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Sample records for qualitative study results

  1. Qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qualitative Studies (QS) aims to become a central forum for discussions of qualitative research in psychology, education, communication, cultural studies, health sciences and social sciences in general...

  2. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  3. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  4. What do women think about abnormal smear test results? A qualitative interview study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Schijf, C.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is a report of Dutch women's views on abnormal cervical smear test results and the consequences thereof. Twenty-seven women with recent PAP III in their history were interviewed in the context of this qualitative study. GPs often do not inform patients beforehand about the ways

  5. Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: Results of a qualitative study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Poffald

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Materials and methods. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. Results. The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the “delayed access group”. This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. Conclusion. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  6. Experiences of disability consumer-directed care users in Australia: results from a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Goetz; Laragy, Carmel; Haddon, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    The rapidly growing body of literature suggests that Consumer-directed Care (CDC) has the potential to empower consumers and improve the flexibility and quality of care. However, reports highlighting quality and risk concerns associated with CDC focusing on a longer time frame have been few. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative longitudinal evaluation of an Australian CDC programme. Focusing on the period between 2003 and 2008, it reports on the experiences of 12 families caring for a dependent family member. It is based on two external evaluations completed 6 and 36 months after enrollment, and one internal evaluation completed 48 months after enrollment. The findings were triangulated with internal memos, reports and minutes of meetings, as well as with the theoretical literature. The study demonstrates that CDC harbours considerable benefits for people with disabilities and their carers. However, the study also suggests that, over time, carers may experience an increased sense of isolation and lack of support as a result of their involvement in the CDC programme. The paper argues that the development of safeguards addressing these weaknesses is crucial for the sustainability of CDC programmes in contexts where risk cannot be simply transferred onto consumers.

  7. Smoking and peer groups: results from a longitudinal qualitative study of young people in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Sittlington, Julie; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Harrisson, Sheila; Treacy, Margaret; Abaunza, Pilar Santos

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that young people are under considerable social pressure to take up smoking. This study has therefore sought to explore and better understand the mechanisms through which peer-related social factors operate to encourage young people to smoke. Individual qualitative interviews were held with adolescent children aged 11-12 years (N = 102) within youth clubs based in economically deprived areas of Northern Ireland, and then followed up on two occasions during the subsequent 3 years (N = 51/39). The data implied that, although peers influence smoking uptake, this seldom happens through direct persuasion, but rather as the result of the young person striving to conform to the normative behaviour of the peer group with which they identify. The findings are consistent with social identity theory and self-categorization theory in that for both smoking and nonsmoking 14-year-olds smoking activity appears to provide a means through which to define social groups, to accentuate similarity within groups and differences between groups. In-group favouritism was expressed in the sharing of cigarettes within the in-group and in the negative stereotyping of out-group members. There was some evidence that group affiliation may be negotiated differently for boys and girls. These findings imply that successful intervention needs to reconsider the normative processes that encourage young people to smoke.

  8. Job satisfaction of therapy radiographers in the UK: Results of a phase I qualitative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, Heidi [Sheffield Hallam University, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Collegiate Crescent Campus, Robert Winston Building, 11-15 Broomhall Road, Sheffield, S10 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: h.probst@shu.ac.uk; Griffiths, Sue [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Background: Department of Health (DoH) vacancy data for radiography have been consistently higher than other allied health professions. In radiotherapy there has been ongoing concern about recruitment and retention. It is therefore useful to consider what elements of the job and the work environment influence job satisfaction and intentions to leave in therapy radiographers (therapists), in order to stem any future losses from the profession. Aim: To identify and explore the current and developing roles and responsibilities of therapists and the impact of these factors on job satisfaction. Design: An interpretive study utilising unstructured interviews with qualified practitioners was undertaken across three radiotherapy centres in England. A Grounded Theory approach was utilised within a case study design. Setting and participants: Three radiotherapy centres were the focus of this phase I study. Centres were geographically close but with historically different vacancy rates (based on the DoH vacancy data). A total of 18 therapists across a range of grades and experience participated in the one to one interviews. Results: From the interviews, factors which influence job satisfaction fall under three main headings: job design, leadership and organisational governance, and stress or burnout. A preliminary model is proposed to explain how job satisfaction changes with level of responsibility (which is primarily linked to job design and opportunities for autonomy) and job-tenure. Leadership and aspects of organisational governance (such as perceived fairness in application of departmental policies) and stress or burnout appear to moderate job satisfaction and leaving intentions. Conclusion: This study provides some preliminary qualitative data to help managers design retention strategies. These strategies should initially focus on job redesign, development of appropriate leadership qualities in those within supervisory roles and minimising opportunities for stress and

  9. Evaluating the Economic Impact of Smart Care Platforms: Qualitative and Quantitative Results of a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannieuwenborg, Frederic; Van der Auwermeulen, Thomas; Van Ooteghem, Jan; Jacobs, An; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier

    2016-10-31

    In response to the increasing pressure of the societal challenge because of a graying society, a gulf of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported care services (eCare) can now be noticed. Their common goal is to increase the quality of care while decreasing its costs. Smart Care Platforms (SCPs), installed in the homes of care-dependent people, foster the interoperability of these services and offer a set of eCare services that are complementary on one platform. These eCare services could not only result in more quality care for care receivers, but they also offer opportunities to care providers to optimize their processes. The objective of the study was to identify and describe the expected added values and impacts of integrating SCPs in current home care delivery processes for all actors. In addition, the potential economic impact of SCP deployment is quantified from the perspective of home care organizations. Semistructured and informal interviews and focus groups and cocreation workshops with service providers, managers of home care organizations, and formal and informal care providers led to the identification of added values of SCP integration. In a second step, process breakdown analyses of home care provisioning allowed defining the operational impact for home care organization. Impacts on 2 different process steps of providing home care were quantified. After modeling the investment, an economic evaluation compared the business as usual (BAU) scenario versus the integrated SCP scenario. The added value of SCP integration for all actors involved in home care was identified. Most impacts were qualitative such as increase in peace of mind, better quality of care, strengthened involvement in care provisioning, and more transparent care communication. For home care organizations, integrating SCPs could lead to a decrease of 38% of the current annual expenses for two administrative process steps namely, care rescheduling and the billing for

  10. [Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: results of a qualitative study in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Aguilera, Ximena; Vega, Jeanette; González, María José; Sanhueza, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. . The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the "delayed access group". This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  11. Factors affecting antenatal care attendance: results from qualitative studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi with varying levels of ANC attendance. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. RESULTS: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care - checking the foetus' position or monitoring its progress - motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women's timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures - in spite of policies of free ANC - combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. CONCLUSION: In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that 'supply' side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation.

  12. Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

  13. Why hypertensive patients do not comply with the treatment: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Juan J; Sánchez-Ortuño, Montserrat; Llor, Bartolomé; Skidmore, David; Saturno, Pedro J

    2004-04-01

    Medical non-compliance has been identified as a major public health problem in the treatment of hypertension. There is a large research record focusing on the understanding of this phenomenon. However, to date, the majority of studies in this field have been focused from the medical care perspective, but few studies have focused on the patients' point of view. Our aim was to identify factors related to non-compliance with the treatment of patients with hypertension. We use a qualitative study in which data were gathered from seven focus group discussions conducted in March-May 2001. Patients were identified as non-compliant, using the Morisky-Green test, at two primary health care centres of the Spanish National Health Service. A complex web of factors was identified that influenced non-compliance. Patients had fears and negative images of antihypertensive drugs. The data also revealed a lack of basic background knowledge about hypertension. The clinical encounter was viewed as unsatisfactory because of its length, few explanations given by the physician and low physician-patient interaction. Most of the factors related to poor compliance have implications for patient management. Knowing patients' priorities regarding the most important aspects of care that have high potential for low compliance may be helpful in improvement of the quality of hypertensive patient care.

  14. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

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    Daniel Lüdecke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.

  15. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lüdecke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness.Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care.Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making.Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.

  16. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  17. Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research.

  18. General practitioners' attitudes towards research in primary care: qualitative results of a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, Thomas; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background Research in General Practice requires the participation of General practitioners (GPs). In Germany there is little tradition of research in this field, and GPs are not used to be participants in research. Little is known about German GPs attitudes towards research. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess the willingness of German General Practitioners to participate in primary care research and their attitude towards research in general practice. The results should enable a more successful approach to GPs in further studies. Methods Cross sectional study using semi-structured interviews with a random sample of 76 General Practitioners who participate in the teaching of medical students at the University of Heidelberg. Results Despite little experience, over 85 % of GPs appreciated research in their field. Important reasons for scepticism about research were the gap between theoretical research and practical work of GPs and the domination of research by specialists. Main barriers for participation are clinical workload, administrative overload and the newly introduced Disease Management Programs. The highest motivation for GPs to participate in research emanates from the will to substantiate their quality of care with solid research data. Conclusions Financial incentives and personal support e.g. with study nurses are certainly necessary to establish a research culture and to overcome main barriers against participation. The most successful approach to motivate GPs to participate is to convince them that research documents their quality of care. This data may reflect the facts on which the financial resources are provided in the future health care system. PMID:15613246

  19. The consequences of coping with stalking-results from the first qualitative study on stalking in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Katrine Bindesbøl Holm; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    indicate that rather than the stalkers' harassment itself; it is the unpredictability of the stalkers' potential actions that inform the victims' primary coping strategy-self-regulation. Self-regulation consists of various strategies victims employ to avoid the stalker. Our analysis shows that self-regulation...... and well-being. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 victims of stalking. Thematic content analysis was employed, and themes were primarily identified inductively and broad into dialogue with concepts, such as Foucault's panopticism. RESULTS: The results of the study...

  20. Factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medication in Greece: results from a qualitative study

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    Vassiliki Tsiantou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassiliki Tsiantou1, Polina Pantzou2, Elpida Pavi1, George Koulierakis2, John Kyriopoulos11Department of Health Economics, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, GreeceIntroduction: Although hypertension constitutes a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, research on adherence to antihypertensive treatment has shown that at least 75% of patients are not adherent because of the combined demographic, organizational, psychological, and disease- and medication-related factors. This study aimed to elicit hypertensive patients’ beliefs on hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, and their role to adherence.Methods: Transcripts from semistructured interviews and focus groups were content analyzed to extract participants’ beliefs about hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, and attitudes toward patient–physician and patient–pharmacist relationships.Results: Hypertension was considered a very serious disease, responsible for stroke and myocardial infarction. Participants expressed concerns regarding the use of medicines and the adverse drug reactions. Previous experience with hypertension, fear of complications, systematic disease management, acceptance of hypertension as a chronic disease, incorporation of the role of the patient and a more personal relationship with the doctor facilitated adherence to the treatment. On the other hand, some patients discontinued treatment when they believed that they had controlled their blood pressure.Conclusion: Cognitive and communication factors affect medication adherence. Results could be used to develop intervention techniques to improve medication adherence.Keywords: hypertension, medication adherence, patient compliance, doctor–patient communication, antihypertensive medicine

  1. Scientific Growth and Identity Development during a Postbaccalaureate Program: Results from a Multisite Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E; Gazley, J Lynn; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report builds upon our previous study, which described five patterns of why college graduates join National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded diversity-focused Postbaccalaureate Research Education Programs (PREP). A 2015 report from the NIH showed that a high fraction of PREP participants matriculate into PhD and MD/PhD programs. This current study reveals how participants change during PREP, the program elements that facilitate change, and how identity as a graduate student and future scientist develops. Data come from in-depth interviews done at the beginning and end of PREP with 48 individuals from seven PREP programs. Results reveal three domains of development: academics, research, and presentation of oneself; each domain contains a developmental continuum. Key attributes of PREP enabling development include opportunities to attend graduate-level classes and seminars; time to practice reading literature; extended lab time with one's own project; high and explicit expectations from mentors; and multiple opportunities to talk about science and improve communication skills. PREP enabled participants to develop their identities as graduate students and to anticipate being seen by others as highly prepared for PhD training. After PREP, 85% (n = 41) started the PhD or MD/PhD, making PREP an intervention approach with great potential to broaden participation in biomedical PhD programs.

  2. Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study

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    Franx Gerdien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT. Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring, were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method, and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT

  3. Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods: Results of a qualitative study in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    -national differences, differences relating to different outcome groups considered, and differences relating to the presence or non-presence of genetically modified material in the end product. German and Danish results were generally more elaborate and revealed more complex cognitive structures than the results from...... Italy and the United Kingdom. In all four countries, however, genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting product, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well...

  4. Perspectives on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Consideration of Future Consequences: Results from a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Séamus A.; McKay, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Consideration of future consequences (CFC) is described as the attention that individuals pay to the potential outcomes of their behaviour, and how their behaviour is affected as a result of attention to these outcomes. Greater CFC has been associated with less alcohol use, thus indicating its potential utility in health-promotion initiatives. A…

  5. Barriers to care for Cambodian patients with diabetes: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Megan R; Taing, Elizabeth; Cohen, Marya J; Betancourt, Joseph R; Pasinski, Roger; Green, Alexander R

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes care have been well documented. While root causes have been explored for some minority groups, less is known about smaller immigrant populations such as Cambodians. In this study, we sought to explore the potential barriers to care for Cambodian patients with diabetes. We conducted five focus groups with three study groups: health care providers, bilingual Khmer frontline staff, and Cambodian patients with diabetes. Focus groups findings revealed that certain cultural beliefs, low health literacy, and language barriers strongly affect Cambodian patients' understanding of diabetes and self-management, as well as clinicians' ability to care effectively for Cambodian patients with diabetes. Our study supports previous literature and also adds several new insights not previously described. We recommend education for health care providers on patient-centered, cross-cultural care with an emphasis on the needs of Cambodians as well as culturally appropriate diabetes education for patients.

  6. Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods. Results of a qualitative study in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredahl, L

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this research was to gain insight into consumers> attitudes towards genetic modification in food production. With means-end chain theory as the theoretical basis, laddering interviews were conducted with 400 consumers in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy. Perceived risks and benefits of genetic modification in foods were investigated using beer and yoghurt as examples. German and Danish responses revealed more complex cognitive structures than did the results from the United Kingdom and Italy. In all four countries, however, applying genetic modification was associated with unnaturalness and low trustworthiness of the resulting products, independently of whether the genetically modified material was traceable in the product. Moral considerations were voiced as well, as were a number of other consequences that were perceived to conflict with both individual and social values.

  7. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  8. Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods: Results of a qualitative study in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    rankings of different beer and yoghurt products showed consistently low preferences for the genetically modified product alternatives across countries and product categories. Both in the case of yoghurt and beer, more traditional product alternatives were preferred. 5. In all four countries, genetic...... as unwholesome and untrustworthy, and a range of negative consequences were inferred, which would eventually prevent the attainment of individual life values such as happi and inner harmony, a long and healthy life, quality of life and security, and more social life values such as responsibility for nature...... were derived from the application of genetic engineering to produce beer and yoghurt, whereas a large palette of consequences were perceived in the three other countries. The results revealed no substantive differences in beliefs relating to the different outcome groups considered. 7. Overall...

  9. [Qualitative case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Therapists’ Perspective on Virtual Reality Training in Patients after Stroke: A Qualitative Study Reporting Focus Group Results from Three Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Schmid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During the past decade, virtual reality (VR has become a new component in the treatment of patients after stroke. Therefore aims of the study were (a to get an insight into experiences and expectations of physiotherapists and occupational therapists in using a VR training system and (b to investigate relevant facilitators, barriers, and risks for implementing VR training in clinical practice. Methods. Three focus groups were conducted with occupational therapists and physiotherapists, specialised in rehabilitation of patients after stroke. All data were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The study was analysed based on a phenomenological approach using qualitative content analysis. Results. After code refinements, a total number of 1289 codes emerged out of 1626 statements. Intercoder reliability increased from 53% to 91% until the last focus group. The final coding scheme included categories on a four-level hierarchy: first-level categories are (a therapists and VR, (b VR device, (c patients and VR, and (d future prospects and potential of VR developments. Conclusions. Results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is needed to develop future VR technology and to devise VR implementation strategies in clinical practice. In principal, VR technology devices were seen as supportive for a general health service model.

  11. Effective notification of important non-urgent radiology results: a qualitative study of challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Hordern, Antonia; Dimigen, Marion; Zogovic, Branimir; Callen, Joanne; Schlaphoff, Glen; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2014-01-01

    We report on the implementation of a Radiology Notification System (RNS), set up by the medical imaging department of a major Sydney teaching hospital in March 2010. This study aimed to investigate the views of the medical imaging department staff about: (i) the results follow-up problem encountered by the medical imaging department prior to the implementation of the RNS; (ii) what changes occurred following implementation of the RNS; and (iii) suggestions for improving the RNS. This is a cross-sectional qualitative study incorporating semi-structured interviews with 16 staff (15 radiologists and 1 clerk) after the implementation of the RNS. Interviews were conducted in August/September 2011. The reasons behind the development of the RNS were related to: (i) major existing problems with the communication of results between the imaging department and hospital wards; (ii) cumbersome and inefficient paper-based notification systems; and (iii) the absence of standardised guidelines and procedures for radiology test notification and follow-up. The RNS managed to free up a significant proportion of radiologist time, resulting in greater efficiencies. Study participants also highlighted a number of areas for improvement, including the need for a 24-h service, feedback and acknowledgement of test results by clinicians and the standardisation of test management definitions and procedures. Test management systems can play an important part in enhancing safe and effective communications between wards and hospital departments. However, their uptake and sustainability will require the establishment of a multidisciplinary and hospital-wide collaboration that includes clinicians. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. [Tablet computers and their benefits for nursing home residents with dementia: Results of a qualitative pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Johanna; Hamm, Sabine; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Suhr, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Initial sporadic experiences in a Berlin nursing home showed that residents with dementia responded well to activating therapy with tablet computers. This innovative technology seemed to provide a differentiated and individual therapeutic access. These observations encouraged the nursing home management to contact the Institute of Medical Sociology and Rehabilitation Science at the Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin with the aim to examine the practical experiences. The Centre for Quality in Care (ZQP) sponsored the 1 year pilot study. An examination of the feasibility and usability of tablet computers in the daily care of nursing home residents with dementia was carried out. In this study 14 residents (12 women and 2 men) of a special care unit for dementia patients were included in a 3-month intervention of tablet activation 3 times a week. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze data (e.g. observation protocols and videos, staff interviews, document analysis of nursing records and standardized resident interviews/proxy interviews). Nursing home residents suffering from dementia showed a high degree of acceptance of tablet computers. Most notable benefits were easy handling and the variety of multifunctional applications. Sustainable therapeutic effects resulted in stimulation of communication and interaction, improvement of well-being, memory training and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, contact to family members of several residents was improved. The use of tablet computers was convincing as an activation therapy for nursing home residents with dementia. Further research and development of specially adapted software are required.

  13. Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-05-01

    Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

  14. Counselors' Clinical Use of Definitive Drug Testing Results in Their Work with Substance-Use Clients: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzetelny, Adam; Zeller, Barbara; Miller, Nicholas; City, Kathy Egan; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Passik, Steven D

    We conducted a psychotherapeutic examination of the use of definitive drug testing (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Employing a generic qualitative method (Caelli et al. in International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(2), 2003; Merriam, 2009) we asked SUD counselors to provide narratives about cases where drug testing had revealed new or unexpected information about clients' drug-taking behaviors. Semi-structured interviews with 12 SUD counselors were conducted by phone and analyzed for themes derived from the literature. These counselors reported many new positive drug tests in clients previously believed to be adherent with treatment. Key themes assessed in counselors' narratives included initial client denial that was often followed by later acknowledgement of relapse and increased motivation, at times presenting new opportunities for clients to engage in treatment and enhance the therapeutic alliance. These results suggest that definitive drug testing can be used in a non-stigmatizing and therapeutic manner.

  15. Assessment of rehabilitation needs in colorectal cancer treatment: Results from a mixed audit and qualitative study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenbein, Liza; Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis; Hjort, Dorte; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    Background Systematic assessments of cancer patients' rehabilitation needs are a prerequisite for devising appropriate survivorship programs. Little is known about the fit between needs assessment outlined in national rehabilitation policies and clinical practice. This study aimed to explore clinical practices related to identification and documentation of rehabilitation needs among patients with colorectal cancer at Danish hospitals. Material and methods A retrospective clinical audit was conducted utilizing data from patient files randomly selected at surgical and oncology hospital departments treating colorectal cancer patients. Forty patients were included, 10 from each department. Semi-structured interviews were carried out among clinical nurse specialists. Audit data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data using thematic analysis. Results Documentation of physical, psychological and social rehabilitation needs initially and at end of treatment was evident in 10% (n = 2) of surgical patient trajectories and 35% (n = 7) of oncology trajectories. Physical rehabilitation needs were documented among 90% (n = 36) of all patients. Referral to municipal rehabilitation services was documented among 5% (n = 2) of all patients. Assessments at surgical departments were shaped by the inherent continuous assessment of rehabilitation needs within standardized fast-track colorectal cancer surgery. In contrast, the implementation of locally developed assessment tools inspired by the distress thermometer (DT) in oncology departments was challenged by a lack of competencies and funding, impeding integration of data into patient files. Conclusion Consensus must be reached on how to ensure more systematic, comprehensive assessments of rehabilitation needs throughout clinical cancer care. Fast-track surgery ensures systematic documentation of physical needs, but the lack of inclusion of data collected by the DT in oncological departments

  16. When a diabetic foot ulcer results in amputation: a qualitative study of the lived experience of 15 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, DeSales; Lauver, Lori S

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to complications resulting in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), foot infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations. Almost 50,000 amputations performed every year in the United States are due to DFUs. A qualitative analysis using Colaizzi's step-by-step approach to phenomenology was conducted to describe the experiences of 15 patients with diabetes living with a foot amputation. Semi-structured interviews were recorded digitally,transcribed, and analyzed. The analysis included reading transcripts multiple times, identifying noteworthy verbatim statements, then abstracting key words and phrases; similar key words and phrases were grouped into a meaning unit. The researchers rereviewed original transcripts, verbatim statements, and extracted key words and phrases and devised meaning units to identify main themes. Rigor in this study was ensured by developing an audit trail that linked the meaning units and themes back to key words and verbatim statements in the original transcripts and then allowing the participant to ensure accuracy of recounted information. Five major themes emerged from the data regarding patient concern about the ability to be productive members of society (i.e., transitioning from having a nonhealing wound to living as a new amputee)--financial burden, powerlessness, social support, placing blame, and uncertainty in one's continued ability--each having implications for health care providers as well as patients. By considering the experience from the patient perspective, health care professionals may be better prepared to discuss patient concerns with follow-up care and day to-day living, especially in getting help with finances. Additional research is needed to uncover models of care that may help these patients remain productive members of society and reduce the burden of amputation on patient quality of life.

  17. Exploring the experiences of client involvement in medication decisions using a shared decision making model: results of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goscha, Richard; Rapp, Charles

    2015-04-01

    This qualitative study explored a newly introduced model of shared decision making (CommonGround) and how psychiatric medications were experienced by clients, prescribers, case managers and peer support staff. Of the twelve client subjects, six were highly engaged in shared decision-making and six were not. Five notable differences were found between the two groups including the presence of a goal, use of personal medicine, and the behavior of case managers and prescribers. Implications for a shared decision making model in psychiatry are discussed.

