and Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Ruževičius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality is a concept, which cannot be measured on a time scale. Man’s understanding of quality goes far back into prehistory, perhaps even a million years before the first tools were made. For a long time quality assessment hinged predominantly on the quality of consumer products – their composition, attributes, distinguishing features, and so on. The globalization of world economy together with the expansion of international trade has led to the fast processes of quality internationalization, as a crucial element of companies’ competitiveness. These processes appear by wider application of the same methods, principles and criteria while determining quality policy, creating international accreditation, notification and quality certification systems in various countries. The development of quality management concepts covers a very long time. During this period, core quality objects have changed significantly – from quality of primitive working tools to commodities, then to services, processes, organizations’ quality and organizational performance, etc. Quality is important not only as a measure of how competitive a business is, it also determines the efficacy of state’s governance and other public sector organizations, the stability of a nation’s economy, and the quality of life its citizens enjoy. This is why it is necessary to broaden our understanding of quality, in order for other aspects (e.g. social quality, quality oriented value, quality culture, partnership, quality of economic management, etc. to also be covered. These changes are reflected in the new book – scientific monograph in French – “Quality Management. Global Conception and Research”†, written by Juozas Ruževičius, professor at Vilnius University.

  1. Quality management system for application of the analytical quality assurance cycle in a research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, R. S.; Olivares, I. R. B.

    2016-07-01

    The lack of quality assurance and quality control in academic activities have been recognized by the inability to demonstrate reproducibility. This paper aim to apply a quality tool called Analytical Quality Assurance Cycle on a specific research project, supported by a Verification Programme of equipment and an adapted Quality Management System based on international standards, to provide traceability to the data generated.

  2. Quality Improvement in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program: The Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert D.; Castro, Kathleen M.; Eisenstein, Jana; Stallings, Holley; Hegedus, Patricia D.; Bryant, Donna M.; Kadlubek, Pam J.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007; it is a network of community-based hospitals funded by the NCI. Quality of care is an NCCCP priority, with participation in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) playing a fundamental role in quality assessment and quality improvement (QI) projects. Using QOPI methodology, performance on quality measures was analyzed two times per year over a 3-year period to enhance our implementation of quality standards at NCCCP hospitals. Methods: A data-sharing agreement allowed individual-practice QOPI data to be electronically sent to the NCI. Aggregated data with the other NCCCP QOPI participants were presented to the network via Webinars. The NCCCP Quality of Care Subcommittee selected areas in which to focus subsequent QI efforts, and high-performing practices shared voluntarily their QI best practices with the network. Results: QOPI results were compiled semiannually between fall 2010 and fall 2013. The network concentrated on measures with a quality score of ≤ 0.75 and planned voluntary group-wide QI interventions. We identified 13 measures in which the NCCCP fell at or below the designated quality score in fall 2010. After implementing a variety of QI initiatives, the network registered improvements in all parameters except one (use of treatment summaries). Conclusion: Using the NCCCP as a paradigm, QOPI metrics provide a useful platform for group-wide measurement of quality performance. In addition, these measurements can be used to assess the effectiveness of QI initiatives. PMID:25538082

  3. Sampling in Qualitative Research: Improving the Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly, the quality of research outcomes in Higher Education has suffered from ... emphasising the use of sampling in qualitative as in mixed and quantitative methods. Keywords: Qualitative research; Sampling; Research methodology.

  4. National Genome Research Initiative: A New Paradigm For Teaching Research To Undergraduates In South America

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: From 2007 to 2011, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) recruited professors across the US to test a new paradigm in undergraduate education: the National Genome Research Initiative (NGRI). Undergraduates were taught to isolate bacteriophages, characterize their findings, and report to the scientific community.Objective: The educational goal of the NGRI program was to expose science undergraduates to an authentic research experience to increase graduation rates. The scient...

  5. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekuabata Esau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. The Approach Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Discussion and Conclusions Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health

  6. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-Maclaren, Michelle L; Maclaren, David J; Solomon, Janella; Muse, Alwin; Asugeni, Rowena; Harrington, Humpress; Kekuabata, Esau; Speare, Richard; Clough, Alan R

    2010-10-31

    Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia) collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health research and practice on Malaita, Solomon Islands.

  7. Family-friendly research and workplace initiative announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    A new U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative aims to increase the participation of women and girls in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) over the next 10 years by providing more flexible research policies, promoting flexible workplace options, and supporting STEM careers for women, Obama administration officials announced on 26 September. Currently, women earn about 41% of STEM doctoral degrees awarded by U.S. educational institutions but make up only about 28% of tenure-track faculty in U.S. colleges and universities, the officials said. "Unfortunately, too many young women drop out of promising careers in science, engineering, and math because of conflicts between their desire to start families and the need to rapidly ramp up their careers," said John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). "The way to help women stay in the STEM jobs pipeline is to create and support more flexible workplace policies that allow a women's career—or a man's, for that matter, but as we know, it's more common for women to give up STEM careers for family reasons—to thrive even as time is allowed for important family responsibilities."

  8. Understanding Why Quality Initiatives Succeed or Fail: A Sociotechnical Systems Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to implement quality improvements in surgery are notoriously problematic. One needs to look no farther than recent attempts to implement checklists, team training, and surgical briefings. These interventions have been empirically shown to improve team communication and performance. Yet numerous barriers to implementation have limited their broad adoption and use. Apparently, knowing the remedy (intervention) does not translate into knowing how to administer (implement) it. Or in surgical terms, knowing "what" procedure needs to be performed does not necessarily mean that one knows "how" to perform it. Surgeons serve a vital leadership role in driving quality and patient safety initiatives in the operating room. Achieving success requires both an in-depth understanding of the intervention and the complex dynamics of the elements involved in the implementation process. To aid in this endeavor, the present article describes a Model for Understanding System Transitions Associated with the Implementation of New Goals (MUSTAING). The model highlights important variables associated with implementation success. It also provides a tool for diagnosing why certain interventions may not have worked as intended so that improvements in the implementation process can be made. Finally, the model offers a general framework for guiding future implementation or "how to" research.

  9. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel-Thermo-Physical Characterization Project Quality Assurance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Mario M.; Slonecker, Bruce D.

    2012-06-01

    The charter of the Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is to ready Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) facilities and processes for the receipt of unirradiated and irradiated low enriched uranium (LEU) molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples, and to perform analysis to support the Global Threat Reduction Initiative conversion program. PNNL’s support for the program will include the establishment of post-irradiation examination processes, including thermo-physical properties, unique to the U.S. Department of Energy laboratories. These processes will ultimately support the submission of the base fuel qualification (BFQ) to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and revisions to High Performance Research Reactor Safety Analysis Reports to enable conversion from highly enriched uranium to LEU fuel. This quality assurance plan (QAP) provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that support the NRC BFQ. This QAP is designed to be used by project staff, and prescribes the required management control elements that are to be met and how they are implemented. Additional controls are captured in Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project plans, existing procedures, and procedures to be developed that provide supplemental information on how work is conducted on the project.

  10. A systematic approach to initial data analysis is good research practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Marianne; Vach, Werner; le Cessie, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Initial data analysis is conducted independently of the analysis needed to address the research questions. Shortcomings in these first steps may result in inappropriate statistical methods or incorrect conclusions. We outline a framework for initial data analysis and illustrate the impact of initial data analysis on research studies. Examples of reporting of initial data analysis in publications are given. A systematic and careful approach to initial data analysis is needed as good research practice.

  11. Training for quality management: report on a nationwide distance learning initiative for physicians in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, P J

    1999-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of a pharmaceutical firm, a distance-learning course on Quality Management methods was developed at the University of Murcia (Spain) and offered nationwide to primary health care physicians working in the public system. A total of 7104 physicians (47.7% of the census) signed up (at least one in 92.2% of the health centres). The course content follows the author's model of quality improvement, monitoring and design trilogy, but focuses mainly on methods for a quality improvement cycle using a learning-by-doing and problem-solving approach. The unexpected success of this initiative has led us to reflect on the interest in learning about quality improvement methods shown by physicians, the usefulness of the distance-learning approach, and also to continue the project with new initiatives such as: a summary poster, software containing all the necessary tools and data analysis for quality improvement, and a manual.

  12. Advancing Transdisciplinary Research: The Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah; Hall, Kara; Vogel, Amanda; Hohl, Sarah; Hartman, Sheri; Nebeling, Linda; Redline, Susan; Schmitz, Kathryn; Thornquist, Mark; Patterson, Ruth; Thompson, Beti

    2014-09-01

    Strategies for constructing and maintaining cross-disciplinary teams are in their infancy. We outline strategies to support one form, transdisciplinary research, in a major initiative of the National Cancer Institute, the Transdisciplinary Research in Energetics and Cancer 2 (TREC2) initiative. Discussion of the TREC2 sites' experiences with transdisciplinarity is structured around a conceptual model that identifies four iterative phases of transdisciplinary research. An active coordination center, regular face-to-face meetings, and input from external advisors were instrumental in moving TREC2 to the translation phase. The possibilities for advancements in the science of energetics and cancer increased as investigator ties became denser. TREC2 can be seen as a flagship effort in transdisciplinary science that provides lessons on moving ideas from development to translation.

  13. A Survey Data Quality Strategy: The Institutional Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to construct a survey data quality strategy for institutional researchers in higher education in light of total survey error theory. It starts with describing the characteristics of institutional research and identifying the gaps in literature regarding survey data quality issues in institutional research. Then it is followed by…

  14. Quality assurance of qualitative research: a review of the discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. Methods A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Results Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. Conclusions The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research. PMID:22182674

  15. Quality assurance of qualitative research: a review of the discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Joanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. Methods A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Results Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. Conclusions The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research.

  16. Initiation to research in Brazil: p olicies for educating young researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucídio Bianchetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Initiation (SI is a process which, through universities, challenges young people and provides them a set of attitudes and knowledge that is indispensable to their initiation to research, and the production and socializing of knowledge. Situated in the context of our broader research, this text is based on bibliographic research. It critically analyzes the importance of SI to qualify the approximation between basic education and undergraduate and graduate studies, given that the range of options of this mode of education has significantly expanded in recent years. Entrance into SI contributes in particular to theoretical grounding and to developing a familiarity with research methodology, complementing the academic training of young students with a process in which knowledge, in addition to being constructed in relation to teaching-research, comes to be re-evaluated and recreated, challenging young people to become researchers. Finally, we detect an increasingly evident instrumentalization of this locus of education and research by CAPES and CNPq, to improve evaluation indicators for undergraduate courses.

  17. Child Developmental Impact of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) in High-Risk Communities: First-Phase Authentic Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Suen, Hoi K.; Brickley, Dale; Smith-Jones, Janell; Dettore, Ernie

    2002-01-01

    This study used an "enhanced constructed comparison group" statistical model to conduct longitudinal research on the child developmental impact of Pittsburgh's early childhood initiative (ECI), a partnership to provide high-quality early care and education for children in high-risk neighborhoods. First-phase findings indicate that…

  18. Quality-improvement initiatives focused on enhancing customer service in the outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Tenley J; Bain, Kevin T; Balderose, Bonnie K

    2015-09-01

    The development and implementation of quality-improvement initiatives to enhance customer service in an outpatient pharmacy of a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center are described. Historically low customer service satisfaction rates with the outpatient pharmacy at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center prompted this quality-improvement project. A three-question survey was designed to be easily and quickly administered to veterans in the outpatient pharmacy waiting area. Using 5-point Likert scale, veterans were asked to rate (1) their overall experience with the outpatient pharmacy service and (2) their satisfaction with the customer service provided by the pharmacy department. They were also asked how they thought the pharmacy department could improve its customer service. After receiving feedback from the survey, several quality-improvement initiatives were developed. The initiatives were categorized as environmental, personnel, communicative, and technological. For each initiative, one or more tasks were developed and the initiatives were subsequently implemented over eight months. After each task was completed, veterans were surveyed to measure the impact of the change. A total of 79 veterans were surveyed before the implementation of the quality-improvement initiatives, and 49% and 68% rated their experience with the outpatient pharmacy and customer service favorably, respectively. Twenty-five veterans were surveyed after the implementation of numerous quality-improvement interventions, with 44% and 72% rating their experience with the outpatient pharmacy and customer service favorably. Customer service satisfaction with an outpatient pharmacy service at a VA medical center was enhanced through the implementation of various quality-improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) - An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Aviation plays an important role in global and domestic economic development and transport mobility. There are environmental concerns associated with aviation noise and emissions. Aircraft climate impacts are primarily due to release of emissions at the cruise altitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Even though small in magnitude at present, aviation climate impacts will likely increase with projected growth in air transport demand unless scientifically informed and balanced mitigation solutions are implemented in a timely manner. There are large uncertainties associated with global and regional non-CO2 aviation climate impacts which need to be well quantified and constrained to support decision making. To meet future aviation capacity needs, the United States is developing and implementing a dynamic, flexible and scalable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that is safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound. One of the stated NextGen environmental goals is to limit or reduce the impacts of aviation emissions on global climate. With the support from the participating agencies of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) with the main objective to identify and address key scientific gaps and uncertainties that are most likely to be achieved in near (up to 18 months) and mid (up to 36 months) term horizons while providing timely scientific input to inform decision making. Till date, ACCRI funded activities have resulted in release of 8 subject-specific whitepapers and a report on The Way Forward. These documents can be accessed via http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/aviation_climate/media/ACCRI_Report_final.pdf. This presentation will provide details on prioritized key scientific gaps and uncertainties to better characterize aviation climate impacts. This presentation will also include a brief

  20. Improving the quality of nursing documentation: An action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha M. Okaisu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Documentation is an important function of professional nursing practise. In spite of numerous improvement efforts globally, inadequate documentation continues to be reported as nurse authors investigate barriers and challenges. Objectives: The project aimed to improve nurses’ documentation of their patient assessments at the CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda in order to enhance the quality of nursing practise. Method: An action research methodology, using repeated cycles of planning, intervention, reflection and modification, was used to establish best practise approaches in this context for improving nurses’ efficacy in documenting assessments in the patient record. The researchers gathered data from chart audits, literature reviews and key informant interviews. Through analysis and critical reflection, these data informed three cycles of systems and practise modifications to improve the quality of documentation. Results: The initial cycle revealed that staff training alone was insufficient to achievethe project goal. To achieve improved documentation, broader changes were necessary, including building a critical mass of competent staff, redesigned orientation and continuing education, documentation form redesign, changes in nurse skill mix, and continuous leadership support. Conclusion: Improving nursing documentation involved complex challenges in this setting and demanded multiple approaches. Evidence-based practise was the foundation of changes in systems required to produce visible improvement in practise. The involved role of leadership in these efforts was very important.

  1. Outcomes research. Clues to quality and organizational effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B A; Salyer, J; Geddes, N

    1997-09-01

    Outcomes research has often been touted as the best response to concerns about quality in today's health care organizations. Yet, outcomes research is accompanied by its own set of problems. These problems must be addressed if outcomes research is, in fact, to guide assessments of quality and of organizational effectiveness. One question is how quality and organizational effectiveness should be defined. In addition, measurement issues are particularly problematic in outcomes research, as is the availability of appropriate data. This article discusses each of these areas, and concludes by presenting an integrated model to guide the assessment of outcomes, quality, and organizational effectiveness.

  2. Logistics case study based research: Towards higher quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper assesses the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in articles published during the past 13 years, based on a synthesis of indicators for the quality criteria truth-value, transferability, and traceability. Design/methodology/approach – Content...... analysis of 134 case study based articles published in six leading logistics and supply chain management (SCM) journals between 1998 and 2010 is used to assess and evaluate the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in these publications. Findings – This research provides...... an overview of the quality of the case study based research approach. Results show that the quality is generally low, supporting the ongoing, but empirically unsupported criticism on the quality of case study based research. The results also highlight which specific aspects authors and reviewers need...

  3. A quality improvement initiative project to evaluate a newborn hearing screening program in a Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey R. Lim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss present from birth can have a detrimental impact on later language and educational outcomes. Newborn hearing screening has allowed early identification and intervention of hearing loss, giving children the opportunity to develop age-appropriate language skills. The aim of this quality initiative study was to evaluate the quality of the newborn hearing screening program in the context of a newly implemented Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Program at Summa Health System Akron City Hospital. The goals were (1 to determine whether screening environment (mother’s room vs. nursery affected screening results, (2 to identify challenges and positive outcomes encountered by the audiologists, and (3 to ensure that Pass/Refer rates met state standards. A Quest Technologies sound level meter (Model 1800; St. Paul, MN, USA was used to measure noise levels in the nursery rooms where newborns were tested. The length of screening time was determined using a calibrated SP® Traceable® (ISO 17025 stopwatch (McGraw Park, IL, USA. Pass/Refer rates and observed challenges and benefits were noted. All well-baby infants born in the month of February 2013 (n = 101 were included, and Pass/Refer results were compared to those in years 2008-2012.Noise levels in the mother’s room did not appear to negatively affect the Pass/Refer rates. Some challenges were present, including interruptions and louder environmental noise. This protocol was considered appropriate for assessing a hearing screening program in a Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI setting.Benefits of performing hearing screening in the mother’s room included test transparency for parents and the ability to immediately discuss the results. Results obtained in the mother’s room were comparable to past results obtained in the nursery. Noise levels in the screening rooms and challenges should be noted, to ensure accuracy of screening results.

  4. [Introduction to research in the initial training in nursing education: research and professionalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda-Soyer, Nicole; Eymard, Chantal; Alderson, Marie

    2014-03-01

    At the national level, the process which integrates nurse education curriculum to university studies, as well as the creation of a program of nursing and paramedical research in the hospital are contributing to the promoting of these professions inside the scientific community. The research introduction is now a teaching unit, which emphasizes professionalizing and training through research and opens the question of the visibility and the development in France, of a discipline in nursing. To establish an inventory of the implementation of the teaching units concerning introduction to research. A survey was sent to 305 educational institutions through an online questionnaire. it emerges some obstacles to the development of research including a low expertise in paradigms and research methods, the need for training of trainers, a low use of research articles and a gap between the teachings of the program and teachings made. The results highlight the difficulties in the implementation of the research initiation and the heterogeneity in the implementation of the teaching unit that could affect the process of professionalization of the student.

  5. Total Quality Management: A Unique Challenge For Behavioral Science Researchers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    collect data to create and support the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) programs in industry and government. The essence of TQM involves...participation. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a Department of Defense (DoD) initiative for improving performance at all organizational levels. In

  6. An Initial Research Agenda for Rural Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Michael; Howley, Craig; Schultz, James

    2008-01-01

    To date, mathematics education research has rarely engaged issues that could be considered relevant to rural policy and practice. In particular, few research reports in mathematics education have involved the Appalachian region in a way that draws rural-specific conclusions. This manuscript represents an attempt to identify research questions that…

  7. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  8. Style and Quality in Research Supervision: The Supervisor Dependency Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Booi Hon

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 250 graduate research students examined the extent of dependency on supervisors in a range of research-related tasks, and how that dependency affected the research supervision process. Results suggest appropriate research supervision has no set prescription, but interactions among quality and style of supervision, role expectations of…

  9. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  10. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  11. Quality Initiative Program in Its Sixth Year: Has It Become Part of Our Radiology Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Heather; Kielar, Ania Z; Hill, Fraser; O'Sullivan, Joseph P

    2017-08-01

    The study sought to determine if the Quality Initiative Program (QUIP) has become part of the radiology culture at our institution. After Research Ethics approval, QUIPs from January 2009 to December 2014 were assessed. We evaluated the response rates of radiologists receiving QUIPs to ensure they reviewed them. We performed a survey of radiologists and trainees to gain feedback regarding their perception of QUIPs in February 2014 and in June 2015. Response rates of radiologists receiving a QUIP improved, with 76% response rate in 2014 up from 66% in the first year and 42% in the second year. Based on the 2015 survey including radiologists and trainees, 75% agreed that QUIPs were educational, compared with 67% 16 months earlier. Fifty percent of respondents had changed their overall practice of reporting based on feedback from the QUIP in 2015 compared with 32% in 2014. In both surveys, 100% of respondents indicated that QUIPs have not been used against them for any disciplinary measure (or other negatively perceived action). When asked if there was a perceived decrease in stigma felt when a QUIP was received, 71% agreed or were neutral and 28% disagreed. The QUIP is educational to radiologists and trainees, leading to positive changes in clinical practice. The majority accepts this program but there is still a stigma felt when a QUIP is received, particularly among residents. Nevertheless, we feel that QUIP has been integrated into our radiology culture and, hopefully, imminent transition to commercial quality software will be smooth. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Research on quality specification of Herba Justiciae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenkun; Chen, Siqiang; Zhou, Yuchun; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Meihua

    2009-11-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Herba Justiciae by setting up the quality control specification of Herba Justiciae. Moisture and ash were determined by aquametry and method of ash determination. And the bioactive constituents were analyzed by HPLC. The contents of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and moisture of 28 samples from different origins were determined. The quantitative analysis of chinensinaphthol methyl ether by HPLC were preformed, respectively. The established method can be used for the quality control of Herba Justiciae.

  13. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  14. Pediatric collaborative networks for quality improvement and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannon, Carole M; Peterson, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts of individual clinicians, pediatric practices, and institutions to remedy continuing deficiencies in pediatric safety and health care quality, multiple gaps and disparities exist. Most pediatric diseases are rare; thus, few practices or centers care for sufficient numbers of children, particularly in subspecialties, to achieve large and representative sample sizes, and substantial between-site variation in care and outcomes persists. Pediatric collaborative improvement networks are multi-site clinical networks that allow practice-based teams to learn from one another, test changes to improve quality, and use their collective experience and data to understand, implement, and spread what works in practice. The model was initially developed in 2002 by an American Board of Pediatrics Workgroup to accelerate the translation of evidence into practice, improve care and outcomes for children, and to serve as the gold standard for the performance in practice component of Maintenance of Certification requirements. Many features of an improvement network derive from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's collaborative improvement model Breakthrough Series, including focus on a high-impact condition or topic; providing support from clinical content and quality improvement experts; using the Model for Improvement to set aims, use data for feedback, and test changes iteratively; providing infrastructure support for data collection, analysis and reporting, and quality improvement coaching; activities to enhance collaboration; and participation of multidisciplinary teams from multiple sites. In addition, they typically include a population registry of the children receiving care for the improvement topic of interest. These registries provide large and representative study samples with high-quality data that can be used to generate information and evidence, as well as to inform clinical decision making. In addition to quality improvement, networks serve as large

  15. Promoting Quality for Teacher Action Research: Lessons Learned from Science Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Feldman, Allan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore the concept of quality in teacher action research by re-examining our participation with science teachers in several different collaborative action research projects. We conducted second-order action research and generated a series reflexive conditions for promoting and ensuring quality action research. We assert that a…

  16. Frameworks for Change: Four Recurrent Themes for Quality in Early Childhood Curriculum Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jennifer; Fleet, Alma

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of a case study that investigated how early childhood teachers experience organisational change. As one of three levels of quality improvement, State government-funded curriculum initiatives were developed with an aim to promote change. Three curriculum documents, one each focusing on literacy, pedagogy and…

  17. Quality-of-care initiative in patients treated surgically for perforated peptic ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M H; Larsson, H J; Rosenstock, S;

    2013-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are considerable after treatment for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). Since 2003, a Danish nationwide quality-of-care (QOC) improvement initiative has focused on reducing preoperative delay, and improving perioperative monitoring and care for patients with PPU. The present...

  18. Palm Beach County's Prime Time Initiative: Improving the Quality of After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    This report covers the third year of Chapin Hall's process evaluation of the Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida, a system-building effort to strengthen the quality of after-school programs in the county. During the past two decades, the after-school field has expanded enormously, partly in response to increasing concern about…

  19. Initial benzodiazepine use and improved health-related quality of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Rolf; Teeuw, Bart; Bakker, Albert; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of initial benzodiazepine users was measured over time. Furthermore, benzodiazepine usage characteristics as determinants of change in mental and physical health status of the benzodiazepine users were examined. METHODS: In the only pharmacy of a

  20. Cardio-renal syndromes : report from the consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronco, Claudio; McCullough, Peter; Anker, Stefan D.; Anand, Inder; Aspromonte, Nadia; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Berl, Tomas; Bobek, Ilona; Cruz, Dinna N.; Daliento, Luciano; Davenport, Andrew; Haapio, Mikko; Hillege, Hans; House, Andrew A.; Katz, Nevin; Maisel, Alan; Mankad, Sunil; Zanco, Pierluigi; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ronco, Federico; Shaw, Andrew; Sheinfeld, Geoff; Soni, Sachin; Vescovo, Giorgio; Zamperetti, Nereo; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    A consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (CRS) was held in Venice Italy, in September 2008 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). The following topics were matter of discussion after a systematic literature review and the appraisal of the best available evidence:

  1. Food metabolomics: META-PHOR. A new European research initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-growing demand for improved food-stuffs which better meet the needs of both industry and the consumer. With increasing emphasis being placed on health and safety-related aspects of our food, there is also a strong desire to develop new tools to monitor and improve the quality of wha

  2. S.T.E.M. Initiatives. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) initiatives represent an extensive and expanding movement across American education. Nationally, funding for K-12 STEM programs increased from $700 million to almost $1 billion from 2005 to 2007 alone (US DOE, Report of the Academic Competitiveness Council, 2007, p. 51). Although there is a…

  3. Initial Teacher Education in Russia: Connecting Theory, Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Gafurov, Ilshat R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores initial teacher education (ITE) in Russia, its organisation and content in the light of international literature. Changes in the political, socio-economic and cultural life of Russia in recent decades have defined a completely different model of teacher education. This model has evolved through key policy documents including…

  4. Demystifying process mapping: a key step in neurosurgical quality improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Rodstein, Jennifer; Burke, Michael A; Martin, Neil A

    2014-08-01

    Reliable delivery of optimal care can be challenging for care providers. Health care leaders have integrated various business tools to assist them and their teams in ensuring consistent delivery of safe and top-quality care. The cornerstone to all quality improvement strategies is the detailed understanding of the current state of a process, captured by process mapping. Process mapping empowers caregivers to audit how they are currently delivering care to subsequently strategically plan improvement initiatives. As a community, neurosurgery has clearly shown dedication to enhancing patient safety and delivering quality care. A care redesign strategy named NERVS (Neurosurgery Enhanced Recovery after surgery, Value, and Safety) is currently being developed and piloted within our department. Through this initiative, a multidisciplinary team led by a clinician neurosurgeon has process mapped the way care is currently being delivered throughout the entire episode of care. Neurosurgeons are becoming leaders in quality programs, and their education on the quality improvement strategies and tools is essential. The authors present a comprehensive review of process mapping, demystifying its planning, its building, and its analysis. The particularities of using process maps, initially a business tool, in the health care arena are discussed, and their specific use in an academic neurosurgical department is presented.

  5. ISSUE OF QUALITY IN A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of quality in a qualitative research cannot be addressed by a single or constant method. It, however, may be judged through the aggregate of various perspectives such as “credibility,” “dependability,” “confirmability,” “ethics” and so on which is the central focus of this paper. In a qualitative research, researchers often engage with flexible realities where the subjective views of respondents may shape the research frame and the whole process of an inquiry. In such a situation, quality issue is more pertinent as it deals with peoplr’s everyday realitiy and subjective explanation of it. The study focuses on the issue of quality in a qualitative research and provides a middle way to deal with this issue in respect to the debates over it. Using secondary sources it provides a comprehensive idea for ensuring quality in a qualitative research.

  6. An Initial Formulation. Research, Diagnosis and Development in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gappert, Gary

    Described in this report are factors which affect and/or limit urban educational research and dimensions of cities which should be considered in making social and organizational research in urban education more relevant. Some of these considerations are learning, institutional and management deficits, the lack of a total systems perspective on the…

  7. Performing high quality research into design practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rianne Valkenburg; Maaike Kleinsmann

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the complexity of doing research in design practice. More and more projects and papers appear dealing with this topic and the time has come to draw up the balance sheet. This paper starts with explaining the status of design research until now, in which we indicate the

  8. Ensuring Quality in qualitative cross-cultural research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been an increasing call for qualitative research in cross-cultural psychology. Despite this general openness, there seems to be some confusion about how to evaluate the quality of such research. This has been partly due to the heterogeneity of the field and the epis...... aims at motivating cross-cultural psychologists to produce high quality qualitative research that will contribute to the further advancement of the field....

  9. [Quality inspection of clinical research in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Weng, Wei-liang; Tian, Yuan-xiang; Li, Qiu-yan; Lu, Fang

    2010-05-01

    Beginning with 4-level quality control measures of clinical research in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), we elaborated the implementation process and demands of quality control measures of each level, including quality control, monitoring, auditing, and inspection. On the basis of joint inspection experience of 41 projects of the "Prevention and Treatment of Difficult and Complicated Diseases of TCM" plan of the "11th Five-year National Key Technology R&D Program", we analyzed the ensuring effect of 4-level quality control system and joint inspection model, and then pointed out the existing problems in the executing process of quality control system at different levels and joint inspection model. Finally we investigated what should be revised in the quality control system and joint inspection model, thus providing the theoretical support for quality inspection improvement of TCM clinical research.

  10. Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curfman McInnes, Lois; Dahlgren, Tamara; Nieplocha, Jarek; Bernholdt, David; Allan, Ben; Armstrong, Rob; Chavarria, Daniel; Elwasif, Wael; Gorton, Ian; Kenny, Joe; Krishan, Manoj; Malony, Allen; Norris, Boyana; Ray, Jaideep; Shende, Sameer

    2007-07-01

    This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance.

  11. Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Lois Curfman [Mathematics and Computer Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Dahlgren, Tamara [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Nieplocha, Jarek [Computational Sciences and Mathematics, Pacific Northwest Nat. Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Bernholdt, David [Computer Science and Mathematics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allan, Ben [Scalable Computing R and D, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Armstrong, Rob [Scalable Computing R and D, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Chavarria, Daniel [Computational Sciences and Mathematics, Pacific Northwest Nat. Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Elwasif, Wael [Computer Science and Mathematics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorton, Ian [Computational Sciences and Mathematics, Pacific Northwest Nat. Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kenny, Joe [Scalable Computing R and D, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Krishan, Manoj [Computational Sciences and Mathematics, Pacific Northwest Nat. Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Malony, Allen [Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Norris, Boyana [Mathematics and Computer Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Ray, Jaideep [Advanced Software R and D, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Shende, Sameer [Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2007-07-15

    This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance.

  12. Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, L. C.; Dahlgren, T.; Nieplocha, J.; Bernholdt, D.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Chavarria, D.; Elwasif, W.; Gorton, I.; Krishan, M.; Malony, A.; Norris, B.; Ray, J.; Shende, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; LLNL; PNNL; ORNL; SNL; Univ. of Oregon

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance.