  18. Coping with worry while waiting for diagnostic results: a qualitative study of the experiences of pregnant couples following a high-risk prenatal screening result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Stina; Nielsen, Camilla P; Hvidman, Lone; Petersen, Olav B; Risør, Mette B

    2016-10-21

    It is well documented that pregnant women experience increased worry and uncertainty following a high-risk prenatal screening result. While waiting for diagnostic results this worry continues to linger. It has been suggested that high-risk women put the pregnancy mentally 'on hold' during this period, however, not enough is known about how high-risk women and their partners cope while waiting for diagnostic results. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies employed to cope with worry and uncertainty. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 16 high-risk couples who underwent diagnostic testing. The couples were recruited at a university hospital fetal medicine unit in Denmark. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. All couples reported feeling worried and sad upon receiving a high-risk screening result. While waiting for diagnostic results, the couples focused on coming to their own understanding of the situation and employed both social withdrawal and social engagement as strategies to prevent worry from escalating. Additionally, couples used gratitude, reassuring reasoning and selective memory as means to maintain hopes for a good outcome. Discussions about what to do in case of an abnormal test result were notably absent in the accounts of waiting. This bracketing of the potential abnormal result allowed the couples to hold on to a 'normal' pregnancy and to employ an 'innocent-till-proven-guilty' approach to their worries about the fetus's health. None of the interviewed couples regretted having prenatal screening and all of them expected to have prenatal screening in a future pregnancy. The couples in this study did not put the pregnancy mentally 'on hold'. Worry and uncertainty must be understood as managed through a diverse range of practical and emotional strategies that change and overlap in the process of waiting. Clinicians may support appropriate ways of coping with worry and waiting through empathetic and empowering clinical

  19. Exploring Diversity of Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Courses: Results of a Qualitative Study in a French Multinational Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of e-learning by companies in France is ongoing. One of their issues is to improve the learning experience of their employees. From our point of view, this implies that they must better understand the learning experience of the employees. This paper suggests a qualitative approach to learning in order to identify the diversity…

  20. Exploring Diversity of Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Courses: Results of a Qualitative Study in a French Multinational Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of e-learning by companies in France is ongoing. One of their issues is to improve the learning experience of their employees. From our point of view, this implies that they must better understand the learning experience of the employees. This paper suggests a qualitative approach to learning in order to identify the diversity…

  1. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies and "unrelated" qualitative studies contributed to complex intervention reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Margaret; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Chandler, Jackie; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-06-01

    To compare the contribution of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies in complex intervention reviews. Researchers are using qualitative "trial-sibling" studies undertaken alongside trials to provide explanations to understand complex interventions. In the absence of qualitative "trial-sibling" studies, it is not known if qualitative studies "unrelated" to trials are helpful. Trials, "trial-sibling," and "unrelated" qualitative studies looking at three health system interventions were identified. We looked for similarities and differences between the two types of qualitative studies, such as participants, intervention delivery, context, study quality and reporting, and contribution to understanding trial results. Reporting was generally poor in both qualitative study types. We detected no substantial differences in participant characteristics. Interventions in qualitative "trial-sibling" studies were delivered using standardized protocols, whereas interventions in "unrelated" qualitative studies were delivered in routine care. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies alone provided insufficient data to develop meaningful transferrable explanations beyond the trial context, and their limited focus on immediate implementation did not address all phenomena of interest. Together, "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies provided larger, richer data sets across contexts to better understand the phenomena of interest. Findings support inclusion of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies to explore complexity in complex intervention reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What Factors Determine the Use of an Electronic Test Result Acknowledgement System? - A Qualitative Study Across Two EDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julie; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I; Georgiou, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic medical record-based test results management interventions hold the potential to reduce errors in the test result follow-up process. However, ensuring the adaptability of such systems to the clinical environment has proven challenging. The aim of this study was to explore how contextual factors can influence senior emergency physicians' experience and perceived impacts of an electronic result acknowledgement system across two Emergency Departments. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews relating to physician test result acknowledgement processes before and after system implementation were conducted with 14 senior Emergency Physicians across two Australian metropolitan teaching hospitals. Perceived impacts of the electronic test result acknowledgement system on test result endorsement varied in terms of: changes to workflow, impacts on patient safety; and changes to documentation practices. Existing work practices and the departmental staffing mix and roles play a part in determining the nature of change that an electronic result acknowledgement system is likely to produce.

  3. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamite, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors' (SGS) psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS' experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46-68 years). Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  4. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  5. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2000-01-01

    1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were...... and living/able to function. 2. The results from consumer samples in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are remarkably similar, showing a strong stability in consumer reactions to the use of genetic modification in food production in these four countries. 3. Consumer perception is characterised by a basic...... dichotomy of GM and non-GM products. Being non-GM is regarded as a major benefit in itself. When a product involves genetic modification, this elicits numerous negative assocations, of which the strongest ones are 'unhealthy' and 'uncertainty.' 4. The level of presence of the genetically modified material...

  6. Leadership is the essential non-technical skill in the trauma team - results of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Anne-Cathrine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is the leading cause of death for young people in Norway. Studies indicate that several of these deaths are avoidable if the patient receives correct initial treatment. The trauma team is responsible for initial hospital treatment of traumatized patients, and team members have previously reported that non-technical skills as communication, leadership and cooperation are the major challenges. Better team function could improve patient outcome. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of which non-technical skills are important to members of the trauma team during initial examination and treatment of trauma patients. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted at four different hospitals of various sizes and with different trauma load. At each hospital a nurse, an anaesthesiologist and a team leader (surgeon were interviewed. The conversations were transcribed and analyzed using systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis as modified by Malterud. Results and conclusion Leadership was perceived as an essential component in trauma management. The ideal leader should be an experienced surgeon, have extensive knowledge of trauma care, communicate clearly and radiate confidence. Team leaders were reported to have little trauma experience, and the team leaders interviewed requested more guidance and supervision. The need for better training of trauma teams and especially team leaders requires further investigation and action.

  7. LabPush: a pilot study of providing remote clinics with laboratory results via short message service (SMS) in Swaziland, Africa - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wen-Rui; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Chen; Li, Hsien-Chang; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Huang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Lee, Peisan; Li, Mei-Hsuan; Hlatshwayo, Sharoon Lungile; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries are confronting a steady growth in the prevalence of the infectious diseases. Mobile technologies are widely available and can play an important role in health care at the regional, community, and individual levels. Although labs usually able to accomplish the requested blood test and produce the results within two days after receiving the samples, but the time for the results to be delivered back to clinics is quite variable depending on how often the motorbike transport makes trips between the clinic and the lab. In this study, we seek to assess factors facilitating as well as factors hindering the adoption of mobile devices in the Swazi healthcare through evaluating the end-users of the LabPush system. A qualitative study with semi-structured and in-depth one on one interviews were conducted over two month period July-August 2012. Purposive sampling was used; participants were those operating and using the LabPush system at the remote clinics, at the national laboratory and the supervisors of users at Swaziland. Interview questions were focused on perceived of ease of use and usefulness of the system. All interviews were recorded and then transcribed. This study had aimed its primary focus on reducing TAT, prompt patient care, reducing bouncing of patients and defaulting of patients which were challenges that the clinicians have always had. Therefore, the results revealed several barriers and facilitators to the adoption of mobile device by healthcare providers in the Swaziland. The themes Shortens TAT, Technical support, Patient-centered care, Mindset, Improved communication, Missing Reports, Workload, Workflow, Security of smart phone, Human error and Ownership are sorted by facilitators to barriers. Thus the end-users perspective, prompt patient care, reduced bouncing of patients, technical support, better communication, willing participant and social influence were facilitators of the adoption m-health in the Swazi healthcare. Copyright

  8. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to develop a descriptive framework (e.g. a draft table of contents) for organising the case study, whilst not pre-empting outcomes before the data...has been fully analysed. Such a framework can help the analyst with organising the data as well as with developing a story line [48]. As...Publications Repository http://dspace.dsto.defence.gov.au/dspace/ 14. RELEASE AUTHORITY Chief, Joint and Operations Analysis Division 15

  9. Counselees' Perspectives of Genomic Counseling Following Online Receipt of Multiple Actionable Complex Disease and Pharmacogenomic Results: a Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Kevin; Hovick, Shelly; Sturm, Amy C; Schmidlen, Tara; Gordon, Erynn; Bernhardt, Barbara; Wawak, Lisa; Wernke, Karen; McElroy, Joseph; Scheinfeldt, Laura; Toland, Amanda E; Roberts, J S; Christman, Michael

    2016-12-05

    Genomic applications raise multiple challenges including the optimization of genomic counseling (GC) services as part of the results delivery process. More information on patients' motivations, preferences, and informational needs are essential to guide the development of new, more efficient practice delivery models that capitalize on the existing strengths of a limited genetic counseling workforce. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of counselees from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative following online receipt of multiple personalized genomic test reports. Participants previously had either in-person GC (chronic disease cohort, n = 20; mean age 60 years) or telephone GC (community cohort, n = 31; mean age 46.8 years). Transcripts were analyzed using a Grounded Theory framework. Major themes that emerged from the interviews include 1) primary reasons for seeking GC were to clarify results, put results into perspective relative to other health-related concerns, and to receive personalized recommendations; 2) there is need for a more participant driven approach in terms of mode of GC communication (in-person, phone, video), and refining the counseling agenda pre-session; and 3) there was strong interest in the option of follow up GC. By clarifying counselees' expectations, views and desired outcomes, we have uncovered a need for a more participant-driven GC model when potentially actionable genomic results are received online.

  10. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus G. Grunert; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Poulsen, Jacob B.; Ueland, Oydis; Åström, Annika

    2000-01-01

    1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were investigated: modification of the raw material, use of genetic modification in enzyme production, and direct use of genetically modified microorganisms. In addition, three levels of presence of the ...

  11. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLanc, Katya Le [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Powers, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  12. Model of Procedure Usage – Results from a Qualitative Study to Inform Design of Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanna H Oxstrand; Katya L Le Blanc

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory, the Institute for Energy Technology, and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field operators. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do this. The underlying philosophy in the research effort is “Stop – Start – Continue”, i.e. what features from the use of paper-based procedures should we not incorporate (Stop), what should we keep (Continue), and what new features or work processes should be added (Start). One step in identifying the Stop – Start – Continue was to conduct a baseline study where affordances related to the current usage of paper-based procedures were identified. The purpose of the study was to develop a model of paper based procedure use which will help to identify desirable features for computer based procedure prototypes. Affordances such as note taking, markups

  13. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  14. Interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain in Québec’s private sector: results of a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Collaboration and interprofessional practices are highly valued in health systems, because they are thought to improve outcomes of care for persons with complex health problems, such as low back pain. Physiotherapists, like all health providers, are encouraged to take part in interprofessional practices. However, little is known about these practices, especially for private sector physiotherapists. This study aimed to: 1) explore how physiotherapists working in the private sector with adults with low back pain describe their interprofessional practices, 2) identify factors that influence their interprofessional practices, and 3) identify their perceived effects. Methods Participants were 13 physiotherapists, 10 women/3 men, having between 3 and 21 years of professional experience. For this descriptive qualitative study, we used face-to-face semi-structured interviews and conducted content analysis encompassing data coding and thematic regrouping. Results Physiotherapists described interprofessional practices heterogeneously, including numerous processes such as sharing information and referring. Factors that influenced physiotherapists’ interprofessional practices were related to patients, providers, organizations, and wider systems (e.g. professional system). Physiotherapists mostly viewed positive effects of interprofessional practices, including elements such as gaining new knowledge as a provider and being valued in one’s own role, as well as improvements in overall treatment and outcome. Conclusions This qualitative study offers new insights into the interprofessional practices of physiotherapists working with adults with low back pain, as perceived by the physiotherapists’ themselves. Based on the results, the development of strategies aiming to increase interprofessionalism in the management of low back pain would most likely require taking into consideration factors associated with patients, providers, the organizations within which they

  15. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the...

  16. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  17. What Sex Abusers Say about Their Treatment: Results from a Qualitative Study on Pedophiles in Treatment at a Canadian Penitentiary Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C.; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis…

  18. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...... of clinical language for IT-development of clinical documents is a well-known challenge to health care authorities and to clinical users. The theoretical foundation of the method is the critical hermeneutic of Paul Ricoeur (1978, 1981, 1988, 2002), Don Ihde (1996) Inger Lytje (2000), and Joseph Dunne (1993...

  19. What sex abusers say about their treatment: results from a qualitative study on pedophiles in treatment at a Canadian penitentiary clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis was used to analyze the resulting material. The following themes are discussed based on the results of this analysis: (a) the participants' past experience of therapy; (b) motivations for choosing the La Macaza clinic for treatment; (c) the structure of the program; (d) the group dynamics; (e) the therapists; and (f) the hardships and difficulties of treatment. Results suggest that the therapists and the program may have a function of containment or holding. Although part of the therapeutic process involves a focus on identifying and reducing cognitive distortions, results also warn therapists against misusing this concept by applying it to legitimately different opinions. Findings are discussed in terms of possible program improvements. The authors conclude that greater attention must be given to process research.

  20. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  1. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  2. Use of Open Source Software in Health Care Delivery - Results of a Qualitative Field Study. Contribution of the EFMI LIFOSS Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuhl, H; Heinze, O; Bergh, B

    2013-01-01

    To assess and analyze the attitude of health IT executives towards the utilization of specialized medical Open Source software (OSS) in Germany's and other European countries' health care delivery. After an initial literature review a field study was carried out based on semi-structured expert interviews. Eight German and 11 other European health IT executives were surveyed. The results were qualitatively analyzed using the grounded theory approach. Identified concepts were reviewed using SWOT analysis. In total, 13 strengths, 11 weaknesses, 3 opportunities, and 8 threats of the utilization of OSS in a clinical setting could be identified. Additionally, closely related aspects like general software procurement criteria, the overall attitude of health IT executives, users, and management towards OSS and its current and future use could as well be assessed. Medical OSS is rarely used in health care delivery. In order to capitalize the unique advantages of OSS in a clinical setting, complex requirements need to be addressed. Shortcomings of OSS describe an attractive breeding ground for new commercial offerings and services that need yet to be seen.

  3. “Sometimes It’s Difficult to Have a Normal Life”: Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers’ lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers’ experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work. Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety. Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden.

  4. [Aspects of quality of life of residents of a nursing oasis from the perspectives of relatives and nurses- qualitative results of an evaluation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Hermann; Adam-Paffrath, Renate; Güther, Helen

    2014-04-01

    A nursing oasis (NO) can be understood as a version of special care units. The focus is on a constantly living arrangement for people with severe dementia in nursing homes (multiple person room). Nurses are permanently present during the day shift. The question has to be raised which characteristics of quality of life (QoL) are mentioned and how nurses and relatives do assess this concept. Qualitative Results of a two-year evaluation study of 15 people living in NOs are presented. Data were collected during four (five) group discussions with 8 nurses (15 relatives). Additionally problem-based interviews were realized. Data evaluation was oriented to the grounded theory. The findings show that primarily the focus of QoL in NOs was on psychophysical well-being. Assessments of relatives and nurses were prevailing positive and could be interpreted in the light of the Festingers' social-psychological "Theory of Cognitive Dissonance". Comparisons between the situation before and after the implementation of the NOs were shown to be relevant for the overall assessments. All in all we have to deal with the construction of "care worlds of everyday life" in long term care institutions.

  5. Public Perception of Carbon Capture and Storage. Qualitative Study Results; Percepcion Publica de la captura y almacenamiento de CO2. Resultados de un Estudio Cualitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.

    2007-09-27

    In recent years, public perception and acceptance of Carbon Capture and Storage has become a key issue for research as technological projects have been initiated in USA, Canada and Europe. It has been considered that public opposition could be an important barrier for technological deployment. This report is part of the sub project Acceptability and Governance of CO2 storage processes, started in 2005 as a part of the technological project Advanced technologies of CO2 generation, capture and storage. The study is based on the application of focus groups with lay people. This qualitative social research technique was applied to get a deeper knowledge of the elements influencing the public acceptability of CO2 storage sites. Results indicate that there exists a low level of awareness about the technology among participants. After providing some information about the technology, the initial reaction stays between rejection and ambivalence. A reluctant acceptance appears when significant importance is given to the perceived benefits. The perception of risk from climate change plays an essential role. (Author) 25 refs.

  6. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  7. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  8. A qualitative study about experiences and emotions of emergency medical technicians and out-of-hospital emergency nurses after performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation resulting in death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aedo, I; Pérez-Urdiales, I; Unanue-Arza, S; García-Azpiazu, Z; Ballesteros-Peña, S

    To explore the experiences, emotions and coping skills among emergency medical technicians and emergency nurses after performing out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation manoeuvres resulting in death. An exploratory qualitative research was performed. Seven emergency medical technicians and six emergency nurses were selected by non-probability sampling among emergency medical system workers. The meetings took place up to information saturation, achieved after six individual interviews and a focal group. The meetings were then transcribed and a manual and inductive analysis of the contents performed. After a failed resuscitation several short and long-term reactions appear. They can be negatives, such as sadness or uncertainty, or positives, such as the feeling of having done everything possible to save the patient's life. Emotional stress increases when ambulance staff have to talk with the deceased's family or when the patient is a child. The workers don't know of a coping strategy other than talking about their emotions with their colleagues. Death after a failed resuscitation can be viewed as a traumatic experience for rescuers. Being in contact with the suffering of others is an emotional, stress-generating factor with direct repercussions on the working and personal lives of emergency staff. Nevertheless, structured coping techniques are not common among those professionals. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeling labeled, judged, lectured, and rejected by family and friends over depression: Cautionary results for primary care clinicians from a multi-centered, qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-Garcia Erik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family and friends may help patients seek out and engage in depression care. However, patients’ social networks can also undermine depression treatment and recovery. In an effort to improve depression care in primary care settings, we sought to identify, categorize, and alert primary care clinicians to depression-related messages that patients hear from friends and family that patients perceive as unhelpful or detrimental. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups in 3 cities. Participants (n = 116 with a personal history or knowledge of depression responded to open-ended questions about depression, including self-perceived barriers to care-seeking. Focus group conversations were audio-recorded and analyzed using iterative qualitative analysis. Results Four themes emerged related to negatively-received depression messages delivered by family and friends. Specifically, participants perceived these messages as making them feel labeled, judged, lectured to, and rejected by family and friends when discussing depression. Some participants also expressed their interpretation of their families’ motivations for delivering the messages and described how hearing these messages affected depression care. Conclusions The richness of our results reflects the complexity of communication within depression sufferers’ social networks around this stigmatized issue. To leverage patients’ social support networks effectively in depression care, primary care clinicians should be aware of both the potentially beneficial and detrimental aspects of social support. Specifically, clinicians should consider using open-ended queries into patients’ experiences with discussing depression with family and friends as an initial step in the process. An open-ended approach may avoid future emotional trauma or stigmatization and assist patients in overcoming self-imposed barriers to depression discussion, symptom disclosure, treatment adherence and

  10. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    Method Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation ... KEYWORDS: qualitative, interpretive, case study, systems theory, methodology. INTRODUCTION ..... Maidenhead: Open University Press. Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, ...

  11. African Primary Care Research: qualitative data analysis and writing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.

  12. Transcending chronic liver disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-01-01

    This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.

  13. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  14. "We need to talk!" Barriers to GPs' communication about the option of physician-assisted suicide and their ethical implications: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Ina C; Jung, Corinna; Elger, Bernice; Bally, Klaus

    2016-10-26

    GPs usually care for their patients for an extended period of time, therefore, requests to not only discontinue a patient's treatment but to assist a patient in a suicide are likely to create intensely stressful situations for physicians. However, in order to ensure the best patient care possible, the competent communication about the option of physician assisted suicide (PAS) as well as the assessment of the origin and sincerity of the request are very important. This is especially true, since patients' requests for PAS can also be an indicator for unmet needs or concerns. Twenty-three qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted to in-depth explore this multifaceted, complex topic while enabling GPs to express possible difficulties when being asked for assistance. The analysis of the gathered data shows three main themes why GPs may find it difficult to professionally communicate about PAS: concerns for their own psychological well-being, conflicting personal values or their understanding of their professional role. In the discussion part of this paper we re-assess these different themes in order to ethically discuss and analyse how potential barriers to professional communication concerning PAS could be overcome.

  15. Doing Qualitative Studies, Using Statistical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative studies are associated with interviews, focus groups and observations. We introduce experiments as a way of dealing with such studies. In contrast to the common focus on how many respondents choose a particular behaviour we focus on how much a design affect the individual. This is oft...

  16. Attitudes and Perceptions of Urban African Americans of a “Dirty Bomb” Radiological Terror Event: Results of a Qualitative Study and Implications for Effective Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith R.; Ruggieri, Dominique; Parvanta, Claudia; Mora, Gabriella; Wolak, Caitlin; Normile, Rebecca; Gordon, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a “dirty bomb” is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with “shelter in place” recommendations. Methods Thirty-seven 18–65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia. Results were analyzed by using the Krueger method of analyzing narrative text. Results The responses highlighted little knowledge or concern about a dirty bomb. Lack of trust in local authorities was expressed, with participants indicating that they did not feel their needs were addressed. While shelter in place was understood, most said they would still check on family or talk with others to get the “whole truth” because the most trusted information sources were neighbors and community leaders. Conclusion Our results indicate that a risk communication intervention for urban minorities may support desirable behaviors in the event of a dirty bomb, but successful communication will require establishing a local leader as a spokesperson to convince people of the importance of sheltering in place. PMID:25611688

  17. Usability of a novel disposable autoinjector device for ixekizumab: results from a qualitative study and an open-label clinical trial, including patient-reported experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis Duffin, Kristina; Bukhalo, Michael; Bobonich, Margaret A; Shrom, David; Zhao, Fangyi; Kershner, James R; Gill, Anne; Pangallo, Beth; Shuler, Catherine L; Bagel, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Most biologic therapies for psoriasis are delivered via subcutaneous injection. Ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody approved for patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, is delivered subcutaneously via prefilled syringe or autoinjector. Here we report the results of an ixekizumab autoinjector usability study as well as the patient-reported experience with the autoinjector in a clinical trial. Methods The usability study enrolled 49 subjects (patients with a range of autoimmune conditions or their caregivers). Subjects were randomized to a trained or untrained group and were evaluated for their ability to perform an injection successfully when provided the device and the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, 102 subjects (patients with psoriasis or their caregivers) used the autoinjector to deliver injections of ixekizumab (80 mg every 2 weeks after a starting dose of 160 mg). At weeks 0, 4, and 8, subjects completed the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire, which assesses the ease of use and confidence with using an injection device. Results In the usability study, all subjects in the untrained arm performed successful injections, while two subjects in the trained arm had an injection failure. These incidences were not consistent with any pattern of issues with the device or the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, there were two injection failures of 674 total self-injections performed over 12 weeks. At the first use of the device, 95% of subjects either agreed or strongly agreed that the device was “overall easy to use”, and they felt “confident the dose was complete” according to the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire. Conclusion The ixekizumab autoinjector was used successfully by patients and caregivers with or without training. Subjects using the autoinjector in a clinical trial felt it was easy to use and felt confident while using it. PMID:27785115

  18. Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, M M; Läng, M; Aujesky, D; Marschall, J

    2016-07-01

    Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is widespread and may result in antibiotic side-effects, excess costs to the healthcare system, and may potentially trigger antimicrobial resistance. According to international management guidelines, ASB is not an indication for antibiotic treatment (with few exceptions). To determine reasons for using antibiotics to treat ASB in the absence of a treatment indication. A qualitative study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland during 2011. We interviewed 21 internal medicine residents and attending physicians selected by purposive sampling, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Responses were analysed in an inductive thematic content approach using dedicated software (MAXQDA(®)). In the 21 interviews, the following thematic rationales for antibiotic overtreatment of ASB were reported (in order of reporting frequency): (i) treating laboratory findings without taking the clinical picture into account (N = 17); (ii) psychological factors such as anxiety, overcautiousness, or anticipated positive impact on patient outcomes (N = 13); (iii) external pressors such as institutional culture, peer pressure, patient expectation, and excessive workload that interferes with proper decision-making (N = 9); (iv) difficulty with interpreting clinical signs and symptoms (N = 8). In this qualitative study we identified both physician-centred factors (e.g. overcautiousness) and external pressors (e.g. excessive workload) as motivators for prescribing unnecessary antibiotics. Also, we interpreted the frequently cited practice of treating asymptomatic patients based on laboratory findings alone as lack of awareness of evidence-based best practices. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementation of a collaborative care model for the treatment of depression and anxiety in a community health center: results from a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghaneyan BH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brittany H Eghaneyan,1 Katherine Sanchez,2 Diane B Mitschke2 1Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2School of Social Work, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA Background: The collaborative care model is a systematic approach to the treatment of depression and anxiety in primary care settings that involves the integration of care managers and consultant psychiatrists, with primary care physician oversight, to more proactively manage mental disorders as chronic diseases, rather than treating acute symptoms. While collaborative care has been shown to be more effective than usual primary care in improving depression outcomes in a number of studies, less is known about the factors that support the translation of this evidence-based intervention to real-world program implementation. The purpose of this case study was to examine the implementation of a collaborative care model in a community based primary care clinic that primarily serves a low-income, uninsured Latino population, in order to better understand the interdisciplinary relationships and the specific elements that might facilitate broader implementation. Methods: An embedded single-case study design was chosen in order to thoroughly examine the components of one of several programs within a single organization. The main unit of analysis was semi-structured interviews that were conducted with seven clinical and administrative staff members. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the interviews. Line-by-line initial coding resulted in over 150 initial codes, which were clustered together to rebuild the data into preliminary categories and then divided into four final categories, or main themes. Results: Four unique themes about how the implementation of a collaborative care model worked in this setting emerged from the interviews: organizational change, communication, processes and outcomes of the program, and barriers to

  20. Adaption, implementation and evaluation of collaborative service improvements in the testing and result communication process in primary care from patient and staff perspectives: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian J; Bentham, Louise M; Lilford, Richard J; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-08-30

    Increasing numbers of blood tests are being ordered in primary care settings and the swift and accurate communication of test results is central to providing high quality care. The process of testing and result communication is complex and reliant on the coordinated actions of care providers, external groups in laboratory and hospital settings, and patients. This fragmentation leaves it vulnerable to error and the need to improve an apparently fallible system is apparent. However, primary care is complex and does not necessarily adopt change in a linear and prescribed manner influenced by a range of factors relating to practice staff, patients and organisational factors. To account for these competing perspectives, we worked in conjunction with both staff and patients to develop and implement strategies intended to improve patient satisfaction and increase efficiency of existing processes. The study applied the principles of 'experience-based co-design' to identify key areas of weakness and source proposals for change from staff and patients. The study was undertaken within two primary practices situated in South Birmingham (UK) of contrasting size and socio-economic environment. Senior practice staff were involved in the refinement of the interventions for introduction. We conducted focus groups singly constituted of staff and patients at each practice to determine suitability, applicability and desirability alongside the practical implications of their introduction. At each practice four of the six proposals for change were implemented these were increased access to phlebotomy, improved receptionist training, proactive communication of results, and increased patient awareness of the tests ordered and the means of their communication. All were received favourably by both patients and staff. The remaining issues around the management of telephone calls and the introduction of electronic alerts for missing results were not addressed due to constraints of time and

  1. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  2. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  3. Usability of a novel disposable autoinjector device for ixekizumab: results from a qualitative study and an open-label clinical trial, including patient-reported experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callis Duffin K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Callis Duffin,1 Michael Bukhalo,2 Margaret A Bobonich,3 David Shrom,4 Fangyi Zhao,4 James R Kershner,4 Anne Gill,4 Beth Pangallo,4 Catherine L Shuler,4 Jerry Bagel5 1Department of Dermatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Arlington Dermatology, Arlington Heights, IL, 3CWRU Schools of Medicine and Nursing, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH, 4Lilly Research Labs, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, 5Psoriasis Treatment Center of Central New Jersey, East Windsor, NJ, USA Background: Most biologic therapies for psoriasis are delivered via subcutaneous injection. Ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody approved for patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, is delivered subcutaneously via prefilled syringe or autoinjector. Here we report the results of an ixekizumab autoinjector usability study as well as the patient-reported experience with the autoinjector in a clinical trial. Methods: The usability study enrolled 49 subjects (patients with a range of autoimmune conditions or their caregivers. Subjects were randomized to a trained or untrained group and were evaluated for their ability to perform an injection successfully when provided the device and the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, 102 subjects (patients with psoriasis or their caregivers used the autoinjector to deliver injections of ixekizumab (80 mg every 2 weeks after a starting dose of 160 mg. At weeks 0, 4, and 8, subjects completed the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire, which assesses the ease of use and confidence with using an injection device. Results: In the usability study, all subjects in the untrained arm performed successful injections, while two subjects in the trained arm had an injection failure. These incidences were not consistent with any pattern of issues with the device or the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, there were two

  4. Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…

  5. Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, K.; Czabanowska, K.; Brand, H.

    2015-01-01

    [PDF] Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study K Sørensen, K Czabanowska, H Brand - Occup Med Health Aff, 2015 ... Corresponding author: Kristine Sørensen, Assistant Professor, Department of International Health/CAPHRI, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.Tel: +31433881717; Fax

  6. Decision-making process of Kala Azar care: results from a qualitative study carried out in disease endemic areas of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Supakankunti, Siripen; Khan, M Mahmud

    2013-07-12

    Analysis of consumer decision making in the health sector is a complex process of comparing feasible alternatives and evaluating the levels of satisfaction associated with the relevant options. This paper makes an attempt to understand how and why consumers make specific decisions, what motivates them to adopt a specific health intervention, and what features they find attractive in each of the options. The study used a descriptive-explanatory design to analyze the factors determining the choices of healthcare providers. Information was collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The results suggest that the decision making related to seeking healthcare for Kala Azar (KA) treatment is a complex, interactive process. Patients and family members follow a well-defined road map for decision making. The process of decision making starts from the recognition of healthcare needs and is then modified by a number of other factors, such as indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources. Household and individual characteristics also play important roles in facilitating the process of decision making. The results from the group discussions and in-depth interviews are consistent with the idea that KA patients and family members follow the rational approach of weighing the costs against the benefits of using specific types of medical care. The process of decision making related to seeking healthcare follows a complex set of steps and many of the potential factors affect the decision making in a non-linear fashion. Our analysis suggests that it is possible to derive a generalized road map of the decision-making process starting from the recognition of healthcare needs, and then modifying it to show the influences of indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources.

  7. Accept or refuse? Factors influencing the decision-making of transplant surgeons who are offered a pancreas: results of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Julika; Drewitz, Karl P; Schlitt, Hans J; Loss, Martin

    2013-10-23

    Most offered pancreases are not transplanted. This study investigates the factors that inform and influence the transplant surgeon's decision to select an offered pancreas. Semi-standardized interviews were conducted with 14 highly qualified transplant surgeons from all 14 German transplant centers performing > 5 pancreas transplantations per year. The interviews focused on medical and non-medical criteria on which the individual accept/refuse decision depends. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and underwent content analysis. The interviewees agreed upon certain main selection criteria, e.g. donor age, lab results, ICU stay. However, there was no consistency in judging these parameters, and clear cut-offs did not exist. The pancreas macroscopy is a pivotal factor, as well as knowing (and trusting) the donor surgeon. 3/14 surgeons reported that they had occasionally refused a pancreas because of staff shortage. Some interviewees followed a restrictive acceptance policy, whereas others preferred to accept almost any pancreas and inspect it personally before deciding. The assessment of medical donor characteristics is highly inconsistent. Both very cautious as well as very permissive acceptance policies may render the allocation process less efficient. A more standardized policy should be discussed. Finally, better training for donor surgeons seems advisable, in order to increase trust and thus pancreas utilization.

  8. Causes, Processes and Consequences of "Desertification": Results of a Qualitative Study about the Conceptions of 12- and 13-Year-Old Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jan Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Preconceptions are a crucial factor in the educational learning process. Hence, the investigation of preconceptions is important for learning and teaching in the field of geography. This study examines the preconceptions of 12- and 13-year-old students, regarding the major environmental problem of "desertification." The students'…

  9. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  10. Accept or refuse? Factors influencing the decision-making of transplant surgeons who are offered a pancreas: results of a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Julika; Drewitz, Karl; Schlitt, Hans J; Loss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Most offered pancreases are not transplanted. This study investigates the factors that inform and influence the transplant surgeon’s decision to select an offered pancreas. Methods Semi-standardized interviews were conducted with 14 highly qualified transplant surgeons from all 14 German transplant centers performing > 5 pancreas transplantations per year. The interviews focused on medical and non-medical criteria on which the individual accept/refuse decision depends. I...

  11. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  12. Acceptability, feasibility and challenges of implementing an HIV prevention intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS among healthcare providers in Mozambique: results of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiantilal, Prafulta; Gutin, Sarah A; Cummings, Beverley; Mbofana, Francisco; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2015-01-01

    Despite the Mozambique government's efforts to curb human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), national prevalence is 11.5% and support is needed to expand HIV-related services and improve program quality. Positive prevention (PP) programs, which prioritize HIV prevention with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV), have been recognized as an important intervention for preventing new HIV infections. To address this, an evidence-based PP training intervention was implemented with HIV healthcare providers in Mozambique. This study focuses on the acceptability and feasibility of a PP intervention in HIV clinics from the healthcare provider perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 healthcare providers from three provinces who participated in PP trainings in Mozambique. Interview data were coded using content analysis. Study data suggest that healthcare providers found PP acceptable, feasible to implement in their HIV work in clinic settings, and valued this strategy to improve HIV prevention. The PP training also led providers to feel more comfortable counseling their patients about prevention, with a more holistic approach that included HIV testing, treatment and encouraging PLHIV to live positively. While overall acceptance of the PP training was positive, several barriers to feasibility surfaced in the data. Patient-level barriers included resistance to disclosing HIV status due to fear of stigma and discrimination, difficulty negotiating for condom use, difficulty engaging men in testing and treatment, and the effects of poverty on accessing care. Providers also identified work environment barriers including high patient load, time constraints, and frequent staff turnover. Recognizing PP as an important intervention, healthcare providers should be trained to provide comprehensive prevention, care and treatment for PLHIV. Further work is needed to explore the complex social dynamics and cultural challenges such as

  13. Results of a Qualitative Study to Develop a Patient Reported Outcome Measure for Patients with 4 Subtypes of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Skalicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to develop a disease-specific symptom inventory for soft tissue sarcoma. Methods. Literature review and clinical expert and patient interviews were conducted to determine disease-specific symptoms important to patients with one of the four STS subtypes. Clinical experts identified the most relevant STS symptom items from the item pool developed from literature review. Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with patients to elicit their STS symptom experiences followed by a completion of the draft symptom list via web survey. A cognitive interview was conducted on the comprehension and importance of the symptom items. Results. Eighty-three symptom items were compiled and discussed with three clinical experts who identified 26 symptoms specific to the four STS subtypes. A total sample of 27 STS participants with self-reported leiomyosarcoma (74%, undifferentiated sarcoma (15%, synovial sarcoma (7%, or liposarcoma (4% diagnosis completed the web survey and 10 were interviewed. The draft 12-item STS-specific symptom inventory includes abdominal pain, pressure in abdomen, early satiety, bloating, gastrointestinal pain, muscle pain, bone pain, heavy menstrual flow, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and painful menstruation. Conclusion. A number of symptoms are common across STS subtypes and may form a single STS symptom inventory.

  14. Use of non-emergency contraceptive pills and concoctions as emergency contraception among Nigerian University students: results of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert; Akpan, Wilson; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent

    2016-10-04

    Emergency contraception (EC) can significantly reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the increasing awareness of EC among educated young women in Nigeria, the rate of utilisation remains low. This study therefore explores the main barriers to the use of EC among female university students by analysing their knowledge of emergency contraception, methods ever used, perceived efficacy, and its acceptability. This paper brings together the findings from several focus groups (N = 5) and in-depth interviews (N = 20) conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities. Participants considered the use of condom and abstinence as the most effective methods of preventing unplanned pregnancy. However, many participants were misinformed about emergency contraception. Generally, participants relied on unconventional and unproven ECs; Ampiclox, "Alabukun", salt water solution, and lime and potash and perceived them to be effective in preventing unplanned pregnancies. Furthermore, respondents' narratives about methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies revealed that inadequate information on emergency contraception, reliance on unproven crude contraceptive methods, and misconception about modern contraception constitute barriers to the use of emergency contraception. The findings suggested that female university students are misinformed about emergency contraception and their reliance on unproven ECs constitutes a barrier to the use of approved EC methods. These barriers have serious implications for prevention of unplanned pregnancies in the cohort. Behavioural interventions targeting the use of unproven emergency contraceptive methods and misperceptions about ECs would be crucial for this cohort in Nigeria.

  15. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kohlbacher

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is ...

  16. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanis S. Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].

  17. Qualitative longitudinal study of micro-entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rövekamp, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative longitudinal study 30 founders from small companies – small busi-nesses, liberal professions and self-employed – were examined. Types of successful and less successful founders are constructed, which are posed with factors of suc-cess. On the one hand the typology is based on material and immaterial personal goals that are pursued with the start up, on the other hand on biographical striv-ings: (1A) conventional enterpriser or persons who are (1B) double- and multio-riented, ...

  18. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  19. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  20. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  1. Adjuncts Matter: A Qualitative Study of Adjuncts' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Telvis M.

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic factors that influence the workplace experiences of 27 adjuncts teaching online were explored. In this qualitative research study, the adjuncts' lived experiences were examined through in-depth interviews. The results indicated three emergent factors which influenced the participants' workplace experiences, and the alternative…

  2. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu; Karien Jooste

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretation...

  3. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nurses, the Oppressed Oppressors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; ParsaYekta, Zohreh; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2015-03-18

    Healthcare equity, defined as rightful and fair care provision, is a key objective in all health systems. Nurses commonly experience cases of equity/inequity when caring for patients. The present study was the first to explain nurses' experience of equal care. A qualitative study sought to describe the experiences of 18 clinical nurses and nurse managers who were selected through purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria were the nurses' familiarity with the subject of the study and willingness to participate. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews. The sampling continued up to data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and then transcribed word by word. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The major theme extracted in this study was the equation between submissiveness and oppression in nurses. It had two subthemes, namely the oppressed nurse and the oppressive nurse. The first subtheme comprised three categories including nurses' occupational dissatisfaction, discrimination between nursing personnel, and favoring physicians over nurses. The second subtheme consisted of three categories, namely habit-oriented care provision, inappropriate care delegation, and care rationing while neglecting patient needs. When equal care provision was concerned, the participating nurses fluctuated between states of oppression and submissiveness. Hence, equal conditions for nurses are essential to equal care provision. In fact, fair behavior toward nurses would lead to equity nursing care provision and increase satisfaction with the healthcare system.

  5. Helping boys at-risk of criminal activity: qualitative results of a multi-component intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Erin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This qualitative study examines parent and child experiences of participation in a multi-component community-based program aimed at reducing offending behaviour, and increasing social competence in boys 6 to 11 years old in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The program builds on the concept of crime prevention through social development, and includes structured groups for the identified boy, parents, and siblings. Methods A sample of 35 families participating in the multi-component program took part in the qualitative study. Individual interviews with the boys, parents and siblings asked about changes in themselves, relationships with family and peers, and school after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Results Parents reported improvement in parenting skills and attainment of more effective communication skills, particularly with their children. Parents also found the relationships they formed with other parents in the program and the advice that they gained to be beneficial. Boys who participated in the program also benefited, with both parents and boys reporting improvements in boys' anger management skills, social skills, impulse control, and ability to recognize potentially volatile situations. Both parents and boys described overall improvement in family relationships and school-related success. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed that parents and boys participating in the multi-component program perceived improvements in a number of specific areas, including social competence of the boys. This has not been demonstrated as clearly in other evaluations of the program.

  6. Calibration of qualitative HBsAg assay results for quantitative HBsAg monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Hans; Adachi, Dena; Tang, Julian W

    2014-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen monitoring may be useful in managing patients with chronic HBV infection on certain treatment regimens. Based on these results with the Abbott Architect qualitative and quantitative HBsAg assays, it seems feasible to convert qualitative to quantitative HBsAg values for this purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing the trustworthiness of research results: the role of computers in qualitative text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal

    2000-01-01

    By using computer packages designed for qualitative data analysis a researcher can increase trustworthiness (i.e., validity and reliability) of conclusions drawn from qualitative research results. This paper examines trustworthiness issues and therole of computer software (QSR's NUD*IST) in the context of a current research project investigating the social...

  8. Exploring barriers of enterprise search implementation: a qualitative user study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Alexander; Richter, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and scope, the chosen research approach of generating qualitative findings from a single case, and the size of the involved sample of engineers. Implications address measures to increase enterprise search adoption. Practical implications – This study provides project managers with knowledge to take...... existing studies primarily focus on advancing the technical perspective of search in organizations, the author elaborate on the under-investigated social and organizational aspects. The author furthermore stress the importance of user-centered approaches for enterprise search adoption....... to explore user-centric barriers of enterprise search implementation in order to increase user satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Results are built on a qualitative user study in an R & D organization. Findings are gained from think-aloud observations introduced by semi-structured interviews...

  9. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  10. Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots.

  11. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  12. Hepatitis-related stigma in chronic patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassanpourDehkordi, Ali; Mohammadi, Nooredin; NikbakhatNasrabadi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis is one of health problems throughout the world. It has numerous consequences on patients' life. Stigma, depression, social marginalization and financial problems are some of the challenges in these patients. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine hepatitis-related stigma and discrimination in patients living with chronic hepatitis in Iranian society. This present study was designed as a qualitative method, and this article shows up the results of a qualitative research study undertaken with patients living with hepatitis in Iran. The study uses a content analysis method. A purposive sample of 18 patients was chosen. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field note that the researchers will take during participants' observation. Data analysis process was performed on the texts which were generated from verbatim transcripts of the participants interviews. Participants were between 18 and 61 years old. The main theme, Stigma, emerged from three themes during the process data analysis in this study. These themes were including fear to lose of family and social support, fear to present in public and fear of transmission. This research indicates that stigma presents major challenges not only for patients living with chronic hepatitis but also for nurses, other healthcare practitioners, family and social networks, institutions and society. The researcher suggests that interventions to reduce or eliminate stigma should require individual, structural, cultural thought, society and systemic changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative versus qualitative modeling: a complementary approach in ecosystem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondavalli, C; Favilla, S; Bodini, A

    2009-02-01

    Natural disturbance or human perturbation act upon ecosystems by changing some dynamical parameters of one or more species. Foreseeing these modifications is necessary before embarking on an intervention: predictions may help to assess management options and define hypothesis for interventions. Models become valuable tools for studying and making predictions only when they capture types of interactions and their magnitude. Quantitative models are more precise and specific about a system, but require a large effort in model construction. Because of this very often ecological systems remain only partially specified and one possible approach to their description and analysis comes from qualitative modelling. Qualitative models yield predictions as directions of change in species abundance but in complex systems these predictions are often ambiguous, being the result of opposite actions exerted on the same species by way of multiple pathways of interactions. Again, to avoid such ambiguities one needs to know the intensity of all links in the system. One way to make link magnitude explicit in a way that can be used in qualitative analysis is described in this paper and takes advantage of another type of ecosystem representation: ecological flow networks. These flow diagrams contain the structure, the relative position and the connections between the components of a system, and the quantity of matter flowing along every connection. In this paper it is shown how these ecological flow networks can be used to produce a quantitative model similar to the qualitative counterpart. Analyzed through the apparatus of loop analysis this quantitative model yields predictions that are by no means ambiguous, solving in an elegant way the basic problem of qualitative analysis. The approach adopted in this work is still preliminary and we must be careful in its application.

  14. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  15. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  16. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  18. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  19. Exploring School Counselors' Perceptions of Vicarious Trauma: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mashone; Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine school counselors' perceptions of vicarious trauma. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used. Six school counselors were interviewed. Three primary domains emerged from the data: (a) ambiguous vicarious trauma, (b) support system significance, and (c) importance of level of…

  20. Reproductive Health Matters among Indian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Hegde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Qualitative perspectives of the reproductive health (RH facilities and Adolescent Friendly Health Services (AFHS are still unexplored issues among the Indian adolescents. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions and awareness about the RH and its facilities among the adolescents in two districts in India. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted on 197 individuals (i.e., 102 boys and 95 girls within the age of 15-19 years, selected from two Indian districts through stratified purposeful sampling method. For the purpose of the study, 16 focus group discussions (FGD were held using pre-tested FGD guide. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and thematic analysis was performed using inductive coding. Results: As the results indicated, a set of four themes, 12 subthemes, 52 open codes, and 12 categories was developed. The boys had lower parent-child proximity for discussing puberty changes, compared to the girls. They were totally unaware of the state sponsored RH services. On the other hand, the girls had better access to health care schemes provided by the government. Conclusion: According to the findings,the utilization of the RH services was poor among the adolescents in the two districts investigated in this study. It would be advisable to carry out more studies addressing the RH-related concerns of the adolescents, especially the boys.

  1. Hand-Washing Practices of Women; a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Hisar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out as a qualitative research in order to determine hand-washing practices of women living a Health Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. METHOT: The population of the research was made up of married women living in Number 2 Health Care Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. The current study is a qualitative research and carried out through purposive sampling method. Data was collected through in-depth interview method for the descriptive statistics, number, percentile frequency and mean were used for the descriptive statistics and content analysis was used for the analysis of qualitative data. RESULTS: The mean age of the women included in the research was =29.86. It was found that 40% of the women were graduates of a primary school and 86.7% had a nuclear family structure. Almost half of the families experienced frequent diarrhea, and almost all of the families often had a common cold / flu. Eighty percent of the women thought that hand washing protected them against common cold, and 66.7% reported that it protected urinary tract and genital area against diseases. On the other hand, 66.7% of the women reported that they did not know anything about the fact that using a towel commonly causes infections. Forty percent of the women expressed that they were able to make the family members wash their hands before meals, 73% did it after toilet while 40% was able to make them wash their hands when they came home. CONCLUSION: In this study it was determined that women do not pay enough attention to hand-washing. Depending on these results, it is suggested that in this first step, educational studies about the hand-washing should be made widespread. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 537-544

  2. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  3. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  4. Perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Siu, Judy Yuen-Man; Fung, Timothy K F

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers. Altogether 37 participants, age 35 or older, were interviewed. Participants' perception of advantages and disadvantages of adopting acupuncture, and their criteria in selecting acupuncturists, were collected. Results found that among the user group, acupuncture was perceived as being effective, having little side effects, and generating lasting impact. Among nonusers, acupuncture was perceived as lacking a clinical base, high risk, and nonstandardized. Nonusers had less confidence in acupuncture than biomedicine. Participants relied on social communication and the practitioner's professional qualifications in choosing acupuncturists. Marketing implications are discussed.

  5. Use of qualitative methods alongside randomised controlled trials of complex healthcare interventions: methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Oxman, Andrew D

    2009-09-10

    To examine the use of qualitative approaches alongside randomised trials of complex healthcare interventions. Review of randomised controlled trials of interventions to change professional practice or the organisation of care. Systematic sample of 100 trials published in English from the register of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group. Published and unpublished qualitative studies linked to the randomised controlled trials were identified through database searches and contact with authors. Data were extracted from each study by two reviewers using a standard form. We extracted data describing the randomised controlled trials and qualitative studies, the quality of these studies, and how, if at all, the qualitative and quantitative findings were combined. A narrative synthesis of the findings was done. 30 of the 100 trials had associated qualitative work and 19 of these were published studies. 14 qualitative studies were done before the trial, nine during the trial, and four after the trial. 13 studies reported an explicit theoretical basis and 11 specified their methodological approach. Approaches to sampling and data analysis were poorly described. For most cases (n=20) we found no indication of integration of qualitative and quantitative findings at the level of either analysis or interpretation. The quality of the qualitative studies was highly variable. Qualitative studies alongside randomised controlled trials remain uncommon, even where relatively complex interventions are being evaluated. Most of the qualitative studies were carried out before or during the trials with few studies used to explain trial results. The findings of the qualitative studies seemed to be poorly integrated with those of the trials and often had major methodological shortcomings.

  6. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    ... seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16...

  7. Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study. ... Forming relationships based on trust and receiving feedback was also important. ... reported that meaning leads to the experience of happiness and personal satisfaction.

  8. Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural women seek healthcare ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... as each has some unique features such as herbal concoctions for traditional, ultrasound and ...

  9. Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study. ... Despite the well-known benefits of global health experiences for expatriates, little is known ... guide individual expatriate physicians who hope to optimise their roles abroad.

  10. A qualitative study on the relationship between doctors and nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study on the relationship between doctors and nurses offering primary ... These measures increased public access to healthcare centres, leading to an ... and the effectiveness of these groups plays a major role in determining the ...

  11. Developing optimal search strategies for retrieving clinically relevant qualitative studies in EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leslie A; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative researchers address many issues relevant to patient health care. Their studies appear in an array of journals, making literature searching difficult. Large databases such as EMBASE provide a means of retrieving qualitative research, but these studies represent only a minuscule fraction of published articles, making electronic retrieval problematic. Little work has been done on developing search strategies for the detection of qualitative studies. The objective of this study was to develop optimal search strategies to retrieve qualitative studies in EMBASE for the 2000 publishing year. The authors conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. Search strategies reached peak sensitivities at 94.2% and peak specificities of 99.7%. Combining search terms to optimize the combination of sensitivity and specificity resulted in values over 89% for both. The authors identified search strategies with high performance for retrieving qualitative studies in EMBASE.

  12. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikhi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies.

  13. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... can be adapted to the study of policy diffusion. Second, a combination of these methods is the best practice, since they are largely complementary in terms of the twin challenge of diffusion. The discussion draws on numerous illustrations from recent qualitative policy diffusion studies. The article...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods....