  13. Basic methodological preconditions for high quality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers basic methodological preconditions for the qualitative oriented research, in other words, the approaches which in the study of social phenomena rely on theoretical and methodological as well as epistemological premises of a new scientific paradigm. The paper draws special attention to the discussion of criteria of verifiability in qualitative research, which are significantly different from the criteria of positivist approaches. Interpretative research paradigms in social studies have a long history and numerous sources and the very concept of "interpretative shift" consists of a number of different research approaches unified under the name of qualitative methodology. The aim of the paper is not to prove that traditional and new paradigms and quantitative and qualitative research approaches based on them are incompatible in the process of discovering pedagogical reality. The intention is to demonstrate that the complexity of social phenomena requires a complex methodology meaning a complementary use of methods and techniques from both research approaches. The study of qualitative methodological approaches and their application in research, discovery and change of pedagogical reality are particularly important because they may provide new insights into pedagogical reality and a new view of old problems. .

  14. Recent Research on European Initiatives to Reduce Pollution in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela cecilia Stanciulescu; Gabriela Nicoleta Diaconescu

    2015-01-01

    Over time, tourism adapted to climatic conditions, responding to change and finding different solutions. Where tourism is a major source of income for the economy and for individuals (small and large entrepreneurs) it found multiple solutions for effective consumer savings (electricity, heat). The purpose of this paper is to present tourism offer solutions that creates benefits from two perspectives - positive consequences for society, economy, culture, and also initiatives that support touri...

  15. Application of quality-improvement methods in a community practice: the Sandhills Pediatrics Asthma Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroth, Thomas H; Boals, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the use of quality improvement methods to improve asthma care in a busy community practice. The practice used disease-management strategies, such as population identification, self-management education, and performance measurement and feedback. The practice then applied several practice-based quality improvement methods, such as PDSA cycles, to improve care. From 1998 to 2003, process measures, such as staging of asthmatics, use of long-term control medications, use of peak flow meters and spacers, and use of action plans, improved. There was also a substantial decrease in emergency department use and hospitalizations among patients with asthma. Although there have been several studies demonstrating the efficacy of disease management strategies, most lack generalizability to community practices. Often, interventions are so intensive and cumbersome, that they are unlikely to be replicated in primary care setting. Researchers have been unable to determine which components of the interventions are most effective and replicable. Furthermore, many studies of disease management strategies enroll participants who lack the co-morbidities seen in community practice. There are also few studies of disadvantaged populations that face other barriers to care, such as lack of transportation, poor access to specialists, and medical illiteracy. In this case study, there were several unique factors that enabled the practice to improve care for this population. The AccessCare case manager who worked with the practice not only provided data and feedback to the practice team, but also served as an improvement "coach," often pushing the team and facilitating many of the improvement efforts. AccessCare's approach is in contrast to many of the commercial disease management companies' "carve out" models that do not sufficiently involve providers or practices in their interventions. The other necessary ingredient for success in this project was organizational

  16. Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Toth Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

  17. Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

  18. A Proposal for the Integration of Total Quality Management into Institute Curriculum, Research, and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Joseph E.; Ammons, Jane C.

    This proposal contains a plan to alter the curriculum at Georgia Institute of Technology for the following reasons: to educate its students in Total Quality Management (TQM) approaches and practice, to develop a major research initiative designed to understand what TQM approaches work and why, to become a major center for the collection and…

  19. Challenges conducting comparative effectiveness research: the Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness (CHOICE experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedly JL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Janna L Friedly,1,4 Zoya Bauer,2,4 Bryan A Comstock,3,4 Emily DiMango,5 Assiamira Ferrara,6 Susan S Huang,7 Elliot Israel,8 Jeffrey G Jarvik,2,4 Andrew A Nierenberg,9 Michael K Ong,10 David F Penson,11 Rebecca Smith-Bindman,12 Arthur E Stillman,13 William M Vollmer,6 Stephen M Warren,14 Chunliu Zhan,15 David Chu-Wen Hsia,15 Anne Trontell15 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Biostatistics, 4Comparative Effectiveness, Cost and Outcomes Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 5Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, 6Kaiser Foundation Research Institute, Oakland, 7Division of Infectious Diseases and Health Policy Research Institute, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, 8Harvard Medical School, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Allergy and Immunology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 9Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 10Division of General Internal Medicine & Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 11Vanderbilt University and Tennessee Valley VAHCC, Nashville, TN, 12Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Health Policy, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, SF, 13Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 14Department of Plastic Surgery, Division of Clinical and Translational Research, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, 15Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD, USA Abstract: The Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness (CHOICE program, which includes 12 ongoing comparative effectiveness research (CER trials funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, has had firsthand experience in dealing with the unique challenges of conducting CER since the trials started in the fall of 2010. This paper will explore the collective experience

  20. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  1. Reflections on the State of Research: Indoor Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel; Corsi, Richard

    2011-01-01

    that with parallel research and writing efforts culminating with internal review and revision cycles. In this paper, we present our choices for the most important research findings on indoor environmental quality from the past three decades followed by a discussion of the most important research questions in our...

  2. Quality assurance and quality control of geochemical data—A primer for the research scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Geochemistry is a constantly expanding science. More and more, scientists are employing geochemical tools to help answer questions about the Earth and earth system processes. Scientists may assume that the responsibility of examining and assessing the quality of the geochemical data they generate is not theirs but rather that of the analytical laboratories to which their samples have been submitted. This assumption may be partially based on knowledge about internal and external quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programs in which analytical laboratories typically participate. Or there may be a perceived lack of time or resources to adequately examine data quality. Regardless of the reason, the lack of QA/QC protocols can lead to the generation and publication of erroneous data. Because the interpretations drawn from the data are primary products to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stakeholders, the consequences of publishing erroneous results can be significant. The principal investigator of a scientific study ultimately is responsible for the quality and interpretation of the project's findings, and thus must also play a role in the understanding, implementation, and presentation of QA/QC information about the data. Although occasionally ignored, QA/QC protocols apply not only to procedures in the laboratory but also in the initial planning of a research study and throughout the life of the project. Many of the tenets of developing a sound QA/QC program or protocols also parallel the core concepts of developing a good study: What is the main objective of the study? Will the methods selected provide data of enough resolution to answer the hypothesis? How should samples be collected? Are there known or unknown artifacts or contamination sources in the sampling and analysis methods? Assessing data quality requires communication between the scientists responsible for designing the study and those collecting samples, analyzing samples, treating data, and

  3. Rapid Review Summit: an overview and initiation of a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; Garritty, Chantelle; Umscheid, Craig A; Kamel, Chris; Samra, Kevin; Smith, Jeannette; Vosilla, Ann

    2015-09-26

    The demand for accelerated forms of evidence synthesis is on the rise, largely in response to requests by health care decision makers for expeditious assessment and up-to-date information about health care technologies and health services and programs. As a field, rapid review evidence synthesis is marked by a tension between the strategic priority to inform health care decision-making and the scientific imperative to produce robust, high-quality research that soundly supports health policy and practice. In early 2015, the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health convened a forum in partnership with the British Columbia Ministry of Health, the British Columbia Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation, the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, and the University of Pennsylvania. More than 150 evidence synthesis producers and end users attended the Rapid Review Summit: Then, Now and in the Future. The Summit program focused on the evolving role and practices of rapid reviews to support informed health care policy and clinical decision-making, including the uptake and use of health technology assessment. Our discussion paper highlights the important discussions that occurred during the Rapid Review Summit. It focuses on the initial development of a research agenda that resulted from the Summit presentations and discussions. The research topics centered on three key areas of interest: (1) how to conduct a rapid review; (2) investigating the validity and utility of rapid reviews; and (3) how to improve access to rapid reviews.

  4. The Effect of Quantity, Quality and Timing of Headquarters-Initiated Knowledge Flows on Subsidiary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model that explains how the quality, quantity and timing of knowledge flows from headquarters influence subsidiary performance. It extends recent research on vertical knowledge flows between global headquarters and international subsidiaries. We find a positive...... quality/performance relationship and a curvilinear quantity/performance relationship, indicating that too much knowledge sharing can be detrimental to the receiving subsidiary. Most importantly, we show that the timing of a knowledge flow significantly affects subsidiary sales performance....

  5. EFFECTS OF INITIAL MOISTURE CONTENT ON THE PRODUCTION AND QUALITY PROPERTIES OF SOLID BIOFUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Matúš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content of densified biomass is a limit parameter influencing the quality of the solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as the production process of this biofuel. The paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of moisture content of densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs. Experiments based on the single-axis densification of spruce sawdust were realized by hydraulic piston press, where the densified logs were produced under room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the quality properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, were studied. The results show the necessary moisture ranges for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel.

  6. Reinventing Ourselves: Collaborative Research Initiatives between Singapore & US Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, M.; Rogers, P.S.; H. Wong, I.F.

    2005-01-01

    To show how coordinated activities involving shared assessment instruments and results between two business schools, one in Singapore, the other in the US/Midwest, have helped faculty shift their research and teaching from a focus on language to an emphasis on communicative competence in English for the global workplace.

  7. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  8. System-based participatory research in health care: an approach for sustainable translational research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittdiel, Julie A; Grumbach, Kevin; Selby, Joe V

    2010-01-01

    Translational research seeks to improve health care by promoting action and change in real-world health care settings. Although translational research advocates a break from the traditional researcher-initiated approach to science, strategies to successfully engage clinicians and leaders of health care delivery organizations in research are still under development. We propose that applying the principles of community-based participatory research in a way that considers delivery systems-including their leaders, clinicians, and staff-as a focal community can enhance the ability of translational research to improve health care. Applying participatory research methods, such as engaging in collaborative partnerships, building on existing community strengths, investing in long-term relationships, and engaging in research as a cyclical, iterative process, can be a successful approach to sustainable quality improvement at the systems level.

  9. Quality management platform in research institutes (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klembalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research institutes now have a chance to take the leading role in the system of commercialization of the effects of R&D works. To take advantage of this chance they have to strengthen their position on the market through, among others, reorganization of structures and focus on quality management. Multi-aspect approach to the issue of quality in the activity of research institutes based on the analysis of the group of stakeholders and products has led to the formation of the concept for the establishment of a quality management platform – an entity gathering 3 sections: 1 Section of Quality Management Systems, 2 Section of Scientific Information, 3 Section of Cooperation with the Client. The choice of the above areas, according to the author, corresponds to the specific character of the functioning of research institutes and emphasizes the need to improve and guarantee quality in this (often undervalued sphere.

  10. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  11. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should, to a large extent, influence the meat research re- ... not service, has led to a rapid development of self-service. ... that wholesale buying is in the hands of a small number of ..... and cooking factors influencing tenderness are very com-.

  12. Radiology Research in Quality and Safety: Current Trends and Future Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmont, Matthew E; Itri, Jason N; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Mankowski Gettle, Lori; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Scali, Elena P; Winokur, Ronald S; Probyn, Linda; Kung, Justin W; Bakow, Eric; Kadom, Nadja

    2017-03-01

    Promoting quality and safety research is now essential for radiology as reimbursement is increasingly tied to measures of quality, patient safety, efficiency, and appropriateness of imaging. This article provides an overview of key features necessary to promote successful quality improvement efforts in radiology. Emphasis is given to current trends and future opportunities for directing research. Establishing and maintaining a culture of safety is paramount to organizations wishing to improve patient care. The correct culture must be in place to support quality initiatives and create accountability for patient care. Focused educational curricula are necessary to teach quality and safety-related skills and behaviors to trainees, staff members, and physicians. The increasingly complex healthcare landscape requires that organizations build effective data infrastructures to support quality and safety research. Incident reporting systems designed specifically for medical imaging will benefit quality improvement initiatives by identifying and learning from system errors, enhancing knowledge about safety, and creating safer systems through the implementation of standardized practices and standards. Finally, validated performance measures must be developed to accurately reflect the value of the care we provide for our patients and referring providers. Common metrics used in radiology are reviewed with focus on current and future opportunities for investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Seeking quality scientific information for research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Colepicolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field.  This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.

  14. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  17. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  18. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  19. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  3. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  4. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  7. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  8. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  9. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. Logistics case study based research: Towards higher quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper assesses the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in articles published during the past 13 years, based on a synthesis of indicators for the quality criteria truth-value, transferability, and traceability. Design/methodology/approach – Content...

  12. Quality Research in Higher Education Institutions in Oman: Some Views of Teacher Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali Saleh Al Ajmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic research remains a prime source of knowledge and innovation for higher education institutions (HEIs that strive to grow, expand and develop their academic reputations and standards. Yet, research informs teaching practices, shapes social changes and it has financial outcomes for HEIs. Therefore, it is imperative to develop institutional policies and strategies for promoting and sustaining quality research in HEIs in Oman. There are a number of international frameworks and models which have been developed to measure research quality in HEIs around the world. For example, bibliometrics were used to assess research quality in HEIs in the UK because bibliometric data can provide a number of component variables. An appropriate bibliometric model may include components such as output volume, diversity of outputs, citation volume, journal impact factor and average citations per publication, etc. Moreover, other popular examples of models for assessing research quality are Multidimensional Research Assessment Matrix (MRAM used in Europe and the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise (RAE. However, neither of the above mentioned models is adopted by HEIs in Oman. Thus, the current study is an attempt to explore some institutional, international, logistic and pragmatic factors that impact academic research and publication quality, review popular international research quality assessment models and explore the possibility of applying them in the Omani context. To achieve the study objectives, 20 teacher researchers were surveyed and the findings and recommendations were presented. Keywords: Quality Research, HEIs in Oman, International Models, Factors, Teacher Researchers' Views

  13. Science Teacher Education in Australia: Initiatives and Challenges to Improve the Quality of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Petersen, Jacinta; Wynne, Georgie

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we describe how teachers in the Australian school system are educated to teach science and the different qualifications that teachers need to enter the profession. The latest comparisons of Australian students in international science assessments have brought about various accountability measures to improve the quality of science teachers at all levels. We discuss the issues and implications of government initiatives in preservice and early career teacher education programs, such as the implementation of national science curriculum, the stricter entry requirements to teacher education programs, an alternative pathway to teaching and the measure of effectiveness of teacher education programs. The politicized discussion and initiatives to improve the quality of science teacher education in Australia are still unfolding as we write in 2014.

  14. Assessing quality in European educational research indicators and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?

  15. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  16. The GDAHA hospital performance reports project: a successful community-based quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard J; Engler, David; Krella, Joseph M

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade there has been increasing distribution of hospital performance information but few examples of how this information is affecting the quality of health care delivery. This article describes the methods of implementation and factors influencing a successful community-based quality improvement initiative in Dayton, Ohio, involving a collaborative of five competing hospitals in partnership with the business community and local and state hospital associations. The initiative contributed to a 36% reduction in acute myocardial infarction mortality over a 3-year period by changing reperfusion patterns in patients with ST segment elevated myocardial infarction. Identification of an opportunity gap, root cause analysis, and development of process measures used to facilitate health care provider change are summarized. The driving and restraining forces that have shaped this initiative from a report card to a quality improvement program are outlined and a list of five contributors to success are presented. These factors can serve as a basis for how other communities can benefit from this collaborative model.

  17. A Multi-Disciplinary University Research Initiative in Hard and Soft Information Fusion: Overview, Research Strategies and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Thrusts addressed are framed around the major functional components of the JDL Fusion Process; these include: 1. Source Characterization of Soft...Level 2 data fusion environment. The primary Research Thrusts addressed are framed around the major functional components of the JDL Fusion Process

  18. [Progress of research on quality of life of glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is a kind of long life disease characterized by irreversible optic nerve damage, visual field impairment, and visual acuity loss. Both the disease and its medical management could make the patient perceive difficulties in their daily life activities and social function. Therefore, their quality of life would be affected significantly. This report briefly reviews the recent researches on the quality of life and its influencing factors of glaucoma patients. The researches on how to improve the quality of life of glaucoma patients are also reviewed.

  19. Blockchain technology for improving clinical research quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-07-19

    Reproducibility, data sharing, personal data privacy concerns and patient enrolment in clinical trials are huge medical challenges for contemporary clinical research. A new technology, Blockchain, may be a key to addressing these challenges and should draw the attention of the whole clinical research community.Blockchain brings the Internet to its definitive decentralisation goal. The core principle of Blockchain is that any service relying on trusted third parties can be built in a transparent, decentralised, secure "trustless" manner at the top of the Blockchain (in fact, there is trust, but it is hardcoded in the Blockchain protocol via a complex cryptographic algorithm). Therefore, users have a high degree of control over and autonomy and trust of the data and its integrity. Blockchain allows for reaching a substantial level of historicity and inviolability of data for the whole document flow in a clinical trial. Hence, it ensures traceability, prevents a posteriori reconstruction and allows for securely automating the clinical trial through what are called Smart Contracts. At the same time, the technology ensures fine-grained control of the data, its security and its shareable parameters, for a single patient or group of patients or clinical trial stakeholders.In this commentary article, we explore the core functionalities of Blockchain applied to clinical trials and we illustrate concretely its general principle in the context of consent to a trial protocol. Trying to figure out the potential impact of Blockchain implementations in the setting of clinical trials will shed new light on how modern clinical trial methods could evolve and benefit from Blockchain technologies in order to tackle the aforementioned challenges.

  20. Assuring both quality and creativity in basic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1990-04-12

    How does one assure that both quality and creativity are obtained in basic research environments QA theoreticians have attempted to develop workable definitions of quality, but in more reflective moments, these definitions often fail to capture the deeper essence of the idea of quality.'' This paper asserts that creativity (as a product of the human mind) is a concrete interface between perfunctory definitions of quality (conformance to specifications) and more philosophical speculations about the nature of quality- related ultimates'' like elegance or beauty. In addition, we describe the distinction between creative ideas and creative acts and highlight one of the major inhibitors of creativity, fear. Finally we show that highly creative people often have an irreverent attitude toward boundaries and established authority, and discuss how one can allow for this when designing a QA program in a basic research environment.

  1. The Delaware River Basin Collaborative Environmental Monitoring and Research Initiative: Foundation Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Murdoch; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Richard A. Birdsey

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Park Service formed the Collaborative Environmental Monitoring and Research Initiative (CEMRI) to test strategies for integrated environmental monitoring among the agencies. The initiative combined monitoring and research efforts of the participating Federal programs to evaluate health and...

  2. Burnout and Quality of Life among Healthcare Research Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Felicity; West, Colin P.; Dyrbye, Liselotte; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is increasingly recognized as a problem in the workplace--30% to 50% of physicians experience burnout, but no assessment of burnout has been done among healthcare research faculty. A cross-sectional survey of burnout, quality of life, and related factors was sent to all doctoral-level faculty in a large department of healthcare research.…

  3. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Improvement Initiative: developing performance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senore, Carlo; Bisschops, Raf; Domagk, Dirk; Valori, Roland; Kaminski, Michal F.; Spada, Cristiano; Bretthauer, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Bellisario, Cristina; Minozzi, Silvia; Hassan, Cesare; Rees, Colin; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hucl, Tomas; Ponchon, Thierry; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United European Gastroenterology (UEG) have a vision to create a thriving community of endoscopy services across Europe, collaborating with each other to provide high quality, safe, accurate, patient-centered and accessible endoscopic care. Whilst the boundaries of what can be achieved by advanced endoscopy are continually expanding, we believe that one of the most fundamental steps to achieving our goal is to raise the quality of everyday endoscopy. The development of robust, consensus- and evidence-based key performance measures is the first step in this vision. ESGE and UEG have identified quality of endoscopy as a major priority. This paper explains the rationale behind the ESGE Quality Improvement Initiative and describes the processes that were followed. We recommend that all units develop mechanisms for audit and feedback of endoscopist and service performance using the ESGE performance measures that will be published in future issues of this journal over the next year. We urge all endoscopists and endoscopy services to prioritize quality and to ensure that these performance measures are implemented and monitored at a local level, so that we can provide the highest possible care for our patients. PMID:26966520

  4. [Requirements for quality indicators. The relevance of current developments in outcomes research for quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Petzold, Thomas; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria; Neugebauer, Edmund A M

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of the health state in patients and changes in their health state for the purpose of diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of treatment response plays a central role in clinical practice. Quality criteria for measurements in medicine include validity, reliability, responsiveness, interpretability, and feasibility. High-quality measurement instruments are a prerequisite for evidence-based medicine. Therefore, international outcomes research groups have developed methods for quality assurance and for the standardisation of measurement instruments. Quality indicators are instruments to measure the quality of care. Due to the increasing relevance of quality assessment for all stakeholders in healthcare and due to the political intention to draw relevant conclusions from the assessment of the quality of care, quality indicators must at least meet the same high standards that are required for clinical trial end points. However, independent researchers and clinicians do not engage in the validation and standardisation of quality indicators in Germany; currently, only the AQUA institute (as assigned by the German GBA) deals with this important issue. Current activities concerning the validation of quality indicators do not meet the requirements of evidence-based healthcare. This is a critical barrier to achieving the political goals of quality medicine. Therefore, the authors propose a multi-step, multi-professional, evidence-driven and evidence-generating consensus process on the basis of established methods of outcomes research for the advancement of quality assessment with quality indicators in Germany. All relevant stakeholders should participate in this process. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Iterative reconstruction techniques for computed tomography part 2: initial results in dose reduction and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heer, Linda M. de [Cardiothoracic Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gelre Hospital, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    To present the results of a systematic literature search aimed at determining to what extent the radiation dose can be reduced with iterative reconstruction (IR) for cardiopulmonary and body imaging with computed tomography (CT) in the clinical setting and what the effects on image quality are with IR versus filtered back-projection (FBP) and to provide recommendations for future research on IR. We searched Medline and Embase from January 2006 to January 2012 and included original research papers concerning IR for CT. The systematic search yielded 380 articles. Forty-nine relevant studies were included. These studies concerned: the chest(n = 26), abdomen(n = 16), both chest and abdomen(n = 1), head(n = 4), spine(n = 1), and no specific area (n = 1). IR reduced noise and artefacts, and it improved subjective and objective image quality compared to FBP at the same dose. Conversely, low-dose IR and normal-dose FBP showed similar noise, artefacts, and subjective and objective image quality. Reported dose reductions ranged from 23 to 76 % compared to locally used default FBP settings. However, IR has not yet been investigated for ultra-low-dose acquisitions with clinical diagnosis and accuracy as endpoints. Benefits of IR include improved subjective and objective image quality as well as radiation dose reduction while preserving image quality. Future studies need to address the value of IR in ultra-low-dose CT with clinically relevant endpoints. (orig.)

  6. Social Indicators Research and Health-Related Quality of Life Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalos, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to build a bridge between two intersecting areas of research, social indicators research on the one hand and health-related quality of life research on the other. The first substantive section of the paper introduces key concepts and definitions in the social indicators research tradition, e.g., social indicators,…

  7. Evaluation and measurement for improvement in service-level quality improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas C C; Wallace, Louise M; Ketley, Diane

    2011-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) in England, as with other health services worldwide, currently faces the need to reduce costs and to improve the quality of patient care. Evidence gathered through effective and appropriate measurement and evaluation, is essential to achieving this. Through interviews with service improvement managers and analysis of comments in a seminar of NHS staff involved in health service improvement, we found a lack of understanding regarding the definition and methodology of both measurement and evaluation, which decreases the likelihood that NHS staff will be competent to commission or provide these skills. In addition, we highlight the importance of managers assessing their organizations' 'readiness' to undergo change before embarking on a quality improvement (QI) initiative, to ensure that the initiative's impact can be adequately judged. We provide definitions of measurement for improvement and of evaluation, and propose a comparative framework from which to gauge an appropriate approach. Examples of two large-scale QI initiatives are also given, along with descriptions of some of their problems and solutions, to illustrate the use of the framework. We recommend that health service managers use the framework to determine the most appropriate approach to evaluation and measurement for improvement for their context, to ensure that their decisions are evidence based.

  8. RESEARCH OF EXPECTED AND PERCEIVED SERVICE QUALITY IN HOTEL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Bradić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the concept and measurement of quality of service in the hotel sector. The ratings of guests’ expectations and calculations of SERVQUAL gap (discrepancies between expectations and perceptions, has been the most reliable method in estimating the precise diagnosis of quality deficiency. The findings of questionnaire research aimed at measuring the service quality in spa hotels are presented in this paper. The research was conducted in hotels of the third category (three-star hotels which are located in the most visited spa centers in Serbia: Vrnjačka banja, Niška banja, Soko banja and Mataruška banja, during the months of September - November 2009. Service quality was measured with a model based on SERVQUAL model. The results may be important for providers of hotel services and contribute to the advancement of business through the adjustment of the product needs of hotel guests.

  9. Supporting knowledge translation through collaborative translational research initiatives: 'bridging' versus 'blurring' boundary-spanning approaches in the UK CLAHRC initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah; Scarbrough, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Recent policy initiatives in the UK and internationally have sought to promote knowledge translation between the 'producers' and 'users' of research. Within this paper we explore how boundary-spanning interventions used within such initiatives can support knowledge translation between diverse groups. Using qualitative data from a 3-year research study conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 of two case-sites drawn from the CLAHRC initiative in the UK, we distinguish two different approaches to supporting knowledge translation; a 'bridging' approach that involves designated roles, discrete events and activities to span the boundaries between communities, and a 'blurring' approach that de-emphasises the boundaries between groups, enabling a more continuous process of knowledge translation as part of day-to-day work-practices. In this paper, we identify and differentiate these boundary-spanning approaches and describe how they emerged from the context defined by the wider CLAHRC networks. This highlights the need to develop a more contextualised analysis of the boundary-spanning that underpins knowledge translation processes, relating this to the distinctive features of a particular case.

  10. National Genome Research Initiative: A New Paradigm For Teaching Research To Undergraduates In South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ovalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From 2007 to 2011, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI recruited professors across the US to test a new paradigm in undergraduate education: the National Genome Research Initiative (NGRI. Undergraduates were taught to isolate bacteriophages, characterize their findings, and report to the scientific community.Objective: The educational goal of the NGRI program was to expose science undergraduates to an authentic research experience to increase graduation rates. The scientific goal was to isolate mycobacteriophages to be used as therapeutic agents against disease-causing mycobacteria.Materials and Methods: In a one-semester lab course undergraduates are taught to find, grow, and purify bacteriophages. In the second semester, students use bioinformatic software to annotate sequences of their bacteriophages.Results: Ahead of data on student graduation rates, the NGRI program has generated expanded productivity for US undergraduates. Over a four year period, thousands of participants were taught to collect bacteriophages, annotate sequences, and present their findings. Those undergraduates will have isolated 2300+ phages, annotated 250+ sequences, presented hundreds of posters at conferences across the US, and are co-authors on papers published by labs participating in the NGRI program.Discussion: Many professors in the US academic community are convinced that the NGRI program will have lasting impact on the US educational system. Several professors have banded together to form the Phage Galaxy Consortium to continue HHMI’s goal of implementation of the NGRI program at all US colleges.Conclusions: HHMI’s paradigm is ready for distribution to Central and South America.

  11. About the J-GRID (Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Since infectious diseases heed no national borders, international research collaboration across borders must be enhanced. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan launched the J-GRID program in the fiscal year (FY) 2005, which consists of the two elements; (1) the construction of collaboration centers in Asian and African countries on a reciprocal basis between a Japanese university/institution and an overseas partner university/institution and (2) the networking of those collaboration centers and setting up its headquarters at RIKEN. J-GRID initiated with 5 collaboration centers in 3 Asian countries has expanded to include 13 centers in 8 countries (6 in Asia and 2 in Africa). The aims of J-GRID include conducting high quality research on infectious diseases of regional and global importance, advancing relevant technologies and developing human resources in the field. In this way, J-GRID is expected to contribute to the public health of the host countries, Japan and the rest of the world. After the completion of the first start-up phase, Term I (2005-2009), J-GRID has stepped up its activity for the second step-up phase, Term II (2010-2014). While the first term was just like an incubation period, the second term should be the exponential growth phase, maximizing its research activities. Indeed, J-GRID is now generating remarkable research outcomes with an increasing number of publications. The mid-term evaluation made by the MEXT in FY2012 commended J-GRID as an ideal model to demonstrate Japan's leadership, in science and technology, and strongly recommended its extension in years to come after Term II terminates in FY 2014.

  12. Quality and completeness of data documentation in an investigator-initiated trial versus an industry-sponsored trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Soumil; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Pramesh, C S

    2014-01-01

    Literature on the quality and completeness of data and documentation in investigator-initiated research studies is scarce. We carried out a study to compare the quality of data and documentation in an investigator-initiated trial (IIT) with those in an industry-sponsored study. We retrospectively studied the archived data pertaining to 42 patients enrolled in two trials, 14 patients in an industry-sponsored study and 28 randomly selected patients from an IIT. Trial-related documents were examined and scored for the completeness of the acquisition of data and for storage as per a pre-formulated checklist. Weighted scores were given for each point on the checklist proportional to its relative importance in the data documentation process. A global score and sub-scores for specific modules were given for each subject. The scores in the two studies were compared using the Mann Whitney U test. The total score for general documents was similar in the IIT (14/14, 100%) and the sponsored study (24/25, 96%). The mean summary global score obtained for study-specific documents (maximum possible score, 32) in the IIT (27.1; 95% CI 26.4-27.8) was also not significantly different from that in the sponsored study (27.9; 95% CI 26.7-29.1; p=0.1291). Thus, investigator-initiated studies carried out by independent researchers in high-volume academic centres, even without active data monitoring and formal audits, appear to adhere to the high standards laid out in the International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practices guidelines, ensuring accuracy and completeness in data documentation and archival.

  13. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  14. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gerolamo Xiccato; Angela Trocino; Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing) is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe...