  14. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Phillippa; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-08-01

    Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development of behavioural automaticity; and selecting effective cues to support repeated behaviour. Results showed that behaviour change was initially experienced as cognitively effortful but as automaticity increased, enactment became easier. Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts. Weekends and vacations temporarily disrupted performance due to absence of associated cues, but habits were reinstated on return to work. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  15. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  16. Fatigue in osteoarthritis: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Melissa R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is recognized as a disabling symptom in many chronic conditions including rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA and lupus. Fatigue in osteoarthritis (OA is not routinely evaluated and has only been considered in a very limited number of studies. To date, these studies have focused primarily on patients with OA under rheumatological care, which represent the minority of people living with OA. The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the fatigue experience in community dwelling people with OA. Methods In 2004, 8 focus groups were conducted with 28 men and 18 women (mean age 72.3 with symptomatic hip or knee OA recruited from a population-based cohort. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographics, measures of OA severity (WOMAC, depression (CES-D and fatigue (FACIT. Sessions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently reviewed the transcripts to identify themes. Findings were compared and consensus reached. Results Mean pain, disability, depression and fatigue scores were 8.7/20, 27.8/68, 15.4/60, and 30.9/52, respectively. Participants described their fatigue as exhaustion, being tired and "coming up against a brick wall". Participants generally perceived fatigue as different from sleepiness and distinguished physical from mental fatigue. Factors believed to increase fatigue included OA pain and pain medications, aging, various types of weather and poor sleep. Mental health was identified as both affecting fatigue and being affected by fatigue. Participants described fatigue as impacting physical function, and their ability to participate in social activities and to do household chores. Rest, exercise, and avoiding or getting assistance with activities were cited as ways of coping. Participants generally did not discuss their fatigue with anyone except their spouses. Conclusion Participants with OA described

  17. Parental behaviour in paediatric chronic pain: a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Emma; Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Parental behaviour appears to influence the adjustment of children with chronic pain. However, research in this area has failed to produce consistent evidence. Studies have tended to rely on self-report measures derived from adult pain populations. This qualitative, observational research provides descriptive data of parental behaviour in a clinical environment. A qualitative observational study was made of parents and adolescents in a physically stressful setting. Modified grounded theory was used to analyse verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Eight parent-adolescent dyads seeking treatment for chronic pain were videoed during physical exercise sessions. Verbal and non-verbal behaviours were recorded and transcribed. Four overarching categories emerged: 'monitoring', 'protecting', 'encouraging' and 'instructing'. These often had both verbal and non-verbal aspects. Within these categories, more precise behavioural groups were also identified. This research identifies categories of parental behaviour that were derived directly from observation, rather than imposed on the basis of results from different populations. Four categories of behaviour were derived, which clarify and extend dimensions used in existing self-report instruments. Careful description of parental behaviours showed features that past research has neglected, and highlighted potential drawbacks of apparently positive parental actions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Resilience in eating disorders: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Padierna, Jesús A; Muñoz, Pedro; Aguirre, Maialen; Gómez Del Barrio, Andrés; Beato-Fernández, Luís; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the authors in this study were two-fold: (1) to explore the role of resilience in recovery from eating disorders (EDs), and (2) to develop a model of resilience in women with EDs. Semi-structured interviews with ten women were conducted in April 2011, along with two focus groups with women who had recovered from EDs (n  = 5 women each; conducted in April 2012 at the University of Deusto, Spain), one focus group with clinical experts (n = 8; conducted in April 2012 at the Foundation Against EDs of Biskay, Spain), and six narratives from primary caregivers of ED patients living in Biskay, Spain (conducted in November 2012). All data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. All female participants acknowledged experiencing resilience in their recovery. The analysis resulted in a conceptual model of resilience composed of the following categories: deep dissatisfaction with life, turning point, acceptance, hope, determination to change, accountability for the ED, active coping, getting social support, gaining self-knowledge, getting information about EDs, increase well-being, trait resilience, initiating new projects and living in the here and now. According to the model presented, resilience preceded the experience of recovery in women with EDs in this sample and could be a useful asset for future interventions.

  19. [Promoting a balanced diet and physical activity among children : Conditions for the successful implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies: Results of two qualitative case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbock, Berit; Muellmann, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-08-15

    To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In both cases, the use of existing structures facilitated introduction, implementation and maintenance. Additionally, training of staff for implementation according to standardised protocols or concepts and taking structures and work conditions of settings into account during implementation were considered essential. In both cases, conflicting interests in interdisciplinary stakeholder teams regarding intervention content and implementation were identified as a barrier. A lack of political support and insecure long-term funding only played a role in regard to the implementation and maintenance of policies. On the other hand, target groups of the multi-level intervention were not sufficiently involved in the development of intervention materials which resulted in a lack of tailoring and acceptance in the target groups. The results provide important insights into the long-term implementation of multi-level interventions and policies in different settings.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Televideo Consultations for COPD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Fastholm, Pernille; Sandholm Larsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . In public the expectations are high that digital mediation between clients' everyday lives and the health care system can strengthen patients' abilities regarding their self-management. Nonetheless, the study shows that patients have a number of reservations concerning televideo consultations at home......This article presents results from a small qualitative study investigating COPD patients' experiences with televideo consultations at home as a supplement to conventional control and treatment. The research question is: what are the experiences and preferences of COPD patients related to discharge...... from hospital with televideo consultations? The study shows that the patients' assessments of the effectiveness and value of the televideo consultations in their everyday lives are based on tough cost-benefit calculation of the extent to which the intervention makes their lives easier or more difficult...

  1. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly.

  2. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  3. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  4.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

      Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...... using a semi-structured interview guide and includes 26 pregnant women each interviewed shortly after having received information at their general practitioner, and again after having completed prenatal screenings tests.   Results:Only very few of the pregnant women in this study remember having...

  5. Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few qualitative studies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.

  6. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challen...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.......This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... to discriminate between mechanisms of diffusion, on the other? I argue, first, that there are three distinct qualitative techniques that can be used, namely cross-case analysis (often based on systematic case selection), within-case process tracing, and counterfactual reasoning. I demonstrate how these techniques...

  7. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  8. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  9. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  10. Locating air samplers inside a room using qualitative airflow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Haim, M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2000-05-01

    The concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are reactively close. Inappropriately placed air samplers can give misleading results and, therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers is not always obvious and cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling-for estimating worker intakes, warning of abnormally high concentrations, defining airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials, etc. Qualitative smoke tests were conducted inside rooms using a 'KUPO Inc.' smoke tube (D5050 fog machine). Smoke was released at elevation of 1-2 meters and its path was recorded on worksheet drawings of the room. The tests revealed three types of airflow patterns inside the rooms: a) flow path with a definite stable direction, b) flow path which changes direction arbitrarily as a result of airflow vortices, and c) static/stagnant air. In some cases the airflow path direction was different from the expected one. This emphasizes the significance of conducting airflow studies for location of air samplers and not only relying on intuition. An airflow patterns comparison study between the qualitative smoke tests and computer simulation using a commercial finite element CFD code, FIDAP 8.01, was also conducted. The measured and the computed paths of the airflow were mostly in good agreement. The computer simulation indicated additional details which could not be observed when performing the smoke tests because of physical and visibility limitations. (author)

  11. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  12. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This study concerns the systematic integration of qualitative research strategies in a psychoanalytic single case study of a child who had suffered early abuse and neglect. A systematic exploration of core features of the therapeutic relationship was carried out, possible links between such core...... features and breaks in psychotherapy investigated. One aim of the study was to contribute to the development of a transparent and systematic methodology for the psychoanalytic case study by application of rigorous qualitative research methodology. To this end, inductive-deductive principles in line...

  13. Positive aspects of menopause: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences.......As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences....

  14. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  15. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  16. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-06-01

    Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people's needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Analyzing participants' perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals' needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran.

  17. Teachers' Views about Educational Research: A Qualitative Study

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    Bas, Gökhan; Kivilcim, Zafer Savas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the views of teachers' about educational research. The present research is designed as a qualitative case study. The group of this study is consisted of teachers (n = 27), working in primary, middle, and high schools in the province of Nigde in Turkey. An extensive literature review was made on…

  18. Diversity in High Schools and Diversity Management: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…

  19. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

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    Greco Margherita

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ, a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81% completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease. Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness. Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which

  20. Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.

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    Storr, Loma

    2004-01-01

    This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.

  1. Meta-Study as Diagnostic: Toward Content Over Form in Qualitative Synthesis.

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    Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky

    2016-02-01

    Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable.

  2. Staging mammography nonadherent women: a qualitative study.

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    LaPelle, Nancy; Costanza, Mary E; Luckmann, Roger; Rosal, Milagros C; White, Mary Jo; Stark, Jennifer Rider

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have related stages of mammography screening nonadherence with the rationale used by overdue women. We used a grounded theory approach to obtain and analyze data from focus groups, telephone interviews, and surveys. Emergent specific themes were compared with emerging decision levels of nonadherence. Each decision level was then compared with the Precaution Adoption Process Model and the Transtheoretical Model. A total of 6 key themes influencing mammogram nonadherence emerged as did 6 decision levels. Variability within themes was associated with specific decision levels. The decision levels were not adequately classified by either stage model. Stage-based educational strategies may benefit by tailoring interventions to these 6 decision levels.

  3. Adolescents' Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study.

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    Ahanonu, Ezihe Loretta; Jooste, Karien

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents' interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional); having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents' understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  4. Comparison of Two Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Study of C - Reactive Protein

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    Kiaei, MR. (BSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: C - reactive protein (CRP is an acute phase protein produced in liver. It is less than 5 mg per deciliter in the serum and body fluids of normal individuals, but it is increased suddenly within a few hours following inflammatory reaction. In bacterial and viral infections, active rheumatic fever, acute myocardial infarction and rheumatoid arthritis are also increased. The aim of this study was to investigate CRP level by Qualitative and Quantitative methods. Material and Methods: The CRP of 200 patients was investigated by quantitative and qualitative methods. Qualitative CRP testing was conducted three times by different people, using two kit of bionic and Omega, and then the mean of the results was reported. For quantitative CRP testing, Immunoturbidimetry was used. Results: In qualitative CRP test by Bionic kit: 180 (90% were negative, 6 (3% weakly positive, 9 (4.5% +1 and 5 (2.5 % were + 2. In qualitative CRP test by Omega Kit: 148 (74% were negative, 32 (16% weakly positive, 13 (6.5% +1, 4 (2% +2 and 3 (1.5% were +3. A high percentage of Qualitative results, which were weakly positive, became negative by Quantitative methods. The Qualitative results of +1 and the next became positive by Quantitative methods. Conclusion: It seems that in the early stages of inflammatory disease, quantitative methods are preferred to qualitative methods. Also, in cases that the CRP test results are weakly positive by qualitative methods, they should be controlled by quantitative methods too. Keywords: CRP; CRP Test Quantitative; Qualitative CRP Test

  5. Qualitative comparisons of experimental results on deterministic freak wave generation based on modulational instability

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    Karjanto, N

    2016-01-01

    A number of qualitative comparisons of experimental results on unidirectional freak wave generation in a hydrodynamic laboratory are presented in this paper. A nonlinear dispersive type of wave equation, the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, is chosen as the theoretical model. A family of exact solutions of this equation the so-called Soliton on Finite Background describing modulational instability phenomenon is implemented in the experiments. It is observed that all experimental results show an amplitude increase according to the phenomenon. Both the carrier wave frequency and the modulation period are preserved during the wave propagation. As predicted by the theoretical model, a phase singularity is also observed in the experiments. Due to frequency downshift phenomenon, the experimental signal and spectrum lose their symmetric property. Another qualitative comparison indicates that the Wessel curves for the experimental results are the perturbed version of the theoretical ones.

  6. Anorexia nervosa: treatment expectations – a qualitative study

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    Paulson-Karlsson G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gunilla Paulson-Karlsson,1 Lauri Nevonen21Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro and Anorexia-Bulimia Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Centre, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, SwedenBackground: Anorexia nervosa is a serious illness with a high mortality rate, a poor outcome, and no empirically supported treatment of choice for adults. Patients with anorexia nervosa strive for thinness in order to obtain self-control and are ambivalent toward change and toward treatment. In order to achieve a greater understanding of patients' own understanding of their situation, the aim of this study was to examine the expectations of potential anorexic patients seeking treatment at a specialized eating-disorder unit.Methods: A qualitative study design was used. It comprised 15 women between 18 and 25 years of age waiting to be assessed before treatment. The initial question was, "What do you expect, now that you are on the waiting list for a specialized eating-disorder unit?" A content analysis was used, and the text was coded, categorized according to its content, and further interpreted into a theme.Results: From the results emerged three main categories of what participants expected: "treatment content," "treatment professionals," and "treatment focus." The overall theme, "receiving adequate therapy in a collaborative therapeutic relationship and recovering," described how the participants perceived that their expectations could be fulfilled.Discussion: Patients' expectations concerning distorted thoughts, eating behaviors, a normal, healthy life, and meeting with a professional with knowledge and experience of eating disorders should be discussed before treatment starts. In the process of the therapeutic relationship, it is essential to continually address patients' motivations, in order to understand their personal motives behind

  7. Qualitative study of three cell culture methods.

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    Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Ran, Peng; Chen, Xuemin; Nuessler, Andreas K

    2002-01-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using different in vitro models and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH was decreased over time in culture. However, on day 5, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after day 8 no LDH was detectable in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT did not change significantly over the investigated time. The CYP 1A activity was gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A was faster in MC than in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducer such as Omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than in SC. In bioreactor basic CYP 1A activity was preserved over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor followed by SC and MC. Taken together, it was indicated each investigated model had its advantages and disadvantages. It was also underlined that various in vitro models may address different questions.

  8. Improving science teaching in multicultural settings: A qualitative study

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    Johnson, Judith; Kean, Elizabeth

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study of a collaboration between the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the administration and science teachers of the Omaha (Nebraska) Public Schools to improve the learning environment in multicultural science classrooms. The study of the summer workshops and follow-up interactions is described, along with a description of the changes in teacher attitudes and beliefs toward culturally diverse students. The three major themes of the workshops (multicultural understanding, cooperative learning, and problem solving as a source of content) are presented. Qualitative data sources are used to describe and interpret the changes in teacher interactions with minority students that were observed during a three-year period.

  9. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients’ health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588

  10. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.

  11. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

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    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  12. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  13. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  14. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  15. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  16. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  17. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  18. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  19. Where Do College Drinkers Draw the Line?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…

  20. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  1. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  2. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Qualitative Study on the Identity of the Manager in Romania

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    FLORENTINA SCÂRNECI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a qualitative research project carried out in 2008, which aimed at identifying the identity condition of managers in Romania. The article presents part of the grounded theory on the identity of managers: the day to day circumstances in which they live - issues related to childhood and maturity (material situation, relationships, family, etc.. Also, it describes in brief the methodology applied: qualitative collection of data, theoretical sampling, theoretical saturation and the analysis of qualitative data obtained.The article presents, also in brief, the larger research framework wherefrom the presented part was extracted. The conclusion is that there are life-related issues specific to managers (and, more precisely, specific reactions to the environment and that their identification can form the basis for designing methods of managerial diagnosis and prognosis.

  4. Patients' perspectives on taking warfarin: qualitative study in family practice

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    Tracy C Shawn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the well-documented benefits of using warfarin to prevent stroke, physicians remain reluctant to initiate therapy, and especially so with the elderly owing to the higher risk of hemorrhage. Prior research suggests that patients are more accepting of the risk of bleeding than are physicians, although there have been few qualitative studies. The aim of this study was to employ qualitative methods to investigate the experience and perspective of individuals taking warfarin. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 21 older patients (12 male, 9 female who had been taking warfarin for a minimum of six months. Participants were patients at a family practice clinic situated in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. We used a semistructured interview guide with four main thematic areas: decision-making, knowledge/education, impact, and satisfaction. Data were analysed according to the principles of content analysis. Results and Discussion Participants tended to have minimal input into the decision to initiate warfarin therapy, instead relying in great part on physicians' expertise. There appeared to be low retention of information received regarding the therapy; half the patients in our sample possessed only a superficial level of understanding of the risks and benefits. This notwithstanding, participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the care provided and a low level of impact on their day-to-day lives. Conclusions Minimal patient involvement in the initial decision and modest knowledge did not appear to diminish satisfaction with warfarin management. At the same time, care providers exert a tremendous influence on the initiation of warfarin therapy and should strive to incorporate patient preferences and expectations into the decision-making process.

  5. The concept of care complexity: a qualitative study

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    Milena Guarinoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods: Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice.

  6. Emergency Nurses as Second Victims of Error: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajri-Khameslou, Mehdi; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba

    There are many nurses who are victims of errors in the hospital environment. It is quite essential to perceive the outcome of mistakes in nurses' profession. The aim of this scientific study was to interpret the causes that place nurses in danger of errors in emergency departments and also the consequences resulting from confronting the errors in the job environment. This research was designed to pursue a qualitative approach following content analysis. Through the purposeful sampling, 18 emergency nurses were selected to participate in this study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. The results of data analysis were presented in three different categories: the psychological reactions to error, learning from errors, and avoiding reactions. The current study revealed that errors could create positive and negative impacts on the emergency nurses' attitude. Confronting the errors through learning from the mistakes can result in the improvement of patients' safety whereas the negative outcomes can provoke destructive effects on nurses' career. Nurses are considered as victims of errors; therefore, they need support and protection to enhance their career.

  7. Internet recruitment and e-mail interviews in qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rebekah J; Bowers, Barbara J

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, 111 million adults accessed the Internet looking for health and medical information. Qualitative researchers can apply long-standing principles of recruitment and interviewing to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the theoretical and methodological aspects of Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing. The authors address issues of appropriateness, adequacy, representativeness, sample bias, data fraud, flexibility and consistency in interviewing, timing, elimination of the need for transcription, oral versus written communication, reliability and validity, and ethical concerns. They include some practical suggestions on a research design for a qualitative study employing both Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing.

  8. Gravitational Microlensing of a Reverberating Quasar Broad Line Region - I. Method and Qualitative Results

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    Garsden, H; Lewis, G F

    2011-01-01

    The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a "flare") passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disk - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensi...

  9. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  10. Metaphoric Stories in Supervision of Internship: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carol A.; Ward, Janice E.; Scofield, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a qualitative study that explored how the use of stories in supervision may contribute to self-reflection in master's-level counseling interns. Interns from 2 universities participated in facilitated discussions of 3 fairy tales throughout a semester. The analysis of storied discussions revealed 3 themes related to supervisee…

  11. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive ra...

  12. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  13. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  14. Late Career Decision-Making: A Qualitative Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furunes, Trude; Mykletun, Reidar; Solem, Per Erik; Lange, Annet de; Syse, Astri; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Ilmarinen, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal qualitative interview study (3 waves of interviews) was to examine the nature of older workers’ late career decision-making processes, including the main drivers and obstacles for prolonging working life or retiring. Late career decision-making is regarded as a process o

  15. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive...

  16. A Qualitative Study of the Dislocated Working Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Carter, Laura; Bernfeld, Steven; Gray, India; Liu, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines factors that influence the career decisions of dislocated workers. The research focuses on individuals identified as working class, as this group has been relatively ignored in past research compared to individuals from higher socioeconomic statuses. Participants include 13 individuals (10 females and 3 males)…

  17. A Qualitative Case Study: Teacher Perceptions of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stacey L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is becoming a more widely used term to explain student behaviors, yet research on EF in education is limited. This qualitative study addressed a gap in literature by examining teacher perceptions of students with EF deficits, as well as teacher preparedness and desire to learn more about EF. Perceptions of third grade,…

  18. Influences on Preservice Teacher Socialization: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melissa J.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative two-year study traces the changes in beliefs and actions of four preservice teachers through the final two years of their university education program. Dialectical Theory of Socialization and Cognitive Dissonance Theory provide the theoretical framework. The findings show that three main factors affect the transfer of learning…

  19. Learning Experiences of University Biology Faculty: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this article incorporates qualitative research through in-depth, individual, structured interviews with 12 biology faculty from two Midwestern universities to explore perceptions about how they have learned to teach and how they work to improve their skills.

  20. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  1. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  2. Comparison of (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT qualitative vs quantitative results in patients with suspected condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Buitrago, D F; Ruiz Botero, J; Corral, C M; Carmona, A R; Sabogal, A

    To compare qualitative vs quantitative results of Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT), calculated from percentage of (99m)Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) uptake, in condyles of patients with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on the (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT bone scintigraphy reports from 51 patients, with clinical impression of facial asymmetry related to condylar hyperplasia referred by their specialist in orthodontics or maxillofacial surgery, to a nuclear medicine department in order to take this type of test. Quantitative data from (99m)Tc-MDP condylar uptake of each were obtained and compared with qualitative image interpretation reported by a nuclear medicine expert. The concordances between the 51 qualitative and quantitative reports results was established. The total sample included 32 women (63%) and 19 men (37%). The patient age range was 13-45 years (21±8 years). According to qualitative reports, 19 patients were positive for right side condylar hyperplasia, 12 for left side condylar hyperplasia, with 8 bilateral, and 12 negative. The quantitative reports diagnosed 16 positives for right side condylar hyperplasia, 10 for left side condylar hyperplasia, and 25 negatives. Nuclear medicine images are an important diagnostic tool, but the qualitative interpretation of the images is not as reliable as the quantitative calculation. The agreement between the two types of report is low (39.2%, Kappa=0.13; P>.2). The main limitation of quantitative reports is that they do not register bilateral condylar hyperplasia cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Visual Literacy and Science Education: Results of a Qualitative Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Fankhauser

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the didactics of science the role of pictures—mainly photographs and diagrams—as learning media and their function in the acquisition of knowledge have been discussed. However, the specific problems understanding pictures have seldom been reflected systematically. The aim of the project described in this paper was to address this deficiency. In a first step I refer to theoretical concepts of understanding pictures that were generated within the context of qualitative social research. Next I generate a theoretical model of visual literacy. The focus is on the understanding of pictures used in science education. The model includes aesthetic, epistemological, technical, and pragmatic dimensions. This model was then empirically tested. Thirty-five students were interviewed regarding their reception of scientific pictures. The results reveal that students have difficulties in describing the aesthetic features of pictures. The interviews clarified the epistemological frame theory on which picture understanding is based: most of the students consider the picture as a realistic copy of the object represented. Only a few students showed a more constructivist frame theory. Furthermore, the results revealed no connection between the epistemological theory and the technical knowledge of the students. The discussion of the design and the method of interpretation reflects the results of the study; the students' patterns of picture understanding are surprisingly homogeneous. On the one hand this could be reduced to the method of content analysis; on the other hand it could be an effect of the single sided view of the design. I explored only the subjective reception of pictures. Further research must consider other perspectives and focus on the way teachers work with visual material in classroom teaching. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090129

  4. Nursing instructors' perception of students' uncivil behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumpoor, Anahita; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rassouli, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Uncivil behavior is a serious issue in nursing education around the world, and is frequently faced by instructors and students. There is no study in relation to explain the concept and dimensions of uncivil behavior in nursing education of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of nursing educators about student incivility behavior. This was a qualitative study. Data from 11 semi-structured interviews were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants and research context: In all, 11 nursing educators of 5 various nursing schools in Tehran, capital of Iran, participated. Ethical considerations: Organizational approval by the Universities, and informed consent were ensured before conducting the research. The principles of voluntariness, confidentiality, and anonymity were respected during the research process. Three themes were found: disruptive behavior affecting communication climate, disruptive behavior affecting ethical climate, and disruptive behavior affecting learning climate. Discussion and final considerations: The results of this study demonstrated that uncivil behavior affects every ethical, communicational, and learning climate and threaten peace of the instructors, students, and the academic community. With the consideration of mutuality in incivility behaviors, the authors propose to examine students' perceptions and identify dimensions of uncivil behavior of instructors for formulating strategies to minimize such behaviors in nursing educational society.

  5. Living With Cluster Headache: A Qualitative Study of Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Talavera, Blanca; López-Ruiz, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Viedma, Álvaro; Palacios-Ceña, María; Arias, José A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María L

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to explore the views and experiences of a group of Spanish men suffering from cluster headache (CH). CH has considerable effects on patients' quality of life, impairs everyday activities, and can modify lifestyle. This is the first time the experience of patients with CH is examined in a clinical study using a qualitative, phenomenological approach. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study exploring how 20 male patients with CH, followed at the Headache Unit of a Spanish hospital, perceived their disease. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, researchers' field notes and patients' personal letters. A systematic text condensation analysis was performed following appropriate guidelines for qualitative research. Mean age was 41.15 years (standard deviation, 11.25). Seventeen patients had episodic CH and three patients had chronic CH. Five main themes describing the significance of suffering CH emerged: (a) meaning of disease, (b) experience of attacks, (c) meaning of treatment, (d) healthcare, and (e) social and family interaction. Patients with CH often live in fear and uncertainty because of their condition. Intensity and frequency of attacks, the use of ineffective treatments, skepticism perceived from social and workplace environments and physician unawareness play a significant role. Qualitative research offers insight into the way CH patients experience their disease, and may be helpful in establishing a fruitful relationship with these patients. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  6. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

  8. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel-Weiss Joy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

  9. Communication Needs of Patients with Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnazar, Tahereh Alsadat Khoubbin; Rassouli, Mrayam; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Momenzadeh, Syrus; Rejeh, Nahid; Mohseny, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since communication is considered to be one of the central concepts in caregiving practices, this study aims to examine the perception of women with breast cancer in terms of their communication needs. Methods: In this qualitative study, 20 participants (9 women with breast cancer, 10 of health-care professionals, and one family caregiver) were selected through purposive sampling, and a face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted with each of them. After data collection, all interviews were transcribed and reviewed, and categories were extracted. The data were analyzed with Conventional Content Analysis of Landman and Graneheim using MAXQDA10 software. Results: The analysis resulted in two extracted categories: “therapeutic communication” and “facilitating empathy”, and five subcategories: “trust-building therapist”, “crying out to be heard,” “seeking a soothing presence,” “sharing knowledge,” and “supportive peers”. Conclusion: Identifying and promoting the communicative needs of patients could lead to a considerably better care of patients under treatment. Therefore, therapeutic communication, as an integral part, should be incorporated into the care plan for patients with breast cancer and their families in the Oncology and Palliative Care wards.

  10. Qualitative study on college student’s perceptions on lunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Zuñiga B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A healthy diet leads to optimal growth and development of the individual. A healthy diet is the result of the right combination of macro and micronutrients, which should be sufficient, moderate, balanced and varied. Diet can be modified through the course of life, while the university period is a crucial time to strengthen proper food habits. Methods. The purpose of this investigation is to interpret the perception that college students have about lunchtime. A qualitative design with a phenomenological approach was used. Data collection was conducted through a structured survey. We interviewed 15 students who met the selection criteria. The results were analyzed by the principal investigators using content analysis. Results. Respondents pointed out that lunch is one of the main meals and that a regular lunchtime helps to improve eating habits. Respondents report that one of the main causes for not complying with this feeding schedule is the lack of time due to academic burden. Conclusion. This study concludes that students perceive daily lunchtime to be important and yet claim that during much of the academic week they skip this meal.

  11. Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.

  12. Lived experiences of elderly home residents: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing elderly population has been lead to increased number of hospices and their customers. However, the lived experiences of elderly home residents have been less noticed. This study aimed to investigate the lived experiences of elderly residents of Kashan's Golabchi elderly hospice.Methods: In this qualitative study based on phenomenological approach data collected using purposive sampling and deep open interview, narrative collection method until data saturation was obtained. Data were analyzed using Van Manen’s six step method.Results: Fifteen elderly with age range 65-73 years and average length of stay of 2.5 years participated in the study. Five items were extracted from data, including of "rejection and isolation", "feel failure and disgrace", "adaptation", "satisfaction" and "being monotonous and waiting". Most of the participants felt that were rejected by their families and the community. Their life was tedious and this had reduced their life passion and they were waiting for the end of life. Conclusion: Most of the elderly had not positive experiences of living in the hospice. Inattention of the family and the condition of the hospice environment made them a feel of “isolation and being rejected” along with a “feel of failure and disgrace”. Improving the validity of elderly home residents, may be achieved by improving communication culture of this population, elderly hospices condition and appropriate training of geriatric nurses.

  13. Clinical trial participants’ experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an

  14. Managing depression through needlecraft creative activities: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the personal meanings of needlecrafts and their role in the self-management of depression. Written and spoken narratives from 39 women were studied. Respondents described themselves as experiencing chronic or episodic depression (e.g. associated with stressful work situations, bereavement or caring for an ill relative). Some had received treatment for depression but most had not. When analysing the therapeutic effects of creative activity, most women describ...

  15. Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Murphy, Kathy; Shaw, David; Casey, Dympna

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Furthermore, the ability to describe in detail how the analysis was conducted ensures rigour in reporting qualitative research. The research example used is a multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by Morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. The specific strategies for analysis in these stages centred on the work of Miles and Huberman ( 1994 ), which has been successfully used in case study research. The data were managed using NVivo software. Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. By providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study analysis. This paper illustrates specific strategies that can be employed when conducting data analysis in case study research and other qualitative research designs.

  16. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  17. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  18. Spiritual needs of cancer patients: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Hatamipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of cancer can cause huge spiritual crisis in a person and affect different aspects of life. At this stage, patients have certain spiritual needs. Aim: This study was conducted to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 18 cancer patients, referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. Results: From 1850 initial codes, 4 themes (connection, peace, meaning and purpose, and transcendence were identified that contained categories of social support, normal behavior, inner peace, seeking forgiveness, hope, acceptance of reality, seeking meaning, ending well, change of life meaning, strengthening spiritual belief, communication with God, and prayer. Conclusions: Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be recognized, realized, and considered in care of patients by the medical team. An all-out support of health system policy makers to meet patients′ spiritual needs is particularly important.

  19. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  20. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  1. Multiproject interdependencies in health systems management: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Gamm, Larry; Kim, Jungyeon; Menser, Terri

    2014-01-01

    A health care organization often engages in the simultaneous implementation of multiple organization change initiatives. However, the degree to which these initiatives are implemented and can be enhanced based on their interdependencies is an open question. How organizations and the change initiatives they pursue might benefit from more careful examination of potential interdependencies among projects was explored in this article. The aim of this study was to introduce a multiproject management conceptualization that stresses project interdependencies and suggests synergies can be found to enhance overall project and organizational performance. It examines this conceptualization in the context of a health system pursuing several major initiatives to capture insights into the nature of such interdependencies. Longitudinal qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with hospital leaders attempting to manage multiple initiatives being implemented by the system's leadership team was used in this study. The implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) is empirically identified as the most central among multiple projects based on other projects dependencies on the EMR. Furthermore, concerns for data are identified most frequently as success factors across all projects. This reinforces the depiction of the EMR as a central organizational focus. A unique perspective on multiproject management in hospitals and on EMR projects is presented. In addition, the interdependency conceptualization and its application and results provide insights into multiproject management that can help ensure that benefits of individual projects are more fully optimized or exploited in leveraging the effectiveness of other project initiatives.

  2. Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-03-24

    To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in 'missing' or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a

  3. Physicians' Practice of Dispensing Medicines: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Darbyshire, Daniel; Gordon, Morris; Baker, Paul; Bates, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The physical act of giving medication to patients to administer away from a health care setting, dispensing, is normally performed by pharmacists. Dispensing of medication by physicians is a neglected patient safety issue, and having observed considerable variation in practice, the lead author sought to explore this issue further. A literature review yielded zero articles pertaining to this, so an exploratory study was commenced. The qualitative arm, relating to junior physicians'...

  4. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  5. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Negarandeh Reza; Dehghan Nayeri Nahid

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A ...

  6. Why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentations: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, Ana Mafalda Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão Hoteleira e Turismo/ JEL codes: L83; M31 This dissertation is a qualitative study about why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentation even though they earn a small incentive for doing so. The Hoffman and Bateson’s decision process model is used as a broad theoretical framework. On this basis and the inputs of managers and off-premise contact (OPC) representatives of a Marketing company located in Orlando, Florida, USA, five main lik...

  7. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  8. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  9. College Women's Perceptions of Dairy Foods: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weiglein, Carolyn Anderson Jr.

    1998-01-01

    College Women's Perceptions of Dairy Foods: A Qualitative Study Carolyn A. Weiglein (ABSTRACT) Research has indicated that college-age women are not consuming the recommended daily servings of dairy foods, and therefore, have inadequate calcium intakes as well. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 29 college women to explore their perceptions, opinions, thoughts, and feelings about dairy foods. Single, non-Hispanic white females, aged 19-22, enrolled in state-funded co...

  10. Doctors' perceptions and use of evidence-based medicine: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, M.H.J.; Heijden, G.J.M.G. van der; Boeije, H.R.; Rheenen, N. van; Verheul, F.J.M.; Graaf, Y. van der; Kalkman, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Many primary qualitative studies of barriers and facilitators for doctors’ use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are available, but knowledge remains fragmented. This study sought to synthesize the results of these qualitative studies, taking the variability across context (i.e., medical dis

  11. Doctors' perceptions and use of evidence-based medicine: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, M.H.J.; Heijden, G.J.M.G. van der; Boeije, H.R.; Rheenen, N. van; Verheul, F.J.M.; Graaf, Y. van der; Kalkman, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Many primary qualitative studies of barriers and facilitators for doctors’ use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are available, but knowledge remains fragmented. This study sought to synthesize the results of these qualitative studies, taking the variability across context (i.e., medical dis

  12. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Grammes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of “embryonic society” in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of “mirror” of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires indepth classroom observation, has been getting much attention among educational community. On the other hand, there have not been done many studies that represent social studies and civics in particular, in this research tradition. Naturally, this research tradition is based on qualitative research paradigm. Likewise, qualitative research tradition has been getting increasing attention among educational community. Thus, the first purpose of this article is to explain all documentation and pre-interpretation process of this lesson so that it can provide an example for qualitative researchers. The second purpose of this article is to provide an example lesson of political education from Turkey so that educators worldwide can compare one example of social studies education practice in Turkey and with their countries.

  13. Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

    2007-07-01

    The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products.

  14. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional; having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents’ understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  15. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Alfaya Góngora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants.Methods:A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed.Results:The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources.Conclusion:Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  16. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their

  17. Causes of Incivility in Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incivility among nursing students is a common academic problem. Knowing the causes of students’ incivility will enable the faculty members and academic institutions to select correct strategies to deal with this problem. This study was conducted to explore the causes of incivility among nursing students from both educators’ and students’ points of view. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was applied in order to explore experiences and insights of 17 nursing lecturers and 9 nursing students who were selected through purposeful sampling and interviewed on the causes of incivility. Participants were selected among students and lecturers of nursing schools in KhorasanRazavi. The inclusion criteria for the students were having passed one educational term and for the lecturers having one year experience of teaching respectively. Data gathering was done using deep semi-structured interviews starting from March 2014 to March 2015. Results: Three main categories extracted from the data were student related factors, teacher related factors, and organizational factors. Non-educational engagement, attracting attentions, lack of motivation, students’ personality, and lack of experience were the subcategories of student related factors. Subcategories of teacher related factors included lack of skills, teachers’ personal qualities, lack of experience, and incivility of teachers. Finally, the subcategories of organizational factors included no evaluation system for teachers and lack of understanding the organizational rules and regulations. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that factors related to students, teachers, and organization may lead to nursing students’ incivility and clarified its dimensions. In order to develop a civil environment in nursing college, managers and educators’ awareness should be promoted via various ways such as workshops.

  18. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  19. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  20. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  1. Vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in Europe: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafillakis, Emilie; Dinca, Irina; Apfel, Franklin; Cecconi, Sabrina; Wűrz, Andrea; Takacs, Judit; Suk, Jonathan; Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Kramarz, Piotr; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-09-22

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often referred to as the most trusted source of vaccine-related information for their patients. However, the evidence suggests that a number of HCWs are vaccine-hesitant. This study consists of 65 semi-structured interviews with vaccine providers in Croatia, France, Greece, and Romania to investigate concerns HCWs might have about vaccination. The results revealed that vaccine hesitancy is present in all four countries among vaccine providers. The most important concern across all countries was the fear of vaccine side effects. New vaccines were singled out due to perceived lack of testing for vaccine safety and efficacy. Furthermore, while high trust in health authorities was expressed by HCWs, there was also strong mistrust of pharmaceutical companies due to perceived financial interests and lack of communication about side effects. The notion that it is a doctor's responsibility to respond to hesitant patients was reported in all countries. Concerns were also seen to be country- and context-specific. Strategies to improve confidence in vaccines should be adapted to the specific political, social, cultural and economic context of countries. Furthermore, while most interventions focus on education and improving information about vaccine safety, effectiveness, or the need for vaccines, concerns raised in this study identify other determinants of hesitancy that need addressing. The representativeness of the views of the interviewed HCWs must be interpreted with caution. This a qualitative study with a small sample size that included geographical areas where vaccination uptake was lower or where hesitancy was more prevalent and it reflects individual participants' beliefs and attitudes toward the topic. As HCWs have the potential of influencing patient vaccination uptake, it is crucial to improve their confidence in vaccination and engage them in activities targeting vaccine hesitancy among their patients.

  2. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  3. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative res...

  4. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  5. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative res...

  6. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-01-01

    .... We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic...

  7. Burn patients' experience of pain management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.

  8. An evaluation of rheumatology practitioner outreach clinics: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Services for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) have evolved with the development of independently led outreach Rheumatology Practitioner (RP) clinics in Primary Care (PC). Their clinical and cost effectiveness, compared with Secondary Care (SC) services, has not been assessed. The RECIPROCATE study aims to evaluate their clinical and cost effectiveness. This part of the study aimed to explore health professionals’ opinions of rheumatology outreach service. Methods Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs, practice nurses, hospital doctors and RPs, from one hospital and seven PC practices in Norfolk, to elicit their opinions of the service. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All participants agreed the service was supportive and valuable providing high quality personalised care, disease management, social, and educational support. Advantages identified included convenience, continuity of care and proximity of services to home. RPs helped bridge the communication gap between PC and SC. Some participants suggested having a doctor alongside RPs. The service was considered to be cost effective for patients but there was uncertainty about cost effectiveness for service providers. Few disadvantages were identified the most recurring being the lack of other onsite services when needed. It was noted that more services could be provided by RPs such as prescribing and joint injections as well as playing a more active role in knowledge transfer to PC. Conclusions Professionals involved in the care of RA patients recognised the valuable role of the RP outreach clinics. This service can be further developed in rheumatology and the example can be replicated for other chronic conditions. PMID:22607063

  9. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  10. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spehar Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers

  11. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  12. Symptoms in patients with takotsubo syndrome: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the meaning of narrated symptoms in connection to takotsubo syndrome. Design, method, participants and setting Qualitative study consisting of 25 interviews, 23 women and 2 men aged 39–84 and living in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. The transcribed text was analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Results The interviewees reported a large number of symptoms before, during and after the acute onset of takotsubo syndrome, including pain, affected breathing, lassitude, malaise and nausea. Several of these have not been reported previously. Symptoms before the acute onset were, even if they had been prominent, ignored by the interviewees for various reasons. During the acute phase, the symptoms could no longer be ignored and the interviewees sought healthcare. The remaining residual symptom after discharge from hospital caused a great deal of worry because the interviewees feared that they would be permanent and they felt they could not live this way. On the whole, becoming ill and having a large number of symptoms greatly impacted the lives of the interviewees and made them re-evaluate how they had been living. Furthermore, they reported feeling alone and lost regarding their symptom burden, especially in relation to their residual symptoms, which affected their health and ability to return to daily life. Conclusions Acute symptoms, and symptoms before and after the acute ones, are a major part of the illness experience for patients with takotsubo syndrome and affect their health and well-being. Assessment of symptoms should be an integrated part of care to promote health. One way of achieving this is through the patients’ own narratives of their experiences, which are an important component in person-centred care. PMID:27707826

  13. Perceptions and experiences of financial incentives: a qualitative study of dialysis care in England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abma, I.L.; Jayanti, A.; Bayer, S.; Mitra, S.; Barlow, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to understand the extent to which financial incentives such as Payment by Results and other payment mechanisms motivate kidney centres in England to change their practices. DESIGN: The study followed a qualitative design. Data collection involved 32 in-depth

  14. An Exploration of How Foster Parents Educationally Assist Foster Children: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

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    Zarate, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Foster children are academically at risk as a result of abuse, neglect and family disruptions. Findings from previous studies have underscored the critical role played by foster parents in monitoring the academic progress of the children placed in the home. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to identify the skill…

  15. Conducting a multicentre and multinational qualitative study on patient transitions.

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    Johnson, Julie K; Barach, Paul; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2012-12-01

    A multicentre, multinational research study requires careful planning and coordination to accomplish the aims of the study and to ensure systematic and rigorous examination of all project methods and data collected. The aim of this paper is to describe the approach we used during the HANDOVER Project to develop a multicentre, multinational research project for studying transitions of patient care while creating a community of practice for the researchers. We highlight the process used to assure the quality of a multicentre qualitative study and to create a codebook for data analysis as examples of attending to the community of practice while conducting rigorous qualitative research. Essential elements for the success of this multinational, multilanguage research project included recruiting a strong research team, explicit planning for decision-making processes to be used throughout the project, acknowledging the differences among the study settings and planning the protocols to capitalise upon those differences. Although not commonly discussed in reports of large research projects, there is an underlying, concurrent stream of activities to develop a cohesive team that trusts and respects one another's skills and that engage independent researchers in a group process that contributes to achieving study goals. We discuss other lessons learned and offer recommendations for other teams planning multicentre research.

  16. Empowerment needs of women with breast cancer: a qualitative study.

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    Taleghani, Fariba; Bahrami, Masoud; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefi, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Due to the increasing number of women suffering from breast cancer worldwide, promoting the empowerment of these patients is an important factor affecting their survival. Few studies have investigated the empowerment needs of the breast cancer women, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study was performed to explain the empowerment needs of women with breast cancer in Iran. In this qualitative study, 19 women with breast cancer were interviewed regarding their empowerment needs using the individual open-ended and, in-depth interviews and then the qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Three main categories of empowerment needs from the participants' perspectives were as follows: 1- information: the initial empowerment plans (timely and comprehensive information, coordination and continuity of information, easy and full-time access to information), 2- beliefs: the approval of the empowerment plans for execution (actuality, trust and hope and new beliefs), and 3- skills: efficient execution of the empowerment plans (communication skills, expression the needs, emotions, questions and use of the internet). It seems that promoting the empowerment of women with breast cancer is essential. Factors found in this study and also in similar studies, in which empowerment needs are explained in-depth through the experiences of the patients, should be considered and used in the treatment, educational and counseling programs to promote the empowerment of women with breast cancer.

  17. HIV POSITIVE MOTHERS; ISSUES AND CONCERNS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

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    Manjunatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To get an insight into: 1. Perceived health needs and demands of positive mothers. 2. Constraints and barriers in accessing health services. 3. Impact of positive status on social and economic entitlements.4. Role of positive network in educating and empowering mothers. METHODOLOGY: Type of study; Qualitative research using focus group discussions (FGD. Study Setting; “AnandaJoythi Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS®”- A positive network at Mysore. Period of study; September- October, 2008. Study participants: positive mothers from in and around Mysore city attending AnandaJoythi Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS. Inclusion Criteria; Mother of at least one child irrespective of: Her age. Duration of the positive status/ stage of disease. Age of the child-live/dead. On ART or not. And were willing to participate in the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Those not willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: Health Needs and Demands: The positive women felt the need for regular screening tests for side effects of ART free of cost, nutrition supplementation programmes, more health centres and health education. Barriers to treatment: Poverty is the main barrier to accessing treatment. This is the amount of money required by clients for the government health services before being put on the ART programme and individuals have to pay for a CD4 count, a full hemogram and a liver function test. Poverty also means that people experience difficulty in paying for transport to get to services, especially when travelling from rural areas where distances to the nearest clinic or hospital are further and infrastructure poorer. Social and economic impact of positive status: It becomes difficult to look after their children when they are thrown out of their house. Even though they are mentally harassed by their family members they find it difficult to come out of their house because of their children are too young and need a family support

  18. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

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    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  19. Patients' views on outcome following head injury: a qualitative study

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    Mayle Wendy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injuries are a common occurrence, with continuing care in the years following injury being provided by primary care teams and a variety of speciality services. The literature on outcome currently reflects areas considered important by health-care professionals, though these may differ in some respects from the views of head injured individuals themselves. Our study aimed to identify aspects of outcome considered important by survivors of traumatic head injury. Methods Thirty-two individuals were interviewed, each of whom had suffered head injury between one and ten years previously from which they still had residual difficulties. Purposive sampling was used in order to ensure that views were represented from individuals of differing age, gender and level of disability. These interviews were fully transcribed and analysed qualitatively by a psychologist, a sociologist and a psychiatrist with regular meetings to discuss the coding. Results Aspects of outcome mentioned by head injury survivors which have received less attention previously included: specific difficulties with group conversations; changes in physical appearance due to scarring or weight change; a sense of loss for the life and sense of self that they had before the injury; and negative reactions of others, often due to lack of understanding of the consequences of injury amongst both family and general public. Conclusion Some aspects of outcome viewed as important by survivors of head injury may be overlooked by health professionals. Consideration of these areas of outcome and the development of suitable interventions should help to improve functional outcome for patients.

  20. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

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    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system (HIS should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  1. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Moghadam, Mohammad Ali; Fayaz Bakhsh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hospital information system (HIS) should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs), it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  2. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

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    Negarandeh Reza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A purposive sample of 30 hospital nurses and nurse managers was selected to obtain data by means of in-depth semi structured interviews. Data were analysed by means of the content analysis method. Results The emerging themes were: (1 the nurses' perceptions and reactions to conflict; (2 organizational structure; (3 hospital management style; (4 the nature and conditions of job assignment; (5 individual characteristics; (6 mutual understanding and interaction; and (7 the consequences of conflict. The first six themes describe the sources of the conflict as well as strategies to manage them. Conclusion How nurses perceive conflict influences how they react to it. Sources of conflict are embedded in the characteristics of nurses and the nursing system, but at the same time these characteristics can be seen as strategies to resolve conflict. We found mutual understanding and interaction to be the main factor able to prevent and resolve conflict effectively. We therefore recommend that nurses and nurse managers encourage any virtues and activities that increase such understanding and interaction. Finally, as conflict can destroy individual nurses as well as the nursing system, we must act to control it effectively.

  3. A Qualitative Study of Faculty Members' Views of Women Chairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Results Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine. PMID:20156081

  4. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

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    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  5. When Are Qualitative Testing Results Sufficient To Predict a Reduction in Illnesses in a Microbiological Food Safety Risk Assessment?

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    Ebel, Eric D; Williams, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    Process models that include the myriad pathways that pathogen-contaminated food may traverse before consumption and the dose-response function to relate exposure to likelihood of illness may represent a "gold standard" for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Nevertheless, simplifications that rely on measuring the change in contamination occurrence of a raw food at the end of production may provide reasonable approximations of the effects measured by a process model. In this study, we parameterized three process models representing different product-pathogen pairs (i.e., chicken-Salmonella, chicken-Campylobacter, and beef-E. coli O157:H7) to compare with predictions based on qualitative testing of the raw product before consideration of mixing, partitioning, growth, attenuation, or dose-response processes. The results reveal that reductions in prevalence generated from qualitative testing of raw finished product usually underestimate the reduction in likelihood of illness for a population of consumers. Qualitative microbial testing results depend on the test's limit of detection. The negative bias is greater for limits of detection that are closer to the center of the contamination distribution and becomes less as the limit of detection is moved further into the right tail of the distribution. Nevertheless, a positive bias can result when the limit of detection refers to very high contamination levels. Changes in these high levels translate to larger consumed doses for which the slope of the dose-response function is smaller compared with the larger slope associated with smaller doses. Consequently, in these cases, a proportional reduction in prevalence of contamination results in a less than proportional reduction in probability of illness. The magnitudes of the biases are generally less for nonscalar (versus scalar) adjustments to the distribution.

  6. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

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    T.D. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  7. The public library as therapeutic landscape: a qualitative case study.

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    Brewster, Liz

    2014-03-01

    The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  9. Political Participation : A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Liza

    2006-01-01

    Abstract “Political participation” - A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong Thesis in Political Science, D-level Author: Liza Bergström Tutor: Michele Micheletti On July 1, 1997 China resumed its sovereignty over Hong Kong. Ever since long before the handover until today scholars ask whether and how the changes in Hong Kong’s political status are affecting politics in Hong Kong. This paper is situated in this on-going academic debate. Its purpose is to investigate whether system changes...

  10. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women.