  15. Clinical mentorship of nurse initiated antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: a quality of care assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Green

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To combat the AIDS epidemic and increase HIV treatment access, the South African government implemented a nurse-based, doctor-supported model of care that decentralizes administration of antiretroviral treatment (ART for HIV positive patients through nurse initiated and managed ART. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF implemented a mentorship programme to ensure successful task-shifting, subsequently assessing the quality of clinical care provided by nurses. METHODS: A before-after cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses completing the mentorship programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa, from February 2011-September 2012. Routine clinical data from 229 patient folders and 21 self-assessment questionnaires was collected to determine the number of patients initiated on ART by nurses; quality of ART management before-after mentorship; patient characteristics for doctor and nurse ART initiations; and nurse self-assessments after mentorship. RESULTS: Twenty one nurses were authorized by one nurse mentor with one part-time medical officer's support, resulting in nurses initiating 77% of ART eligible patients. Improvements in ART management were found for drawing required bloods (91% vs 99%, p = 0.03, assessing adherence (50% vs 78%, p<0.001 and WHO staging (63% vs 91%, p<0.001. Nurse ART initiation indicators were successfully completed at 95-100% for 11 of 16 indicators: clinical presentation; patient weight; baseline blood work (CD4, creatinine, haemoglobin; STI screening; WHO stage, correlating medical history; medications prescribed appropriately; ART start date; and documented return date. Doctors initiated more patients with TB/HIV co-infection and WHO Stage 3 and 4 disease than nurses. Nurse confidence improved for managing HIV-infected children and pregnant women, blood result interpretation and long-term side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a clinical mentorship programme in Khayelitsha led to nurse initiation of a

  16. A platform for quality management in research institutes (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klembalska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been a particularly strong pressure on changing old structures and management models in research institutes. Contemporary research institutes are scientific units which are commercial in character – almost 80% of funds come from companies and contractual research activity and services. They are the basic sector of science aiming at cooperation with the economy, applied and innovative research. In order to maintain the current and start new cooperation it is necessary to pay particular attention to maintaining, improving and exposing high level of quality of conducted activity. Taking into consideration the necessity of carrying out ever more complex research projects, conducting activity requiring fast reaction to change, risk analysis, which is assessed every year by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education – it seems that it is necessary to apply tools supporting the assessment of quality. In the proposed three-aspect perspective the following scopes of activity are emphasized: implemented quality management systems, area of scientific information and the sphere of cooperation with the client. This article constitutes the continuation of the subjects discussed in the first part – an extension of issues associated with the scope of responsibilities of particular Sections of the proposed Quality Management Platform in research institutes.

  17. Purposive Selection and the Quality of Qualitative IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    As qualitative research has found broad acceptance within the IS community, the methodological discourse has turned its attention to questions concerning the quality of qualitative research mostly emphasizing the development of how-to guidelines for good practice. By contrast, criteria for the ev......As qualitative research has found broad acceptance within the IS community, the methodological discourse has turned its attention to questions concerning the quality of qualitative research mostly emphasizing the development of how-to guidelines for good practice. By contrast, criteria....... In particular, the technique of corpus construction will be introduced, which was specifically designed as an evaluation criterion for qualitative research. Adapted from linguistics, corpus construction offers an alternative that is functionally equivalent to statistical sampling techniques in terms...

  18. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. [Development of interest in research on the quality of life in medical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukielczak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is an interdisciplinary concept, defined and used in the work by representatives of the medical sciences and the humanities. In the era of continuous development of medicine, physicians are increasingly able to treat and the gradual lengthening of life. Subjective assessment of health status of the patient has made in recent years, more and more important. Health evaluation of the patient makes a special role in the healing process and is indispensable in assessing the effectiveness of therapy. Hence arose the need to initiate research on the quality of life. The article discusses methods of determining quality of life, that are used in medical sciences. It also includes a summary of trends in the use of quality of life investigations in medical sciences. A review of research methods quality of life, which are used in medical science. In addition, analyzes the contents of the database "Medline" using password "quality of life". The article presents the types of questionnaires examining quality of life, recommended by the panel of experts, and are listed and briefly characterized the basic quality of life questionnaires to general and specific. In particular, the review provides a list of principal quality of life diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, in disorders and mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The article also includes information about the requirements associated with the reliability of the questionnaire, and provides information on the possible acquisition and use of research tools with ready-made MAPI Institute. This paper presents apparent in recent decades the development of medical research using the assessment of quality of life related to health. It is the use of validated questionnaires, so that the results of the tests were reliable and reproducible, which increases their value.

  20. Paediatric early warning scores on a children's ward: a quality improvement initiative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ennis, Linda

    2014-09-09

    The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to incorporate a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) and track and trigger system in the routine care of children in an acute general children\\'s ward at a regional hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In the absence of a nationally recommended specific PEWS strategy, a local plan was developed. The experience of structuring and implementing the PEWS and track and trigger system is presented in this article. Data from the first year of use were collected to evaluate the clinical utility and effectiveness of this system. In the busy acute children\\'s service, the PEWS initiative was found to benefit processes of early detection, prompt referral and timely, appropriate management of children at potential risk of clinical deterioration. Nursing staff were empowered and supported to communicate concerns immediately and to seek rapid medical review, according to an agreed PEWS escalation plan. Outcomes were significantly improved.

  1. An investigation of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility-to-hospital readmissions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Michael; Topinka, Joseph Baar; Lee, Kimberly; Brooks, Matthew; McNeil, Christopher; Jackson, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The main objective was to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility (SNF)-to-hospital readmissions. Problem The rate of rehospitalizations from SNF within 30 days of original discharge has increased within the last decade. Setting The research team participants conducted a literature review via Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed to collect data about quality improvement implemented in SNFs. Results The most common facilitator was the incorporation of specialized staff. The most cited barriers were quality improvement tracking and implementation. Conclusion These strategy examples can be useful to acute care hospitals attempting to lower bounce back from subacute care providers and long-term care facilities seeking quality improvement initiatives to reduce hospital readmissions. PMID:28182162

  2. Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Can Guide and Improve Oncology Providers’ Training in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Decat Bergerot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It has become crucial to translate scientific findings and to find ways by which to mobilize local resources to improve the quality and accessibility of cancer care in developing countries. This study seeks to provide insight into challenge through examining differences in clinician documentation of patients with cancer treated at a Brazilian Public University Hospital. Methods: ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI measures were used to examine the care provided in the departments of breast, colorectal, lymphoma, gynecology, and lung cancers. For this study, data from a representative sample of patients receiving chemotherapy in the previous month were extracted and quality of cancer care indicators examined. Results: Certain elements of medical care were consistently and appropriately documented, including cancer diagnosis and stage, chemotherapy planning, administration, and summary. In general, considering the specific cancer management measures, patients received recommended care in accordance with recognized guidelines. Despite this, a number of important gaps in care were identified, including the assessment and treatment of pain, documentation of chemotherapy intention, symptom and toxicity management, patients’ psychosocial status, and provision of a treatment summary at care completion. Conclusion: These findings are encouraging in terms of adherence to core treatment guidelines in cancer care in Brazil. However, results suggest important opportunities for improving care across a number of domains, many of which represent a challenge throughout both developing and developed countries. This study may also provide preliminary guidance for enhancing educational and training programs for professionals and students alike, to implement high-quality, comprehensive cancer care.

  3. Health information management for research and quality assurance: the Comprehensive Renal Transplant Research Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famure, Olusegun; Phan, Nicholas Anh-Tuan; Kim, Sang Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Kidney Transplant Program at the Toronto General Hospital uses numerous electronic health record platforms housing patient health information that is often not coded in a systematic manner to facilitate quality assurance and research. To address this, the comprehensive renal transplant research information system was conceived by a multidisciplinary healthcare team. Data analysis from comprehensive renal transplant research information system presented at programmatic retreats, scientific meetings, and peer-reviewed manuscripts contributes to quality improvement and knowledge in kidney transplantation.

  4. Improving inpatient postnatal services: midwives views and perspectives of engagement in a quality improvement initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wray Julie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite major policy initiatives in the United Kingdom to enhance women's experiences of maternity care, improving in-patient postnatal care remains a low priority, although it is an aspect of care consistently rated as poor by women. As part of a systems and process approach to improving care at one maternity unit in the South of England, the views and perspectives of midwives responsible for implementing change were sought. Methods A Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI approach was adopted to support a systems and process change to in-patient care and care on transfer home in a large district general hospital with around 6000 births a year. The CQI approach included an initial assessment to identify where revisions to routine systems and processes were required, developing, implementing and evaluating revisions to the content and documentation of care in hospital and on transfer home, and training workshops for midwives and other maternity staff responsible for implementing changes. To assess midwifery views of the quality improvement process and their engagement with this, questionnaires were sent to those who had participated at the outset. Results Questionnaires were received from 68 (46% of the estimated 149 midwives eligible to complete the questionnaire. All midwives were aware of the revisions introduced, and two-thirds felt these were more appropriate to meet the women's physical and emotional health, information and support needs. Some midwives considered that the introduction of new maternal postnatal records increased their workload, mainly as a consequence of colleagues not completing documentation as required. Conclusions This was the first UK study to undertake a review of in-patient postnatal services. Involvement of midwives at the outset was essential to the success of the initiative. Midwives play a lead role in the planning and organisation of in-patient postnatal care and it was important to obtain their

  5. Analysis Approach to Durability Based on Material Initial Fatigue Quality and S-N Curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Moucun; Nie Hong

    2007-01-01

    Based on probabilistic fracture mechanics approach, a new concept of material initial fatigue quality (MIFQ) is developed. Then,the relation between S-N curve and crack propagation curve is studied. From the study, a new durability analysis method is presented. In this method, S-N curve is used to determine crack growth rate under constant amplitude.loading and evaluate the effects of different factors on durability and then the structural durability is analyzed. The tests and analyses indicate that this method has lower dependence on testing, and higher accuracy, reliability and generality and is convenient for application.

  6. Leveraging the Partnership for Patients' Initiative to Improve Patient Safety and Quality Within the Military Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heidi B; Kesling, Kimberly; Birk, Carmen; Walker, Theodore; Taylor, Heather; Datena, Michael; Burgess, Brittany; Bower, Lyndsay

    2017-03-01

    Partnership for Patients (PfP) was a national initiative sponsored by the Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, to reduce preventable hospital acquired conditions (HACs) by 40% and readmissions (within 30 days) by 20%, by the end of 2013 (as compared to the baseline of CY2010). Along with partners across the nation, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, Dr. Jonathan Woodson, pledged to support PfP in June 2011. Participation of the Military Health System (MHS) in PfP marked the implementation of the first enterprise-wide patient safety initiative. Three phases of the MHS initiative were developed to meet the aims of the national PfP initiative: (1) Planning and Design, (2) Implementation, and (3) Monitoring and Sustainment. The Planning and Design phase focused on the identification of evidence-based practices (Table III); the development of implementation guides; the implementation of various communication, education, and improvement strategies; and the development of methods by which to track progress and share successes. The implementation phase focused on identifying roles and responsibilities across all levels of care; creating, disseminating, and implementing evidence-based practices at participating military treatment facilities; and establishing a structured learning action network. Finally, during the monitoring and sustainment phase, per the guidance of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, an overall HAC rate was developed for quarterly analysis. The HAC rate per 1,000 dispositions (i.e., discharges) was an aggregate of all PfP HACs. Using the HAC rate, the improvement rate was calculated by comparing the current quarter's HAC rate to the baseline (CY2010). This allowed the MHS to track the overall progress across the enterprise. The MHS achieved a number of accomplishments, including a 15.8% cumulative reduction in HACs by the end of 2013, an 11.1% reduction in readmissions

  7. Initiating a New Research Phase in the Field of International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coviello, Nicole; Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    In a recent publication, Nicole Coviello (2015) emphasized the need to re-think existing research on international entrepreneurship and, more specifically, research on born-global firms. She pointed out that the main value of a critical review lies in initiating a new research phase focusing...

  8. Bridging Conceptions of Quality in Moments of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Ravenek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality assessment in qualitative research has been, and remains, a contentious issue. The qualitative literature contains a diversity of opinions on definitions of and criteria for quality. This article attempts to organize this diversity, drawing on several examples of existing quality criteria, into four main approaches: qualitative as quantitative criteria, paradigm-specific criteria, individualized assessment, and bridging criteria. These different approaches can be mapped onto the historical transitions, or moments, in qualitative research presented by Denzin and Lincoln and, as such, they are presented alongside the various criteria reviewed. Socio-political conditions that have led us to a fractured future, where the value and significance of qualitative work may be marginalized, support the adoption of bridging criteria. These broadly applicable criteria provide means to assess quality and can be flexibly applied among the diversity of qualitative approaches used by researchers. Five categories that summarize the language used within bridging criteria are presented as a means to move forward in developing an approach to quality assessment that fosters communication and connections within the diversity of qualitative research, while simultaneously respecting and valuing paradigmatic and methodological diversity.

  9. Research in power systems: power quality and electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Amarís Duarte, Hortensia; Usaola, Julio

    2008-01-01

    The research group REDES from UC3M has experience on electricity market, grid integration of wind energy and power quality. The group may offer consulting activities with a high component of research. We are looking for the collaboration of companies devoted to the consulting related to electricity markets, the integration of wind power in the electricity network, and with power quality. Contrato Programa de Comercialización e Internacionalización. Sistema Regional de Investigación Científ...

  10. Reflections on the State of Research: Indoor Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel; Corsi, Richard;

    2011-01-01

    that with parallel research and writing efforts culminating with internal review and revision cycles. In this paper, we present our choices for the most important research findings on indoor environmental quality from the past three decades followed by a discussion of the most important research questions in our...... field today. We then continue with a discussion on whether there are research areas for which we can ‘close the book’ and say that we already know what is needed. Finally, we discuss whether we can maintain our identity in the future or it is time to team up with new partners....

  11. The relationship between quality of research and citation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucker Gerta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citation counts are often regarded as a measure of the utilization and contribution of published articles. The objective of this study is to assess whether statistical reporting and statistical errors in the analysis of the primary outcome are associated with the number of citations received. Methods We evaluated all original research articles published in 1996 in four psychiatric journals. The statistical and reporting quality of each paper was assessed and the number of citations received up to 2005 was obtained from the Web of Science database. We then examined whether the number of citations was associated with the quality of the statistical analysis and reporting. Results A total of 448 research papers were included in the citation analysis. Unclear or inadequate reporting of the research question and primary outcome were not statistically significantly associated with the citation counts. After adjusting for journal, extended description of statistical procedures had a positive effect on the number of citations received. Inappropriate statistical analysis did not affect the number of citations received. Adequate reporting of the primary research question, statistical methods and primary findings were all associated with the journal visibility and prestige. Conclusion In this cohort of published research, measures of reporting quality and appropriate statistical analysis were not associated with the number of citations. The journal in which a study is published appears to be as important as the statistical reporting quality in ensuring dissemination of published medical science.

  12. Electronic Commerce publications and research in Australia: Implications of the Research Quality Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helana Scheepers

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian universities and academics will soon see a major change in the way research is reported and funded. It is expected that by 2008, according to the most recent timetable (Bishop 2006, the Research Quality Framework (RQF will be implemented. The result of the announcement has been an increased activity within universities focusing on the proposed criteria. The proposed RQF will seek to have research assessed according to quality and impact. Part of both quality and impact relates to where research is published. For academics it will be increasingly important to target high quality journals if the research is to be rated as high quality. The question this raises for Information Systems academics is where do we publish for maximum impact? The Information Systems (IS field is diverse with researchers working in many areas and a publication outlet for one area may not be relevant for another. One area where many Australian IS researchers have focused their research interest is the field of electronic commerce (e-commerce. The research reported in this paper identified the publication outlets that would be regarded as amongst the highest quality for researchers wishing to publish e-commerce research. The authors analysed e-commerce research papers by Australian researchers published in the period 2000 to 2005. The results describe where Australian researchers are publishing in this field. The paper also provides guidance to those working in the e-commerce field on which journals and conferences to target to ensure their work rates highly in terms of the RQF.

  13. Quality improvement initiative: Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p surgical site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.

  14. Framing the Issue of Research Quality in a Context of Research Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the two frameworks in structuring arguments on the relationship between research quality and diversity. The author suggests understanding the research diversity drawn outside the discipline of accounting. He mentions the research methods in two dimensions which was distinguis...

  15. Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

  16. Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

  17. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary…

  18. Deep Vadose Zone–Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2013-03-14

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.

  19. Policies and initiatives aimed at addressing research misconduct in high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Resnik

    Full Text Available David Resnik and Zubin Master review current policies and initiatives for preventing and managing research misconduct in high-income countries, summarize some high profile cases of misconduct, and make suggestions on ways forward.

  20. "I'll Take Care of the Flowers!" Researching Agency through Initiatives across Different Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Marjaana; Kopisto, Kaisa; Löfman, Krista; Salo, Laura; Krokfors, Leena

    2017-01-01

    This case study examined how the agency of a fifth-grade pupil appeared across different learning environments in the primary school context. In this study, agency is defined as the initiatives taken by an individual in interactive situations. The research question is: how does a pupil's agency manifest and vary through taking initiatives across…

  1. Theory, Practice and Research in Initial Teacher Education in Brazil: Challenges and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Maria Inês; Finholdt Angelo Leite, Vânia; Karl Ramos, Rosane

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to discuss initial teacher education in the Brazilian context, by presenting three educational experiences that prioritise the connection between theory, practice and research in initial teacher education. The paper is the result of a literature review and a document analysis. The theoretical framework for this paper…

  2. The Global Interaction Research Initiative at the IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bjørn, Pernille; Glenstrup, Arne John

    2011-01-01

    This showcase paper describes the Global Interaction Research Initiative – GIRI – recently inaugurated at the IT University of Copenhagen. It presents the motivation for this initiative, namely that the use of information technology is the core enabling factor for global collaboration and business...

  3. Guidelines for Initiating a Research Agenda: Research Design and Dissemination of Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delost, Maria E; Nadder, Teresa S

    2014-01-01

    Successful research outcomes require selection and implementation of the appropriate research design. A realistic sampling plan appropriate for the design is essential. Qualitative or quantitative methodology may be utilized, depending on the research question and goals. Quantitative research may be experimental where there is an intervention, or nonexperimental, if no intervention is included in the design. Causation can only be established with experimental research. Popular types of nonexperimental research include descriptive and survey research. Research findings may be disseminated via presentations, posters, and publications, such as abstracts and manuscripts.

  4. [Research on distribution and quality suitability division of Desmodium styracifolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Tang, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Yang, Quan; Cheng, Xuan-Xuan; Zhang, Chun-Rong; Pan, Li-Ming; Chen, Duan-Ni

    2017-02-01

    The research on distribution and quality suitability division of Desmodium styracifolium were formulated by Maxent and ArcGIS model based on the content of schaftoside and polysaccharide of D. styracifolium and its field research in the south and southwest areas of China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Yunnan), and the most suitable habitats of distribution suitability and quality suitability were screened. The distribution suitability results indicated that average air temperature in April,mean temperature of coldest quarter, soil type, coldness index were found as the four dominant factors contributing to the plant distribution. The quality suitability results indicated that: ①Polysaccharide content and precipitation in April show significant positive correlation;Schaftoside content and mean temperature of April, mean temperature of coldest quarter show significant negative correlation. Schaftoside content shows significant negative correlation with the precipitation in October and November and the sunshine duration in April and May, while there is a significant positive correlation between schaftoside content and precipitation in April and temperature seasonality standard deviation, and a highly significant positive correlation was found between schaftoside content and precipitation in February and March. ②The quality zoning map was drawn depend on general content of polysaccharide and schaftoside as the index of quality. And this research provides scientific location basis for the production regionalization, cultivation bases selection and directive breeding of D. styracifolium. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Integrating risk management data in quality improvement initiatives within an academic neurosurgery department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Garrett, Matthew C; Emami, Leila; Foss, Sarah K; Klohn, Johanna L; Martin, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT While malpractice litigation has had many negative impacts on health care delivery systems, information extracted from lawsuits could potentially guide toward venues to improve care. The authors present a comprehensive review of lawsuits within a tertiary academic neurosurgical department and report institutional and departmental strategies to mitigate liability by integrating risk management data with quality improvement initiatives. METHODS The Comprehensive Risk Intelligence Tool database was interrogated to extract claims/suits abstracts concerning neurosurgical cases that were closed from January 2008 to December 2012. Variables included demographics of the claimant, type of procedure performed (if any), claim description, insured information, case outcome, clinical summary, contributing factors and subfactors, amount incurred for indemnity and expenses, and independent expert opinion in regard to whether the standard of care was met. RESULTS During the study period, the Department of Neurosurgery received the most lawsuits of all surgical specialties (30 of 172), leading to a total incurred payment of $4,949,867. Of these lawsuits, 21 involved spinal pathologies and 9 cranial pathologies. The largest group of suits was from patients with challenging medical conditions who underwent uneventful surgeries and postoperative courses but filed lawsuits when they did not see the benefits for which they were hoping; 85% of these claims were withdrawn by the plaintiffs. The most commonly cited contributing factors included clinical judgment (20 of 30), technical skill (19 of 30), and communication (6 of 30). CONCLUSIONS While all medical and surgical subspecialties must deal with the issue of malpractice and liability, neurosurgery is most affected both in terms of the number of suits filed as well as monetary amounts awarded. To use the suits as learning tools for the faculty and residents and minimize the associated costs, quality initiatives addressing the

  6. The Impact of 3D Data Quality on Improving GNSS Performance Using City Models Initial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Adjrad, M.; Groves, P.

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for highly accurate positioning information in urban areas, to support applications such as people and vehicle tracking, real-time air quality detection and navigation. However systems such as GPS typically perform poorly in dense urban areas. A number of authors have made use of 3D city models to enhance accuracy, obtaining good results, but to date the influence of the quality of the 3D city model on these results has not been tested. This paper addresses the following question: how does the quality, and in particular the variation in height, level of generalization and completeness and currency of a 3D dataset, impact the results obtained for the preliminary calculations in a process known as Shadow Matching, which takes into account not only where satellite signals are visible on the street but also where they are predicted to be absent. We describe initial simulations to address this issue, examining the variation in elevation angle - i.e. the angle above which the satellite is visible, for three 3D city models in a test area in London, and note that even within one dataset using different available height values could cause a difference in elevation angle of up to 29°. Missing or extra buildings result in an elevation variation of around 85°. Variations such as these can significantly influence the predicted satellite visibility which will then not correspond to that experienced on the ground, reducing the accuracy of the resulting Shadow Matching process.

  7. The quality of task times: A methods research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilden, van der M.

    1996-01-01

    IMAG-DLO is faced with large demands for labor data in spite of limited research capacity. Consequently IMAG-DLO is greatly concerned for the efficiency of the methodology used in task time synthesis, with even greater concern for maintaining the quality of the estimates of task times. Much effort h

  8. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors cau...

  9. Pain Management in Long-Term Care Communities: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M C; O’Neil, Kevin W.; Dancy, JaNeen; Berry, Carolyn A.; Stowell, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is underrecognized and undertreated in the long-term care (LTC) setting. To improve the management of pain for LTC residents, the authors implemented a quality improvement (QI) initiative at one LTC facility. They conducted a needs assessment to identify areas for improvement and designed a 2-hour educational workshop for facility staff and local clinicians. Participants were asked to complete a survey before and after the workshop, which showed significant improvement in their knowledge of pain management and confidence in their ability to recognize and manage residents’ pain. To measure the effectiveness of the QI initiative, the authors performed a chart review at baseline and at 3 and 8 months after the workshop and evaluated relevant indicators of adequate pain assessment and management. The post-workshop chart reviews showed significant improvement in how consistently employees documented pain characteristics (ie, location, intensity, duration) in resident charts and in their use of targeted pain assessments for residents with cognitive dysfunction. The proportion of charts that included a documented plan for pain assessment was high at baseline and remained stable throughout the study. Overall, the findings suggest a QI initiative is an effective way to improve pain care practices in the LTC setting. PMID:25949232

  10. Patterns of initiation of oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation- quality and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nihar R; Krumme, Alexis A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Shrank, William H; Brill, Gregory; Pezalla, Edmund J; Spettell, Claire M; Brennan, Troyen A; Matlin, Olga S; Avorn, Jerry; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2014-11-01

    Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban have been approved for use in patients with atrial fibrillation based upon randomized trials demonstrating their comparable or superior efficacy and safety relative to warfarin. Little is known about their adoption into clinical practice, whether utilization is consistent with the controlled trials on which their approval was based, and how their use has affected health spending for patients and insurers. We used medical and prescription claims data from a large insurer to identify patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were prescribed an oral anticoagulant in 2010-2013. We plotted trends in medication initiation over time, assessed corresponding insurer and patient out-of-pocket spending, and evaluated the cumulative number and cost of anticoagulants. We identified predictors of novel anticoagulant initiation using multivariable logistic models. Finally, we estimated the difference in total drug expenditures over 6 months for patients initiating warfarin versus a novel anticoagulant. There were 6893 patients with atrial fibrillation that initiated an oral anticoagulant during the study period. By the end of the study period, novel anticoagulants accounted for 62% of new prescriptions and 98% of anticoagulant-related drug costs. Female sex, lower household income, and higher CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASC, and HAS-BLED scores were significantly associated with lower odds of receiving a novel anticoagulant (P <.001 for each). Average combined patient and insurer anticoagulant spending in the first 6 months after initiation was more than $900 greater for patients initiating a novel anticoagulant. This study demonstrates rapid adoption of novel anticoagulants into clinical practice, particularly among patients with lower CHADS2 and HAS-BLED scores, and high health care cost consequences. These findings provide important directions for future comparative and cost-effectiveness research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. The preclinical data forum network: A new ECNP initiative to improve data quality and robustness for (preclinical) neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Thomas; Brose, Katja; Haas, Magali; Kas, Martien J; Koustova, Elena; Bespalov, Anton

    2015-10-01

    Current limitations impeding on data reproducibility are often poor statistical design, underpowered studies, lack of robust data, lack of methodological detail, biased reporting and lack of open data sharing, coupled with wrong research incentives. To improve data reproducibility, robustness and quality for brain disease research, a Preclinical Data Forum Network was formed under the umbrella of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP). The goal of this network, members of which met for the first time in October 2014, is to establish a forum to collaborate in precompetitive space, to exchange and develop best practices, and to bring together the members from academia, pharmaceutical industry, publishers, journal editors, funding organizations, public/private partnerships and non-profit advocacy organizations. To address the most pertinent issues identified by the Network, it was decided to establish a data sharing platform that allows open exchange of information in the area of preclinical neuroscience and to develop an educational scientific program. It is also planned to reach out to other organizations to align initiatives to enhance efficiency, and to initiate activities to improve the clinical relevance of preclinical data. Those Network activities should contribute to scientific rigor and lead to robust and relevant translational data. Here we provide a synopsis of the proceedings from the inaugural meeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  13. Initial Investigation of Reaction Control System Design on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Earth Orbit Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Ragsdale, W. Al; Neuhaus, Jason; Barnes, Jim

    2008-01-01

    A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked but only slightly by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.

  14. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

  15. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 4 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers assess the air quality, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and health benefits of clean energy initiatives.

  16. EPA Finalizes Initial Area Designations for the 2012 National Air Quality Standard for Fine Particles - Dec 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    After considering state and tribal recommendations, reviewing the most recent certified fine particle air quality data, and emissions that contribute fine particle pollution, EPA has completed initial designations for the 2012 annual fine particle standard

  17. A collaborative research initiative for the environmental management of ostrich production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A collaborative research initiative was proposed by the Federation of Cooperatives of Ostrich Producers of Southeastern Brazil (FECOAVESTRUZ-Sudeste and Embrapa Environment to training technicians and to develop environmental management procedures in order to establish criteria for the definition of 'Terms of Reference' for sustainable ostrich production for FECOAVESTRUZ associates. Eight farms with different scales of operation were selected by FECOAVESTRUZ-Sudeste for the application of 'integrated environmental indicator systems', designed to develop Environmental Management Reports and to propose best management practices in the farms. The results showed that, in general, indicators relative to Use of inputs and resources, Use of veterinary inputs and raw-materials, and especially Use of energy tended to generate negative impact, because ostrich production was intensive in these farms. On the other hand, this intensive production was also associated with improvements in Income generation and Management and administration, with positive reflexes on Employment quality and Customer respect. The utilization of the 'integrated environmental indicator systems' provide fast and inexpensive procedures designed to prepare producers for the eco-certification and ensuing sustainable origin denomination for ostrich production.

  18. [Surgical research in Germany. Organization, quality and international competitiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, M D; Laschke, M W

    2012-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany is performed within surgical clinics by individual working groups or in surgical research divisions. Additionally, a few independent institutes and departments of surgical research have been established at medical faculties. The number of these institutions, however, is too small. To increase productivity in surgical research, structural changes are necessary, including additional establishment of further institutes and professorships. The quality of clinical research in surgery in Germany is critically discussed. International comparison shows that Germany has a low ranking with respect to the number of clinical studies published in leading surgical journals. However, there has been some improvement in the quality of clinical studies performed in surgical departments during the last 15 years. The establishment of the study center of the German Society of Surgery shows that excellent clinical studies with adequate numbers of patients can also be performed in Germany and can be published in leading journals. Accordingly, there is need to distribute the structures and the competence necessary to perform clinical studies in a standardized manner to all surgical departments involved in clinical research. The experimental surgical research in Germany is not adequately visible, although over the last 10 years the most relevant publications from institutions for surgical research have been placed in journals with a mean impact factor of 8. This may be due to the fact that 85% of these top publications are published in non-surgical journals. The aim for the future must therefore be to increase the impact factor and, thus, the attractiveness of surgical journals. This may be achieved by publishing the highest quality results from experimental surgical research not in non-surgical but in surgical journals.

  19. Annual Report Nucelar Energy Research and Development Program Nuclear Energy Research Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, LM

    2003-02-13

    paragraph, Dr. Feltus urged Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to contact other researchers for additional data from other test equipment. Consequently, we have revised the work plan for Tasks 2.1-2.2, with corresponding changes to the work plan as shown in the Status Summary of NERI Tasks. The revised tasks are as follows: Task 2.1--ORNL will obtain test data from a subcontractor and other researchers for various test equipment. This task includes development of a test plan or a description of the historical testing, as appropriate: test facility, equipment to be tested, choice of failure mode(s), testing protocol, data acquisition equipment, and resulting data from the test sequence. ORNL will analyze this data for quality, and subsequently via the nonlinear paradigm for prognostication. Task 2.2--ORNL will evaluate the prognostication capability of the nonlinear paradigm. The comparison metrics for reliability of the predictions will include the true positives, true negatives, and the forewarning times. Task 2.3--ORNL will improve the nonlinear paradigm as appropriate, in accord with the results of Tasks 2.1-2.2, to maximize the rate of true positive and true negative indications of failure. Maximal forewarning time is also highly desirable. Task 2.4--ORNL will develop advanced algorithms for the phase-space distribution function (PS-DF) pattern change recognition, based on the results of Task 2.3. This implementation will provide a capability for automated prognostication, as part of the maintenance decision-making. Appendix A provides a detailed description of the analysis methods, which include conventional statistics, traditional nonlinear measures, and ORNL's patented nonlinear PSDM. The body of this report focuses on results of this analysis.

  20. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  1. Bridging the Teacher/Researcher Divide: Master's-Level Work in Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Carol

    2013-01-01

    There is much current debate about the purpose and usefulness of educational research and the perceived communication gap between teaching professionals and academic researchers. UK government intervention into initial teacher education has in recent decades contributed to this divide by favouring school-based training. The most common route into…

  2. Collaborative Research in Energy: How the US-USSR Initiated a Research Project 40 Years Ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Ormerod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to a Main Article published in this journal: Thurner, T. W., & Proskuryakova, L. (2013. Collaborative research in energy efficiency and renewable energy: Evidence from 5 years of US-Russian research cooperation. Journal of Research Practice, 9(1, Article M4.