  11. Resident physicians' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, John B; Bundrick, John B; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through third-year internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were conducted to better understand residents' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching. A group facilitator solicited residents' reflections, based on their lived experiences, on teaching domains from previous factor analytic studies: interpersonal, clinical-teaching, and efficiency. Researchers coded focus group transcripts and identified themes within the domains. Final themes were determined by consensus. Leading themes were "kindness" and "teacher-learner relationships." Junior residents were sensitive to faculty who were brusque, harsh, and degrading. Senior residents respected faculty who were humble, collaborative, and allowed residents to co-manage teaching encounters. Seniors emphasized the importance of faculty role-modelling and preferentially staffed with experts to "gain wisdom from experience." Overall, residents expressed that effective learning requires grounded teacher-learner relationships. These findings support learning theories and previous factor analytic studies. However, this qualitative study provided insights that could not be gleaned from assessment scores alone.

  12. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  13. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

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    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

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    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  15. The impact of pelvic floor surgery on female sexual function: a mixed quantitative and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A M; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H; de Leeuw, J W; Paulus, A T G

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the current condition-specific sexual function questionnaire provides full insight into sexual function following pelvic floor surgery. Prospective, mixed quantitative and qualitative study. Urogynaecology clinic in a large university hospital. Thirty-seven women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Women were seen before surgery and 3 months postoperatively. At both visits the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ) was completed and a qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted. PISQ total and domain scores, as well as the change in the preoperative and postoperative score, were calculated and analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and one-sample t-test. The qualitative data were systematically analysed using data-matrices. The impact of pelvic floor surgery on female sexual function. Significant improvement was seen for PISQ total score (P = 0.003) as well as Physical (P qualitative data showed that improvement in sexual function was a result of cure of POP and SUI symptoms. Deterioration of sexual function was due to dyspareunia, fear of causing damage to the surgical result, new symptoms and a disappointing result of surgery. Our qualitative data show that PISQ is limited in the assessment of sexual function after pelvic floor surgery as it does not assess most surgery-specific negative effects on sexual function. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  17. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-31

    In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants' context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare

  18. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1 The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2 The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3 The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not

  19. Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed.

  20. Psychiatric Nurses' Perceptions about Physical Restraint; A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of  nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods.

  1. Life experiences of patients before having hypertension: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Afzal; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Esmaili, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    Identification of causes of hypertension on the basis of the perspectives and experiences of patients is the key to success in health plans of these patients. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of life before becoming hypertensive patients. This qualitative study was conducted during August 2015 to April 2016. Twenty-seven hypertensive patients referred to hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected based on purposive sampling, and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with them. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Three main categories were extracted from data analysis. Patients experienced factors such as negligence and neglect, life stress, lack of healthy lifestyles and abuse awareness, spirituality abandonee in the main category of "personal experience," factors such as family conflicts, heredity, inappropriate nutritional and life style in the main category of "family life," and also factors such as job stress, economic problems, urbanization, chemical agents during the war in the main category of "social life." Based on the findings, patients before becoming hypertensive under the influence of their culture and beliefs had experienced many risk factors associated with hypertension. Comprehensive planning and appropriate to the cultural, social, and beliefs context about the prevention and correction of these factors is necessary.

  2. A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

  3. Parents' Rules about Underage Drinking: A Qualitative Study of Why Parents Let Teens Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate…

  4. The Role and Functionality of Emotions in Feedback at University: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna D.; Fitness, Julie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the role and functionality of emotions in feedback. In-depth interview data from students and lecturers at an Australian university are analysed using cognitive appraisal and prototype theory. Results suggest that students experience a range of positive and negative emotions in feedback contexts…

  5. Identity and coping experiences in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: a synthesis of qualitative studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larun, L.; Malterud, K.

    2007-01-01

    -order constructs from a line of arguments. RESULTS: Twenty qualitative studies on CFS experiences were identified. Symptom experiences and the responses from significant others could jeopardise the patients' senses of identity. They felt severely ill, yet blamed and dismissed. Patients' beliefs and causal...

  6. Amputation, phantom pain and subjective well-being : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.C.; Suurmeijer, T.P.B.M.; Hulsink, M.; van der Schans, C.P.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impact of an amputation and of phantom pain on the subjective well-being of amputees. Sixteen lower-limb amputees were interviewed. A semi-structured interview and two Visual Analogue Scales were used. To interpret the results, a new socio-med

  7. Factors influencing the implementation of the guideline Triage in emergency departments : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.A.P.; Achterberg, Theo van; Adriaansen, Marian; Mintjes, Joke; Schalk, D.M.J.; Kampshoff, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    This is an exploratory study using a qualitative design including: a questionnaire sent to all emergency departments in the Netherlands (n = 108): four focus group interviews, including nurses and ward managers and in-depth interviews with ward managers and doctors. Based on the results, tailored im

  8. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development...

  9. Access to Triptans for Acute Episodic Migraine: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sobia; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Knowles, Sandra; Gomes, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Our study aims to examine factors related to access of triptans among multiple stakeholder groups. Triptans are a cornerstone of pain management for the acute treatment of migraine, but actual utilization of triptans is lower than ideal. Initial and continued access to triptans may be an important clinical issue in the acute treatment of migraines, but factors affecting access at the patient, provider, and health-care system levels have not been comprehensively explored. A qualitative study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, between August 2013 and January 2014. Three participant groups were recruited to the qualitative study: (1) migraineurs who have experience accessing triptans; (2) physicians, including primary care physicians (PCPs) and neurologists, who have prescribed triptans; and (3) pharmacists who have dispensed triptans. Qualitative data were collected through one-on-one, semi-structured telephone interviews. The framework approach was used for data collection and analysis. Data collected from 19 migraineurs, 6 physicians, and 8 pharmacists were included in the analysis. Study participants discussed various factors that facilitate or hinder access to triptans, which were synthesized into four themes that emerged at the patient, provider, and health-care systems levels: (1) awareness; (2) apathy; (3) advocacy; and (4) affordability. Across all participant groups, awareness of available treatments and coverage policies for those treatments were potential factors relating to timely drug provision. Participants describe apathy in terms of patients' health-seeking behaviors and physicians' lack of concern toward migraine, which were seen as factors that could delay diagnosis and provision of appropriate treatment. Patients engaging in self-advocacy enhanced their ability to seek timely and appropriate provision of triptans at the patient level. At the health-care provider level, pharmacists were identified by patients as advocates for receiving more effective

  10. Why undertake a pilot in a qualitative PhD study? Lessons learned to promote success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jane; Archibong, Uduak; Walton, Sean

    2017-01-23

    Background Pilot studies can play an important role in qualitative studies. Methodological and practical issues can be shaped and refined by undertaking pilots. Personal development and researchers' competence are enhanced and lessons learned can inform the development and quality of the main study. However, pilot studies are rarely published, despite their potential to improve knowledge and understanding of the research. Aim To present the main lessons learned from undertaking a pilot in a qualitative PhD study. Discussion This paper draws together lessons learned when undertaking a pilot as part of a qualitative research project. Important methodological and practical issues identified during the pilot study are discussed including access, recruitment, data collection and the personal development of the researcher. The resulting changes to the final study are also highlighted. Conclusion Sharing experiences of and lessons learned in a pilot study enhances personal development, improves researchers' confidence and competence, and contributes to the understanding of research. Implications for practice Pilots can be used effectively in qualitative studies to refine the final design, and provide the researcher with practical experience to enhance confidence and competence.

  11. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos; Sola, Iván; Rotaeche, Rafael; Marzo-Castillejo, Mèrce; Louro-González, Arturo; Carrillo, Ricard; González, Ana-Isabel; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2011-08-09

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts.The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients' needs. The questioning of experts

  12. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    verbatim and analysed using qualitative description as the research approach. Results We identified four major categories of risk behavior: 1) Alcohol consumption being associated with no condom use. 2) Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands...... other countries, but cultural differences may raise additional or other questions in order to describe the important issues sufficiently. To design and initiate a sexual behavior surveillance program in Denmark, the aim of this qualitative study was therefore to identify focus points of special...

  13. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study of social ... a total of 20 participants aged 10-19 years, and selected using convenience sampling. Three themes were extracted using the consensual qualitative method and ...

  14. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Jun, Soo-Koung; Park, Ie Byung

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited research on physicians' perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students.

  15. Spirituality and clinical care in eating disorders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Patricia; Karagianni, Efthalia; Morgan, John F

    2007-01-01

    Historical and contemporary research has posited links between eating disorders and religious asceticism. This study aimed to examine relationships between eating disorders, religion, and treatment. Qualitative study using purposeful sampling, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview, subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants were 10 adult Christian women receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Five dominant categories emerged: locus of control, sacrifice, self-image, salvation, maturation. Appetitive control held moral connotations. Negative self-image was common, based more on sin than body-image. Medical treatment could be seen as salvation, with religious conversion manifesting a quest for healing, but treatment failure threatened faith. Beliefs matured during treatment, with prayer, providing a healing relationship. Religious beliefs impact on attitudes and motivation in eating disorders. Clinicians' sensitivity determines how beliefs influence clinical outcome. Treatment modifies beliefs such that theological constructs of illness cannot be ignored. (c) 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Physical therapy rehabilitation strategies for dancers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Megin

    2013-01-01

    This was a qualitative study utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo.

  17. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...

  18. Cutting down: insights from qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hilary; Flemming, Kate; Fox, David; Heirs, Morag; Sowden, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effects of smoking in pregnancy are minimised if the mother quits completely in early pregnancy. Smokers are therefore advised to quit abruptly; cutting down is not recommended either as a method of, or alternative to, quitting. However, most pregnant smokers do not quit and cutting down is widely reported. Evidence comes primarily from quantitative studies; qualitative research has contributed little to understandings of cigarette consumption in pregnancy. In consequence, little is known about the place and meaning of cutting down for pregnant smokers. The paper investigates this important dimension of maternal smoking. It explores perceptions and experiences of cutting down among pregnant smokers by examining data from a systematic review of qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy. The studies were located in high-income countries and published between 1970 and 2012. Twenty-six studies, reported in 29 papers, were included, representing over 640 women. Meta-ethnography guided the analysis and synthesis. Data (participants' accounts and authors' interpretations) were extracted and coded; codes were progressively combined to identify overarching themes ('lines of argument'). Running through the lines of argument was evidence on cutting down; the paper presents and analyses this evidence. The analysis indicates that cutting down figured centrally as both a method of quitting and, for persistent smokers, a method of harm reduction. While pregnant women were aware that official advice was to quit abruptly, cutting down was seen as a positive behaviour change in often-difficult domestic circumstances, and one that health professionals condoned. Our findings suggest that cutting down in pregnancy, as an aid and an alternative to quitting, requires greater recognition if healthcare and tobacco control policies are to be sensitive to the perspectives and circumstances of pregnant smokers.

  19. An integrated qualitative and quantitative modeling framework for computer‐assisted HAZOP studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Hu, Jinqiu

    2014-01-01

    and validated on a case study concerning a three‐phase separation process. The multilevel flow modeling (MFM) methodology is used to represent the plant goals and functions. First, means‐end analysis is used to identify and formulate the intention of the process design in terms of components, functions...... safety critical operations, its causes and consequences. The outcome is a qualitative hazard analysis of selected process deviations from normal operations and their consequences as input to a traditional HAZOP table. The list of unacceptable high risk deviations identified by the qualitative HAZOP...... analysis is used as input for rigorous analysis and evaluation by the quantitative analysis part of the framework. To this end, dynamic first‐principles modeling is used to simulate the system behavior and thereby complement the results of the qualitative analysis part. The practical framework for computer...

  20. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  1. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  2. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  3. Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs.

  4. Public perceptions of dental implants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M

    2015-07-01

    Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute

  5. A Study on Capabilities Required In Military Medicine to Develop Modular Training Courses: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Ali; Mohammadimehr, Mojgan

    2017-07-01

    The main mission of military medicine in the world is to support the health and treatment of the military in relation to issues, risks, injuries and diseases that arise due to the specific occupational conditions. The current study was carried out with the aim of determining the required skills of military physicians to define and determine the required training modules. The study was a qualitative research. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. The study population included all the professors and experts in the field of military medicine and medical sciences at the medical universities of Tehran. Snowball sampling technique was used to sample the study participants. Based on the results, the required skills of military physicians in 5 categories and 29 sub- categories were identified; then based on the identified skills, 60 training modules at two introductory and advanced levels were determined including 39 introductory levels and 21 advanced levels. We can conclude that some of the important skills that military physicians need and can achieved through training have not been provided in any educational program and to achieve such skills and capabilities, other programs should be developed and modular training can be one of them.

  6. The GP's perception of poverty: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Sara J; Swinnen, Wilfried; De Maeseneer, Jan M

    2005-04-01

    Health differences between people from lower and higher social classes increase. The accessibility of the health care system is one of the multiple and complex causes. The Physician's perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards the patient are in this context important determinants. To explore the general practitioners' definition of poverty and their perception of the deprived patients' attitude towards health and health care, to get insight into the ways general practitioners deal with the problem of poverty and to present the proposals general practitioners make to improve health care for the deprived. The study involved qualitative methodology using 21 semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded using Framework Analysis techniques. Interviews were undertaken with general practitioners in primary care, working in a deprived area in the city of Ghent. In the definition of poverty, three concepts can be identified: socioeconomic aspects, psychological and individual characteristics, and socio-cultural concepts. General practitioners adopt different types of approaches to deal with deprived patients in practice: adaptation of the doctor-patient communication, lowering of the financial threshold, referral to specialists and other health care professionals. Including the issue of poverty and poverty in the curriculum of the medical students and in the in-service training for practicing doctors could have a positive impact on their attitude towards this patient group. Further research is needed into the barriers in the accessibility of the health care system for the deprived, exploring qualitatively and quantitatively the experiences and the living conditions of deprived patients and the perceptions of health care providers.

  7. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O Shiyanbola

    Full Text Available The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4% with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3. The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability.

  8. Going home after infant cardiac surgery: a UK qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregay, Jenifer; Wray, Jo; Crowe, Sonya; Knowles, Rachel; Daubeney, Piers; Franklin, Rodney; Barron, David; Hull, Sally; Barnes, Nick; Bull, Catherine; Brown, Katherine L

    2016-04-01

    To qualitatively assess the discharge processes and postdischarge care in the community for infants discharged after congenital heart interventions in the first year of life. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and Framework Analysis. UK specialist cardiac centres and the services their patients are discharged to. Twenty-five cardiologists and nurses from tertiary centres, 11 primary and secondary health professionals and 20 parents of children who had either died after discharge or had needed emergency readmission. Participants indicated that going home with an infant after cardiac intervention represents a major challenge for parents and professionals. Although there were reported examples of good care, difficulties are exacerbated by inconsistent pathways and potential loss of information between the multiple teams involved. Written documentation from tertiary centres frequently lacks crucial contact information and contains too many specialist terms. Non-tertiary professionals and parents may not hold the information required to respond appropriately when an infant deteriorates, this contributing to the stressful experience of managing these infants at home. Where they exist, the content of formal 'home monitoring pathways' varies nationally, and families can find this onerous. Service improvements are needed for infants going home after cardiac intervention in the UK, focusing especially on enhancing mechanisms for effective transfer of information outside the tertiary centre and processes to assist with monitoring and triage of vulnerable infants in the community by primary and secondary care professionals. At present there is no routine audit for this stage of the patient journey. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  10. Understanding the life experiences of Brazilian women after bariatric surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno, Ronis; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    The increase in bariatric surgeries has called into question the aspects that contribute to or impair the results. Psychosocial factors directly influence the results of the surgery, but a lot of controversy exists in relation to the degree of influence of these factors. We propose a qualitative investigation to understand the significance of the surgery for women and how these factors influence the outcomes. This study is a clinical-qualitative method, through the semi-directed interview with open-ended questions in an intentional sample, closed by saturation, with seven women operated in a period of 1.5-3 years, following the definition of emergent categories and qualitative content analysis. The experience of acceptance and social reinsertion is a motivating factor to keep up the challenge of weight loss; social discrimination is a risk factor leading to losing the stimulus to continue the process; the recuperation of self-esteem and personal identity is a factor that improves the quality of life and psychopathological symptoms; disillusionment is an important risk factor, linked principally to the experiences of failure. We observe the necessity of qualitative studies that serve the health team in the handling of these patients, aiming for a greater understanding of their psychological dynamics and of the meanings that weight loss has for them.

  11. CONSUMPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF LUXURY BRANDS ONLINE – ILLUSTRATING A QUALITATIVE ONLINE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Radón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet research has grown tremendously over the last decade and we see new and elaborate ways to use the Internet for data generation with increased technological abilities as well as increased Internet usage among companies and consumers. This paper illustrates a qualitative online study within the field of marketing with focus on the consumption and communication of brands. The specific interest is in showing how a particular phenomenon is studied using different Internet research methods and how this has resulted in more thick qualitative descriptions of consumption and communication in an online environment. The paper shows how the aim and context of a study leads to an Internet research approach and how the online study was conducted, the methods that were used, the results it gave and thus also sketches the possibilities and future of Internet research.

  12. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  13. Qualitative case study in pedagogical research: Cognitive possibilities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the cognitive possibilities and limitations of case study, as a qualitative research approach, and the fields of its application in studying pedagogical problems. Special attention is paid to different ways of defining and usual criticism pointed at this strategy in methodological literature of recent date: (1 general, theoretical (context independent knowledge is much more valuable from actual, practical (context dependent knowledge; (2 one cannot perform generalizations based on an individual case and therefore case study cannot contribute to the development of science; (3 case study is the most useful in generating hypotheses, that is, for the first phase of research process, while other methods are more suitable for testing hypotheses and building a theory; (4 case study tends to be partial towards verification, that is, the tendency of a researcher to confirm his/her previously established concepts; (5 it is often very difficult to present in brief the specific case study, and especially difficult to deduce general suggestions and theories on the basis of a specific case study. The objections, therefore, regard the possibility of theory development, reliability and validity of the approach, or doubt in its scientific status. The author of this paper discusses the justifiability of these objections and points out to different methodological procedures of arranging and analyzing the data collected for studying the case, which contribute to the reliability of this research approach. As a general conclusion, it is stated that the case method contains all the features relevant for studying pedagogical phenomena: preservation of the integrality of the phenomenon, appreciation of its context, developmental dimension and complementariness of different data sources.

  14. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocato Pamela; Hvitfeldt Forsberg Helena; von Thiele Schwarz Ulrica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. Methods The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial ph...

  15. Citizens' perspectives on personalized medicine: a qualitative public deliberation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Abelson, Julia; Simeonov, Dorina; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Our objective was to explore citizens' informed and reasoned values and expectations of personalized medicine, a timely yet novel genomics policy issue. A qualitative, public deliberation study was undertaken using a citizens' reference panel on health technologies, established to provide input to the health technology assessment process in Ontario, Canada. The citizens' panel consisted of five women and nine men, aged 18-71 years, with one member selected from each health authority region. There were shared expectations among the citizens' panel members for the potential of personalized medicine technologies to improve care, provided they are deemed clinically valid and effective. These expectations were tempered by concerns about value for money and the possibility that access to treatment may be limited by personalized medicine tests used to stratify patients. Although they questioned the presumed technological imperative presented by personalized medicine technologies, they called for increased efforts to prepare the health-care system to effectively integrate these technologies. This study represents an early but important effort to explore public values toward personalized medicine. This study also provides evidence of the public's ability to form coherent judgments about a new policy issue. Concerned that personalized tests might be used to ration care, they suggested that treatment should be made available if patients wanted it, irrespective of tests that indicate little benefit. This issue raises clinical and policy challenges that may undermine the value of personalized medicine. Further efforts to deliberate with the public are warranted to inform effective, efficient and equitable translation of personalized medicine.

  16. Relapse experience in Iranian opiate users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid; Jalali, Amir

    2014-04-01

    To understand the relapse process, it is required to notice the clients learned behaviors and environmental contexts. We aimed to explore and describe relapse experiences of Iranian drug users. This is a grounded theory study and twenty two participants were selected using purposive sampling, snowball and theoretical sampling. After obtaining written informed consent, data gathering was done by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. According to Strauss and Corbin three phases of open coding, axial coding and selection coding were done for qualitative analysis and continuous comparison. During the research period Guba and Lincoln criteria were used to be reassured of the accuracy and rigor of the study findings. The main categories of this study were craving and conflict, family stress and psychological indicators of relapse that emerged in three phases including recovery, tension and pre-relapse. High anxiety, withdrawal, rationalization and lying were the most common symptoms. Family reactions and social conditions play a key role in relapse. Relapse process is an active and multidimensional event in which the clients experience a psychosocial status continuum from recovery to relapse. Most psychological problems are seen in the tension phase.

  17. Iranian Women's Experiences with Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. "Neglect or covert violence" and "overt violence" were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women.

  18. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  19. Older adults' perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Sclinda L; Stube, Jan E

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore older adults' perceptions of participation in physical activity (PA) as it impacts productive ageing and informs occupational therapy (OT) practice. In this phenomenological study, 15 community-dwelling older adults were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling at community locations. Data collection methods included two interviews and an observation. The primary finding was that older adults continue individual patterns of meaningful PA across their lifespan when they have support to adapt to age-associated limitations, with a gradual decline in intensity during older years. Although this study's qualitative methodology limits broad generalizability, the findings provide applicability when situated in the context of community-living older adults interested in health maintenance through PA participation. OT practitioners have an important role with community-dwelling older adults to impact productive ageing by designing and promoting meaningful PA with adaptations that address unique, age-associated concerns. There is a need for further experimental research taking an occupational performance and health perspective to enhance the contribution of OT for this population's health-related quality of life through meaningful PA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The good doctor: a qualitative study of German homeopathic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliems, Harald; Witt, Claudia M

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors that make a good doctor, both from a patient and a physician perspective. Is there a connection between practicing homeopathy and being a good doctor? This was a qualitative study of homeopathically trained physicians and their patients, using observation of patient-physician interactions (n = 29) and interviews with patients (n = 20) and with physicians (n = 4). Patients identified the availability of time, both in itself and as a prerequisite for other physician characteristics, as the single most important factor. Other factors include scope of diagnosis/holistic approach, patient-centeredness/empathy, and perceived competence/therapeutic success. Patients did not link these factors to the homeopathic orientation of their physician, while physicians clearly made this connection. The findings confirm other studies of patient satisfaction and physician characteristics. The availability of time, a holistic approach, and high physician empathy lead to high patient satisfaction. Homeopathic physicians probably are more likely to exhibit these characteristics. Health care policy should create conditions that enable individual physicians to be "good doctors." For medical education, a stronger emphasis on interpersonal skills and practitioner empathy could lead to higher patient satisfaction and potentially better treatment outcomes. Homeopathy might provide a good role model for this type of education.

  1. Distrust and patients in intercultural healthcare: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Lise-Merete

    2016-06-09

    The importance of trust between patients and healthcare personnel is emphasised in nurses' and physicians' ethical codes. Trust is crucial for an effective healthcare personnel-patient relationship and thus for treatment and treatment outcomes. Cultural and linguistic differences may make building a trusting and positive relationship with ethnic minority patients particularly challenging. Although there is a great deal of research on cultural competence, there is a conspicuous lack of focus on the concepts of trust and distrust concerning ethnic minority patients, particularly in relation to the concept of 'othering'. To study which factors help build trust or create distrust in encounters between healthcare professionals and hospitalised ethnic minority patients, as well as study the dynamic complexities inherent within the process of 'othering'. Qualitative design, in-depth interviews and hermeneutic analysis. The interviewees were 10 immigrant patients (six women and four men - eight Asians, two Africans - ages 32-85 years) recruited from a south-eastern Norwegian hospital. Study approval was obtained from the hospital's Privacy Ombudsman for Research and the hospital's leadership. Participation was voluntary and participants signed an informed consent form. Distrust and othering may be caused by differences in belief systems, values, perceptions, expectations, and style of expression and behaviour. Othering is a reciprocal phenomenon in minority ethnic patient-healthcare personnel encounters, and it influences trust building negatively. Besides demonstrating general professional skill and competence, healthcare personnel require cultural competence to create trust. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Original Research A qualitative study of health education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes health education experiences and self-management practices 118 ... had a positive regard for the diabetes education classes and had satisfactory health literacy. .... with this qualitative assessment will serve as a foundation for future ...

  3. Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this article, I want to promote theoretical awareness and commitment among qualitative researchers in general practice and suggest adequate and feasible theoretical approaches.  Approach: I discuss different theoretical aspects of qualitative research and present the basic foundations...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...... in qualitative analysis are presented, emphasizing substantive theories to sharpen the interpretative focus. Such approaches are clearly within reach for a general practice researcher contributing to clinical practice by doing more than summarizing what the participants talked about, without trying to become...

  4. Computer supported qualitative research

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Luís; Sousa, Francislê; Moreira, António; Lamas, David

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative ...

  5. Newsmaking on drugs: a qualitative study with journalism professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina

    2008-09-01

    Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil.

  6. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  7. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  8. Good death for children with cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinori; Okuyama, Toru; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kamei, Michi; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Koji; Kubota, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Shinji; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the characteristics of a good death for children with cancer. A total of 10 pediatric cancer survivors, 10 bereaved family members and 20 medical professionals participated in in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was performed on the transcribed data obtained from semi-structured interviews. Thirteen characteristics including unique and specific for children of a good death were identified: (i) sufficient opportunities to play freely, (ii) peer supporters, (iii) continued access to the patient's usual activities and relationships, (iv) assurance of privacy, (v) respect for the patient's decisions and preferences, (vi) a sense that others acknowledge and respect the patient's childhood, (vii) comfort care to minimize distressing symptoms, (viii) hope, (ix) not aware of the patient's own impending death, (x) constant dignity, (xi) strong family relationships, (xii) no sense of being a burden to family members and (xiii) good relationships with medical staffs. This study identifies important characteristics of a good death for children with cancer. These findings may help medical staffs provide optimal care for children with cancer and their families, enabling them to achieve a good death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Using lecture capture: a qualitative study of nursing faculty's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia E; Bertram, Julie E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2014-04-01

    As lecture capture technology becomes widely available in schools of nursing, faculty will need to master new technological skills and make decisions about recording their classroom lectures or other activities. This study sought to understand faculty's experience of using a new lecture capture system. This qualitative study used Kruger's systematic approach to explore undergraduate nursing faculty's first-time experience using a lecture capture system purchased by the university. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of fourteen undergraduate faculty using lecture capture for the first-time. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed by the researchers. Four themes were identified from the faculty interviews. Two of the themes expressed faculty's concerns about the teaching role, and two themes expressed the faculty's concerns about student learning. Participants experienced stress when learning to use the new lecture capture technology and struggled to resolve it with their own beliefs and teaching values. The impact of lecture capture on student learning, impact on class attendance, and the promotion of a culture of lecturing were revealed as important issues to consider when lecture capture becomes available. © 2013.

  10. Oral health promotion in Gauteng: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molete, Mpho Primrose; Daly, Blanaid; Hlungwani, Tintswalo Mercy

    2013-03-01

    One of the aims of the South African Oral Health Promotion Framework is to integrate oral health promotion activities into general health promotion using the Common Risk Factor Approach (CRFA). Though policies have directed that oral health should be integrated into general health promotion in South Africa, little is known about the implementation of the CRFA in daily oral health promotion practice. This study aimed to assess how health promoters in Gauteng integrate oral health into their general health promotion activities. The objectives were (i) to describe how health promoters undertake health promotion in Gauteng; (ii) to describe how health promoters incorporate oral health promotion into health promotion activities; and (iii) to describe the opportunities and challenges for health promoters in applying the CRFA. This was a qualitative study and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. A purposive sample of 10 formally trained health promoters agreed to be interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants' work was centred mostly on healthy lifestyle campaigns and there was little integration of oral health into health promotion activities. While most health promoters had an understanding of the CRFA, this understanding was not common amongst other levels of management. Oral health literacy was low and health promoters perceived few opportunities for using a CRFA when weighed against other priorities such as poverty and HIV/AIDS. Currently there is little evidence of integration of oral health into general health promotion activities.

  11. RN to FNP: a qualitative study of role transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E

    2004-09-01

    Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.

  12. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  13. Organizational Failure in an NHS Hospital Trust: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Mannion, Russell; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore the key factors associated with organizational failure in an NHS Hospital Trust. This case study adopted a qualitative design. Fifty-seven semistructured interviews and document analyses were conducted as well. Data were analyzed using a framework analysis method. A range of symptoms of organizational performance failure was identified. These relate to a financial deficit, lack of good external relationships, inability to meet core targets, a lack of clear management systems, and low staff morale. These markers had not been taken seriously by the previous senior management team. Symptoms of failure were the reflection of presence of secondary and primary causes of failure. Poor managerial leadership, poor financial control and performance management, lack of open culture, distraction by 2 large projects, and the lack of clinician engagement were perceived as internal causes of failure and the high level of policy changes within the NHS as the key external cause. The level of deprivation in the area was also thought to have had a negative impact on performance. The findings reinforce and expand on those of recent studies across the public sector. Tracking an organization's performance and early diagnosis of performance problems, focusing on performance management systems, and taking into account contextual factors are issues that should be considered.

  14. Psychological impact after mastectomy among Nepalese women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women. Cancer epidemiologists have stated that breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, Nepal is not an exception. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women of Nepal after cervical cancer. A Qualitative phenomenological study was done to explore the psychological impact of women with mastectomy after diagnosis of breast cancer. In-depth study was done with ten women age ranging from 36 to 50 years. Ten women were interviewed which was recorded, and verbatim were transcribed before taking next interview. The interviews were analyzed in three stages as stated by Miles and Hubermans. Findings revealed that respondents expressed the fear of death, emotional impact of the loss of breast disfigurement, loss of femininity, fear of recurrence of disease, and concern about their family. Breast cancer and mastectomy have impact on women psychosocial state. They develop stress due to loss of body part, loss of femininity, fear of recurrence of disease, fear of cost and prolong treatment protocol.

  15. Exploring anesthesiologists' understanding of situational awareness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Julia A; Ellaway, Rachel H; Chun, Rosaleen; Lockyer, Jocelyn M

    2017-08-01

    This study explored how anesthesiologists understand situational awareness (SA) and how they think SA is learned, taught, and assessed. Semi-structured interviews were performed with practicing anesthesiologists involved in teaching. This qualitative study was conducted using constructivist grounded theory techniques (i.e., line-by-line coding, memoing, and constant comparison) in a thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Group meetings were held to develop and review themes emerging from the data. Eighteen anesthesiologists were interviewed. Respondents displayed an understanding of SA using a mixture of examples from clinical experience and everyday life. Despite agreeing on the importance of SA, formal definitions of SA were lacking, and the participants did not explicate the topic of SA in either their practice or their teaching activities. Situational awareness had been learned informally through increasing independence in the clinical context, role modelling, reflection on errors, and formally through simulation. Respondents taught SA through modelling and discussing scanning behaviour, checklists, verbalization of thought processes, and debriefings. Although trainees' understanding of SA was assessed as part of the decision-making process for granting clinical independence, respondents found it difficult to give meaningful feedback on SA to their trainees. Although SA is an essential concept in anesthesiology, its use remains rather tacit, primarily due to the lack of a common operational definition of the term. Faculty development is required to help anesthesiologists teach and assess SA more explicitly in the clinical environment.

  16. Perceptions of people living with Parkinson's disease: a qualitative study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Bastani, Farideh; Negarandeh, Reza; Greysen, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the primary concerns and perceptions of patients living with Parkinson's disease (PD). This was an exploratory qualitative study. A purposive sample of 17 patients with PD who were attending a hospital outpatients' neurology clinic in Iran were recruited. Study data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. We identified the 'fear of becoming disabled' as a primary concern in these patients. This concern affected the physical, emotional, mental, and social aspects of their lives. The 'fear of becoming disabled' fell into four categories, including progressive physical disability, mental alteration, decreasing social connectedness, and self-change. The study results showed that older adults with PD face a number of challenges in self-care. In addition, the 'fear of becoming disabled' was the main concern of patients with PD, particularly in late stages of the disease.

  17. Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Narges; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Wong, Li P

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses. The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia. A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach. The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction. It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover. © 2014

  18. Financial and employment impacts of serious injury: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Sleney, Jude S; Gosling, Cameron M; Wilson, Krystle; Sutherland, Ann; Hart, Melissa; Watterson, Dina; Christie, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    To explore the financial and employment impacts following serious injury. Semi-structured telephone administered qualitative interviews with purposive sampling and thematic qualitative analysis. 118 patients (18-81 years) registered by the Victorian State Trauma Registry or Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry 12-24 months post-injury. Key findings of the study were that although out-of-pocket treatment costs were generally low, financial hardship was prevalent after hospitalisation for serious injury, and was predominantly experienced by working age patients due to prolonged absences from paid employment. Where participants were financially pressured prior to injury, injury further exacerbated these financial concerns. Reliance on savings and loans and the need to budget carefully to limit financial burden were discussed. Financial implications of loss of income were generally less for those covered by compensation schemes, with non-compensable participants requiring welfare payments due to an inability to earn an income. Most participants reported that the injury had a negative impact on work. Loss of earnings payments from injury compensation schemes and income protection policies, supportive employers, and return to work programs were perceived as key factors in reducing the financial burden of injured participants. Employer-related barriers to return to work included the employer not listening to the needs of the injured participant, not understanding their physical limitations, and placing unrealistic expectations on the injured person. While the financial benefits of compensation schemes were acknowledged, issues accessing entitlements and delays in receiving benefits were commonly reported by participants, suggesting that improvements in scheme processes could have substantial benefits for injured patients. Seriously injured patients commonly experienced substantial financial and work-related impacts of injury. Participants of working age who were

  19. Men's experiences of living with ankylosing spondylitis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mette; Jensen, Kim Vilbek; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2015-03-01

    The majority of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are male, although potential gender differences have not been investigated in relation to disease management. Moreover, men's perceptions of experiencing AS have not been reported in the literature. This study sought to develop an understanding of how men experience AS and the challenges related to living with AS as a chronic disease. A purposive sample of 13 men diagnosed with AS, with a median age of 44 years (range 32-58) was recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic. The median duration of disease was 12 years (range 0.3-28 years), and the median time from the first symptom to final diagnosis was seven years (range 2-20 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and the interviews were analysed using content analysis inspired by Graneheim qualitative methodology. The analysis revealed four categories: (1) 'Approaching a diagnosis'; (2) 'Ill in a social context'; (3) 'Challenged as a man'; and (4) 'The importance of remaining physically well'. Based on these categories, the overall category of 'An invisible companion for life' emerged, which captures the experience of living with an invisible, life-long disease. These findings demonstrate that AS impacts men's perceptions of themselves as men, relationships as a partner and father, social lives, and masculine identity. Physical activity was highlighted as an important part of being a man, and not being able to exercise challenged the men's masculine identity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Choosing nursing as a career: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mary; Glacken, Michele; O'Brien, Frances

    2008-04-01

    It is widely accepted that nursing as a career is viewed favourably by society in that it offers job security, mobility and career variety. The main reason for choosing nursing in the 21st century remains the desire to help and care for others, as this paper demonstrates. The findings presented here are part of an on-going longitudinal study which is exploring whether mode of selection into nursing has an impact on a number of variables, of which, career choice is one. The aim of this paper is to identify why non-mature under-graduate students choose nursing as a career and to determine what factors influence this decision. An exploratory-descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Following receipt of ethical approval, data were collected using focus group interviews and content analysis was employed. Participants were students on a general nursing programme delivered in a large Irish Higher Education Institute. Interviews took place within the first 3 months of the programme, prior to the first clinical placement. It emerged that although nursing was not everybody's first career choice, all participants had sought a career which involved caring. Family or friends in the profession played a role in influencing participants' career selection.

  1. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Doctors on Values and Advocacy: A Qualitative and Evaluative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Siun; Little, Miles

    2016-05-11

    Doctors are increasingly enjoined by their professional organisations to involve themselves in supraclinical advocacy, which embraces activities focused on changing practice and the system in order to address the social determinants of health. The moral basis for doctors' decisions on whether or not to do so has been the subject of little empirical research. This opportunistic qualitative study of the values of medical graduates associated with the Sydney Medical School explores the processes that contribute to doctors' decisions about taking up the advocate role. Our findings show that personal ideals were more important than professional commitments in shaping doctors' decisions on engagement in advocacy. Experiences in early life and during training, including exposure to power and powerlessness, significantly influenced their role choices. Doctors included supraclinical advocacy in their mature practices if it satisfied their desire to achieve excellence. These findings suggest that common approaches to promoting and facilitating advocacy as an individual professional obligation are not fully congruent with the experiences and values of doctors that are significant in creating the advocate. It would seem important to understand better the moral commitments inherent in advocacy to inform future developments in codes of medical ethics and medical education programs.

  3. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  4. GPs' perceptions of resilience training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Anna; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Panagioti, Maria; Peters, David; Simon, Chantal; Ridge, Damien

    2017-10-01

    GPs are reporting increasing levels of burnout, stress, and job dissatisfaction, and there is a looming GP shortage. Promoting resilience is a key strategy for enhancing the sustainability of the healthcare workforce and improving patient care. To explore GPs' perspectives on the content, context, and acceptability of resilience training programmes in general practice, in order to build more effective GP resilience programmes. This was a qualitative study of the perspectives of GPs currently practising in England. GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, and data were collected from two focus groups (n = 15) and one-to-one telephone interviews (n = 7). A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants perceived resilience training to be potentially of value in ameliorating workplace stresses. Nevertheless, uncertainty was expressed regarding how best to provide training for stressed GPs who have limited time. Participants suspected that GPs most likely to benefit from resilience training were the least likely to engage, as stress and being busy worked against engagement. Conflicting views were expressed about the most suitable training delivery method for promoting better engagement. Participants also emphasised that training should not only place the focus on the individual, but also focus on organisation issues. A multimodal, flexible approach based on individual needs and learning aims, including resilience workshops within undergraduate training and in individual practices, is likely to be the optimal way to promote resilience. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  5. Acceptability of community pharmaceutical care in Portugal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Mara; Cantrill, Judith; Martins, Paula

    2010-10-01

    In developed countries, community pharmacists are increasingly involved in clinical care. This study aimed to explore the acceptability to users of pharmaceutical care (drug therapy monitoring and management) provided in Portuguese community pharmacies, thereby informing future practice, policy and research. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews with a maximum variability sample of 21 service users. Interviews were audio-taped with permission of interviewees, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the 'framework approach' with the help of NVIVO(®) software. A perception of convenient access is one of the key themes associated with acceptability to users. Four factors are central in understanding this perception: shorter waiting time; flexibility of appointments; service organization; and proximity to home. Data analysis suggests that these factors have different weights. Another key theme underpinning user acceptability is the formation of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' accounts provide evidence of a trusting and collaborative relationship where the pharmacist is seen as a health care provider. Recognition of interpersonal and technical skills were associated with the formation of this relationship. Although patients generally trusted the pharmacist's ability to help, patients were unable to voice clear expectations about the service, either in terms of the pharmacist's role or expected outcomes. Acceptability to patients is mainly determined by perceptions of convenient access and the development of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' expectations concerning the service are not well developed, but not necessarily low.

  6. Interdisciplinary hospice team processes and multidimensional pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan Day, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain.

  7. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  8. A qualitative study of the intrinsic motivation of physicians and other health professionals to teach

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the intrinsic motivation of physicians and other health professionals to teach. Methods: Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed. A purposive opportunity sample of eight physicians and other healthcare professionals employed by our institution to teach Bachelor-level courses in health care participated in the study. Results: Four themes that suggested an internal desire to teach were identified: 1. Interest in the subject matter; 2. Interest...

  9. A qualitative study of police interactions as perceived by people living with mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Police officers are often the first responders to individuals in crises. Understanding the dynamic interaction between police and persons living with mental illness is critical to developing interventions and appropriate services for this population. Using procedural justice theory, this study involves a qualitative thematic analysis of interviews conducted with 60 people living with mental illness regarding their interactions with police officers. The results indicate that common factors ...

  10. Definition and Management of Hypertension Among Haitian Immigrants: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanon, Marie-Anne; Mohammed, Selina A.; Marjorie C McCullagh

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major health concern among Haitian immigrants, one of the largest Caribbean immigrant groups in the United States. Yet, little is known about how Hatian immigrants define and manage hypertension. For this qualitative study, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 Haitian immigrants in Miami Dade County, Florida. Results indicated that most Haitian immigrants used the Haitian Creole word tansyon to represent hypertension. Tansyon was considered as eithe...

  11. Living with HIV post-diagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents

    OpenAIRE

    Eliud Wekesa; Ernestina Coast

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV post-diagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting: Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants: 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18 years or older Results: People living with HIV have divergent experiences surr...

  12. Living with HIV postdiagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents

    OpenAIRE

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18?years or older. Results People living with HIV have divergent experiences surroun...

  13. Qualitative Research to study the attempted suicide of Tabasco´s young people

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela B. Martínez G; Enrique Guinsberg B

    2009-01-01

    AbstractObjective: this paper intends to give an account concerning the progress of a doctoral research with regards to suicidal attempts in young people along with their meanings. Methodology: qualitative research. It presents the theories which support my work (collective health, cultural studies, and youth sociology) in the search of understanding how the hegemonic medical thinking has had an influence in the production of scientific knowledge about suicide. Results: there is a need to con...

  14. Adolescent girls and young adult women's perceptions of superslims cigarette packaging: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; Purves, Richard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore perceptions of superslims packaging, including compact ‘lipstick’ packs, in line with 3 potential impacts identified within the impact assessment of the European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive: appeal, harm perceptions and the seriousness of warning of health risks. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Informal community venues in Scotland, UK. Participants 75 female non-smokers and occasional smokers (age range 12–24). Results Compact ‘lipstick’-type sup...

  15. Urut Melayu for poststroke patients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Fadzil, Fariza; Ahmad, Norlaili; Abd Ghani, Norsuria

    2012-01-01

    Urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, had been introduced into three pioneer hospitals in Malaysia, as part of the integrated hospital program. It was introduced primarily for the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. After almost 3 years since it was first implemented, there are currently plans to extend it to other hospitals in the country. Information from this study will contribute toward a better future implementation plan. This study was conducted to gain an insight into the experiences and views of poststroke patients and their urut Melayu practitioners. A qualitative study design was adopted. A total of 17 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out with poststroke patients who were undergoing urut Melayu treatment at one of the three integrated hospitals. Information was solicited from their accompanying caregivers whenever necessary. The 2 urut Melayu practitioners at the hospital were also interviewed. All the interviews were carried out in Malay by the authors, at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit of the relevant hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded into categories through a constant-comparison method of data analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative descriptions of the themes. It was found that urut Melayu was sought by patients who had experienced stroke brought about by hypertension and postdelivery complications. They reported the unique characteristics of urut Melayu and their positive experiences with it. Urut Melayu has potential as a complementary therapy for poststroke patients. It is recommended that the number of practitioners at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit be increased to provide the optimum care for poststroke patients.

  16. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Sawatsky, Adam P; Mbata, Ihunanya; Muula, Adamson S; Bui, Thuy

    2016-06-01

    In many low-income countries, including Malawi, expatriate physicians serve diverse roles in clinical care, education, mentorship, and research. A significant proportion of physicians from high-income countries have global health experience. Despite the well-known benefits of global health experiences for expatriates, little is known about local physician and trainee impressions of their expatriate counterparts. The objective of this study was to explore University of Malawi College of Medicine (COM) physicians' and trainees' impressions of expatriate physicians. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with COM medical students, interns, registrars, and faculty. Through open coding, we developed a codebook that we applied to interview transcripts and used thematic analysis to identify major themes. We interviewed 46 participants from across the continuum of medical education at two teaching hospitals in Malawi. Participants discussed themes within the following domains: perceived benefits of expatriate physicians in Malawi, perceived challenges, past contributions, and perceived roles that expatriate physicians should play going forward. Malawian faculty and trainees appreciated the approachability, perspectives, and contribution to education that expatriates have provided, though at times some have been perceived as aggressive, unable to relate to patients and trainees, deficient at adapting to the setting, and self-serving. Potential roles that Malawian physicians and trainees feel expatriates should serve include education, training, capacity building, and facilitating exchange opportunities for local physicians and trainees. This study highlights the perceived benefits and challenges that physicians and trainees at the COM have experienced with their expatriate counterparts, and suggests roles that expatriates should play while abroad. These findings can be used to help inform existing global health guidelines, assist

  18. Parental views on otitis media: systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chando, Shingisai; Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Tong, Allison

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience). The additional medical responsibilities and anxieties of parents caring for a child with otitis media, often discounted by clinicians, can be disempowering and disruptive. Chronicity can raise doubt about treatment efficacy and parental competency, and fears regarding their child's development. Care that fosters parental confidence and addresses their concerns about the child's development may improve treatment outcomes for children with otitis media. • Otitis media is a leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. • Parental perception of the treatment burden of otitis media can potentially affect their confidence and ability to care for their child. What is New: • We identified five themes to reflect parental perspectives: diminishing competency, disrupting life schedules, social isolation, threatening normal development, taking ownership, valuing support, and cherishing health.

  19. Iranian nurses' experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-11-01

    Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.

  20. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  1. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research. PMID:20003210

  2. Critical factors related to return to work after stroke: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartke, Robert J; Trierweiler, Robert; Bode, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) after stroke is often perceived as a critical marker of recovery and contributes to overall well-being and life satisfaction of survivors. Quantitative studies have yielded conflicting results in identifying specific predictors of successful RTW, and qualitative studies have been very limited. The current study conducted in-depth interviews with 12 stroke survivors selected by job type and extent of RTW. Seven themes were identified in an analysis of interview transcripts: financial, impairments as barriers, interpersonal support, therapy supporting RTW, organizational influences, work/job specific issues, and psychological issues. These themes confirm and expand on existing qualitative data that focus on survivors' perceptions of their work potential and efforts by emphasizing the need to focus beyond the survivors and their work to include other people and organizations to facilitate the RTW process. Implications for intervention at the individual, work, and community levels are discussed.

  3. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF CARCINOGENIC TYPES OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS BY QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TESTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, E T; Labigina, A V; Leshenko, O Ya; Rusanov, D N; Kuzmenko, V V; Fedko, L P; Pak, I P

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of results of screening (n = 3208; sexually active citizen aged from 18 to 59 years) was carried out to detect oncogene types of human papilloma virus in using qualitative (1150 females and 720 males) and quantitative (polymerase chain reaction in real-time (843 females and 115 males) techniques. The human papilloma virus of high oncogene type was detected in 65% and 68.4% of females and in 48.6% and 53% of males correspondingly. Among 12 types of human papilloma virus the most frequently diagnosed was human papilloma virus 16 independently of gender of examined and technique of analysis. In females, under application of qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 18.3% (n = 280) and under application of quantitative tests Rte of human papilloma virus made up to 14.9% (n = 126; p ≤ 0.05). Under examination of males using qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 8.3% (n = 60) and under application of qualitative tests made up to 12.2% (n = 14; p ≥ 0.05). Under application of qualitative tests rate of detection on the rest ofoncogene types of human papilloma virus varied in females from 3.4% to 8.4% and in males from 1.8% to 5.9%. Under application of qualitative tests to females rate of human papilloma virus with high viral load made up to 68.4%, with medium viral load - 2.85% (n = 24) and with low viral load -0.24% (n = 2). Under application of quantitative tests in males rate of detection of types of human papilloma virus made up to 53% and at that in all high viral load was established. In females, the most of oncogene types of human papilloma virus (except for 31, 39, 59) are detected significantly more often than in males.

  4. Dimensions of Quality of Life in Spinal Cord Injured Veterans of Iran: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Vahid; Dehghan, Faezeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to shed light on the identification of themes and sub-themes of the quality of life (QOL) in Iranian veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies have reported decreased QOL in SCI patients which encompass all aspects of their life. Little is known about QOL in SCI veterans from Iran. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify related aspects of such patients through in-depth patient interviews. The present study was a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the Veterans Department of Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. The participants were 11 SCI veterans and 4 veteran spouses. The data was collected by means of in-depth interviews and the use of the constant comparison method. The five themes of QOL included social, economic, cultural, medical, and environmental resulted from 7530 primary codes. We noted 29 QOL sub-themes. This article addresses different dimensions of QOL for SCI veterans. The current study suggests that the main aspects that should be evaluated in SCI veterans are the social, economic, cultural, medical, and environmental issues which affect their QOL. Moreover, participants put the most weight on their financial situation.