  3. Purposive Selection and the Quality of Qualitative IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    As qualitative research has found broad acceptance within the IS community, the methodological discourse has turned its attention to questions concerning the quality of qualitative research mostly emphasizing the development of how-to guidelines for good practice. By contrast, criteria...... for the evaluation of qualitative research, although equally important, have not received equal attention. Drawing on literature from behavioral and social science, this paper discusses methodological concepts of evaluating qualitative research by focusing on techniques to purposefully select data for analysis....... In particular, the technique of corpus construction will be introduced, which was specifically designed as an evaluation criterion for qualitative research. Adapted from linguistics, corpus construction offers an alternative that is functionally equivalent to statistical sampling techniques in terms...

  4. Work stress, asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life: Initial evidence from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Bettina; Leucht, Verena; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Research has suggested that psychological stress is positively associated with asthma morbidity. One major source of stress in adulthood is one's occupation. However, to date, potential links of work stress with asthma control or asthma-specific quality of life have not been examined. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. In 2014/2015, we conducted a cross-sectional study among adults with asthma in Germany (n = 362). For the current analyses that sample was restricted to participants in employment and reporting to have never been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 94). Work stress was operationalized by the 16-item effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, which measures the subcomponents "effort", "reward" and "overcommitment." Participants further completed the Asthma Control Test and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire-Sydney. Multivariable associations were quantified by linear regression and logistic regression. Effort, reward and their ratio (i.e. ERI ratio) did not show meaningful associations with asthma morbidity. By contrast, increasing levels of overcommitment were associated with poorer asthma control and worse quality of life in both linear regression (ß = -0.26, p = 0.01 and ß = 0.44, p < 0.01, respectively) and logistic regression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-3.07 and OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.32-4.15, respectively). The present study provides initial evidence of a positive relationship of work-related overcommitment with asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life. Longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our findings and to disentangle the potential causality of associations.

  5. The development of a quality assurance project plan for the USEPA dioxin exposure initiative program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, C.; Ferrario, J. [Stennis Space Center, MS (USA). USEPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    2004-09-15

    All projects planned and implemented under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Dioxin Exposure Initiative are required to have completed Quality Assurance Projects Plans (QAPPs). EPA Order 5360.1 A2 states, ''All work funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that involves the acquisition of environmental data generated from direct measurement activities, collected from other sources, or compiled from computerized data bases and information systems are implemented in accordance with an approved QA Project Plan except under circumstances requiring immediate actions to protect human health and the environment or operations conducted under police powers''. This policy is based on the newly revised national consensus standard, ANSI/ASQC E-4-2004. These QAPPs have proven invaluable in the development and improvement of analytical methodology for dioxin-like compounds over the intervening years and in the verification and validation of the results of dioxin exposure studies.

  6. Pigs on the plains: Institutional analysis of a Colorado water quality initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D.; Burkardt, N.; Lee, Lamb B.

    2006-01-01

    We used the Legal-Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) and Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to analyze the campaign over passage of the Colorado Hogs Rule, an initiative passed by the voters in 1998 to require regulation of swine production facilities in Colorado. Used in tandem, LIAM and ACF provided an opportunity to develop a robust understanding of the obstacles and opportunities that face water quality managers in a state-centered multi-organizational decision process. We found that combining the LIAM with the ACF enhanced the understanding that could be achieved by using either model in isolation. The predictive capacity of the LIAM would have been reduced without information from the ACF, and the ACF by itself would have missed the importance of a single-case study.

  7. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVES FOR SUPPORT FUNCTIONS IN AN INDUSTRY: TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirshendu Roy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of quality improvement in industry has originated from the involvement of inspector which has become the most important part of manufacturing process or development activity. Over years, this initiative is migrated to various support functions of the industry. In this paper, emphasis has been given particularly in the areas related to support functions where improvement project s can be effectively done and hence organization wide impact is assessed. Two case studies are presented here in this context. The first study shows how smaller change in content structure and delivery met hod can drastically improve the training feedback and the second one demonstrates minimizing lead time to recruitment with a cost-effective process modification.

  8. Highlights from the Coordinating Research Council’s 2016 Air Quality Research Needs Workshop: Top 11 ResearchNeeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) conducted an Air Quality Research Needs Workshop on February 9-10, 2016 at the Georgia Institute of Technology, in Atlanta, GA. The workshop brought together researchers from academia, government, and industry to brainstorm and prioritize ...

  9. 78 FR 41799 - Meeting of the National Advisory Council for Healthcare Research and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Meeting of the National Advisory Council for Healthcare Research and Quality AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Services and the Director, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), on matters related to...

  10. 75 FR 13293 - Meeting of the National Advisory Council for Healthcare Research and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Meeting of the National Advisory Council for Healthcare Research and Quality AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). ACTION: Notice of... Health and Human Services and the Director, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), on...

  11. INITIAL GROWTHAND QUALITY OF Pterogyne nitens Tull.SEEDLING UNDER ARTIFICIAL SHADING GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ricardo Coutinho Fontes César

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814573The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial development and quality of seedlings Pterogyne nitens Tull., produced under different luminosity levels. The experiment was conducted from March to June 2008, in the agricultural field at the State University of Southwestern Bahia state - UESB, in Vitoria da Conquista, BA state. Seven experiments were defined for levels of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of light restriction and plants kept in full sun. For each experiment was followed the completely randomized design with five replications and each experimental unit was composed for12 plants. In a period from 15 to 75 days after the plant emergence, at intervals of 15 days, the morphological and quantitative characteristics of growth and quality index of Dickson (IQD were evaluated. The constraint of light gradients induced morphological changes such as raising the height and increased individual and total leaf area of plants. Reductions in root system mass occurred at the expense of such modifications. Invariably, the highest rates were observed for the IQD plants lied under 36.5% light restriction.  

  12. International Society of Nephrology-Hydration and Kidney Health Initiative - Expanding Research and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moist, Louise M; Clark, William F; Segantini, Luca; Damster, Sandrine; Le Bellego, Laurent; Wong, Germaine; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a collaborative research initiative to explore the role of hydration in kidney health. Our understanding of the effects of hydration in health and disease is surprisingly limited, particularly when we consider the vital role of hydration in basic human physiology. Recent initiatives and research outcomes have challenged the global medical community to expand our knowledge about hydration, including the differences between water, sugared beverages and other consumables. Identification of the potential mechanisms contributing to the benefits of hydration has stimulated the global nephrology community to advance research regarding hydration for kidney health. Hydration and kidney health has been a focus of research for several research centers with a rapidly expanding world literature and knowledge. The International Society of Nephrology has collaborated with Danone Nutricia Research to promote development of kidney research initiatives, which focus on the role of hydration in kidney health and the global translation of this new information. This initiative supports the use of existing data in different regions and countries to expand dialogue among experts in the field of hydration and health, and to increase scientific interaction and productivity with the ultimate goal of improving kidney health. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Optimizing Quality of Care and Patient Safety in Malaysia: The Current Global Initiatives, Gaps and Suggested Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Mu'taman; Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-10-20

    Demand for health care service has significantly increased, while the quality of healthcare and patient safety has become national and international priorities. This paper aims to identify the gaps and the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia. Review of the current literature. Highly cited articles were used as the basis to retrieve and review the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety. The country health plan of Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia and the MOH Malaysia Annual Reports were reviewed. The MOH has set four strategies for optimizing quality and sustaining quality of life. The 10th Malaysia Health Plan promotes the theme "1 Care for 1 Malaysia" in order to sustain the quality of care. Despite of these efforts, the total number of complaints received by the medico-legal section of the MOH Malaysia is increasing. The current global initiatives indicted that quality performance generally belong to three main categories: patient; staffing; and working environment related factors. There is no single intervention for optimizing quality of care to maintain patient safety. Multidimensional efforts and interventions are recommended in order to optimize the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia.

  14. Air Quality in Mecca and Surrounding Holy Places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: Initial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Barletta, B.; Blake, N. J.; Gartner, A.; Khwaja, H. A.; Meinardi, S.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution yet is highly understudied in terms of surface measurements of ozone and its precursors. Every year the air pollution in Saudi Arabia is intensified by additional traffic and activities during Hajj, the world's largest religious pilgrimage that draws 3‒4 million pilgrims to Mecca (population of 2 million). Using whole air sampling and high-precision measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and 97 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we performed an initial survey of air quality in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27; n = 77). This is the first time such a campaign has been undertaken. Levels of the combustion tracer CO and numerous VOCs were strongly elevated along the pilgrimage route, especially in the tunnels of Mecca, and are a concern for human health. For example CO reached 57 ppmv in the tunnels, exceeding the 30-min exposure guideline of 50 ppmv. Benzene, a known carcinogen, reached 185 ppbv in the tunnels, exceeding the 1-hr exposure limit of 9 ppbv. The gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane was the most abundant VOC during Hajj, reaching 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April, 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during Hajj included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes (associated with gasoline evaporation) and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Therefore efforts to curb ozone formation likely require dual targeting of both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. However, modeling and other measurements (e.g., nitrogen oxides) are also needed to fully understand Mecca's oxidative environment. We also present specific recommendations to reduce VOC emissions and exposure in

  15. Data Sharing in Interpretive Engineering Education Research: Challenges and Opportunities from a Research Quality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Joachim; Sochacka, Nicola W.; Pawley, Alice L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores challenges and opportunities associated with sharing qualitative data in engineering education research. This exploration is theoretically informed by an existing framework of interpretive research quality with a focus on the concept of Communicative Validation. Drawing on practice anecdotes from the authors' work, the…

  16. Coaching for Quality Improvement: Lessons Learned from Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS). Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tout, Kathryn; Isner, Tabitha; Zaslow, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Coaching and other on-site, individualized professional development strategies (consultation, mentoring, and technical assistance) are promising approaches to support the application of new teaching practices and overall quality improvement among practitioners in early care and education settings. This Research Brief summarizes a recent report…

  17. Pursuing Quality Evidence: Applying Single-Subject Quality Indicators to Non-Experimental Qualitative Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…

  18. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative: Multidisciplinary data management from the ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    As more journals and funding organizations require data to be made available, more and more scientists are being exposed to the world of data science, metadata development, and data standards so they can ensure future funding and publishing success. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is the vehicle by which the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) is making all data collected in this program publically available. This varied group of researchers all have different levels of experience with data management standards and protocols, thus GRIIDC has evolved to embrace the cooperative nature of our work and develop a number of tools and training materials to help ensure data managers and researchers in the GoMRI program are submitting high quality data and metadata that will be useful for years to come. GRIIDC began with a group of 8 data managers many of which had only ever managed their own data, who were then expected to manage the data of a large group of geographically distant researchers. As the program continued to evolve these data managers worked with the GRIIDC team to help identify and develop much needed resources for training and communication for themselves and the scientists they represented. This essential cooperation has developed a team of highly motivated scientists, computer programmers and data scientists who are working to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem and beyond.

  19. Knowledge management as a mediator for the efficacy of transformational leadership and quality management initiatives in U.S. health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Charles R; Henagan, Stephanie C; McFadden, Kathleen L

    2009-01-01

    The health care industry has become one of the largest sectors of the U.S. economy and provides the greatest job growth of any industry. With such growth, effective leadership, knowledge management, and quality programs can ameliorate patient safety outcomes and improve organizational performance. This exploratory study examines the efficacy of transformational leadership, knowledge management, and quality initiatives, each of which has been proven effective in health care organizations. The literature has neglected the relationships among these three types of programs, although they are increasingly implemented simultaneously now. This research tests the degree to which knowledge management could act as a mediator of the effects transformational leadership and quality management have on organizational performance for hospitals. Our survey of U.S. hospitals utilizes validated scales from the literature. By calling and e-mailing quality and other department directors, the data set includes responses from all 50 states in our sample of 370 U.S. hospitals. Statistical tests confirmed acceptable regional distribution, interrater reliability, and control variable characteristics for our sample. Structural equation modeling is used to test the research hypotheses. These preliminary results reveal that transformational leadership and quality management improve knowledge management. In addition, transformational leadership is fully mediated by knowledge responsiveness and quality management is partially mediated by knowledge responsiveness for their effects on organizational performance. The unique contribution of this study includes the suggestion that greater transformational leadership skills are important for health care executives to motivate successful knowledge management initiatives. Secondly, continuous improvements in quality management programs have significant positive impacts on knowledge management and organizational outcomes in hospitals. Finally, successful

  20. Safety culture and quality management of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syarip [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Hauptmanns, Ulrich [Department of Plant Design and Safety, Otto-Von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The evaluation for assessing the safety culture and quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is presented. The method is based on the concept of management control of safety (audit) as well as by using the developed method i.e. the questionnaires concerning areas of relevance which have to be answered with value statements. There are seven statements or qualifiers in answering the questions. Since such statements are vague, they are represented by fuzzy numbers. The weaknesses can be identified from the different areas contemplated. The evaluation result show that the quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is globally rated as 'Average'. The operator behavior in the implementation of 'safety culture' concept is found as a weakness, therefore this area should be improved. (author)

  1. Cluster analysis application in research on pork quality determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, W.; Wasiewicz, P.; Zieliński, P.; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J.; Olczak, E.; Jaworska, D.; Niemyjski, S.; Santé-Lhoutellier, V.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper data mining methods were applied to investigate features determining high quality pork meat. The aim of the study was analysis of conditionality of the pork meat quality defined in coherence with HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration, plasma leptin, triglycerides, plasma glucose and serum. The research was carried out on 54 pigs. originated from crossbreeding of Naima sows with P76-PenArLan boars hybrids line. Meat quality parameters were evaluated in samples derived from the Longissimus (LD) muscle taken behind the last rib on the basis: the pH value, meat colour, drip loss, the RTN, intramuscular fat and glycolytic potential. The results of this study were elaborated by using R environment and show that cluster and regression analysis can be a useful tool for in-depth analysis of the determinants of the quality of pig meat in homogeneous populations of pigs. However, the question of determinants of the level of glycogen and fat in meat requires further research.

  2. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppler, RA; Kehoe, KE; Sonntag, KL; Bahrmann, CP; Richardson, SJ; Christensen, SW; McCord, RA; Doty, DJ; Wagener, Richard [BNL; Eagan, RC; Lijegren, JC; Orr, BW; Sisterson, DL; Halter, TD; Keck, NN; Long, CN; Macduff, MC; Mather, JH; Perez, RC; Voyles, JW; Ivey, MD; Moore, ST; Nitschke, DL; Perkins, BD; Turner, DD

    2008-03-01

    This report documents key aspects of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) data quality assurance program as it existed in 2008. The performance of ACRF instruments, sites, and data systems is measured in terms of the availability, usability, and accessibility of the data to a user. First, the data must be available to users; that is, the data must be collected by instrument systems, processed, and delivered to a central repository in a timely manner. Second, the data must be usable; that is, the data must be inspected and deemed of sufficient quality for scientific research purposes, and data users must be able to readily tell where there are known problems in the data. Finally, the data must be accessible; that is, data users must be able to easily find, obtain, and work with the data from the central repository. The processes described in this report include instrument deployment and calibration; instrument and facility maintenance; data collection and processing infrastructure; data stream inspection and assessment; the roles of value-added data processing and field campaigns in specifying data quality and haracterizing the basic measurement; data archival, display, and distribution; data stream reprocessing; and engineering and operations management processes and procedures. Future directions in ACRF data quality assurance also are presented.

  3. Developing the protocol for the evaluation of the health foundation's 'engaging with quality initiative' - an emergent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Bryony; Buxton, Martin; Hanney, Stephen; Oortwijn, Wija; Scoggins, Amanda; Steel, Nick; Ling, Tom

    2008-10-30

    In 2004 a UK charity, The Health Foundation, established the 'Engaging with Quality Initiative' to explore and evaluate the benefits of engaging clinicians in quality improvement in healthcare. Eight projects run by professional bodies or specialist societies were commissioned in various areas of acute care. A developmental approach to the initiative was adopted, accompanied by a two level evaluation: eight project self-evaluations and a related external evaluation. This paper describes how the protocol for the external evaluation was developed. The challenges faced included large variation between and within the projects (in approach, scope and context, and in understanding of quality improvement), the need to support the project teams in their self-evaluations while retaining a necessary objectivity, and the difficulty of evaluating the moving target created by the developmental approach adopted in the initiative. An initial period to develop the evaluation protocol proved invaluable in helping us to explore these issues.

  4. Developing the protocol for the evaluation of the health foundation's 'engaging with quality initiative' – an emergent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scoggins Amanda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2004 a UK charity, The Health Foundation, established the 'Engaging with Quality Initiative' to explore and evaluate the benefits of engaging clinicians in quality improvement in healthcare. Eight projects run by professional bodies or specialist societies were commissioned in various areas of acute care. A developmental approach to the initiative was adopted, accompanied by a two level evaluation: eight project self-evaluations and a related external evaluation. This paper describes how the protocol for the external evaluation was developed. The challenges faced included large variation between and within the projects (in approach, scope and context, and in understanding of quality improvement, the need to support the project teams in their self-evaluations while retaining a necessary objectivity, and the difficulty of evaluating the moving target created by the developmental approach adopted in the initiative. An initial period to develop the evaluation protocol proved invaluable in helping us to explore these issues.

  5. Establishing a research and demonstration area initiated by managers: the Sharkey Restoration Research and Demonstration Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gardiner; J. Stanturf; T. Leininger; P. Hamel; L. Jr. Dorris; J. Portwood; J. Shepard

    2008-01-01

    As forest scientists increase their role in the process of science delivery, many research organizations are searching for novel methods to effectively build collaboration with managers to produce valued results. This article documents our experience with establishment of a forest restoration research and demonstration area in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (...

  6. Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Jonathan O. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Vavilala, Monica S.; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P. [Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Pruthi, Sumit [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Fink, James [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Jaffe, Kenneth M. [University of Washington, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Dennis [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Koepsell, Thomas [University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Temkin, Nancy [University of Washington, Biostatistics, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift {>=}5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas {>=}3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

  7. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors cau....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  8. Approaches to ensuring and improving quality in the context of health system strengthening: a cross-site analysis of the five African Health Initiative Partnership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Baynes, Colin; Sherr, Kenneth; Chintu, Namwinga; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Finnegan, Karen; Philips, James F; Anatole, Manzi; Bawah, Ayaga A; Basinga, Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Integrated into the work in health systems strengthening (HSS) is a growing focus on the importance of ensuring quality of the services delivered and systems which support them. Understanding how to define and measure quality in the different key World Health Organization building blocks is critical to providing the information needed to address gaps and identify models for replication. We describe the approaches to defining and improving quality across the five country programs funded through the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation African Health Initiative. While each program has independently developed and implemented country-specific approaches to strengthening health systems, they all included quality of services and systems as a core principle. We describe the differences and similarities across the programs in defining and improving quality as an embedded process essential for HSS to achieve the goal of improved population health. The programs measured quality across most or all of the six WHO building blocks, with specific areas of overlap in improving quality falling into four main categories: 1) defining and measuring quality; 2) ensuring data quality, and building capacity for data use for decision making and response to quality measurements; 3) strengthened supportive supervision and/or mentoring; and 4) operational research to understand the factors associated with observed variation in quality. Learning the value and challenges of these approaches to measuring and improving quality across the key components of HSS as the projects continue their work will help inform similar efforts both now and in the future to ensure quality across the critical components of a health system and the impact on population health.

  9. A matter of taste: evaluating the quality of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-06-01

    Driven by an impetus to standardize, numerous checklists have been devised to address quality in qualitative research, but these standards and the mindset driving them offer no language with which to speak about taste, or the aesthetic sensibilities that play such a key role in evaluating the goodness of any object. In this article, quality appraisal in qualitative research is considered in the context of taste, that is, in the discernment involved in judging the value of research and in the recognition of the key role reviewer preferences, sensibilities and membership in one or more taste communities play in these judgements. The evaluation of a study is accomplished by evaluating one or more reports from that study, and such reports may be conceived as art forms amenable to the same criteria for appraisal as poems or paintings. Taste implies judgements about the quality of objects and a person's ability to sift through and select from a store of knowledge that knowledge appropriate to judge its value. What binds a community of practitioners (here reviewers of qualitative studies) together is taste-making, or the constant refinements of judgements concerning what constitutes good and bad practice.

  10. Atmospheric Motion Vectors from INSAT-3D: Initial quality assessment and its impact on track forecast of cyclonic storm NANAUK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham

    2016-03-01

    The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.

  11. A National Initiative of Teaching, Researching, and Dreaming: Community College Faculty Research in "Achieving the Dream" Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    Dating back to 2004, the Achieving the Dream initiative was established to promote evidence-based programs and interventions to produce and sustain student success. Achieving the Dream has created a new environment and new forms of thinking among the faculty that have spurred some to action research within their classrooms and beyond. Using three…

  12. A National Initiative of Teaching, Researching, and Dreaming: Community College Faculty Research in "Achieving the Dream" Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    Dating back to 2004, the Achieving the Dream initiative was established to promote evidence-based programs and interventions to produce and sustain student success. Achieving the Dream has created a new environment and new forms of thinking among the faculty that have spurred some to action research within their classrooms and beyond. Using three…

  13. Initial phases of design-based research into the educational potentials of NAO-robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Bertel, Lykke Brogaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our initial research, using the humanoid robot NAO in primary and secondary schools. How does a programmable humanoid enrich teaching and how do we prepare the teachers? Ten school classes are using the robot for creative programming. So far we have experienced that the......In this paper, we describe our initial research, using the humanoid robot NAO in primary and secondary schools. How does a programmable humanoid enrich teaching and how do we prepare the teachers? Ten school classes are using the robot for creative programming. So far we have experienced...

  14. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  15. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1984 Research Reports. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    S. "Behavioral decision theory", A Review 2f Psycolog , Vol. 28, pp. 1-39, 1977. [21 Price, H.E., Maisana, R.E., and Van Cott, H.P. "The allocation... Capitalization on chance. That is, model modifications are based on results obtained from fl.ttrg an initial model to a particular sample. Therefore, the search...probably due to a combination of (a) a relatively low level of power for the models and samples employed, and (bi the pieomenon of capitalization on

  16. Notions of quality and standards for qualitative research reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Ed

    2015-10-01

    The utility of qualitative research findings in the health sciences has been the subject of considerable debate, particularly with the advent of qualitative systematic reviews in recent years. There has been a significant investment in the production of guidance to improve the reporting of quantitative research; however, comparatively little time has been spent on developing the same for qualitative research reporting. This paper sets out to examine the possibility of developing a framework for refereed journals to utilize when guiding authors on how to report the results of qualitative studies in the hope that this will improve the quality of reports and subsequently their inclusion in qualitative syntheses and guidelines to inform practice at the point of care.

  17. Elevating the quality of disability and rehabilitation research: mandatory use of the reporting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leighton; Heinemann, Allen W; Roberts, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Note from the AJOT Editor-in-Chief: Since 2010, the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) has adopted reporting standards based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement and American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines in an effort to publish transparent clinical research that can be easily evaluated for methodological and analytical rigor (APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008; Moher, Schulz, & Altman, 2001). AJOT has now joined 28 other major rehabilitation and disability journals in a collaborative initiative to enhance clinical research reporting standards through adoption of the EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines, described below. Authors will now be required to use these guidelines in the preparation of manuscripts that will be submitted to AJOT. Reviewers will also use these guidelines to evaluate the quality and rigor of all AJOT submissions. By adopting these standards we hope to further enhance the quality and clinical applicability of articles to our readers.

  18. Quality Improvement Initiative to Decrease Variability of Emergency Physician Opioid Analgesic Prescribing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Burton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing pain is a crucial aspect of emergency medicine. Prescription opioids are commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain in the emergency department (ED; unfortunately, prescribing practices are variable. High variability of opioid prescribing decisions suggests a lack of consensus and an opportunity to improve care. This quality improvement (QI initiative aimed to reduce variability in ED opioid analgesic prescribing. Methods: We evaluated the impact of a three-part QI initiative on ED opioid prescribing by physicians at seven sites. Stage 1: Retrospective baseline period (nine months. Stage 2: Physicians were informed that opioid prescribing information would be prospectively collected and feedback on their prescribing and that of the group would be shared at the end of the stage (three months. Stage 3: After physicians received their individual opioid prescribing data with blinded comparison to the group means (from Stage 2 they were informed that individual prescribing data would be unblinded and shared with the group after three months. The primary outcome was variability of the standard error of the mean and standard deviation of the opioid prescribing rate (defined as number of patients discharged with an opioid divided by total number of discharges for each provider. Secondary observations included mean quantity of pills per opioid prescription, and overall frequency of opioid prescribing. Results: The study group included 47 physicians with 149,884 ED patient encounters. The variability in prescribing decreased through each stage of the initiative as represented by the distributions for the opioid prescribing rate: Stage 1 mean 20%; Stage 2 mean 13% (46% reduction, p<0.01, and Stage 3 mean 8% (60% reduction, p<0.01. The mean quantity of pills prescribed per prescription was 16 pills in Stage 1, 14 pills in Stage 2 (18% reduction, p<0.01, and 13 pills in Stage 3 (18% reduction, p<0.01. The group mean

  19. Development and initial validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J G; Bouma, Margriet; van Ittersum, Frans J; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality assessment is a key element for improving the quality of care. Currently, a comprehensive indicator set for measuring the quality of medication treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is lacking. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality ind

  20. Development and initial validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J G; Bouma, Margriet; van Ittersum, Frans J; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality assessment is a key element for improving the quality of care. Currently, a comprehensive indicator set for measuring the quality of medication treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is lacking. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality ind

  1. Implementation of a heart failure quality initiative in a skilled nursing facility: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Arif; Dennis, M E; Unroe, Kathleen T

    2015-05-01

    Skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are organizations that represent complex adaptive systems, offering barriers to the implementation of quality improvement (QI) initiatives. The current article describes the authors' efforts to use the approach of reflective adaptive process to implement a new model of care (i.e., the Skilled Heart Unit Program) for effective heart failure (HF) care in one SNF. A team of stakeholders from the local hospital system and a local SNF was convened to design and implement this new model. Evaluation of the implementation processes confirmed the value of the implementation approach, which centered on team-based approaches, staff engagement, and flexibility of processes to respect the SNF's needs and culture. Interviews with facility staff and the administrator revealed their perceptions that the strategy resulted in better HF care, enhanced teamwork between staff and clinicians, and improved staff job satisfaction. This work provides a unique blueprint of strategic QI implementation for patients with HF in the SNF setting. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Leveraging lean principles in creating a comprehensive quality program: The UCLA health readmission reduction initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Lonowski, Sarah; Namavar, Aram A

    2017-01-04

    UCLA Health embarked to transform care by integrating lean methodology in a key clinical project, Readmission Reduction Initiative (RRI). The first step focused on assembling a leadership team to articulate system-wide priorities for quality improvement. The lean principle of creating a culture of change and accountability was established by: 1) engaging stakeholders, 2) managing the process with performance accountability, and, 3) delivering patient-centered care. The RRI utilized three major lean principles: 1) A3, 2) root cause analyses, 3) value stream mapping. Baseline readmission rate at UCLA from 9/2010-12/2011 illustrated a mean of 12.1%. After the start of the RRI program, for the period of 1/2012-6/2013, the readmission rate decreased to 11.3% (pservice- and location-based interventions into strategies with broader approach. As elucidated, a systematic clinical approach grounded in lean methodologies is a viable solution to this complex problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; DeCicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  4. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; De Cicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary A.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.

    2017-02-01

    xml:id="wrcr22485-sec-1001" numbered="no">Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  5. Research on Improving Manufacturing Practice Quality in Mechanical Industrial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems existing in the manufacturing practice of mechanical industrial design, a series of methods and concrete measures are proposed, so as to improve the quality of manufacturing practice of mechanical industrial design. In this study, the problems existing in the manufacturing practice of mechanical industrial design are analyzed detailedly. And the methods and concrete measures including establishing the new mode of manufacturing practice of mechanical industrial design, improving the understanding to manufacturing practice and knowing the major role, establishing a professional characteristic base of manufacturing practice and strengthening the construction of instructor troops of manufacturing practice are proposed, which will certainly have a profound theoretical and practical guiding significance. On this foundation, the research conclusion on improving manufacturing practice quality in mechanical industrial design is done.

  6. Undergraduate Student Research Opportunities and Economic Revitalization through Urban Agriculture Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläppi, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Through interactions with the recently formed Cooperative of the Institute of Urban Agriculture and Nutrition (CIUAN), a catalyst initiative co-governed by community organizations and academia to engage in mutually beneficial research and teaching projects, Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is supporting community efforts to bring…

  7. Initial phases of design-based research into the educational potentials of NAO-robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Bertel, Lykke Brogaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our initial research, using the humanoid robot NAO in primary and secondary schools. How does a programmable humanoid enrich teaching and how do we prepare the teachers? Ten school classes are using the robot for creative programming. So far we have experienced...... that the robot enriches the learning processes by combining the auditory, visual and kinaesthetic modalities....

  8. Transferring Chemical Research to a Spin-Off Initiative in Health Care: The Lipidomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    Lipidomics is an emerging discipline in life sciences related to the lipid metabolism of living organisms. In the last decade chemical and biological research has attributed very important roles to membrane phospholipids in relationship to free radical stress and metabolic situations. An entrepreneurial initiative for diagnostic tools and health…

  9. Research on eggshell structure and quality: an historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Hunton

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell is an important structure for two reasons. Firstly it forms an embryonic chamber for the developing chick, providing mechanical protection and a controlled gas exchange medium. Secondly it is a container for the market egg, providing protection of the contents and a unique package for a valuable food. The superficial structure of the shell has been known for over 100 years. The shell consists of 97% calcium carbonate, and this is provided to the hen in the diet. However, the chemical must be broken down in the digestive system and then re-synthesized in the shell gland to form the shell. This results in a turnover of blood Ca of ~ 100 times each 24 hours. Provision of calcium to layers has been researched at length, but the key work, conducted at Cornell University in the 1960's, showed the necessity for sources with large particle size, for example, oyster shells. Subsequent research has defined guidelines that, if correctly followed, will yield reliable and optimum eggshell quality. Breakage or cracking of eggshells in market channels is a serious concern. Cracks result from a combination of shell strength and integrity, and the extent of the "insult" received by the egg during handling. Measurement of shell strength, and assessment of "insults" is important to the poultry industry. Most recent research has identified the ultra-structure of the shell, with resulting opportunities for industrial remedies, and possible new selection criteria, to ensure maximum shell quality throughout the egg industry.

  10. Measurement quality and uncertainty evaluation in civil engineering research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ribeiro A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil engineering is a branch of science that covers a broad range of areas where experimental procedures often plays an important role. The research in this field is usually supported by experimental structures able to test physical and mathematical models and to provide measurement results with acceptable accuracy. To assure measurement quality, a metrology probabilistic approach can provide valuable mathematical and computational tools especially suited to the study, evaluation and improvement of measurement processes in its different components (modeling, instrumentation performance, data processing, data validation and traceability, emphasizing measurement uncertainty evaluation as a tool to the analysis of results and to promote the quality and capacity associated with decision-making. This paper presents some of the research held by the metrology division of the Portuguese civil engineering research institutes, focused on the contribution of measurement uncertainty studies to a variety of frameworks, such as testing for metrological characterization and physical and mathematical modeling. Experimental data will be used to illustrate practical cases.

  11. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imrat, P.; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Suthanmapinanth, P.; Kornkaewrat, K.; Sombutputorn, P.; Jansittiwate, S.; Thongtip, Nikorn; Pinyopummin, A.; Colenbrander, B.; Holt, W.V.; Stout, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that se

  12. Initiating community engagement in an ecohealth research project in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musesengwa, Rosemary; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-03-07

    Community Engagement (CE) in health research ensures that research is consistent with the socio-cultural, political and economic contexts where the research is conducted. The greatest challenges for researchers are the practical aspects of CE in multicentre health research. This study describes the CE in an ecohealth community-based research project focusing on two vulnerable and research naive rural communities. A qualitative, longitudinal multiple case study approach was used. Data was collected through Participatory Rural Appraisals, Focus Group Discussions, In-depth Interviews, and observations. The two sites had different cultural values, research literacy levels, and political and administrative structures. The engagement process included 1) introductions to the administrative and political leaders of the area; 2) establishing a community advisory mechanism; 3) community empowerment and 4) initiating sustainable post-study activities. In both sites the study employed community liaison officers to facilitate the community entry and obtaining letters of permission. Both sites opted to form Community Advisory Boards as their main advisory mechanism together with direct advice from community leaders. Empowerment was achieved through the education of ordinary community members at biannual meetings, employment of community research assistants and utilising citizen science. Through the research assistants and the citizen science group, the study has managed to initiate activities that the community will continue to utilise after the study ends. General strategies developed are similar in principle, but implementation and emphasis of various aspects differed in the two communities. We conclude that it is critical that community engagement be consistent with community values and attitudes, and considers community resources and capacity. A CE strategy fully involving the community is constrained by community research literacy levels, time and resources, but creates a

  13. Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: assessing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, A; Swift, J A

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, qualitative research has become much more widely used in healthcare settings and undoubtedly has much to offer nutrition and dietetics. Its value is, however, still sometimes called into question and, for those unfamiliar with qualitative approaches, it can be difficult to grasp what distinguishes 'good' qualitative research from that which has been less rigorously conceived and conducted. This review, the fourth in the series, aims to highlight some of the key scientific debates around the quality criteria that can be applied to qualitative research, and offers some flexible guidelines that may be used both in producing and assessing qualitative health research, including studies in nutrition and dietetics. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and analysis and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. The value of formal clinical research training in initiating a career as a clinical investigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Karan; Wu, Bechien U; Banks, Peter A

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether formal clinical research training is of value in the initiation of a successful career as a clinical investigator. We conducted a retrospective review of the career choices of all 25 fellows who entered the Academic Clinical Research Track at Brigham and Women's Hospital since its inception in 1995 and examined the impact of formal clinical research training during their fellowship on their career choice. The primary measure of a successful career as a clinical investigator was the obtainment of external funding for clinical research within 3 years of completion of fellowship. Thirteen of the 25 fellows (52%) received a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree at the Harvard School of Public Health during their fellowship. Ten of these 13 fellows (77%) obtained external funding for clinical research within 3 years of completion of their fellowship. None of the 5 fellows who had already obtained an MPH degree prior to their fellowship and none of the 7 fellows who completed a 7-week summer Program in Clinical Effectiveness but did not complete an MPH degree attempted to receive external funding for clinical research within 3 years of completion of their fellowship. We conclude that formal clinical research training culminating in an MPH degree was extremely valuable in the initiation of a successful career as a clinical investigator.

  15. An investigation of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility-to-hospital readmissions: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileski M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Mileski, Joseph Baar Topinka, Kimberly Lee, Matthew Brooks, Christopher McNeil, Jenna Jackson School of Health Administration, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA Objectives: The main objective was to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility (SNF-to-hospital readmissions. Problem: The rate of rehospitalizations from SNF within 30 days of original discharge has increased within the last decade. Setting: The research team participants conducted a literature review via Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed to collect data about quality improvement implemented in SNFs. Results: The most common facilitator was the incorporation of specialized staff. The most cited barriers were quality improvement tracking and implementation. Conclusion: These strategy examples can be useful to acute care hospitals attempting to lower bounce back from subacute care providers and long-term care facilities seeking quality improvement initiatives to reduce hospital readmissions. Keywords: readmissions, skilled nursing, quality improvement, hospital, finance, Medicare, transfers

  16. Quantitative Research Methods, Study Quality, and Outcomes: The Case of Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke; Gass, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article constitutes the first empirical assessment of methodological quality in second language acquisition (SLA). We surveyed a corpus of 174 studies (N = 7,951) within the tradition of research on second-language interaction, one of the longest and most influential traditions of inquiry in SLA. Each report was coded for methodological…

  17. Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research%Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; WU Yu-feng; LI Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    How to measure the quality of conceptual models is an important issue in the IS field and related research. This paper conducts a review of research in measuring conceptual model quality and identifies the major theoretical and practical issues that need to be addressed in future studies. We review current classification frameworks for conceptual model quality and practice of measuring conceptual model quality. Based on the review, challenges for studies of measuring the quality of conceptual models are proposed and these challenges are also research points which should be strengthened in future studies.

  18. Initial Characterization and Water Quality Assessment of Stream Landscapes in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring project (2006–2013 provided data on hydrology, hydromorphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry, sedimentology, macroinvertebrate community and fish diversity in the Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia, thus enabling, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the stream landscapes. Surface waters were categorized into separate “water bodies” according to their identifiable abiotic and biocoenotic features, subsequently creating the smallest management sub-units within the river basin. Following the approach of the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD, in order to obtain a good ecological status (GES, four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies consisting of the basin’s tributaries were delineated. The type-specific undisturbed reference state of various aquatic ecosystems was identified in the assessment and used to set standards for restoration goals. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin in the Khentii Mountains were classified as having a “good” ecological and chemical status. Compared with these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several “hot spot” regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Subsequently, the affected water bodies are at risk of not obtaining a level of good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. Finally, a matrix of cause-response relationships and stressor complexes has been developed and is presented here. The applicability of management approaches is discussed to better foster the development of a sustainable river basin management plan. The application of natural references states offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin.

  19. Costs and financing of improvements in the quality of maternal health services through the Bamako Initiative in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbekun, I; Adeyi, O; Wouters, A; Morrow, R H

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports on a study to assess the quality of maternal health care in public health facilities in Nigeria and to identify the resource implications of making the necessary quality improvements. Drawing upon unifying themes from quality assurance, basic microeconomics and the Bamako Initiative, locally defined norms were used to estimate resource requirements for improving the quality of maternal health care. Wide gaps existed between what is required (the norm) and what was available in terms of fixed and variable resources required for the delivery of maternal health services in public facilities implementing the Bamako Initiative in the Local Government Areas studied. Given such constraints, it was highly unlikely that technically acceptable standards of care could be met without additional resource inputs to meet the norm. This is part of the cost of doing business and merits serious policy dialogue. Revenue generation from health services was poor and appeared to be more related to inadequate supply of essential drugs and consumables than to the use of uneconomic fee scales. It is likely that user fees will be necessary to supplement scarce government budgets, especially to fund the most critical variable inputs associated with quality improvements. However, any user fee system, especially one that raises fees to patients, will have to be accompanied by immediate and visible quality improvements. Without such quality improvements, cost recovery will result in even lower utilization and attempts to generate new revenues are unlikely to succeed.

  20. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Research Assistants in Community Research: Overcoming Limitations of Community Relationships, Research Expertise, and Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Vukotich, Jr.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to a Main Article published in this journal: Vukotich, C. J., Jr., Cousins, J., & Stebbins, S. (2014. Building sustainable research engagements: Lessons learned from research with schools. Journal of Research Practice, 10(1, Article M1.

  2. ACUTE DIALYSIS QUALITY INITIATIVE (ADQI) XIV SEPSIS PHENOTYPES AND TARGETS FOR BLOOD PURIFICATION IN SEPSIS: THE BOGOTÁ CONSENSUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellum, John A; Gómez, Hernando; Gómez, Alonso; Murray, Patrick; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Despite widespread use, there is currently no consensus on how extracorporeal blood purification therapies should be applied or studied in patients with sepsis. One major obstacle has been the lack of clear descriptions of specific sepsis phenotypes tied to mechanisms that would permit the identification of molecular targets. Current evidence suggests that sepsis-related morbidity and mortality involve widely different clinical phenotypes that variably include mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormalities of vascular biology including endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy, epithelial dysfunction, and immune suppression and dysregulation. While most cases of sepsis involve some element of all of these pathobiologic processes, the magnitude of each varies greatly from patient to patient in part as a result of the pathogen and in part related to host-specific factors. Thus, the purpose of the fourteenth international consensus conference of acute dialysis quality initiative was to develop consensus for a conceptual model of sepsis-induced organ failure that can be treated by extracorporeal blood purification and possibly also with drugs or other therapies. We assembled a group of experts from around the world and used a modified Delphi method to reach consensus. Specific findings and recommendations for future research are provided in the four accompanying papers.

  3. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Hayes, Tavis P.; Brehaut, Jamie C.; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. Methods We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Results Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial - randomised or otherwise – of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Discussion Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review. PMID:26225553

  4. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Nicholls

    Full Text Available To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review.We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction.Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial--randomised or otherwise--of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review.Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review.

  5. Did Better Colleges Bring Better Jobs? Estimating the Effects of College Quality on Initial Employment for College Graduates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    The unemployment problem of college students in China has drawn much attention from academics and society. Using the 2011 College Student Labor Market (CSLM) survey data from Tsinghua University, this paper estimated the effects of college quality on initial employment, including employment status and employment unit ownership for fresh college…

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstrating that the alternative values will protect the aquatic life uses of the water. Appropriate... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and Values A Appendix A to Part 132 Protection of...

  7. Addressing Opioid-Associated Constipation Using Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Scores and Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Varinder; Haider, Sajjad; Sasapu, Appalanaidu; Mehta, Paulette; Arnaoutakis, Konstantinos; Makhoul, Issam

    2017-01-01

    Using the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, an affiliate program of ASCO, we outlined opioid-associated constipation (OAC) as a subject in need of quality improvement (QI) in our fellowship program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System. We initiated a fellow-led QI project to advance the quality of patient care and provide a valuable avenue for QI training of young physicians. Fellows organized meetings with all stakeholders, addressed the scope of the problem, and devised strategies for OAC management. Monthly meetings were organized using Plan-Do-Study-Act principles. Mandatory check boxes were inserted into our electronic medical record templates to remind all physicians to identify patients on opioid medications and assess and address OAC. Final chart audit and patient satisfaction surveys were performed 6 months after project initiation. Assessment of OAC improved from 52% at baseline to 92% ( P Quality Oncology Practice Initiative helps identify areas in need of QI, and such fellow-led QI projects can serve as models for QI training of young physicians.

  8. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The “CHNRI method” has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  9. The legacy of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Under the Global Forum for Health Research, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) began its operations in 1999 and became a Swiss foundation in 2006. The vision of CHNRI was to improve child health and nutrition of all children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) through research that informs health policy and practice. Specific objectives included expanding global knowledge on childhood disease burden and cost-effectiveness of interventions, promoting priority setting in research, ensuring inclusion of institutions and scientists in LMIC in setting priorities, promoting capacity development in LMIC and stimulating donors and countries to increase resources for research. CHNRI created a knowledge network, funded research through multiple rounds of a global competitive process and published research papers and policy briefs. A signature effort was to develop a systematic methodology for prioritizing health and nutrition research investments. The "CHNRI method" has been extensively applied to global health problems and is now the most commonly used method for prioritizing health research questions.

  10. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità - Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health.

  11. Undergraduate research internships : veterinary students' experiences and the relation with internship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Schuurmans, Eva M; Van Beukelen, Peter; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The learning environment of undergraduate research internships has received little attention, compared to postgraduate research training. This study investigates students' experiences with research internships, particularly the quality of supervision, development of research skills, the

  12. Closing Symposium of the German Research Initiative ComFliTe

    CERN Document Server

    Radespiel, Rolf; Burg, Jan; Sørensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    This book reports on the German research initiative ComFliTe (Computational Flight Testing), the main goal of which was to enhance the capabilities of and tools for numerical simulation in flight physics to support future aircraft design and development. The initiative was coordinated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and promoted collaboration between the aircraft industry and academia. Activities focused on improving physical modeling for separated flows, developing advanced numerical algorithms for series computations and sensitivity predictions, as well as surrogate and reduced order modeling for aero data production and developing robust fluid-, structure- and flight mechanics coupling procedures. Further topics included more efficient handling of aircraft control surfaces and improving simulation methods for maneuvers, such as gust encounter. The important results of this three-year initiative were presented during the ComFliTe closing symposium, which took place at the DLR in Braunschweig, Germany, ...

  13. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative: an academic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura Hall; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Avis-Williams, Amanda; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Bogle, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their perceptions of community-based participatory processes in a federally funded, multi-academic-community partnership spanning a decade. Focus groups were conducted to glean insights or lessons from the experiences of academic personnel. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Two researchers analyzed each transcript independently and reached consensus on the consistent themes. Participants candidly shared their experiences of working with community members to devise research plans, implement programs, and evaluate outcomes. The majority of faculty and staff members were attracted to this project by an excitement for conducting a more egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research. Yet each academic partner voiced that there was an underlying disconnect between community practices and research procedures during the project. Additional barriers to collaboration and action, located in communities and academic institutions, were described. Academic partners stressed the importance of open and ongoing communication, collective decision-making strategies, and techniques that support power sharing between all parties involved in the project. Findings from this research can inform academic-community partnerships and hopefully improve the community-based participatory research process implemented by academic institutions and communities.

  14. Influence of a National Cancer Institute transdisciplinary research and training initiative on trainees' transdisciplinary research competencies and scholarly productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Amanda L; Feng, Annie; Oh, April; Hall, Kara L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Stokols, Daniel; Okamoto, Janet; Perna, Frank M; Moser, Richard; Nebeling, Linda

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been burgeoning interest and investment in large transdisciplinary (TD) team science initiatives that aim to address complex societal problems. Despite this trend, TD training opportunities in the health sciences remain limited, and evaluations of these opportunities are even more uncommon due to funding constraints. We had the unique opportunity to conduct an exploratory study to examine the potential outcomes and impacts of TD training in a National Cancer Institute-supported initiative for TD research and training-the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer I (TREC I) initiative. This study used a retrospective mixed-methods approach leveraging secondary analysis of existing data sources to learn about TREC trainees' experiences with TREC training, TD research competencies, changes in scholarly productivity, and the associations among these domains. Results indicated that, on average, TREC trainees were satisfied with their TREC mentoring experiences and believed that TREC training processes were effective, in general. Participation in TREC training was associated with TD research competencies, including TD research orientation, positive general attitude toward TD training, development of scientific skills for TD research, and intrapersonal/interpersonal competencies for collaboration. There was also a significant increase in trainees' scholarly productivity from before to after starting in TREC training, as indicated by average annual number of publications and presentations and average number of coauthors per publication. Perceived effectiveness of TREC training was positively correlated with change in average annual number of research presentations from before to after starting in TREC training (r = 0.65, p < 0.05, N = 12), as well as TD research orientation (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), general attitude toward TD training (0.39, p < 0.05), scientific skills for TD research (r = 0

  15. Initial verification and validation of RAZORBACK - A research reactor transient analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, Darren G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the work and results of the initial verification and validation (V&V) of the beta release of the Razorback code. Razorback is a computer code designed to simulate the operation of a research reactor (such as the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR)) by a coupled numerical solution of the point reactor kinetics equations, the energy conservation equation for fuel element heat transfer, and the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for the water cooling of the fuel elements. This initial V&V effort was intended to confirm that the code work to-date shows good agreement between simulation and actual ACRR operations, indicating that the subsequent V&V effort for the official release of the code will be successful.

  16. Design and utilization of the colorectal and pancreatic neoplasm virtual biorepository: An early detection research network initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Amin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN colorectal and pancreatic neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-driven system that provides high-quality clinicopathology-rich information for clinical biospecimens. This NCI-sponsored EDRN resource supports translational cancer research. The information model of this biorepository is based on three components: (a development of common data elements (CDE, (b a robust data entry tool and (c comprehensive data query tools. Methods: The aim of the EDRN initiative is to develop and sustain a virtual biorepository for support of translational research. High-quality biospecimens were accrued and annotated with pertinent clinical, epidemiologic, molecular and genomic information. A user-friendly annotation tool and query tool was developed for this purpose. The various components of this annotation tool include: CDEs are developed from the College of American Pathologists (CAP Cancer Checklists and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR standards. The CDEs provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of the data sets by describing them in the form of metadata or data descriptor. The data entry tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry application, which is an easily mastered, web-based tool. The data query tool facilitates investigators to search deidentified information within the warehouse through a "point and click" interface thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a dimensional-modeled structure from the warehouse′s relational structure. Results: The EDRN Colorectal and Pancreatic Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository database contains multimodal datasets that are available to investigators via a web-based query tool. At present, the database holds 2,405 cases and 2,068 tumor accessions. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user′s authorization. The high-quality and well

  17. Validity of Eureka initiative: discourse by Italian Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    A broad review is given of the evolution of the aims and objectives of Eureka, a European based, coordinated international research and development program. Whereas initial projects were concentrated on the use of technology to restore areas which have suffered environmental damage, present proposals are being geared towards the development of preventive techniques. Robotics research is also being strengthened. With the aim of optimizing conditions for a more dynamic, collaborative research effort by participating high-tech firms, research centers and universities, a data bank is being developed whose aim is to identify and classify areas of technological and scientific expertise among participants. Efforts are being made to complement Eureka activities with European Community technological development goals and to augment the involvement of Third World countries.

  18. The 2011-2016 Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) initiative: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Colditz, Graham A; Hu, Frank B; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ahima, Rexford S; Brownson, Ross C; Carson, Kenneth R; Chavarro, Jorge E; Chodosh, Lewis A; Gehlert, Sarah; Gill, Jeff; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Herbst, Karen Louise; Hoehner, Christine M; Hovmand, Peter S; Irwin, Melinda L; Jacobs, Linda A; James, Aimee S; Jones, Lee W; Kerr, Jacqueline; Kibel, Adam S; King, Irena B; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Natarajan, Loki; Neuhouser, Marian L; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Proctor, Enola K; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Rosner, Bernard; Sarwer, David B; Schwartz, J Sanford; Sears, Dorothy D; Sesso, Howard D; Stampfer, Meir J; Subramanian, S V; Taveras, Elsie M; Tchou, Julia; Thompson, Beti; Troxel, Andrea B; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Thornquist, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    Recognition of the complex, multidimensional relationship between excess adiposity and cancer control outcomes has motivated the scientific community to seek new research models and paradigms. The National Cancer Institute developed an innovative concept to establish a center grant mechanism in nutrition, energetics, and physical activity, referred to as the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Initiative. This paper gives an overview of the 2011-2016 TREC Collaborative Network and the 15 research projects being conducted at the centers. Four academic institutions were awarded TREC center grants in 2011: Harvard University, University of California San Diego, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the Coordination Center. The TREC research portfolio includes three animal studies, three cohort studies, four randomized clinical trials, one cross-sectional study, and two modeling studies. Disciplines represented by TREC investigators include basic science, endocrinology, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavior, medicine, nutrition, physical activity, genetics, engineering, health economics, and computer science. Approximately 41,000 participants will be involved in these studies, including children, healthy adults, and breast and prostate cancer survivors. Outcomes include biomarkers of cancer risk, changes in weight and physical activity, persistent adverse treatment effects (e.g., lymphedema, urinary and sexual function), and breast and prostate cancer mortality. The NIH Science of Team Science group will evaluate the value added by this collaborative science. However, the most important outcome will be whether this transdisciplinary initiative improves the health of Americans at risk of cancer as well as cancer survivors.

  19. AstroCloud, a Cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research: Data Archiving and Quality Control

    CERN Document Server

    He, Boliang; Fan, Dongwei; Li, Changhua; Xiao, Jian; Yu, Ce; Wang, Chuanjun; Cao, Zihuang; Chen, Junyi; Yi, Weimin; Li, Shanshan; Mi, Linying; Yang, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    AstroCloud is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences){\\url{http://astrocloud.china-vo.org}}\\citep{O8-5_Cui_adassxxiv}. To archive the astronomical data in China, we present the implementation of the astronomical data archiving system (ADAS). Data archiving and quality control are the infrastructure for the AstroCloud. Throughout the data of the entire life cycle, data archiving system standardized data, transferring data, logging observational data, archiving ambient data, And storing these data and metadata in database. Quality control covers the whole process and all aspects of data archiving.

  20. Initiating an Action Research Programme for University EFL Teachers: Early Experiences and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Burns

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of how teacher educators begin to plan, develop, and support action research programmes for language teachers are rare, as are descriptions of the responses of the teachers who participate. This article documents and analyses the initial processes of introducing and supporting a new programme of action research for language teachers at the Universidad Chileno-Británica de Cultura (UCBC in Santiago, Chile. To evaluate the setting up of the programme and how the teachers have perceived it in its early stages, the authors, who are the programme facilitators, have conducted a meta- study. Data include workshop and meeting recordings, workshop observation notes, a reflective account, and a teacher questionnaire. The findings indicate that the teachers value the input and collaboration provided by an initial workshop, and subsequent meetings and discussions, very highly, but that issues of time, student involvement, and academic literature are areas for further debate and development. The article ends by drawing out the broader implications for UCBC and for others wishing to initiate similar action research programmes.

  1. Research and establishment of enterprise quality metadata standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie LI; Genbao ZHANG; Han SONG

    2008-01-01

    Enabling quality managers to utilize and manage quality data efficiently under modern quality management circumstances is a primary issue for improving enterprise quality management. A concept of quality metadata is proposed in this paper, which can help quality managers gain a deeper understanding of various features of quality data and establish a more stable foundation for further use and management of such data. The procedure of establishing quality meta-data standards is emphasized in the paper, and the content structure and description scheme are given. Finally, a summary is made and future work is prospected.

  2. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Berche, Bertrand; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple indicators as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are frequently drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using rather arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as "critical mass' and "metrics" are often bandied about without proper understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent up...

  3. Quality in research centers; Calidad en centros de investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Orozco, Leticia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to be able to survive and to have successful in the globalized market, all the organizations must make an effort in learning and understanding the language of the international trade, of the standards that govern it and the technical specifications that are handled for the quality assurance of products and services. In this paper the importance that the implementation of standards ISO-9000 in the research centers has, is presented. [Spanish] Para poder sobrevivir y tener exito en el mercado globalizado todas las organizaciones tienen que esforzarse en el aprendizaje y comprension del lenguaje del comercio internacional, de las normas que lo rigen y de las especificaciones tecnicas que se manejan para asegurar la calidad de los productos y servicios. En este articulo se presenta la importancia que tiene la implantacion de las normas ISO-9000 en los centros de investigacion.

  4. Interacting Patients: The construction of active patientship in quality improvement initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D. Vennik (Femke)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe promotion of active patient participation in healthcare quality improvement projects is an important policy goal in the Netherlands and other Western countries. Healthcare quality improvement is no longer perceived to be an exclusive professional activity; patients, who may be ab

  5. Quality Improvement Initiative in School-Based Health Centers across New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, John M.; Schluter, Janette A.; Carrillo, Kris; McGrath, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Background: Quality improvement principles have been applied extensively to health care organizations, but implementation of quality improvement methods in school-based health centers (SBHCs) remains in a developmental stage with demonstration projects under way in individual states and nationally. Rural areas, such as New Mexico, benefit from the…

  6. Learning Evaluation: blending quality improvement and implementation research methods to study healthcare innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Cohen, Deborah J; Davis, Melinda M; Gunn, Rose; Dickinson, L Miriam; Miller, William L; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Stange, Kurt C

    2015-03-10

    In healthcare change interventions, on-the-ground learning about the implementation process is often lost because of a primary focus on outcome improvements. This paper describes the Learning Evaluation, a methodological approach that blends quality improvement and implementation research methods to study healthcare innovations. Learning Evaluation is an approach to multi-organization assessment. Qualitative and quantitative data are collected to conduct real-time assessment of implementation processes while also assessing changes in context, facilitating quality improvement using run charts and audit and feedback, and generating transportable lessons. Five principles are the foundation of this approach: (1) gather data to describe changes made by healthcare organizations and how changes are implemented; (2) collect process and outcome data relevant to healthcare organizations and to the research team; (3) assess multi-level contextual factors that affect implementation, process, outcome, and transportability; (4) assist healthcare organizations in using data for continuous quality improvement; and (5) operationalize common measurement strategies to generate transportable results. Learning Evaluation principles are applied across organizations by the following: (1) establishing a detailed understanding of the baseline implementation plan; (2) identifying target populations and tracking relevant process measures; (3) collecting and analyzing real-time quantitative and qualitative data on important contextual factors; (4) synthesizing data and emerging findings and sharing with stakeholders on an ongoing basis; and (5) harmonizing and fostering learning from process and outcome data. Application to a multi-site program focused on primary care and behavioral health integration shows the feasibility and utility of Learning Evaluation for generating real-time insights into evolving implementation processes. Learning Evaluation generates systematic and rigorous cross

  7. Twelve tips for turning quality assurance data into undergraduate teaching awards: A quality improvement and student engagement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kate; Lewis, Helen; Pugh, Mark; Paladugu, Madhavi; Woywodt, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Data on teaching awards in undergraduate medical education are sparse. The benefits of an awards system may seem obvious at first glance. However, there are also potential problems relating to fairness, avoidance of bias, and alignment of the awards system with a wider strategy for quality improvement and curriculum development. Here, we report five- year single center experience with establishing undergraduate teaching awards in a large academic teaching hospital. Due to lack of additional funding we based our awards not on peer review but mainly on existing and very comprehensive quality assurance (QA) data. Our 12 tips describe practical points but also pitfalls with awards categories and criteria, advertising and disseminating the awards, the actual awards ceremony and finally embedding the awards in the hospital's wider strategy. To be truly successful, teaching awards and prizes need to be carefully considered, designed and aligned with a wider institutional strategy of rewarding enthusiastic educators.

  8. Where is Research on Massive Open Online Courses Headed? A Data Analysis of the MOOC Research Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gašević1, 2,1, 2,1 and 3

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the results of an analysis of the research proposals submitted to the MOOC Research Initiative (MRI funded by the Gates Foundation and administered by Athabasca University. The goal of MRI was to mobilize researchers to engage into critical interrogation of MOOCs. The submissions – 266 in Phase 1, out of which 78 was recommended for resubmission in the extended form in Phase 2, and finally, 28 funded – were analyzed by applying conventional and automated content analysis methods as well as citation network analysis methods. The results revealed the main research themes that could form a framework of the future MOOC research: i student engagement and learning success, ii MOOC design and curriculum, iii self-regulated learning and social learning, iv social network analysis and networked learning, and v motivation, attitude and success criteria. The theme of social learning received the greatest interest and had the highest success in attracting funding. The submissions that planned on using learning analytics methods were more successful. The use of mixed methods was by far the most popular. Design-based research methods were also suggested commonly, but the questions about their applicability arose regarding the feasibility to perform multiple iterations in the MOOC context and rather a limited focus on technological support for interventions. The submissions were dominated by the researchers from the field of education (75% of the accepted proposals. Not only was this a possible cause of a complete lack of success of the educational technology innovation theme, but it could be a worrying sign of the fragmentation in the research community and the need to increased efforts towards enhancing interdisciplinarity.

  9. Better Data Quality for Better Healthcare Research Results - A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have been identified as a key tool to collect data for healthcare research. However, EHR data must be of sufficient quality to support quality research results. Island Health, BC, Canada has invested and continues to invest in the development of solutions to address the quality of its EHR data and support high quality healthcare studies. This paper examines Island Health's data quality engine, its development and its successful implementation.

  10. Initiating undergraduate medical students into communities of research practise: what do supervisors recommend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Simon C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been written in the educational literature on the value of communities of practise in enhancing student learning. Here, we take the experience of senior undergraduate medical students involved in short-term research as a member of a team as a paradigm for learning in a community of practise. Based on feedback from experienced supervisors, we offer recommendations for initiating students into the research culture of their team. In so doing, we endeavour to create a bridge between theory and practise through disseminating advice on good supervisory practise, where the supervisor is perceived as an educator responsible for designing the research process to optimize student learning. Methods Using the questionnaire design tool SurveyMonkey and comprehensive lists of contact details of staff who had supervised research projects at the University of Edinburgh during 1995 - 2008, current and previous supervisors were invited to recommend procedures which they had found successful in initiating students into the research culture of a team. Text responses were then coded in the form of derivative recommendations and categorized under general themes and sub-themes. Results Using the chi-square tests of linear trend and association, evidence was found for a positive trend towards more experienced supervisors offering responses (χ2 = 16.833, p 2 = 0.482, p = 0.487, n = 203, respectively. A total of 126 codes were extracted from the text responses of 65 respondents. These codes were simplified to form a complete list of 52 recommendations, which were in turn categorized under seven derivative overarching themes, the most highly represented themes being Connecting the student with others and Cultivating self-efficacy in research competence. Conclusions Through the design of a coding frame for supervisor responses, a wealth of ideas has been captured to make communities of research practise effective mediums for undergraduate

  11. [Initiation into nursing care research, a tool for measuring the construction of nursing professional identity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietrich, Laurence; Regnier, Jean-Claude

    2005-03-01

    This article presents some results stemming from university research work, in relation with nursing training and the construction of student nurses' professional identity. As a tool contributing in the process of this construction, Research in Nursing Care (RNS), the main subject of our research, is an element of the training program in nursing care. In a context of development of the profession, we tried to clarify the meaning of RNC as part of training but also in the fields where care is lavished as this is a work/study education program. The RNC object was discussed in historical, regulatory, and scientific contexts. Three hypotheses were raised and put to the test; the followed methodology was clarified some proposals followed the analysis of the various data corpus obtained and some reflection tracks were initiated for the trainers and assistants.

  12. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  13. Investigative practices in teaching of Microbiology: a methodological proposal for research initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édila Dalmaso Coswosk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a research that aimed to develop an educational product intended for microbiology teaching for degree in Biological Sciences: a so-called education program "Investigative Practices in Microbiology Teaching". The specific objectives of the research were: Develop coordination procedures between conceptual content, procedural and attitudinal content through investigative practices; Assess the relevance, results and the acceptance of the proposed processes. It is a qualitative research, action-research, and to evaluate the results, we used focus groups, document analysis and participant observation. The product was applied to 46 students of a public university. The research subjects were the three monitors that implemented the project in conjunction with the teacher-researcher and 15 students who participated in the focus groups. It was possible to develop all planned steps and evaluation of their results indicate a good acceptance and that there was a link between the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal contents, arousing interest and expanding the opportunity to start the search for more students. Undergraduates who participated in the focus groups indicate that they can realize their application in future teaching actions. The monitors have recognized the quality and internal consistency of the proposal, however, indicate the need for greater workload for the activity. We consider that the structured proposal can collaborate with teachers in order to assist them in implementing socioconstrutivist proposals. In degrees, can help in the indication of organizing activities that promote autonomy and the formation of teacher identity

  14. 75 FR 63497 - Meeting of the National Advisory Council for Healthcare Research and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... available from Ms. Bonnie Campbell, Committee Management Officer, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality... research, (B) the field of health care research including training needs and information dissemination on... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Meeting of the National Advisory Council for...

  15. Methods and dimensions of electronic health record data quality assessment: enabling reuse for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Nicole Gray; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    To review the methods and dimensions of data quality assessment in the context of electronic health record (EHR) data reuse for research. A review of the clinical research literature discussing data quality assessment methodology for EHR data was performed. Using an iterative process, the aspects of data quality being measured were abstracted and categorized, as well as the methods of assessment used. Five dimensions of data quality were identified, which are completeness, correctness, concordance, plausibility, and currency, and seven broad categories of data quality assessment methods: comparison with gold standards, data element agreement, data source agreement, distribution comparison, validity checks, log review, and element presence. Examination of the methods by which clinical researchers have investigated the quality and suitability of EHR data for research shows that there are fundamental features of data quality, which may be difficult to measure, as well as proxy dimensions. Researchers interested in the reuse of EHR data for clinical research are recommended to consider the adoption of a consistent taxonomy of EHR data quality, to remain aware of the task-dependence of data quality, to integrate work on data quality assessment from other fields, and to adopt systematic, empirically driven, statistically based methods of data quality assessment. There is currently little consistency or potential generalizability in the methods used to assess EHR data quality. If the reuse of EHR data for clinical research is to become accepted, researchers should adopt validated, systematic methods of EHR data quality assessment.

  16. What is characteristic about research on education at the DPU and trends and initiatives in expanding and developing new perspectives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Kousholt, Dorte

    What is characteristic about research on education at the DPU and trends and initiatives in expanding and developing new perspectives? In continuation hereof a research seminar with the aim of discussing perspectives in relation to shared interest and collaboration.......What is characteristic about research on education at the DPU and trends and initiatives in expanding and developing new perspectives? In continuation hereof a research seminar with the aim of discussing perspectives in relation to shared interest and collaboration....

  17. Applying a global justice lens to health systems research ethics: an initial exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-03-01

    Recent scholarship has considered what, if anything, rich people owe to poor people to achieve justice in global health and the implications of this for international research. Yet this work has primarily focused on international clinical research. Health systems research is increasingly being performed in low and middle income countries and is essential to reducing global health disparities. This paper provides an initial description of the ethical issues related to priority setting, capacity-building, and the provision of post-study benefits that arise during the conduct of such research. It presents a selection of issues discussed in the health systems research literature and argues that they constitute ethical concerns based on their being inconsistent with a particular theory of global justice (the health capability paradigm). Issues identified include the fact that priority setting for health systems research at the global level is often not driven by national priorities and that capacity-building efforts frequently utilize one-size-fits-all approaches.

  18. Initial status of the environment. Environmental marks of the Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory; L'etat initial de l'environnement. Reperes environnementaux du Laboratoire de Recherche souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    On August 3, 1999, the French government gave the permission to the national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) to build up a research laboratory devoted to the feasibility study of a facility for the reversible disposal of high level and long living radioactive wastes in deep geologic beds. The site retained is located at Bure, at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departements. Before starting the construction of this research facility, the ANDRA has carried out a careful survey of the initial environmental status of the site which will serve as a reference. This brochure presents the results of this survey: geo-morphology, agriculture, natural ecosystems, radioecology, sound levels, air quality, surface and groundwater quality. The ANDRA has implemented an environmental monitoring plan for each phase of the development of the project. (J.S.)

  19. What Research On Learning Transfer Can Teach About Improving The Impact of Leadership-Development Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide effort to improve organizational performance through leadership Development has been impressive, with huge sums of money being devoted to it each year. Unfortunately, the evaluation of the impact of leadership development has not kept pace, resulting in little evidence-based guidance...... for creating programs and interventions. There is a significant and relevant area of research that can contribute to evaluation but that has often been neglected in the leadership-development field: the work on learning transfer. This article provides a brief practical review of the literature on learning...... transfer and the conditions that make it possible for people to apply in the workplace what they learn from a development initiative. This is followed by a report on an initial study of how managers in the Danish public sector perceive their organizations in terms of 9 key transfer conditions identified...

  20. Exploring the Relevance and Quality of the VaRemba Initiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be empowering coupled with Amartya Sen's theory of human capabilities, ... The initiation curriculum has the potential to impact on the mental schemes of women in ... If they do not confess it is alleged that serious illness or death may befall.

  1. Tracking and sustaining improvement initiatives: leveraging quality dashboards to lead change in a neurosurgical department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Ragland, Victoria; Buxey, Farzad; Martin, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    Increasingly, hospitals and physicians are becoming acquainted with business intelligence strategies and tools to improve quality of care. In 2007, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Department of Neurosurgery created a quality dashboard to help manage process measures and outcomes and ultimately to enhance clinical performance and patient care. At that time, the dashboard was in a platform that required data to be entered manually. It was then reviewed monthly to allow the department to make informed decisions. In 2009, the department leadership worked with the UCLA Medical Center to align mutual quality-improvement priorities. The content of the dashboard was redesigned to include 3 areas of priorities: quality and safety, patient satisfaction, and efficiency and use. Throughout time, the neurosurgery quality dashboard has been recognized for its clarity and its success in helping management direct improvement strategies and monitor impact. We describe the creation and design of the neurosurgery quality dashboard at UCLA, summarize the evolution of its assembly process, and illustrate how it can be used as a powerful tool of improvement and change. The potential challenges and future directions of this business intelligence tool are also discussed.

  2. Planet Press: an EGU initiative to bring geoscientific research to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    Planet Press (http://www.egu.eu/education/planet-press/) is an EGU educational project that aims to get children (mainly 7-13 year olds), as well as their parents and educators, interested in and engaged with up-to-date scientific research and news. Planet Press articles are short versions of EGU press releases written in child-friendly language. Because EGU press releases cover research published in the various EGU scientific journals, Planet Press focuses on topics as varied as air pollution, glaciers, climate change, earthquakes, ocean sciences, droughts and floods, or space sciences. The texts are reviewed by both scientists and educators to make sure they are accurate and clear to their target audience. By sharing new and exciting geoscientific research with young kids, we hope to inspire them to develop an interest in the Earth, planetary and space sciences. In this presentation, we describe how the Planet Press idea came about, how the project is run, and the challenges and lessons learnt since the launch of this educational initiative in 2014. Planet Press, which has the support of the EGU Committee on Education, is made possible by the work of volunteer scientists and educators who review and translate the texts. We are grateful for the help of Jane Robb, former EGU Educational Fellow, with launching the project. Planet Press is inspired by Space Scoop (http://www.spacescoop.org/), an initiative by UNAWE, the EU-Universe Awareness organisation, that brings astronomy news to children every week.

  3. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative: A Funding Model for Science, Engineering, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a massive ecological event, resulted in the tragic loss of 11 lives, and an environmental release of more than 130 million gallons of crude oil. Approximately 1.8 million gallons of dispersants were used in remediation efforts. An immediate response by BP was to establish a ten-year research program, with funding of 500 million. The funding was to determine the impact and long-term ecological and public health effects of oil spills and to develop improved preparation in the event of future oil or gas release into the environment. This Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI), established by BP, provided independent leadership for both the program and administration of the 500 million funding, and the Research Board provides oversight, assisted by excellent staff. The Research Board of the GoMRI comprises twenty scientists, many of whom have prior scientific research administrative expertise. The Research Board, in accordance with its charge, develops research programs and carries out their evaluation and oversight, employing the peer review and operational principles of the National Science Foundation and the National Academies of Science. With these guiding principles, the Research Board established procedures for conflict of interest oversight and requesting and evaluating research programs. It has also focused on communicating the research findings accurately and responsibly. The GoMRI Research Board operates with transparency and ensures availability of all scientific results and data. GoMRI, currently midway through its 10-year mandate, has funded more than 3,000 scientists, representing 278 institutions in 42 states and 17 countries, who have produced more than 1,000 peer-reviewed publications to date. The Research Board is exploring mechanisms by which the GoMRI science findings can be communicated to the broader community and the public and to continue availability of data when the program has ended. A major contribution

  4. A Classroom-Based Distributed Workflow Initiative for the Early Involvement of Undergraduate Students in Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging freshman and sophomore students in meaningful scientific research is challenging because of their developing skill set and their necessary time commitments to regular classwork. A project called the Chondrule Analysis Project was initiated to engage first- and second-year students in an initial research experience and also accomplish…

  5. A Classroom-Based Distributed Workflow Initiative for the Early Involvement of Undergraduate Students in Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging freshman and sophomore students in meaningful scientific research is challenging because of their developing skill set and their necessary time commitments to regular classwork. A project called the Chondrule Analysis Project was initiated to engage first- and second-year students in an initial research experience and also accomplish…

  6. Engaging with Research through Practitioner Enquiry: The Perceptions of Beginning Teachers on a Postgraduate Initial Teacher Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Bethan; Hulme, Rob

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the perceptions of student-teachers towards their engagement in small-scale research projects undertaken whilst on a one-year postgraduate initial teacher education programme. We present an institutional response to national and international policy agendas regarding the place of research within initial teacher education at…

  7. THE 2011-2016 TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IN ENERGETICS AND CANCER (TREC) INITIATIVE: RATIONALE AND DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Hu, Frank B.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ahima, Rexford S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Gehlert, Sarah; Gill, Jeff; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Herbst, Karen Louise; Hoehner, Christine M.; Hovmand, Peter S.; Irwin, Melinda L.; Jacobs, Linda A.; James, Aimee S.; Jones, Lee W.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Kibel, Adam S.; King, Irena B.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Natarajan, Loki; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Proctor, Enola K.; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L.; Rosner, Bernard; Sarwer, David B.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Sears, Dorothy D.; Sesso, Howard D.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Subramanian, S. V.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Tchou, Julia; Thompson, Beti; Troxel, Andrea B.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Thornquist, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recognition of the complex, multidimensional relationship between excess adiposity and cancer control outcomes has motivated the scientific community to seek new research models and paradigms. Methods The National Cancer Institute developed an innovative concept to establish a centers grant mechanism in nutrition, energetics, and physical activity; referred to as the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Initiative. This paper gives an overview of the 2011-2016 TREC Collaborative Network and the 15 research projects being conducted at the Centers. Results Four academic institutions were awarded TREC center grants in 2011: Harvard University, University of California San Diego, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the Coordination Center. The TREC research portfolio includes 3 animal studies, 3 cohort studies, 4 randomized clinical trials, 1 cross-sectional study, and 2 modeling studies. Disciplines represented by TREC investigators include basic science, endocrinology, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavior, medicine, nutrition, physical activity, genetics, engineering, health economics, and computer science. Approximately 41,000 participants will be involved in these studies, including children, healthy adults, and breast and prostate cancer survivors. Outcomes include biomarkers of cancer risk, changes in weight and physical activity, persistent adverse treatment effects (e.g., lymphedema, urinary and sexual function), and breast and prostate cancer mortality. Conclusion The NIH Science of Team Science group will evaluate the value-added by this collaborative science. However, the most important outcome will be whether this transdisciplinary initiative improves the health of Americans at risk for cancer as well as cancer survivors. PMID:23378138

  8. Seeing like a research project: producing "high-quality data" in AIDS research in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Numbers are the primary way that we know about AIDS in Africa, yet their power and utility often obscure the conditions of their production. I show that quantification is very much a sociocultural process by focusing on everyday realities of making AIDS-related numbers in Malawi. "Seeing like a research project" implies systematically transforming social reality into data points and managing uncertainties inherent in numbers. Drawing on 20 months of participant observation with survey research projects (2005, 2007-2008), I demonstrate how standards govern data collection to protect and reproduce demographers' shared expectations of "high-quality data." Data are expected to be "clean," accurate and precise, data collection efficient and timely, and data collected from sufficiently large, pure, and representative samples. I employ ethnographic analysis to show that each of these expectations not only guides survey research fieldwork but also produces categories, identities, and practices that reinforce and challenge these standardizing values.

  9. Bioregenerative Life Support System Research as part of the DLR EDEN Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul; Poulet, Lucie; Zeidler, Conrad

    In 2011, the DLR Institute of Space Systems launched a research initiative called EDEN - Evolution and Design of Environmentally-closed Nutrition-Sources. The research initiative focuses on bioregenerative life support systems, especially greenhouse modules, and technologies for future crewed vehicles. The EDEN initiative comprises several projects with respect to space research, ground testing and spin-offs. In 2014, EDEN’s new laboratory officially opened. This new biological cleanroom laboratory comprises several plant growth chambers incorporating a number of novel controlled environment agriculture technologies. This laboratory will be the nucleus for a variety of plant cultivation experiments within closed environments. The utilized technologies are being advanced using the pull of space technology and include such items as stacked growth systems, PAR-specific LEDs, intracanopy lighting, aeroponic nutrient delivery systems and ion-selective nutrient sensors. The driver of maximizing biomass output per unit volume and energy has much application in future bioregenerative life support systems but can also provide benefit terrestrially. The EDEN laboratory also includes several specially constructed chambers for advancing models addressing the interaction between bioregenerative and physical-chemical life support systems. The EDEN team is presently developing designs for containerized greenhouse modules. One module is planned for deployment to the German Antarctic Station, Neumayer III. The shipping container based system will provide supplementation to the overwintering crew’s diet, provide psychological benefit while at the same time advancing the technology and operational readiness of harsh environment plant production systems. In addition to hardware development, the EDEN team has participated in several early phase designs such as for the ESA Greenhouse Module for Space System and for large-scale vertical farming. These studies often utilize the

  10. A food quality management research methodology integrating technological and managerial theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article it is argued how the complexity of food quality management combined with the high requirements on food quality requires a specific research methodology. It is concluded that food quality management research has to deal with two quite different paradigms, the one from technological

  11. 78 FR 65321 - Meeting of the National Advisory Council for Healthcare Research and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... health care quality and (C) the role of the Agency in light of private sector activity and opportunities... Zimmerman, Designated Management Official, at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 540 Gaither... Research and Quality is authorized by Section 941 of the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. 299c....

  12. A food quality management research methodology integrating technological and managerial theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article it is argued how the complexity of food quality management combined with the high requirements on food quality requires a specific research methodology. It is concluded that food quality management research has to deal with two quite different paradigms, the one from technological an

  13. Research Update: The materials genome initiative: Data sharing and the impact of collaborative ab initio databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anubhav; Persson, Kristin A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-05-01

    Materials innovations enable new technological capabilities and drive major societal advancements but have historically required long and costly development cycles. The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) aims to greatly reduce this time and cost. In this paper, we focus on data reuse in the MGI and, in particular, discuss the impact of three different computational databases based on density functional theory methods to the research community. We also discuss and provide recommendations on technical aspects of data reuse, outline remaining fundamental challenges, and present an outlook on the future of MGI's vision of data sharing.

  14. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Anhong; Pan Chongdao; Xiao Deyan; Hou Hong

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking. It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly, accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment, which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  16. Moving research into practice: lessons from the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's IDSRN program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Erin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ Integrated Delivery Systems Research Network (IDSRN program was established to foster public-private collaboration between health services researchers and health care delivery systems. Its broad goal was to link researchers and delivery systems to encourage implementation of research into practice. We evaluated the program to address two primary questions: 1 How successful was IDSRN in generating research findings that could be applied in practice? and 2 What factors facilitate or impede such success? Methods We conducted in-person and telephone interviews with AHRQ staff and nine IDSRN partner organizations and their collaborators, reviewed program documents, analyzed projects funded through the program, and developed case studies of four IDSRN projects judged promising in supporting research implementation. Results Participants reported that the IDSRN structure was valuable in creating closer ties between researchers and participating health systems. Of the 50 completed projects studied, 30 had an operational effect or use. Some kinds of projects were more successful than others in influencing operations. If certain conditions were met, a variety of partnership models successfully supported implementation. An internal champion was necessary for partnerships involving researchers based outside the delivery system. Case studies identified several factors important to success: responsiveness of project work to delivery system needs, ongoing funding to support multiple project phases, and development of applied products or tools that helped users see their operational relevance. Factors limiting success included limited project funding, competing demands on potential research users, and failure to reach the appropriate audience. Conclusion Forging stronger partnerships between researchers and delivery systems has the potential to make research more relevant to users

  17. Adolescent distinctions between quality of life and self-rated health in quality of life research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valois Robert F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult quality of life (QOL research, the QOL construct appears to differ from self-rated health status. Although increased QOL continues to be recognized as an important outcome in health promotion and medical intervention, little research has attempted to explore adolescent perceptual differences between self-rated health and QOL. Methods Correlational analyses were performed between self-rated health, physical health days and mental health days, and QOL. Data were collected from two different public high school adolescent samples during two different time periods (1997 & 2003 in two different geographic regions in the USA (a southern & midwestern state with two different sample sizes (N = 5,220 and N = 140, respectively using the CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' health-related quality of life scale (HRQOL provided estimates of self-rated health, physical health days and mental health days, and QOL. Results All correlation coefficients were significant in both samples (p ≤ .0001, suggesting sample size was not a contributing factor to the significant correlations. In both samples, adolescent QOL ratings were more strongly correlated with the mean number of poor mental health days (r = .88, southern sample; r = .89, midwestern sample than with the mean number of poor physical health days (r = .75, southern sample; r = .79, midwestern sample, consistent with adult QOL research. However, correlation coefficients in both samples between self-rated health and the mean number of poor physical health days was slightly smaller (r = .24, southern, r = .32, midwestern than that between self-rated health and the mean number of poor mental health days (r = .25, southern, r = .39 midwestern, which is contrary to adult QOL research. Conclusion Similar to adults, these results suggest adolescents are rating two distinct constructs, and that self-rated health and QOL should not be

  18. A European multi-language initiative to make the general population aware of independent clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosconi, Paola; Antes, Gerd; Barbareschi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ECRAN (European Communication on Research Awareness Needs) project was initiated in 2012, with support from the European Commission, to improve public knowledge about the importance of independent, multinational, clinical trials in Europe. METHODS: Participants in the ECRAN...... consortium included clinicians and methodologists directly involved in clinical trials; researchers working in partnership with the public and patients; representatives of patients; and experts in science communication. We searched for, and evaluated, relevant existing materials and developed additional...... was able to produce, and make freely available in many languages, new materials to promote public knowledge about the importance of independent and international clinical trials. Sustained funding for the ECRAN information platform could help to promote successful recruitment to independent clinical trials...

  19. Initial research of np scattering with polarized deuterium target at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73000 Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    With the goal of understanding the nuclear forces, the ANKE collaboration has been working on a systematic NN spin program for many years. Due to the lack of free neutron sources experimental data of np scattering are very rare, especially at higher energies. It has been shown that using phase shift analysis (PSA) it is possible to reconstruct np scattering amplitudes from the spin observables of pd → {pp}{sub {sup 1}S{sub 0}}n charge-exchange reaction. So far experiments were conducted using polarized deuteron beams and hydrogen target, which led to valuable results. To extend the research up to the highest nucleon energy available at COSY (2.8 GeV), proton beam and polarized deuterium target will be used. This talk presents the results of the commissioning experiment of a deuterium target at ANKE with emphasis on the initial research of charge-exchange reaction.

  20. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

    2011-10-01

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a

  1. Selected Aspects of Assessment/Improvement of Academic Research Quality, Also of Industrial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemala, Marek

    2016-06-01

    In terms of publishing and commercialisation of academic research results, there may be more preferred qualitative research in the long term. But, not every research can be focused only on the quality of its outputs, but each output of the research, however, should have an adequate quality and added value. The main research question of this article may be determined as follows - How can the quality of academic research be better evaluated and thus improved, also in the area of Industrial management? It is not the intention of this article to perform statistical research in the field yet, but this study is based on empirical data and results.

  2. Selected Aspects of Assessment/Improvement of Academic Research Quality, Also of Industrial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemala Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of publishing and commercialisation of academic research results, there may be more preferred qualitative research in the long term. But, not every research can be focused only on the quality of its outputs, but each output of the research, however, should have an adequate quality and added value. The main research question of this article may be determined as follows – How can the quality of academic research be better evaluated and thus improved, also in the area of Industrial management? It is not the intention of this article to perform statistical research in the field yet, but this study is based on empirical data and results.

  3. Assessing quality-of-life outcomes in cardiovascular clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel B

    2016-05-01

    The field of quality-of-life (QOL) measurement grew out of attempts in the 1960s and 1970s to connect the ever-increasing levels of public expenditure on technology-based health care for chronic diseases with evidence of the benefits and harms to patients. Most of the concepts, methods, and standards for measuring QOL were derived from psychometrics, but the degree to which current tools adhere to these methods varies greatly. Despite the importance of QOL, patient-reported outcomes are not measured in most cardiovascular clinical trials. Lack of familiarity with QOL measures and their interpretation, and unrealistic expectations about the information these measures can provide, are obstacles to their use. Large clinical trials of revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease and medical treatments for heart failure show small-to-moderate QOL effects, primarily detected with disease-specific instruments. Larger treatment effects, seen in trials of device therapy for heart failure and ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation, have been detected with both generic and disease-specific instruments. A large gap remains between the parameters currently being measured in clinical research and the data needed to incorporate the 'patient's voice' into therapeutic decision-making.

  4. Quality of supervision: postgraduate dental research trainees' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, A; Emami, E; Palumbo, M; Tran, S D

    2016-02-01

    Supervision is a pillar in enhancing the student's learning environment throughout her/his higher education. Multiple studies qualify graduate supervision among the most important contributors to the successful completion of a higher education degree and to graduate students' positive academic experience. The aim of this study was to assess the views of graduate students enrolled in the Dental Sciences and Craniofacial Research Graduate Programs at McGill University (n = 64) regarding the quality of supervision they are receiving. An online questionnaire composed of 22 open and closed-ended format items was used and covered five domains: student profile, supervisory relationship, conflict resolution, student progress/thesis writing and career development. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and interpretative qualitative analysis were used to evaluate students' perspectives. Fifty-nine students completed the survey (92.2%). The distribution of sample in regard to the graduate student level was almost identical (M.Sc. level n = 28, Ph.D. n = 31). Overall, most graduate students appeared satisfied with the supervision they received and had similar perspectives about the surveyed domains. There was one statistically significant difference (P supervision they received. The main elements contributing to a positive supervision experience were support, guidance, availability and good communication between supervisees and supervisors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gulf of Mexico dissolved oxygen model (GoMDOM) research and quality assurance project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated high resolution mathematical modeling framework is being developed that will link hydrodynamic, atmospheric, and water quality models for the northern Gulf of Mexico. This Research and Quality Assurance Project Plan primarily focuses on the deterministic Gulf of Me...

  6. Development and Initial Validation of the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Shih, Ching-Lin; Lin, Chien-Hui; Wu, Sheng K.

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills have great impact on children in adapting to an environment and developing interpersonal interaction, cognition, and social behavior. Understanding what children can do and how they perform it is essential. Most motor tests seldom contain quality evaluation in the items or criteria. The purpose of this study was to develop and…

  7. Science Teacher Education in Australia: Initiatives and Challenges to Improve the Quality of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Petersen, Jacinta; Wynne, Georgie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how teachers in the Australian school system are educated to teach science and the different qualifications that teachers need to enter the profession. The latest comparisons of Australian students in international science assessments have brought about various accountability measures to improve the quality of science…

  8. Development and application of an initial quality assurance program for dosimetry at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeg, P.; Hartmann, G.; Jaekel, O.; Karger, C.; Kriessbach, A. [DKFZ Heidelberg (Germany); Schardt, D. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    c set of test procedures has been developed for dosimetric quality inspections at the heavy ion therapy facility at GSI. In some cases new test principles had to be established to meet the requirements at the heavy ion beam. As a first application the acceptance test has been carried out during the technical commissioning of the facility. (orig.)

  9. Science Teacher Education in Australia: Initiatives and Challenges to Improve the Quality of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Petersen, Jacinta; Wynne, Georgie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how teachers in the Australian school system are educated to teach science and the different qualifications that teachers need to enter the profession. The latest comparisons of Australian students in international science assessments have brought about various accountability measures to improve the quality of science…

  10. The role of territory settlement, individual quality, and nesting initiation on productivity of Bell's vireos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara J. Joos; Frank R., III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2014-01-01

    Variation in habitat quality among territories within a heterogeneous patch should influence reproductive success of territory owners. Further, territory settlement order following an ideal despotic distribution (IDD) should predict the fitness of occupants if territory selection is adaptive. We recorded settlement order and monitored nests in territories occupied by...

  11. The Implementation of Quality Management Initiatives in the Context of Organisational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    An Irish company embarked on implementing a business excellence model and continuous improvement initiatives. Some employees' reluctance to participate impeded organizational learning, but the creation of a culture that encouraged, facilitated, and rewarded learning enabled movement toward excellence. (Contains 64 references.) (SK)

  12. Initial studies of oxidation processes on filter surfaces and their impack on perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Halás, Oto; Clausen, Geo

    2003-01-01

    Ozone concentrations were monitored up- and downstream of used filter samples at airflows of 1.0 and 0.2 L s-1. The ozone concentration in the air upstream of the filters was ~75 ppb, while the concentration downstream of the filter was initially ~ 35% lower at 1 L s-1 and ~ 55% lower at 0.2 L s-...

  13. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  14. Quantitative Research on Marital Quality in the 1980s: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses theoretical, conceptual, and methodological issues in research on marital quality and then selectively reviews research findings. Concludes that, although quantitative research on marital quality in the 1980s produced only a modest increment in understanding the causes and consequences of marital success, it laid foundation for greater…

  15. A Survey Data Quality Strategy: The Institutional Research Perspective. IR Applications, Volume 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This discussion constructs a survey data quality strategy for institutional researchers in higher education in light of total survey error theory. It starts with describing the characteristics of institutional research and identifying the gaps in literature regarding survey data quality issues in institutional research and then introduces the…

  16. ENVRI PLUS: European initiative towards technical and research cultural solutions for across-disciplines accessible Research Infrastructure products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, A.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Research Infrastructures are often built as bottom-up initiatives to provide products for specific target group, which often is very discipline specific. However, the societal or environmental challenges are typically not concentrated on specific disciplines, and require usage of data sets from many RIs. ENVRI PLUS is an initiative where the European environmental RIs work together to provide common technical background (in physical observation technologies and in data products and descriptions) to make the RI products more usable to user groups outside of the original RI target groups. ENVRI PLUS also includes many policy and dissemination concentrated actions to make the RI operations coherent and understandable to both scientists and other potential users. The actions include building common technological capital of the RIs (physical and data-oriented), creating common access procedures (especially for cross-diciplinary access), developing ethical guidelines and related policies, distributing know-how between RIs and building common communication and collaboration system for European environmental RIs. All ENVRI PLUS products are free to use, e.g. for use of new or existing environmental RIs worldwide.

  17. Importance of Performance Measurement and MCH Epidemiology Leadership to Quality Improvement Initiatives at the National, State and Local Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Kristin M; Gavin, Loretta; Moran, John W; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Goodman, David A; Sappenfield, William M

    2016-11-01

    Purpose In recognition of the importance of performance measurement and MCH epidemiology leadership to quality improvement (QI) efforts, a plenary session dedicated to this topic was presented at the 2014 CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference. This paper summarizes the session and provides two applications of performance measurement to QI in MCH. Description Performance measures addressing processes of care are ubiquitous in the current health system landscape and the MCH community is increasingly applying QI processes, such as Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of systems impacting MCH populations. QI is maximally effective when well-defined performance measures are used to monitor change. Assessment MCH epidemiologists provide leadership to QI initiatives by identifying population-based outcomes that would benefit from QI, defining and implementing performance measures, assessing and improving data quality and timeliness, reporting variability in measures throughout PDSA cycles, evaluating QI initiative impact, and translating findings to stakeholders. MCH epidemiologists can also ensure that QI initiatives are aligned with MCH priorities at the local, state and federal levels. Two examples of this work, one highlighting use of a contraceptive service performance measure and another describing QI for peripartum hemorrhage prevention, demonstrate MCH epidemiologists' contributions throughout. Challenges remain in applying QI to complex community and systems-level interventions, including those aimed at improving access to quality care. Conclusion MCH epidemiologists provide leadership to QI initiatives by ensuring they are data-informed and supportive of a common MCH agenda, thereby optimizing the potential to improve MCH outcomes.

  18. [Problems in quality standard research of new traditional Chinese medicine compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-09-01

    The new traditional Chinese medicine compound is the main part of the research of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the new Chinese herbal compound reflects the characteristics of TCM theory. The new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research is one of the main content of pharmaceutical research, and is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. Although in recent years the research level of new traditional Chinese medicine compound has been greatly improved, but the author during the review found still some common problems existing in new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research data, this paper analyzed the current quality standards for new traditional Chinese medicine compound and the problems existing in the research data, respectively from measurement of the content of index selection, determine the scope of the content, and the quality standard design concept, the paper expounds developers need to concern. The quality of new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard is not only itself can be solved, but quality standards is to ensure the key and important content of product quality, improving the quality of products cannot do without quality standards. With the development of science and technology, on the basis of quality by design under the guidance of the concept, new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard system will be more scientific, systematic and perfect.

  19. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; PGreek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care.

  20. Quality of life development during initial hemodialysis therapy and association with loss of residual renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Krista D; Jensen, Jens D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is markedly reduced in hemodialysis patients compared to the general population. We investigated the course of self-reported HRQOL over time and the association with selected factors, focusing on changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR......). Methods Eighty-two newly started hemodialysis patients from the SAFIR cohort filled out the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form Version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF(TM) ) questionnaire at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The SAFIR study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention study, examining......, especially diabetes, hospital admissions, female gender, and age were strongly associated with lower HRQOL in cross sectional analysis. Discussion Preservation of residual renal function seems to be important for HRQOL. In newly started HD patients, HRQOL showed little change after 12 months. HRQOL...

  1. Product analysis and initial reliability testing of the total mesorectal excision-quality assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Marko R; DeNardi, Franco G; Coates, Angela J; Szalay, David A; Eva, Kevin W

    2014-07-01

    Product analysis of rectal cancer resection specimens before specimen fixation may provide an immediate and relevant evaluation of surgical performance. We tested the interrater reliability (IRR) of a product analysis tool called the Total Mesorectal Excision-Quality Assessment Instrument (TME-QA). Participants included two gold standard raters, five pathology assistants, and eight pathologists. Domains of the TME-QA reflect total mesorectal excision principles including: (1) completeness of mesorectal margin; (2) completeness of mesorectum; (3) coning of distal mesorectum; (4) physical defects; and (5) overall specimen quality. Specimens were scored independently. We used the generalizability theory to assess the tool's internal consistency and IRR. There were 39 specimens and 120 ratings. Mean overall specimen quality scores for the gold standard raters, pathologists, and assistants were 4.43, 4.43, and 4.50, respectively (p > 0.85). IRR for the first nine items was 0.68 for the full sample, 0.62 for assistants alone, 0.63 for pathologists alone, and 0.74 for gold standard raters alone. IRR for the item overall specimen quality was 0.67 for the full sample, 0.45 for assistants, 0.80 for pathologists, and 0.86 for gold standard raters. IRR increased for all groups when scores were averaged across two raters. Assessment of surgical specimens using the TME-QA may provide rapid and relevant feedback to surgeons about their technical performance. Our results show good internal consistency and IRR when the TME-QA is used by pathologists. However, for pathology assistants, multiple ratings with the averaging of scores may be needed.

  2. Undergraduate research internships: veterinary students' experiences and the relation with internship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Schuurmans, Eva M; Van Beukelen, Peter; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2009-05-01

    The learning environment of undergraduate research internships has received little attention, compared to postgraduate research training. This study investigates students' experiences with research internships, particularly the quality of supervision, development of research skills, the intellectual and social climate, infrastructure support, and the clarity of goals and the relationship between the experiences and the quality of students' research reports and their overall satisfaction with internships. A questionnaire (23 items, a 5-point Likert scale) was administered to 101 Year five veterinary students after completion of a research internship. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with quality of supervision, development of research skills, climate, infrastructure and clarity of goals as independent variables and the quality of students' research reports and students' overall satisfaction as dependent variables. The response rate was 79.2%. Students' experiences are generally positive. Students' experiences with the intellectual and social climate are significantly correlated with the quality of research reports whilst the quality of supervision is significantly correlated with both the quality of research reports and students' overall satisfaction with the internship. Both the quality of supervision and the climate are found to be crucial factors in students' research learning and satisfaction with the internship.

  3. [Quality management and practice-oriented research in a clinic-network of mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F; Arnhold-Kerri, S

    2010-04-01

    The Research Network Prevention and Rehabilitation for Mothers and Children is an association of currently 24 rehabilitation centres for mothers, fathers and their children, and a scientific team at the Hannover Medical School. The Research Network combines practice-oriented research on mother and child health with the further development of treatment programmes and the implementation of internal quality management in mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001. The present paper describes the concept of the Research Network and the work contents addressed over the last three years. The advantages and disadvantages of this association and the changes initiated in practice were evaluated from the point of view of 19 quality managers of the participating clinics. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis was performed in order to quantify the responses. The concept of the Research Network has proven successful. In the view of the quality managers of the clinics, implementation of DIN EN ISO 9001 has lead to structuring of the processes, improved internal communication, and increased motivation in the team. The major obstacles were the lack of time and human resources. In all clinics, the participation in practice-related research projects und scientifically monitored concept development has contributed to optimizing everyday practice. The exchange between the quality managers in external quality circle meetings was of central importance. The conjunction of internal quality management, practice-related research and concept development in a network can be recommended also for other associations of clinics, health centres or medical practices.

  4. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Reichle, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    In the early postwar years, beginning in 1949 and extending to the mid-1960s, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) research on the fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment was driven by distinct environmental concerns-- the releases of radioactive materials around production sites, fallout from nuclear weapons tests, and radiation effects from both external and internal exposures. These problem areas spawned development of the scientific field of radioecology. To understand the perspectives in the 1950s of the United States on the issues of nuclear energy and the environment, we have reviewed the early research programs. Keeping to the theme of the papers in this environmental session, we will focus on the first area of concern -- the scientific studies to understand the environmental consequences of nuclear production and fuel reprocessing at the three primary production sites: the Hanford Works in the state of Washington, Clinton Laboratories in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. The driving environmental issue was the fate and effects of waste products from nuclear fuel production and reprocessing -- concern about entry into environmental pathways. Early operational monitoring and evaluation by health physicists led to realization that additional emphasis needed to be placed on understanding environmental fate of radionuclides. What followed was forward-thinking R and D planning and development of interdisciplinary research teams for experimentation on complex environmental systems. What follows is a review of the major U.S. AEC radioecology research programs initiated during the 1950s, the issues leading to the establishment of these programs, early results, and their legacies for environmental protection and ecological research in the following decades.

  5. Supporting open access to clinical trial data for researchers: The Duke Clinical Research Institute-Bristol-Myers Squibb Supporting Open Access to Researchers Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencina, Michael J; Louzao, Darcy M; McCourt, Brian J; Adams, Monique R; Tayyabkhan, Rehbar H; Ronco, Peter; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-02-01

    There are growing calls for sponsors to increase transparency by providing access to clinical trial data. In response, Bristol-Myers Squibb and the Duke Clinical Research Institute have collaborated on a new initiative, Supporting Open Access to Researchers. The aim is to facilitate open sharing of Bristol-Myers Squibb trial data with interested researchers. Key features of the Supporting Open Access to Researchers data sharing model include an independent review committee that ensures expert consideration of each proposal, stringent data deidentification/anonymization and protection of patient privacy, requirement of prespecified statistical analysis plans, and independent review of manuscripts before submission for publication. We believe that these approaches will promote open science by allowing investigators to verify trial results as well as to pursue interesting secondary uses of trial data without compromising scientific integrity.

  6. The Data Management Skills Support Initiative: Synthesising Postgraduate Training in Research Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molloy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe the efforts and findings of the JISC Data Management Skills Support Initiative (‘DaMSSI’. DaMSSI was co-funded by the JISC Managing Research Data programme and the Research Information Network (RIN, in partnership with the Digital Curation Centre, to review, synthesise and augment the training offerings of the JISC Research Data Management Training Materials (‘RDMTrain’ projects.DaMSSI tested the effectiveness of the Society of College, National and University Libraries’ Seven Pillars of Information Literacy model (SCONUL, 2011, and Vitae’s Researcher Development Framework (‘Vitae RDF’ for consistently describing research data management (‘RDM’ skills and skills development paths in UK HEI postgraduate courses.With the collaboration of the RDMTrain projects, we mapped individual course modules to these two models and identified basic generic data management skills alongside discipline-specific requirements. A synthesis of the training outputs of the projects was then carried out, which further investigated the generic versus discipline-specific considerations and other successful approaches to training that had been identified as a result of the projects’ work. In addition we produced a series of career profiles to help illustrate the fact that data management is an essential component – in obvious and not-so-obvious ways – of a wide range of professions.We found that both models had potential for consistently and coherently describing data management skills training and embedding this within broader institutional postgraduate curricula. However, we feel that additional discipline-specific references to data management skills could also be beneficial for effective use of these models. Our synthesis work identified that the majority of core skills were generic across disciplines at the postgraduate level, with the discipline-specific approach showing its value in engaging the audience and

  7. The Data Management Skills Support Initiative: Synthesising Postgraduate Training in Research Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molloy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe the efforts and findings of the JISC Data Management Skills Support Initiative (‘DaMSSI’. DaMSSI was co-funded by the JISC Managing Research Data programme and the Research Information Network (RIN, in partnership with the Digital Curation Centre, to review, synthesise and augment the training offerings of the JISC Research Data Management Training Materials (‘RDMTrain’ projects.DaMSSI tested the effectiveness of the Society of College, National and University Libraries’ Seven Pillars of Information Literacy model (SCONUL, 2011, and Vitae’s Researcher Development Framework (‘Vitae RDF’ for consistently describing research data management (‘RDM’ skills and skills development paths in UK HEI postgraduate courses.With the collaboration of the RDMTrain projects, we mapped individual course modules to these two models and identified basic generic data management skills alongside discipline-specific requirements. A synthesis of the training outputs of the projects was then carried out, which further investigated the generic versus discipline-specific considerations and other successful approaches to training that had been identified as a result of the projects’ work. In addition we produced a series of career profiles to help illustrate the fact that data management is an essential component – in obvious and not-so-obvious ways – of a wide range of professions.We found that both models had potential for consistently and coherently describing data management skills training and embedding this within broader institutional postgraduate curricula. However, we feel that additional discipline-specific references to data management skills could also be beneficial for effective use of these models. Our synthesis work identified that the majority of core skills were generic across disciplines at the postgraduate level, with the discipline-specific approach showing its value in engaging the audience and

  8. Supporting diverse data providers in the open water data initiative: Communicating water data quality and fitness of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sara; Hamilton, Stuart; Lucido, Jessica M.; Garner, Bradley D.; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Shared, trusted, timely data are essential elements for the cooperation needed to optimize economic, ecologic, and public safety concerns related to water. The Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) will provide a fully scalable platform that can support a wide variety of data from many diverse providers. Many of these will be larger, well-established, and trusted agencies with a history of providing well-documented, standardized, and archive-ready products. However, some potential partners may be smaller, distributed, and relatively unknown or untested as data providers. The data these partners will provide are valuable and can be used to fill in many data gaps, but can also be variable in quality or supplied in nonstandardized formats. They may also reflect the smaller partners' variable budgets and missions, be intermittent, or of unknown provenance. A challenge for the OWDI will be to convey the quality and the contextual “fitness” of data from providers other than the most trusted brands. This article reviews past and current methods for documenting data quality. Three case studies are provided that describe processes and pathways for effective data-sharing and publication initiatives. They also illustrate how partners may work together to find a metadata reporting threshold that encourages participation while maintaining high data integrity. And lastly, potential governance is proposed that may assist smaller partners with short- and long-term participation in the OWDI.

  9. Improving Initiation and Tracking of Research Projects at an Academic Health Center: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Goros, Martin; Parsons, Helen M; Saygin, Can; Wan, Hung-Da; Shireman, Paula K; Gelfond, Jonathan A L

    2016-09-20

    Research service cores at academic health centers are important in driving translational advancements. Specifically, biostatistics and research design units provide services and training in data analytics, biostatistics, and study design. However, the increasing demand and complexity of assigning appropriate personnel to time-sensitive projects strains existing resources, potentially decreasing productivity and increasing costs. Improving processes for project initiation, assigning appropriate personnel, and tracking time-sensitive projects can eliminate bottlenecks and utilize resources more efficiently. In this case study, we describe our application of lean six sigma principles to our biostatistics unit to establish a systematic continual process improvement cycle for intake, allocation, and tracking of research design and data analysis projects. The define, measure, analyze, improve, and control methodology was used to guide the process improvement. Our goal was to assess and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of operations by objectively measuring outcomes, automating processes, and reducing bottlenecks. As a result, we developed a web-based dashboard application to capture, track, categorize, streamline, and automate project flow. Our workflow system resulted in improved transparency, efficiency, and workload allocation. Using the dashboard application, we reduced the average study intake time from 18 to 6 days, a 66.7% reduction over 12 months (January to December 2015).

  10. CRITERIA AND DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR MONITORING QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR PRACTICE-ORIENTED RESEARCH ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara А. Strokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present publication is to disclose the contents of the monitoring initial stage including theoretical understanding of observed object, comprehension of its essence, definition of assessment criteria, the choice of diagnostic means and sources of information. Methods. The problem analysis of scientific prerequisites for pedagogical interpretation of education quality phenomenon, comparison and assessment of various approaches in definition of its essence are carried out from the system approach; the author’s understanding of quality of future teachers training to research activity and criteria of its assessment is proved. The studying and analysis of official documents, educational programs and scientific publications, systematization, substantial generalization, structuring, differentiation and expert assessment are used while the problem solution of main research actions for scientific and pedagogical search selection, which are essential result of high school training. Results. Criteria and estimated complex of quality of learners training to research activity, developed according to requirements of the monitoring assessment, reflecting its intrinsic properties (quality of educational process, quality of its conditions, quality of the received results and their specific indicators are proposed. Stage-by-stage procedure of research actions selection is developed. Diagnostic means and sources of information are defined. Scientific novelty. Definition of the concepts «education quality», in terms of its understanding as a set of intrinsic aspect characteristics and the quality principle of process and its conditions quality reflection (A. I. Subetto, and the «practice-oriented research activity» defined as a set of the research actions reflecting its subject contents which are carried out in the context of the scientific solution of actual professional and pedagogical tasks is given. The list of research actions for

  11. Supporting Quality Timely PhD Completions: Delivering Research Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The case study used a three-phase organising process to explain how design and implementation of an accessible and interactive electronic thesis submission form streamlined quality assurance of theses and their timely dissemination via an online thesis repository. The quality of the theses submitted is assured by key academics in their final sign…

  12. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAnhong; PanChongdao; 等

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking.It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly,accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment,which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  13. Conceptualising Gender Equality in Research on Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Sheila; Halai, Anjum; Rubagiza, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to re-conceptualise gender equality in education quality. Four approaches to conceptualising gender equitable education quality are identified in the literature: human capital theory with a focus on parity and sameness for all; a human rights and power perspective, within which gender equality is viewed as transforming unjust…

  14. Researcher's and Parents' Perspectives on Quality of Care and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Based on arguments according to which the concept of quality is multifaceted, difficult to be defined and defined differently by various stakeholders, it has been suggested that the quality of care and education be evaluated from different perspectives if one aims to create a global picture of the early childhood education and care programmes. The…

  15. Regulating and Quality-Assuring VET: International Developments. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Josie

    2015-01-01

    The opening-up of the market for education and training, including vocational education and training (VET), has increased the importance of regulation and quality assurance mechanisms in ensuring the integrity of qualifications. This report investigates approaches to the regulation and quality assurance of vocational education and training in a…

  16. Qualities and Quantities: Using Philosophy to Guide Our Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lee; Dy, Angela Martinez

    2012-01-01

    The presence or absence of qualities such as integrity and compassion are vital to the human condition. They can be experienced regularly or rarely and their causal consequences on, for example, motivation in the workplace can be strikingly obvious. Yet these important qualities can often be elusive to scientific investigation. In her article,…

  17. Service quality as goal and outcome of ergonomics research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2014-01-01

    and service quality. The study conducted an employee survey with 754 preschool teachers in 98 Danish preschools and a user survey among 8116 parents. Significant correlations were found between well-being and service quality measures from both employees and users indicating a link between traditional...

  18. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative: Managing a Multidisciplinary Data Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. K.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Reed, D.

    2011-12-01

    On April 20, 2010 the Deepwater Horizon drilling unit located in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, experienced a catastrophic wellhead blowout. Roughly 5 billion barrels of oil and 1 million U.S. gallons of dispersant were released near the wellhead over the next three months. Within weeks of the blowout, BP announced the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GRI) and pledged 50M/yr over 10 years for independent scientific research on the spill's impact on the ecosystem. Two months after the blowout three institutions were awarded a total of 25M in fast-track grants (Louisiana State University, Northern Gulf Institute, and Florida Institute of Oceanography). Soon after the Alabama Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium and the National Institutes of Health were awarded 5M and 10M, respectively. These five institutions began to generate data almost immediately. First year grants funded 100's of researchers from nearly 100 research units. Their activities included numerical modeling, field data collection, and laboratory experiments. Measured parameters included those associated with chemical analyses of oil, gas, and dispersants, studies of bacteria, plants and animals -from phytoplankton to marsh grasses, from zooplankton to cetaceans. Studies were conducted from estuaries to the deep Gulf, from atmosphere to sediments. Parameters from physical oceanography, marine meteorology, and biogeochemistry were measured in abundance. Additionally, impact studies on human mental, physical health and businesses were made. Proposals for years 2-4 of the program were to be awarded in August 2011 supporting 4-8 research consortia. Consortia may have up to 20 named researchers. In aggregate, these studies yielded a multidisciplinary data explosion. Following the fast-track awards the GRI Administrative Unit (AU) was established and a data management activity initiated. That activity became the GRI Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC). "Cooperative" emphasizes the

  19. Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

  20. Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

  1. ASPRS research on quantifying the geometric quality of lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Aparajithan; Heidemann, Hans K.; Stensaas, Gregory L.; Christopherson, Jon B.

    2014-01-01

    The ASPRS Lidar Cal/Val (calibration/validation) Working Group led by the US Geological Survey (USGS) to establish “Guidelines on Geometric Accuracy and Quality of Lidar Data” has made excellent progress via regular teleconferences and meetings. The group is focused on identifying data quality metrics and establishing a set of guidelines for quantifying the quality of lidar data. The working group has defined and agreed on lidar Data Quality Measures (DQMs) to be used for this purpose. The DQMs are envisaged as the first ever consistent way of checking lidar data. It is expected that these metrics will be used as standard methods for quantifying the geometric quality of lidar data. The goal of this article is to communicate these developments to the readers and the larger geospatial community and invite them to participate in the process.  

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Data Products, Quality, and Initial Public Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    As a spectroscopic imaging survey, MaNGA presents a host of technical challenges ranging from spectrophotometic calibration to image reconstruction. I will present an overview of the MaNGA data reduction pipeline (DRP) and the algorithms used to process the MaNGA data. Additionally, I will describe the format and quality of the MaNGA data products, and the means by which the first year of survey data will be made publicly available in SDSS Data Release 13 (DR-13).

  3. A crisis management quality improvement initiative in a children's psychiatric hospital: design, implementation, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccione-Dyszlewski, Margaret R; Conelea, Christine A; Heisler, Walter C; Vilardi, Jodie C; Sachs, Henry T

    2012-07-01

    Behavioral crisis management, including the use of seclusion and restraint, is the most high risk process in the psychiatric care of children and adolescents. The authors describe hospital-wide programmatic changes implemented at a children's psychiatric hospital that aimed to improve the quality of crisis management services. Pre/post quantitative and qualitative data suggest reduced restraint and seclusion use, reduced patient and staff injury related to crisis management, and increased patient satisfaction during the post-program period. Factors deemed beneficial in program implementation are discussed.

  4. An initial log analysis of usage patterns on a research networking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Mary Regina; Trembowelski, Sylvia; Bakken, Suzanne; Weng, Chunhua

    2012-08-01

    Usage data for research networking systems (RNSs) are valuable but generally unavailable for understanding scientific professionals' information needs and online collaborator seeking behaviors. This study contributes a method for evaluating RNSs and initial usage knowledge of one RNS obtained from using this method. We designed a log for an institutional RNS, defined categories of users and tasks, and analyzed correlations between usage patterns and user and query types. Our results show that scientific professionals spend more time performing deep Web searching on RNSs than generic Google users and we also show that retrieving scientist profiles is faster on an RNS than on Google (3.5 seconds vs. 34.2 seconds) whereas organization-specific browsing on a RNS takes longer than on Google (117.0 seconds vs. 34.2 seconds). Usage patterns vary by user role, e.g., faculty performed more informational queries than administrators, which implies role-specific user support is needed for RNSs.

  5. Assessment of the quality of sample labelling for clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pérez-Huertas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of the labels for clinical trial samples through current regulations, and to analyze its potential correlation with the specific characteristics of each sample. Method: A transversal multicenter study where the clinical trial samples from two third level hospitals were analyzed. The eleven items from Directive 2003/94/EC, as well as the name of the clinical trial and the dose on the label cover, were considered variables for labelling quality. The influence of the characteristics of each sample on labelling quality was also analyzed. Outcome: The study included 503 samples from 220 clinical trials. The mean quality of labelling, understood as the proportion of items from Appendix 13, was of 91.9%. Out of these, 6.6% did not include the name of the sample in the outer face of the label, while in 9.7% the dose was missing. The samples with clinical trial-type samples presented a higher quality (p < 0.049, blinding reduced their quality (p = 0.017, and identification by kit number or by patient increased it (p < 0.01. The promoter was the variable which introduced the highest variability into the analysis. Conclusions: The mean quality of labelling is adequate in the majority of clinical trial samples. The lack of essential information in some samples, such as the clinical trial code and the period of validity, is alarming and might be the potential source for dispensing or administration errors.

  6. Advances in public health accreditation readiness and quality improvement: evaluation findings from the National Public Health Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLees, Anita W; Thomas, Craig W; Nawaz, Saira; Young, Andrea C; Rider, Nikki; Davis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement is a central tenet of the Public Health Accreditation Board's (PHAB) national voluntary public health accreditation program. Similarly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the National Public Health Improvement Initiative (NPHII) in 2010 with the goal of advancing accreditation readiness, performance management, and quality improvement (QI). Evaluate the extent to which NPHII awardees have achieved program goals. NPHII awardees responded to an annual assessment and program monitoring data requests. Analysis included simple descriptive statistics. Seventy-four state, tribal, local, and territorial public health agencies receiving NPHII funds. NPHII performance improvement managers or principal investigators. Development of accreditation prerequisites, completion of an organizational self-assessment against the PHAB Standards and Measures, Version 1.0, establishment of a performance management system, and implementation of QI initiatives to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Of the 73 responding NPHII awardees, 42.5% had a current health assessment, 26% had a current health improvement plan, and 48% had a current strategic plan in place at the end of the second program year. Approximately 26% of awardees had completed an organizational PHAB self-assessment, 72% had established at least 1 of the 4 components of a performance management system, and 90% had conducted QI activities focused on increasing efficiencies and/or effectiveness. NPHII appears to be supporting awardees' initial achievement of program outcomes. As NPHII enters its third year, there will be additional opportunities to advance the work of NPHII, compile and disseminate results, and inform a vision of high-quality public health necessary to improve the health of the population.

  7. A quality improvement initiative for delayed umbilical cord clamping in very low-birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolstridge, Jeff; Bell, Tracy; Dean, Barbara; Mackley, Amy; Moore, Gina; Swift, Cheryl; Viscount, Dina; Paul, David A; Pearlman, Stephen A

    2016-09-13

    Due to clinical benefits, delayed cord clamping (DCC) is recommended in infants born before 37 weeks gestational age. The objective was to institute a delayed cord clamping program and to evaluate clinical outcomes one year after initiation. This study occured at Christiana Care Health System, a tertiary care facility with a 52 bed level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). A multidisciplinary team created a departmental policy, a DCC protocol and educational programs to support the development of a DCC program. A year after initiation of DCC, we evaluated two cohorts of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (cord clamping protocol and a decrease in the percentage of VLBW infants requiring red blood cell transfusion from 53.7 to 35.9 % (p = 0.003). We also found a decreased need for respiratory support in the second cohort with no increases in the balancing measures of admission hypothermia and jaundice requiring phototherapy. During the Control Phase ongoing monitoring and education has led to a 93.7 % compliance rate. A multidisciplinary team including key leadership from the obstetric and pediatric departments allowed for the rapid and safe implementation of DCC.

  8. Quality of Life and Philosophy of Life Determines Physical and Mental Health: Status Over Research Findings From The Quality of Life Research Center, Copenhagen, 1991-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QOL has over the past decade become an important part of health science and also increased public awareness. It has become increasingly apparent that illness is closely related to the individual perception of a good life, and therefore the exploration of indicators related to quality of life appears to be of broad importance for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Identifying, which factors constitute a good life may reveal an understanding about what areas in life should be encouraged, in order to enhance the global quality of life, health, and ability. In this paper we present results from studies initiated in 1989 to examine quality of life in relation to disease. The purpose of this presentation was to assemble the results from the study carried out in the years between 1993 and 1997, examining a total of 11.500 Danes, to show the association between quality of life and a wide series of social indicators.

  9. Continuous quality improvement programs provide new opportunities to drive value innovation initiatives in hospital-based radiology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph R; Schomer, Don F

    2009-07-01

    Imaging services constitute a huge portion of the of the total dollar investment within the health care enterprise. Accordingly, this generates competition among medical specialties organized along service lines for their pieces of the pie and increased scrutiny from third-party payers and government regulators. These market and political forces create challenge and opportunity for a hospital-based radiology practice. Clearly, change that creates or builds greater value for patients also creates sustainable competitive advantage for a radiology practice. The somewhat amorphous concept of quality constitutes a significant value driver for innovation in this scenario. Quality initiatives and programs seek to define and manage this amorphous concept and provide tools for a radiology practice to create or build more value. Leadership and the early adoption of these inevitable programs by a radiology practice strengthens relationships with hospital partners and slows the attrition of imaging service lines to competitors.

  10. Water quality variation of mining-subsidence lake during the initial stage: cases study of Zhangji and Guqiao Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Tina-yu; YAN Jia-ping; WANG Shun; ZHANG Bing; RUAN Shu-xian; ZHANG Mei-li; LI Shou-qin; CHEN Yong-chun; LIU Jin

    2012-01-01

    Four quarters' water collecting and monitoring samples were done in the mining subsidence lakes of different water storing periods (2 to 7 years),considering the water storing time and pollution sources state of the subsidence lakes.The following indexes were discussed such as organic indexes (TOC,CODMn,BOD,COD),nutrient salts (TN,NH4+,NO3-,NO2-,Kjeldahl Nitrogen,TP,PO43-),etc.It is shown that water quality of the mining subsidence lake during the initial stage (2 years to 7 years) can stay relatively stable with a fluctuation during different quarters in a year,which can reach class Ⅲ or Ⅳ of the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard.

  11. Managing postgraduate research service quality: Developing and assessing a conceptual model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawn Ramroop; Krishna Kistan Govender

    2013-01-01

    ...) research service quality management model, through conducting an electronic survey among a cohort of master's and doctorate graduates at one of the top three research universities in South Africa...

  12. The South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) Update and Meeting Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Land Use/Cover Change (LU/CC) is one of the most important types of environmental change in South and Southeast Asian countries. Several studies suggest that LU/CC in these countries is in large part driven by population growth and economic development. In the region, changes that are most common include urban expansion, agricultural land loss, land abandonment, deforestation, logging, reforestation, etc. To address the research needs and priorities in the region, a regional initiative entitled South Southeast Asia Regional Initiative (SARI) has been developed involving US and regional scientists. The initiative is funded by NASA Land Cover, Land Use Change program. The goal of SARI is to integrate state-of-the-art remote sensing, natural sciences, engineering and social sciences to enrich LU/CC science in South Southeast Asian countries. In the presentation, LU/CC change research in SARI countries will be highlighted including the drivers of change. For example, in South Asia, forest cover has been increasing in countries like India, Nepal and Bhutan due to sustainable afforestation measures; whereas, large-scale deforestation in Southeast Asian countries is still continuing, due to oil palm plantation expansion driven by the international market demand in Malaysia and Indonesia. With respect to urbanization, South and Southeast Asian countries contain 23 megacities, each with more than 10 million people. Rapid urbanization is driving agricultural land loss and agricultural intensification has been increasing due to less availability of land for growing food crops such as in India, Vietnam, and Thailand. The drivers of LUCC vary widely in the region and include such factors as land tenure, local economic development, government policies, inappropriate land management, land speculation, improved road networks, etc. In addition, variability in the weather, climate, and socioeconomic factors also drive LU/CC resulting in disruptions of biogeochemical cycles

  13. The basic research on the CDA initiation phase for a metallic fuel FBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Go; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kawada, Ken-ichi; Niwa, Hazime

    1998-03-01

    A metallic fuel with novel design has received great deal of interest recently as an option of advanced fuel to be substituted MOX fuel, however, the behavior at the transient has not been studied in many aspects. Therefore, for the purpose to show the basic tendency of the behavior and released energy at CDA (core disruptive accident) for a metallic fuel FBR and to prepare the basic knowledge for consideration of the adoption of the advanced fuel, Tohoku University and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have made a joint research entitled. (1) Target and Results of analysis: The accident initiator considered is a LOF accident with ATWS. The LOF analysis was performed for a metallic fuel 600 MWe homogeneous two region core at the beginning of cycle, both for an ordinary metallic fuel core and for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins. It was necessary mainly to change the constants of input parameters to apply the code for the analysis of a metallic fueled reactor. These changes were made by assuming appropriate models. Basic LOF cases and all blackout case that assumed using electromagnetic pumps were analyzed. The results show that the basic LOF cases for a metallic fuel core and all the cases for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins could be avoided to become prompt-critical, and mildly transfer to the transient phase. (2) Improvement of CDA initiation phase analysis code: At present, it is difficult for the code to adapt to the large material movement to in the core at the transient. Therefore, the nuclear calculation model in the code was improved by using the adiabatic space dependent kinetics. The results of a sample case, that is a metallic fueled core at the beginning of cycle, show this improvement is appropriate. (3) Conclusion: The behavior at CDA of a metallic fueled core of a fast reactor was analyzed using the CDA initiation phase analysis code and the knowledge of the important characteristics at the CDA initiation phase was obtained

  14. Advancing pharmaceutical quality: An overview of science and research in the U.S. FDA's Office of Pharmaceutical Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adam C; Lee, Sau L; Harris, Daniel P; Buhse, Lucinda; Kozlowski, Steven; Yu, Lawrence; Kopcha, Michael; Woodcock, Janet

    2016-12-30

    Failures surrounding pharmaceutical quality, particularly with respect to product manufacturing issues and facility remediation, account for the majority of drug shortages and product recalls in the United States. Major scientific advancements pressure established regulatory paradigms, especially in the areas of biosimilars, precision medicine, combination products, emerging manufacturing technologies, and the use of real-world data. Pharmaceutical manufacturing is increasingly globalized, prompting the need for more efficient surveillance systems for monitoring product quality. Furthermore, increasing scrutiny and accelerated approval pathways provide a driving force to be even more efficient with limited regulatory resources. To address these regulatory challenges, the Office of Pharmaceutical Quality (OPQ) in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) harbors a rigorous science and research program in core areas that support drug quality review, inspection, surveillance, standards, and policy development. Science and research is the foundation of risk-based quality assessment of new drugs, generic drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and biotechnology products including biosimilars. This is an overview of the science and research activities in OPQ that support the mission of ensuring that safe, effective, and high-quality drugs are available to the American public. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Quality management in a clinical research facility: Evaluation of changes in quality in-house figures and the appraisal of in-house quality indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Bile; Allekotte, Silke; Mösges, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    For long-term maintenance and improvement of quality within a clinical research institute, the implementation and certification of a quality management system is suitable. Due to the implemented quality management system according to the still valid DIN EN ISO 9001:2008 desired quality objectives are achieved effectively. The evaluation of quality scores and the appraisal of in-house quality indicators make an important contribution in this regard. In order to achieve this and draw quality assurance conclusions, quality indicators as sensible and sensitive as possible are developed. For this, own key objectives, the retrospective evaluation of quality scores, a prospective follow-up and also discussions establish the basis. In the in-house clinical research institute the measures introduced by the quality management led to higher efficiency in work processes, improved staff skills, higher customer satisfaction and overall to more successful outcomes in relation to the self-defined key objectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhogora Wilbroad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR. The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al at a source image distance (SID of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program.

  17. Optimal Growth when Environmental Quality is a Research Asset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Ricci, Francesco

    If environmental quality positively affects the productivity of labor in R&D and pollution is caused by the use of a non-renewable resource, it is socially optimal to postpone extraction and to intertemporally adjust R&D effort.......If environmental quality positively affects the productivity of labor in R&D and pollution is caused by the use of a non-renewable resource, it is socially optimal to postpone extraction and to intertemporally adjust R&D effort....

  18. Initial formation of teachers of chemistry: the use of the reports of observation of classes as instruments of research

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used the reports of classroom observation as a research tool, serving as a tool for research on initial teacher training in chemistry. The study analyzed 12 reports prepared by students of Degree in Chemistry and to discuss through the narratives of students, topics related to school structure and teaching of chemistry. The narratives have proved important implements to be analyzed to examine the initial formation. This work confirmed and underscored the relevance of the obs...

  19. Formal Models of Commonsense Geographic Worlds: Report on the Specialist Meeting of Research Initiative 21 (97-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, David M. (David Michael), 1947-; Egenhofer, Max J.; Hornsby, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the outcome of the Specialist Meeting of the NCGIA Research Initiative 21 on "Formal Models of Commonsense Geographic Worlds". The meeting was held in San Marcos, TX on October 30- November 3, 1996. Research Initiative 21 is concerned with the development of formal models of commonsense geographic worlds. Discussions at the Specialist Meeting focused on the commonsense or naive geographic reasoning that people perform and whose outcome makes intuitive sense to m...

  20. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  1. Stuttering Treatment Research 1970-2005: II. Systematic Review Incorporating Trial Quality Assessment of Pharmacological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Anne K.; Davidow, Jason H.; Bramlett, Robin E.; Franic, Duska M.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To complete a systematic review, incorporating trial quality assessment, of published research about pharmacological treatments for stuttering. Goals included the identification of treatment recommendations and research needs based on the available high-quality evidence. Method: Multiple readers reviewed 31 articles published between 1970…

  2. Challenges Associated With Using Large Data Sets for Quality Assessment and Research in Clinical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bevin; Vawdrey, David K; Liu, Jianfang; Caplan, David; Furuya, E Yoko; Mis, Frederick W; Larson, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    The rapidly expanding use of electronic records in health-care settings is generating unprecedented quantities of data available for clinical, epidemiological, and cost-effectiveness research. Several challenges are associated with using these data for clinical research, including issues surrounding access and information security, poor data quality, inconsistency of data within and across institutions, and a paucity of staff with expertise to manage and manipulate large clinical data sets. In this article, we describe our experience with assembling a data-mart and conducting clinical research using electronic data from four facilities within a single hospital network in New York City. We culled data from several electronic sources, including the institution's admission-discharge-transfer system, cost accounting system, electronic health record, clinical data warehouse, and departmental records. The final data-mart contained information for more than 760,000 discharges occurring from 2006 through 2012. Using categories identified by the National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge initiative as a framework, we outlined challenges encountered during the development and use of a domain-specific data-mart and recommend approaches to overcome these challenges.

  3. Quality assurance through outcome registration in colorectal cancer: an ECCO initiative for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, W; van de Velde, C J H

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in outcome of rectal cancer treatment. Both new surgical techniques as well as effective neoadjuvant treatment regimens have contributed to these improvements. It is key to spread these advances towards every rectal cancer patient and to make sure that not only patients who are treated within the framework of clinical trials may benefit from these advancements. Throughout Europe there have been interesting quality programs that have proved to facilitate the spread of up to date knowledge and skills among medical professionals resulting in improved treatment outcome. Nevertheless, between European countries remain differences in outcome and treatment schedules that cannot be easily explained. The European CanCer Organisation (ECCO) has recognised these importances's and created the 'European Registration of Cancer Care' (EURECCA) framework to develop a European colorectal audit structure. EURECCA will advance future treatment improvements and spread these to all European cancer patients. It provides opportunities to treat elderly and comorbid patients evidence based while it offers an unique insight in social-economical healthcare matters. As such, ECCO has established the basis for a strong, multidisciplinary audit structure with the commitment to improve cancer care for every European cancer patient.

  4. Research of safety message quality characteristics in inter-vehicle communication

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation investigates communication quality issues in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) using statistical analysis, experimental measurements, simulations and modelling. The Object of research is quality characteristics of Inter-Vehicle communication, which is based on IEEE 802.11p standard. The main objective of current research is to investigate Inter-Vehicle communication quality characteristics: packet loss and delay. Additionally propose a redundant safety message transmission met...

  5. THE PRIMORDIAL QUALITIES OF THE COACH WHICH INITIATES AND PREPARES ATHLETES WHO PARTICIPATE IN COMBAT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazăr Tipa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Coaching profession requires a lot of passion and devotement , since it requires a large amount of physical and mental work , and many sacrifices. A coach 's first a teacher patiently embracing a bit of his knowledge in future performers , then he is an educator , because he has to take a permanent educational work with athletes . But he must plan and carry out performance in every sport based on a thorough knowledge of the features and capabilities of each. The activity of a teacher - trainer in boxing is much more difficult compared to the work that takes place in the educational process to the other subjects in the department, from different specialties in the teacher / wrestling coach must meet certain criteria in terms of regulation. The coach must also be a permanent researcher work that will find solutions and methods of preparation of athletes, will removal the negative aspects in this regard and will make a substantial contribution to the development of his sport, he is a man of science , because he cannot not be confined only to teaching knowledge learned, he is forced to always exceed the education, scientific research and experiments and to contribute to the development and improvement of their teaching knowledge, so that they have maximum efficiency in getting competitive advantage.

  6. The Quality of an Action Research Thesis in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber-Skerrit, Ortrun; Fletcher, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify the quality characteristics of critical action research and action research theses compared to traditional research thesis writing. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the literature and the authors' experience with supervising and examining action research theses, the paper identifies key problem areas in…

  7. Managing postgraduate research service quality: Developing and assessing a conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ramroop

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the conceptual development and empirical evaluation of a postgraduate (PG research service quality management model, through conducting an electronic survey among a cohort of master’s and doctorate graduates at one of the top three research universities in South Africa, using specifically developed and validated research instruments.By fitting the data from a sample of 117 graduates to a conceptual model using structural equation modelling, it became evident that the PG research students’ perception of the Organisational Climate for Research (OCR is associated with their perception of the PG Research Service Quality (PGSQUAL, the PG Service Experience (SERVEXP and their perception of their Role (RC. However, no association was found between the students’ perception of the research climate (OCR and their satisfaction (SERVSAT with the research service; the service experience (SERVEXP and postgraduate research service quality (PGSQUAL; service satisfaction (SERVSAT and postgraduate service quality (PGSQUAL.  The aforementioned findings imply that higher education institutions need to create a research climate which is supportive of service quality, and better manage the research climate, so that the PG students are clear about their role, which will eventually translate to a better PG service experience and improved perception of PG service quality.

  8. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative: Building a Big Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. K.; Gayanilo, F. C.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    On April 20, 2010 the Deepwater Horizon drilling unit located in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico experienced a catastrophic wellhead blowout. Billions of barrels of oil and roughly 1 million U.S. gallons of dispersant were released near the wellhead over the subsequent three months. On May 24, 2010 BP announced the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) and pledged 500M over 10 years toward independent scientific research on the spill's impact on the ecosystem. Data collection began immediately. By summer 2012 nearly 200M will have been committed to this research. Five hundred and seventy researchers from 114 institutions in 30 states and 4 countries are involved. Research activities include substantial numerical modeling, field and laboratory investigations of the environment and biota, and chemical studies of oil and dispersants. An additional $300M will be competed in subsequent years. The administrative and data management elements of the enterprise began to build in earnest in mid 2011. The last position in the GoMRI Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) team was filled in July 2012. Due to the rapid evolution of the program in the first year, few data management requirements were imposed on the Year-One researchers. Proposal guidance for the Year 2-4 Research Consortia (RC) programs asked proposers to address data management questions but expressed few mandates. GRIIDC is charged with providing a portal to GoMRI data and metadata. Researchers are required to provide their data to GRIIDC and to national digital repositories with a minimum delay. Almost everything else was left to evolve through human networks. The GRIIDC team is composed of a System Architect, a Database Administrator, Software Engineers, a GIS specialist, a Technical Coordinator and several subject matter experts. The team faces the usual choices related to building a new cyberinfrastructure (e.g., metadata, ontologies, file formats, web services, etc.). However, the human element is

  9. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colom Joan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. Methods The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issues in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia participated in this assessment. Measures of compliance were developed based on indicators reported in the literature and by broad stakeholder involvement. We compared pre-post differences in dimension-specific and overall compliance-scores using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and the Friedman statistic. We described the spread of the data using the inter-quartile range and the Fligner-Killen statistic. Finally, we adjusted compliance scores for location and size using linear and logistic regression models. Results We performed a baseline and follow up assessment in 22 centers for substance abuse care and observed substantial and statistically significant improvements for overall compliance (pre: 60.9%; post: 79.1% and for compliance in the dimensions 'care pathway' (pre: 66.5%; post: 83.5% and 'organization and management' (pre: 50.5%; post: 77.2%. We observed improvements in the dimension 'environment and infrastructure' (pre: 81.8%; post: 95.5% and in the dimension 'relations and user rights' (pre: 66.5%; post: 72.5%; however, these were not statistically significant. The regression analysis suggests that improvements in compliance are positively influenced by being located in the Barcelona region in case of the dimension 'relations and user rights'. Conclusion The positive results of this quality improvement initiative are possibly associated with the successful involvement of stakeholders, the consciously

  10. Developing the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative (SAFARI) as a collaborative pan-stakeholder critical path registry model: a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium "Incubator" Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Calkins, Hugh; Eloff, Benjamin C; Kowey, Peter; Hammill, Stephen C; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Waldo, Albert L; Brindis, Ralph G; Wilbur, David J; Jackman, Warren M; Yaross, Marcia S; Russo, Andrea M; Prystowsky, Eric; Varosy, Paul D; Gross, Thomas; Pinnow, Ellen; Turakhia, Mintu P; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2010-10-01

    Although several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in experienced centers, the outcomes of this procedure in routine clinical practice and in patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF remain uncertain. Brisk adoption of this therapy by physicians with diverse training and experience highlights potential concerns regarding the safety and effectiveness of this procedure. Some of these concerns could be addressed by a national registry of AF ablation procedures such as the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative that was initially proposed at a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium Think Tank meeting in April 2009. In January 2010, the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, in collaboration with the Duke Clinical Research Institute, the US Food and Drug Administration, the American College of Cardiology, and the Heart Rhythm Society, held a follow-up meeting of experts in the field to review the construct and progress to date. Other participants included the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; the AdvaMed AF working group; and additional industry representatives. This article summarizes the discussions that occurred at the meeting of the state of the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative, the identification of a clear pathway for its implementation, and the exploration of solutions to potential issues in the execution of this registry. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal growth when environmental quality is a research asset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Ricci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    the use of a non-renewable resource generates pollution. We show that in such a case, it is socially optimal to postpone extraction, as opposed to the situation in which the environment has no effect on productivity in R&D. Furthermore, insofar as environmental quality declines and subsequently recovers......, we find that it is optimal to re-allocate employment to R&D in line with productivity changes. If environmental quality recovers only partially from pollution, R&D effort optimally begins above its long-run level, then progressively declines to a minimum and eventually increases to its steady...

  12. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Myers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A performance measurement system – the Service Quality Measures (SQM initiative – has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA’s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. Objective. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. Methods. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Results. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63. In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df=3.70, p=0.015, awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001, leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001, resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001, openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001, and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001 and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001 were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. Conclusion. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  13. The Challenges of Developing and Integrating a Quality Management System in a Research and Development Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, E.; Werne, R.W.

    2000-08-01

    Tailoring a quality management system to the specific needs of an organization is difficult to say the least. The existence of quality system models and standards help facilitate this process immensely. However, what does an organization do when its work is so unique that quality system models and standards do not exist for it? This and other obstacles are what the Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security (NAI) Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) encountered during strategic initiatives to develop and integrate a new quality management system. This paper will answer this question to help similar initiatives by: Introducing NAI and its unique mission, organization, history, culture and the security environment in which it operates; Examining the obstacles to designing and integrating NAI's quality management system; Discussing the steps taken to ensure success of the strategic quality initiatives; Presenting the quality management system and plan that resulted from these efforts; Presenting the improvements in NAI and LLNL that resulted from these strategic initiatives; and Presenting lessons learned and practical recommendations.

  14. Advances in outcomes measurement in rehabilitation medicine: current initiatives from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Cella, David

    2011-10-01

    The articles in this supplement present recent advances in the measurement of patient-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes. Specifically, these articles highlight the combined efforts of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Center on Medical Rehabilitation Research, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service to improve HRQOL measurement. In addition, this supplement is intended to provide rehabilitation professionals with information about these efforts and the implications that these advances in outcomes measurement have for rehabilitation medicine and clinical practice. These new measurement scales use state-of-the-art method techniques, including item response theory and computerized adaptive testing. In addition, scale development involves both qualitative and quantitative methods, as well as the administration of items to hundreds or even thousands of research participants. The scales deliberately have been built with overlap of items between scales so that linkages and equivalency scores can be computed. Ultimately, these scales should facilitate direct comparison of outcomes instruments across studies and will serve as standard data elements across research trials without compromising the specificity of disease- or condition-targeted measures. This supplement includes the initial publications for many of these new measurement initiatives, each of which provides researchers and clinicians with better tools for evaluation of the efficacy of their interventions.

  15. Improvement in Total Joint Replacement Quality Metrics: Year One Versus Year Three of the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, John M; Bosco, Joseph; Slover, James; Yu, Stephen; Sayeed, Yousuf; Iorio, Richard

    2016-12-07

    In January 2013, a large, tertiary, urban academic medical center began participation in the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative for total joint arthroplasty, a program implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in 2011. Medicare Severity-Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs) 469 and 470 were included. We participated in BPCI Model 2, by which an episode of care includes the inpatient and all post-acute care costs through 90 days following discharge. The goal for this initiative is to improve patient care and quality through a patient-centered approach with increased care coordination supported through payment innovation. Length of stay (LOS), readmissions, discharge disposition, and cost per episode of care were analyzed for year 3 compared with year 1 of the initiative. Multiple programs were implemented after the first year to improve performance metrics: a surgeon-directed preoperative risk-factor optimization program, enhanced care coordination and home services, a change in venous thromboembolic disease (VTED) prophylaxis to a risk-stratified protocol, infection-prevention measures, a continued emphasis on discharge to home rather than to an inpatient facility, and a quality-dependent gain-sharing program among surgeons. There were 721 Medicare primary total joint arthroplasty patients in year 1 and 785 in year 3; their data were compared. The average hospital LOS decreased from 3.58 to 2.96 days. The rate of discharge to an inpatient facility decreased from 44% to 28%. The 30-day all-cause readmission rate decreased from 7% to 5%; the 60-day all-cause readmission rate decreased from 11% to 6%; and the 90-day all-cause readmission rate decreased from 13% to 8%. The average 90-day cost per episode decreased by 20%. Mid-term results from the implementation of Medicare BPCI Model 2 for primary total joint arthroplasty demonstrated decreased LOS, decreased discharges to inpatient facilities, decreased readmissions, and

  16. Internationalization for Quality in Chinese Research Universities: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanhua; Yue, Yun

    2015-01-01

    China's rapidly expanding university system aims to balance quantity and quality through a variety of measures, including internationalization. This paper employs data from a survey of 1264 students from 39 higher education institutions in order to understand students' view on institutional approaches to internationalization. The data show that…

  17. Supporting knowledge translation through collaborative translational research initiatives: ‘Bridging’ versus ‘blurring’ boundary-spanning approaches in the UK CLAHRC initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah; Scarbrough, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives in the UK and internationally have sought to promote knowledge translation between the ‘producers’ and ‘users’ of research. Within this paper we explore how boundary-spanning interventions used within such initiatives can support knowledge translation between diverse groups. Using qualitative data from a 3-year research study conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 of two case-sites drawn from the CLAHRC initiative in the UK, we distinguish two different approaches to supporting knowledge translation; a ‘bridging’ approach that involves designated roles, discrete events and activities to span the boundaries between communities, and a ‘blurring’ approach that de-emphasises the boundaries between groups, enabling a more continuous process of knowledge translation as part of day-to-day work-practices. In this paper, we identify and differentiate these boundary-spanning approaches and describe how they emerged from the context defined by the wider CLAHRC networks. This highlights the need to develop a more contextualised analysis of the boundary-spanning that underpins knowledge translation processes, relating this to the distinctive features of a particular case. PMID:24561773

  18. Initial formation of teachers of chemistry: the use of the reports of observation of classes as instruments of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiele Cristiane Dias Broietti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the reports of classroom observation as a research tool, serving as a tool for research on initial teacher training in chemistry. The study analyzed 12 reports prepared by students of Degree in Chemistry and to discuss through the narratives of students, topics related to school structure and teaching of chemistry. The narratives have proved important implements to be analyzed to examine the initial formation. This work confirmed and underscored the relevance of the observation stage in the formation of teaching as a moment of research and reflection of teaching practice.

  19. [Quality control and assessment of qualitative interview in health care research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-ming; Liao, Xing

    2008-07-01

    It is not finally concluded how to standardize the use of qualitative research in the world. Qualitative researchers disagree with each other about this issue. As we know, there have been a large number of articles written in different ways about qualitative research due to the "flexibility", one of its features. Qualitative research is quite different from quantitative research which is easy to control its quality and quality assessment. A series of criteria has been set up for quantitative research. However qualitative research needs to be improved in these aspects, in which qualitative interviews are mostly used at home and abroad at present. Hence, it becomes an important and urgent issue for qualitative researchers to standardly control and assess the quality of qualitative interview.

  20. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  1. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  2. Global alignment, coordination and collaboration in perinatal research: the Global Obstetrics Network (GONet) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Ben Willem; Ruifrok, Anneloes Elisabeth

    2013-03-01

    Large clinical studies provide information and insight that are used to develop clinical guidelines. In view of the large sample sizes needed, many researchers have initiated multicenter studies. In some situations, the activities of these groups have led to networks, through which multiple trials have been executed over a longer period of time. The Global Obstetrics Network (GONet) was formed to link the different types of networks. The GONet mission is "to provide a forum for international interaction and collaboration among groups that perform clinical trials and observational studies in maternal fetal medicine and obstetrics." The purpose is to foster communication between groups to improve ongoing and future trials. This will open new avenues for cooperation in the design and conduct of large international trials, in seeking funding, and in highlighting evidence. The expectation is that this will lead to better studies and more efficient use of resources and minimize duplication. Furthermore, the group will provide insight and camaraderie, cooperate on data elements to allow future collaborations, and identify and highlight the pressing issues in maternal-fetal medicine. Here we describe the GONet mission, its objectives, structure and function, current collaborators, and plans for the future.

  3. Clinical effectiveness of the massachusetts childhood obesity research demonstration initiative among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Perkins, Meghan; Anand, Shikha; Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Nelson, Candace C; Kamdar, Neil; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Gortmaker, Steven L; Barrett, Jessica L; Davison, Kirsten K; Land, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    To examine the extent to which a clinical intervention resulted in reduced BMI z scores among 2- to 12-year-old children compared to routine practice (treatment as usual [TAU]). The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) project is a multifaceted initiative to prevent childhood obesity among low-income children. At the federally qualified community health centers (FQHCs) of two communities (Intervention Site #1 and #2), the following were implemented: (1) pediatric weight management training, (2) electronic decision supports for clinicians, (3) on-site Healthy Weight Clinics, (4) community health worker integration, and (5) healthful clinical environment changes. One FQHC in a demographically matched community served as the TAU site. Using electronic health records, we assessed BMI z scores and used linear mixed models to examine BMI z score change over 2 years in each intervention site compared to a TAU site. Compared to children in the TAU site (n = 2,286), children in Intervention Site #2 (n = 1,368) had a significant decline in BMI z scores following the start of the intervention (-0.16 units/y; 95% confidence interval: -0.21 to -0.12). No evidence of an effect was found in Intervention Site #1 (n = 111). The MA-CORD clinical interventions were associated with modest improvement in BMI z scores in one of two intervention communities compared to a TAU community. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. Service quality as goal and outcome of ergonomics research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics research needs to design organizational level, occupational health interventions that contribute to improving organizational performance so as to become of practical relevance for management. This paper analyses a study evaluating the impact of such interventions on user satisfaction...... ergonomic outcomes and organizational performance. Consequently, ergonomics research may benefit from including measures of organizational performance....

  5. Research information systems are path to high-quality healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, J T

    1987-10-01

    Research is the key to dealing with the major issues facing the healthcare industry. And an information system for organization and management research is a necessary component in healthcare organizations. Research information systems should support action, not theory. Their purpose is to educate information users about their system of services; provide data for planning, developing, directing, and evaluating both technical and management work; and provide a basis for "steering" the program. Four key subjects for a research information system are service activities, patient characteristics, costs and budget, and outcomes. The goal in developing a research information system is to integrate the various types of information into a format that provides the information for management use at a given time. Development of a research information system requires concentrating on the design and the process of developing and using the data for action research. Each design step requires an analysis of existing and future research requirements, of what clinical and managerial leaders would like to know. Identifying users is important, since they will ultimately judge the adequacy of the system. Each user has to make decisions based on the data. Such decisions include setting goals, forming policy, organizing activities, and budgeting.

  6. An institutional review board-based clinical research quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Pramod M; Dahl, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the acknowledged importance of quality assurance in the clinical research process, the problem of how such a program should be implemented at the level of an academic teaching hospital or a similar institution has not been addressed in the literature. Despite the fact that quality assurance is expected in programs which certify and accredit Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), very little is known about the role of the IRB in programs of clinical research quality assurance. In this article we consider the definition of clinical research quality assurance, and describe a program designed to achieve it. The key elements of such a program are education at the site level, which has both mandatory and voluntary components, and an auditing and monitoring program, which reinforces the education on quality assurance. The role of the IRB in achieving the program goals and the organizational placement of the quality assurance program within the IRB structure and function are important items of discussion.

  7. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of

  8. Approved Instructional Resources Series: A National Initiative to Identify Quality Emergency Medicine Blog and Podcast Content for Resident Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michelle; Joshi, Nikita; Grock, Andrew; Swaminathan, Anand; Morley, Eric J; Branzetti, Jeremy; Taira, Taku; Ankel, Felix; Yarris, Lalena M

    2016-05-01

    Background Emergency medicine (EM) residency programs can provide up to 20% of their planned didactic experiences asynchronously through the Individualized Interactive Instruction (III) initiative. Although blogs and podcasts provide potential material for III content, programs often struggle with identifying quality online content. Objective To develop and implement a process to curate quality EM content on blogs and podcasts for resident education and III credit. Methods We developed the Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) Series on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website. Monthly, an editorial board identifies, peer reviews, and writes assessment questions for high-quality blog/podcast content. Eight educators rate each post using a standardized scoring instrument. Posts scoring ≥ 30 of 35 points are awarded an AIR badge and featured in the series. Enrolled residents can complete an assessment quiz for III credit. After 12 months of implementation, we report on program feasibility, enrollment rate, web analytics, and resident satisfaction scores. Results As of June 2015, 65 EM residency programs are enrolled in the AIR Series, and 2140 AIR quizzes have been completed. A total of 96% (2064 of 2140) of participants agree or strongly agree that the activity would improve their clinical competency, 98% (2098 of 2140) plan to use the AIR Series for III credit, and 97% (2077 of 2140) plan to use it again in the future. Conclusions The AIR Series is a national asynchronous EM curriculum featuring quality blogs and podcasts. It uses a national expert panel and novel scoring instrument to peer review web-based educational resources.

  9. Motivational Gaps and Perceptual Bias of Initial Motivation Additional Indicators of Quality for e-Learning Courses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosário Cação

    2017-01-01

    ...s: attitudes, courses, expectations, e-learning, gaps, motivational gap, motivation, motivation to learn, perception bias, quality, quality indicators, quality of e-learning, satisfaction, service...

  10. How Wageningen University and Research Center managed to influence researchers publishing behaviour towards more quality, impact and visibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fondermann, Philipp; Togt, van der P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Wageningen University and Research Center (WUR) is one of the most prestigious research institutions in the world in life sciences and improved significantly in several rankings over the last years. One of the `drivers` of this success story is a comprehensive quality management exercise based on Re

  11. Speech Quality Monitoring in Czech National Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozhon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.

  12. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  13. A 2-1-1 research collaboration: participant accrual and service quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddens, Katherine S; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Kreuter, Matthew W; Rath, Suchitra; Greer, Regina

    2012-12-01

    In times of crises, 2-1-1 serves as a lifeline in many ways. These crises often cause a spike in call volume that can challenge 2-1-1's ability to meet its service quality standards. For researchers gathering data through 2-1-1s, a sudden increase in call volume might reduce accrual as 2-1-1 has less time to administer study protocols. Research activities imbedded in 2-1-1 systems may affect directly 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Using data from a 2-1-1 research collaboration, this paper examines the impact of crises on call volume to 2-1-1, how call volume affects research participant accrual through 2-1-1, and how research recruitment efforts affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. t-tests were used to examine the effect of call volume on research participant accrual. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of research participant accrual on 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Data were collected June 2010-December 2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Findings from this collaboration suggest that crises causing spikes in call volume adversely affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators as well as accrual of research participants. Administering a brief (2-3 minute) health risk assessment did not affect service quality negatively, but administering a longer (15-18 minute) survey had a modest adverse effect on these indicators. In 2-1-1 research collaborations, both partners need to understand the dynamic relationship among call volume, research accrual, and service quality and adjust expectations accordingly. If research goals include administering a longer survey, increased staffing of 2-1-1 call centers may be needed to avoid compromising service quality. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  15. 78 FR 61362 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    .... Healthcare Information Technology Research (HITR) Date: October 31--November 1, 2013 (Open from 8:00 a.m. to... take place at the following location: Hyatt Regency Hotel Bethesda, One Metro Center, Bethesda, MD...

  16. Generating an item pool for translational social cognition research: methodology and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutmann, Michael K; Moore, Samantha L; Savitt, Adam; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-03-01

    Existing sets of social and emotional stimuli suitable for social cognition research are limited in many ways, including size, unimodal stimulus delivery, and restriction to major universal emotions. Existing measures of social cognition could be improved by taking advantage of item response theory and adaptive testing technology to develop instruments that obtain more efficient measures of multimodal social cognition. However, for this to be possible, large pools of emotional stimuli must be obtained and validated. We present the development of a large, high-quality multimedia stimulus set produced by professional adult and child actors (ages 5 to 74) containing both visual and vocal emotional expressions. We obtained over 74,000 audiovisual recordings of a wide array of emotional and social behaviors, including the main universal emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise), as well as more complex social expressions (pride, affection, sarcasm, jealousy, and shame). The actors generated a high quantity of technically superior, ecologically valid stimuli that were digitized, archived, and rated for accuracy and intensity of expressions. A subset of these facial and vocal expressions of emotion and social behavior were submitted for quantitative ratings to generate parameters for validity and discriminability. These stimuli are suitable for affective neuroscience-based psychometric tests, functional neuroimaging, and social cognitive rehabilitation programs. The purposes of this report are to describe the method of obtaining and validating this database and to make it accessible to the scientific community. We invite all those interested in participating in the use and validation of these stimuli to access them at www.med.upenn.edu/bbl/actors/index.shtml .

  17. Building the field of population health intervention research: The development and use of an initial set of competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Riley

    2015-01-01

    This initial set of competencies, released in 2013, may be used to develop graduate student curriculum, recruit trainees and faculty to academic institutions, plan non-degree professional development, and develop job descriptions for PHIR-related research and professional positions. The competencies provide some initial guideposts for the field and will need to be adapted as the PHIR field matures and to meet unique needs of different jurisdictions.

  18. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY PRICE RATIO OF COKING COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶树人; 王永君

    1994-01-01

    If assortment price parity of Clean coling coal and its quallty price difference is nonreasortable, it doesn't guide in improving the qualiry metaljurgical eoking coal and may be influence the economic benefit of metallurgical enterprises. This paper propose the principles and mathematic model for determination assortment parity of ciean cokingcoal and its quality difference of ash content in clean coking coa in order to urge wasberies into producing superior clean coking coal which is under condition of consideration both intorest waskcries and interest metallurgical industry. It canbe used as a method in theory to make price stra,iegics under condition of socialism maket economic for washeries of clean coking coal

  19. From Research to Practice: Which Research Strategy Contributes More to Clinical Excellence? Comparing High-Volume versus High-Quality Biomedical Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Tchetchik

    Full Text Available The question when and to what extent academic research can benefit society is of great interest to policy-makers and the academic community. Physicians in university hospitals represent a highly relevant test-group for studying the link between research and practice because they engage in biomedical academic research while also providing medical care of measurable quality. Physicians' research contribution to medical practice can be driven by either high-volume or high-quality research productivity, as often pursuing one productivity strategy excludes the other. To empirically examine the differential contribution to medical practice of the two strategies, we collected secondary data on departments across three specializations (Cardiology, Oncology and Orthopedics in 50 U.S.-based university hospitals served by 4,330 physicians. Data on volume and quality of biomedical research at each department was correlated with publicly available ratings of departments' quality of care, demonstrating that high-quality research has significantly greater contribution to quality of care than high-volume research.

  20. The International Permafrost Association: new structure and initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, I.; Lewkowicz, A. G.; Christiansen, H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Lantuit, H.; Schrott, L.; Sergeev, D.; Wei, M.

    2012-12-01

    within Global Climate Models and promote the study of the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical cycles in permafrost regions that contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Within the discussion of climate change and the organic carbon stored in the frozen ground, the IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA is the new Standing Committee on Outreach and Education that is responsible for the development and implementation of new outreach products and projects on permafrost for schools, universities, and the general public. In all of these activities, the IPA emphasizes the involvement of young researchers (especially through the Permafrost Young Researchers Network) as well as its international partner organizations.