  5. Dimensions of Quality of Life in Spinal Cord Injured Veterans of Iran: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Eslami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to shed light on the identification of themes and sub-themes of the quality of life (QOL in Iranian veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI. Studies have reported decreased QOL in SCI patients which encompass all aspects of their life. Little is known about QOL in SCI veterans from Iran. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify related aspects of such patients through in-depth patient interviews. The present study was a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the Veterans Department of Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. The participants were 11 SCI veterans and 4 veteran spouses. The data was collected by means of in-depth interviews and the use of the constant comparison method. The five themes of QOL included social, economic, cultural, medical, and environmental resulted from 7530 primary codes. We noted 29 QOL sub-themes. This article addresses different dimensions of QOL for SCI veterans. The current study suggests that the main aspects that should be evaluated in SCI veterans are the social, economic, cultural, medical, and environmental issues which affect their QOL. Moreover, participants put the most weight on their financial situation.

  6. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    .... The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while...

  7. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  8. Surgeons' Emotional Experience of Their Everyday Practice - A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Orri

    Full Text Available Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice.27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon. 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues, the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon, as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability.Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.

  9. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  10. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  11. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health S

  12. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  13. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  14. GPs' approaches to documenting stigmatising information: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Almas; Welch, Lisa C

    2015-06-01

    Complete medical documentation is essential for continuity of care, but the competing need to protect patient confidentiality presents an ethical dilemma. This is particularly poignant for GPs because of their central role in facilitating continuity. To examine how GPs manage medical documentation of stigmatising mental health (MH) and non-MH information. A qualitative sub-study of a factorial experiment with GPs practising in Massachusetts, US. Semi-structured interviews (n = 128) were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. GPs expressed difficulties with and inconsistent strategies for documenting stigmatising information. Without being asked directly about stigmatising information, 44 GPs (34%) expressed difficulties documenting it: whether to include clinically relevant but sensitive information, how to word it, and explaining to patients the importance of including it. Additionally, 75 GPs (59%) discussed strategies for managing documentation of stigmatising information. GPs reported four strategies that varied by type of information: to exclude stigmatising information to respect patient confidentiality (MH: 26%, non-MH: 43%); to include but restrict access to information (MH: 13%, non-MH: 25%); to include but neutralise information to minimise potential stigma (MH: 26%, non-MH: 29%); and to include stigmatising information given the potential impact on care (MH: 68%, non-MH: 32%). Lack of consistency undermines the potential of medical documentation to efficiently facilitate continuous, coordinated health care because providers cannot be certain how to interpret what is or is not in the chart. A proactive consensus process within the field of primary care would provide much needed guidance for GPs and, ultimately, could enhance quality of care. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  15. The construction of professional identity by physiotherapists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ralph; Cross, Vinette; Moore, Ann

    2016-03-01

    The U.K. Frances Report and increasing societal expectations of healthcare have challenged physiotherapists to reconsider professionalism. Physiotherapy has viewed identity as a fixed entity emphasising coherence, continuity and distinctiveness. Socialisation has required the acquisition of a professional identity as one necessary 'asset' for novices. Yet how do physiotherapists come to be the physiotherapists they are? Qualitative study using Collective Memory Work. Eight physiotherapists in South West England met for two hours, once a fortnight, for six months. Seventeen hours of group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Data were managed via the creation of crafted dialogues and analysed using narrative analysis. Participants shared ethical dilemmas: successes and unresolved anxiety about the limits of personal actions in social situations. These included matters of authenticity, role strain, morality, diversity. Participants made claims about their identity; claims made to support an attitude, belief, motivation or value. Professional identity in physiotherapy is more complex than traditionally thought; fluid across time and place, co-constructed within changing communities of practice. An ongoing and dynamic process, physiotherapists make sense and (re)interpret their professional self-concept based on evolving attributes, beliefs, values, and motives. Participants co-constructed the meaning of being a physiotherapist within intra-professional and inter-professional communities of practice. Patients informed this, and it was mediated by workplace and institutional discourses, boundaries and hierarchies, through an unfolding career and the contingencies of a life story. More empirical data are required to understand how physiotherapists negotiate the dilemmas they face and enact the values the profession espouses. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Creative art and medical student development: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth K; Kittendorf, Anne L; Kumagai, Arno K

    2017-02-01

    Although many medical schools include arts-based activities in their curricula, empirical evidence is lacking regarding how the creation of art might impact medical students and their professional development. We used a qualitative research design in order to understand this process. We conducted and analysed interviews with 16 medical students who had created and presented original artwork in the context of a required narrative-based undergraduate medical education programme. Teams of students collaborated to create interpretive projects based on common themes arising from conversations with individuals with chronic illness and their families. Open-ended questions were utilised to explore the conceptualisation and presentation of the projects, the dynamics of teamwork and the meaning(s) they might have for the students' professional development. We identified themes using repeated contextual reading of the transcripts, which also enhanced accuracy of the interpretations and ensured saturation of themes. Several major themes and sub-themes were identified. The creation of art led to a sense of personal growth and development, including reflection on past life experiences, self-discovery and an awareness of art as a creative outlet. Students also reported an enhanced sense of community and the development of skills in collaboration. Lastly, students reflected on the human dimensions of illness and medical care and identified an enhanced awareness of the experience of those with illness. A programme involving the creation of art based on stories of illness encouraged students' explorations of conceptions of the self, family and society, as well as illness and medical care, while enhancing the development of a collaborative and patient-centred worldview. Creative art can be a novel educational tool to promote a reflective, humanistic medical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  17. Conceptualization of children's interpersonal relatedness with the Rorschach: a qualitative multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Bridget A; Viglione, Donald J

    2010-09-01

    In this in-depth, qualitative, multiple case study, we examined Rorschach data as they relate to the interpersonal behavior, experience, and perceptions of an individual. In this study, we addressed the following question: How are the correspondences between Rorschach variables and children's interpersonal behavior revealed? We conducted an examination of the Rorschach variables and criterion data regarding the children's interpersonal functioning through a qualitative analysis of 6 nonpatient girls between the ages of 8 and 11 years old. The results reveal individualized correspondences between Rorschach variables and interpersonal functioning in which some variables proved more fruitful in describing expressed interpersonal behavior than others. Specifically, the variables utilizing human images, such as the HRV and the thematic descriptions, corresponded most highly to real life interpersonal behavior.

  18. Women's perceptions of homebirths in two rural medical districts in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombie Issiaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. Methods A qualitative approach was used to gather information. This information was collected by using focus group discussions and individual interviews with 30 women. All the interviews were tape recorded and managed by using QSR NVIVO 2.0, qualitative data management software. Results The findings show that homebirths are frequent because of prohibitive distance to health facilities, fast labour and easy labour, financial constraints, lack of decision making power to reach health facilities. Conclusion The study echoes the need for policy makers to make health facilities easily available to rural inhabitants to forestall maternal and child deaths in the two districts.

  19. Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

  20. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of e...

  1. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  2. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  3. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  4. Living with a Colicky Infant: Meta-synthesis of Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Mansourzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Parents having a baby with infantile colic experienced thoughts and emotions such as hopelessness, fatigue and concern. This study presents a review to provide better insights into the life of parents living with a colicky infant. The aimed of this meta-synthesis was to analyze and synthesize findings from qualitative studies about the experiences of parents of colicky infants. Materials and Methods This meta-synthesis follows the guidelines of Sandeowski and Barroso and was designed to synthesize findings from previous qualitative studies. The following biomedical archives were searched: PubMED, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, ProQuest. Recently published articles and books on the experiences of parents living with a colicky infant were reviewed. The searches covered the years from 2000 to 2016 and found three studies, which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results The findings of all studies selected were categorized into the themes of "eclipse of normal life" and "relief through parental adaptation". The findings reveal that the experiences of parents living with a colicky infant are important for constructing an insightful child care protocol and improving interpersonal interactions in the family. Conclusion The pathic or non-diagnostic knowledge that emerged from this qualitative review may be helpful for improving treatment of colicky infants and a provide relief for their parents.

  5. Factors Affecting Academic Failure in Nursing Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Academic failure of students is a major problem of higher education. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors causing academic failure in nursing students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Methods: This qualitative study was carried out via conventional qualitative content analysis approach. A total of 21 nursing students (18 males and 3 females who had a Grade Point Average (GPA lower than the previous semester and were conditioned (average 12 were selected through purposive sampling from the School of Nursing and Midwifery at Qom University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews conducted with each individual. Interviews were continued until data saturation, taking about 45 to 70 minutes. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data gathering. Results: In this study, the mean age of participants was 21.9±4.1 year. Data analysis demonstrated that individual factors, factors related to curriculum, teaching methods of the faculty, large number of students in class, lack of formative assessment of teachers, lack of interaction between the faculty and students, and failure to comply with lesson plans were major causes of academic failure among students. Conclusion: Based on the results, managers, instructors and counselors can monitor their students' academic achievement by careful planning, active teaching methods and continuous assessment of students, and conduct individual and group counseling sessions to prevent academic failure.

  6. Solicited Diary Studies of Psychotherapy in Qualitative Research - Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  7. Stroke Survivors' Experiences of Physical Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Julie; Lynch, Elizabeth; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Bennett, Leanne; Bernhardt, Julie

    2015-09-01

    To report and synthesize the perspectives, experiences, and preferences of stroke survivors undertaking inpatient physical rehabilitation through a systematic review of qualitative studies. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to February 2014. Reference lists of relevant publications were searched. All languages were included. Qualitative studies reporting stroke survivors' experiences of inpatient stroke rehabilitation were selected independently by 2 reviewers. The search yielded 3039 records; 95 full-text publications were assessed for eligibility, and 32 documents (31 studies) were finally included. Comprehensiveness and explicit reporting were assessed independently by 2 reviewers using the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research framework. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data regarding characteristics of the included studies were extracted by 1 reviewer, tabled, and checked for accuracy by another reviewer. All text reported in studies' results sections were entered into qualitative data management software for analysis. Extracted texts were inductively coded and analyzed in 3 phases using thematic synthesis. Nine interrelated analytical themes, with descriptive subthemes, were identified that related to issues of importance to stroke survivors: (1) physical activity is valued; (2) bored and alone; (3) patient-centered therapy; (4) recreation is also rehabilitation; (5) dependency and lack of control; (6) fostering autonomy; (7) power of communication and information; (8) motivation needs nurturing; and (9) fatigue can overwhelm. The thematic synthesis provides new insights into stroke survivors' experiences of inpatient rehabilitation. Negative experiences were reported in all studies and include disempowerment, boredom, and frustration. Rehabilitation could be improved by increasing activity within formal therapy and in free time, fostering patients' autonomy through genuinely patient

  8. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Pamela; Jack, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…

  9. Systematic Braiding of Two Evidence-Based Parent Training Programs: Qualitative Results from the Pilot Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastaferro, Kate; Miller, Katy; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; McGilly, Kate; Lutzker, John R.

    2017-01-01

    An effective approach in early intervention for children and families, including child maltreatment prevention, is home-based services. Though several evidence-based programs exist, they are often grouped together, despite having different foci. This paper describes an ongoing cluster randomized trial systematically braiding two evidence-based home-based models, SafeCare® and Parents as Teachers (PAT)®, to better meet the needs of families at-risk. We describe the methodology for braiding model implementation and curriculum, specifically focusing on how structured qualitative feedback from pilot families and providers was used to create the braided curriculum and implementation. Systematic braiding of two models at the implementation and curriculum levels is a mechanism that has the potential to meet the more comprehensive needs of families at-risk for maltreatment. PMID:27870760

  10. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  11. Exploring Tai Chi in rheumatoid arthritis: a quantitative and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Anne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, inflammatory and systemic disease which affects the musculoskeletal system. Exercise programmes are reported to improve physical functioning in patients with RA. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese martial art which combines slow and gentle movements with mental focus. The purpose of this study was to study in which way Tai Chi group exercise impacted on disease activity, physical function, health status and experience in RA patients, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. Methods Fifteen patients with RA (13 females, age 33-70 years were recruited from a rheumatology department into a single group study. The patients were instructed in Tai Chi exercise twice weekly for 12 weeks. Assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 12 weeks follow-up were performed with a wide range of measures, including disease activity, self-reported health status, physical performance tests (Walking in Figure of Eight, Timed-Stands Test, and Shoulder Movement Impairment Scale. Qualitative data were obtained from a focus group interview conducted after completed intervention with taping and verbatim transcription. Review of the transcripts identified themes important to patients practicing Tai Chi. Results Within the group, Tai Chi practice lead to improved lower-limb muscle function at the end of intervention and at 12 weeks follow-up. Qualitative analyses showed that patients experienced improved physical condition, confidence in moving, balance and less pain during exercise and in daily life. Other experience included stress reduction, increased body awareness, confidence in moving and indicated that Tai Chi was a feasible exercise modality in RA. Conclusions Improved muscle function in lower limbs was also reflected when patient experiences with Tai Chi were studied in depth in this explorative study. The combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods shows that Tai Chi has beneficial effects

  12. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  13. Obstacles to the discussion of sexual problems in menopausal women: a qualitative study of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masoumeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mehdi Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore issues that challenge menopausal women in discussions of their sexual problems with a physician. This was done from the perspective of healthcare providers. In a descriptive exploratory qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview and purposive sampling, a sample set of 12 midwives and 13 general practitioners aged 25-70 years were selected in order to elicit meaning behind their experiences about the subject under study. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. Results were used to identify a number of obstacles that hindered women from seeking help for sexual problems from GPs and midwives. These obstacles included the following: (1) traditional and cultural beliefs; (2) religious belief; (3) individuals' beliefs and (4) access to services. More research is needed to explore effective strategies to overcome these problems. Impact statement Current knowledge on the subject: In the literature, many reasons have been identified for the unwillingness of Iranian women to discuss their sexual problems with health providers. These include lack of time, feelings of shame and an expectation that a doctor cannot help. However, no qualitative study has addressed barriers held by menopausal women for seeking treatment for sexual problems. The contribution made by the results of this study: The results of this study add to the growing body of research on reasons that determine why most postmenopausal women rarely visit a doctor unless they were in tremendous physical or emotional pain. Also, menopausal women thought that an unmarried health provider would be less understanding about sexual and marital problems and they felt guilty about sharing such issues with them. Patients' opinions on the nature of menopause (a pathological vs. physiological process) affect the way in which the symptoms of menopause and sexual problems are handled by patient. The implications are of these findings for clinical

  14. The Impact of Reviews and Average Rating on Hotel-Booking-Intention: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Line Thomassen; Jensen, Charlotte Thodberg; Jessen, Anne Mette Karnøe

    2016-01-01

    User-generated information types (ratings and reviews) are highly used when booking hotel rooms on Online Travel Agency (OTA) websites. The impact of user-generated information on decision-making is often investigated through quantitative research, thereby not examining in depth how and why...... travelers use this information. This paper therefore presents a qualitative study conducted to achieve a deeper understanding. We investigated the use of reviews and average rating in a hotel-booking-context through a laboratory experiment, which involved a task of examining a hotel on a pre-designed OTA...... website followed by an interview. We processed the data from the interview, and the analysis resulted in a model generalizing the use of reviews and average rating in the deliberation phase of a hotel-booking. The findings are overall consistent with related research. Yet, beyond this, the qualitative...

  15. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  16. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  17. Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

  18. Weight regain among women after metabolic and bariatric surgery: a qualitative study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataliba de Carvalho Jr.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the increased number of bariatric surgeries over the years, aspects contributing or hindering the achievement of outcomes, among them weight regain, have acquired increased significance. Psychological factors directly influence on this unwanted situation, but there are few studies and controversies about the degree of participation of these factors. We propose a qualitative investigation to analyze the meanings of weight regain after surgery among women and how these factors influence this outcome.METHOD: This study uses the clinical-qualitative method, by means of a semi-structured interview with open questions in an intentional sample, closed by saturation, with eight women who underwent surgery at the Bariatric Surgery Outpatient Clinic of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.RESULTS: A feeling of defeat and failure emerges with weight regain, which contributes to social isolation; there is no regret, but gratitude for the surgery; among patients, there is a sense of feeling rejected greater than a rejection that actually exists.CONCLUSION: We found out the need for further qualitative studies that help the health team to better understand the dynamic psychological factors involved in the meaning of weight regain after bariatric surgery among women, in order to adopt appropriate conducts to deal with this problem.

  19. Factors Influencing School Health in Elementary Schools in Isfahan, Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Heidarali; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Motaghi, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Students’ health and future health of the community are related to providing health care in schools and since in every society, different contextual factors affect this matter, the present study aims to recognize the factors influencing the health care elementary students are provided with. Methods: This qualitative content analysis was performed in 2014 in Isfahan. This study was conducted on school health instructors of elementary schools. Through targeted sampling, 15 health care providers, two mothers and 3 principals from 23 elementary schools were selected. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews were performed. Qualitative data analysis was done using qualitative content analysis. Results: In this study, 3 concepts were extracted: family umbrella over health (with two sub-categories of ‘family’s social status and its effect on health’ and ‘family and health’), functional resources (with two sub-categories of ‘opportunity’, ‘availability of resources for diagnosis’) and health components (with two sub-categories of ‘culture’, ‘the value of school health’). These contextual factors must be considered in providing health care for schools. Conclusions: Consideration of effective contextual factors on providing elementary students with health care can help improve health for this group. PMID:27713898

  20. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based On the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammah Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2015-11-17

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women's participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test.

  1. Ebola virus disease: caring for patients in Sierra Leone - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andertun, Sara; Hörnsten, Åsa; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Norwegian healthcare staffs' experiences of participating in care of patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. Ebola is one of the most feared viruses known. Ebola virus disease is highly contagious with high mortality. The few qualitative studies made on experiences among healthcare professionals have highlighted problems as lack of protective resources, insufficient personnel and risk of societal stigmatization. Descriptive study with qualitative approach. Individual narrative and focus group interviews were obtained during 2015 with eight nurses and one physician who had worked in Ebola care in Sierra Leone. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the two themes: 'Experiencing security by learning to manage risks'; and 'Developing courage and growth by facing personal fears'. Subthemes were: 'Relying on safeguard actions', 'Managing risk of contagion', 'Developing strategies for care despite risks', 'Constantly reminded of death', 'Successively defeating fears' and last, 'Increasing motivation through meaningfulness'. The participants described the reliance on training, organized effort, strict guidelines and equipment. They were respectful of the risk of transmission, made risk assessments, took responsibility, handled risky situations and were reminded of suffering and death. Despite challenges, the hazardous work with Ebola virus disease patients was experienced as meaningful which was an important motivator. Safe care was central in working with Ebola patients, but the care relation was challenged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. To be involved - A qualitative study of nurses' experiences of caring for dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erika; Salickiene, Zivile; Rosengren, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses' experiences (>two years) of caring for dying patients in surgical wards. Palliative care is included in education for nurses. However, the training content varies, and nurse educators need to be committed to the curriculum regarding end-of-life situations. A lack of preparation among newly graduated nurses regarding dying and death could lead to anxiety, stress and burnout. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge regarding end-of-life situations. A qualitative descriptive study was carried out in two surgical wards in the southern part of Sweden. The study comprised six interviews with registered nurses and was analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis, a qualitative method that involves an inductive approach, to increase our understanding of nurses' perspectives and thoughts regarding dying patients. The results formed one category (caring-to be involved) and three subcategories (being supportive, being frustrated and being sensitive in the caring processes). Nurses were personally affected and felt unprepared to face dying patients due to a lack of knowledge about the field of palliative care. Their experiences could be described as processes of transition from theory to practice by trial and error. Supervision is a valuable tool for bridging the gap between theory and practice in nursing during the transition from novice to expert. Improved knowledge about palliative care during nursing education and committed nursing leadership at the ward level facilitate preparation for end-of-life situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study of Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    New methods and tools have been developed and the landscape of research has changed in TESOL, second language acquisition and applied linguistics. As research methodologies have become complex, the principles of undertaking and reporting research have become obscure. In this article, the assumptions and definitions underlying both qualitative and quantitative research, which have been major research methods in TESOL and the related fields for a long time, are reconsidered.

  4. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam; Ahmad Fayaz Bakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Hospital information system (HIS) should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, ...

  5. General practitioners learning qualitative research: A case study of postgraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Julie; Kay, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly being recognised as a vital aspect of primary healthcare research. Teaching and learning how to conduct qualitative research is especially important for general practitioners and other clinicians in the professional educational setting. This article examines a case study of postgraduate professional education in qualitative research for clinicians, for the purpose of enabling a robust discussion around teaching and learning in medicine and the health sciences. A series of three workshops was delivered for primary healthcare academics. The workshops were evaluated using a quantitative survey and qualitative free-text responses to enable descriptive analyses. Participants found qualitative philosophy and theory the most difficult areas to engage with, and learning qualitative coding and analysis was considered the easiest to learn. Key elements for successful teaching were identified, including the use of adult learning principles, the value of an experienced facilitator and an awareness of the impact of clinical subcultures on learning.

  6. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative fit-testing results for three commonly used respirators in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Danyluk, Quinn; Bryce, Elizabeth; Janssen, Bob; Neudorf, Mike; Yassi, Annalee; Shen, Hui; Astrakianakis, George

    2017-03-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirators are used by healthcare workers when there is a risk of exposure to airborne hazards during aerosol-generating procedures. Respirator fit-testing is required prior to use to ensure that the selected respirator provides an adequate face seal. Two common fit-test methods can be employed: qualitative fit-test (QLFT) or quantitative fit-test (QNFT). Respiratory protection standards deem both fit-tests to be acceptable. However, previous studies have indicated that fit-test results may differ between QLFT and QNFT and that the outcomes may also be influenced by the type of respirator model. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference in fit-test outcomes with our suite of respirators, 3M - 1860S, 1860, AND 1870, and whether the model impacts the fit-test results. Subjects were recruited from residential care facilities. Each participant was assigned a respirator and underwent sequential QLFT and QNFT fit-tests and the results (either pass or fail) were recorded. To ascertain the degree of agreement between the two fit-tests, a Kappa (Κ) statistic was conducted as per the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) respiratory protection standard. The pass-fail rates were stratified by respirator model and a Kappa statistic was calculated for each to determine effect of model on fit-test outcomes. We had 619 participants and the aggregate Κ statistic for all respirators was 0.63 which is below the suggested ANSI threshold of 0.70. There was no statistically significant difference in results when stratified by respirator model. QNFT and QLFT produced different fit-test outcomes for the three respirator models examined. The disagreement in outcomes between the two fit-test methods with our suite of N95 filtering facepiece respirators was approximately 12%. Our findings may benefit other healthcare organizations that use these three respirators.

  7. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-07-24

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 {+-} 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 {+-} 0.0112) E+04 {micro}g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 {+-} 0.786 wt % or (1.40 {+-} 0.104) E+05 {micro}g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 {+-} 0

  8. Qualitative and quantitative simulation of androgen receptor antagonists: A case study of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Shi, Wei; Xia, Pu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-12-15

    Recently, great attention has been paid to the identification and prediction of the androgen disrupting potencies of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, few existing models can discriminate active and inactive compounds, which make the quantitative prediction process including the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) technique unreliable. In this study, different grouping methods were investigated and compared for qualitative identification, including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The results showed that qualitative identification based on MD, which is lab-independent, accurate and closer to the real transcriptional activation process, could separate 90.5% of active and inactive chemicals and was preferred. The 3D-QSAR models built as the quantitative simulation method showed r(2) and q(2) values of 0.513 and 0.980, respectively. Together, a novel workflow combining qualitative identification and quantitative simulations was generated with processes including activeness discrimination and activity prediction. This workflow, for analyzing the antagonism of androgen receptor (AR) of PBDEs is not only allowing researchers to reduce their intense laboratory experiments but also assisting them in inspecting and adjusting their laboratory systems and results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Experiences and preferences of patients visiting a head and neck oncology outpatient clinic: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, Jeroen A S; Kloosterman, Fabienne R; van Leijen-Zeelenberg, Janneke E; Huismans, Geert Willem; Kremer, Bernd; Kross, Kenneth W

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to report on an in-depth evaluation of patient experiences and preferences at a Head and Neck Oncology outpatient clinic. A qualitative research design was used to determine the experiences and preferences of Head and Neck Cancer patients in an Oncology Outpatient Clinic, Maastricht University Medical Center, The Netherlands. Head and Neck Cancer Patients, treated for at least 6 months at the Oncology Clinic, were included. A qualitative research design with patient interviews was used. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim to increase validity. Analysis was done with use of the template approach and qualitative data analysis software. Three of the six dimensions predominated in the interview: (1) respect for patients' values, preferences and expressed need, (2) information, communication and education and (3) involvement of family and friends. The dimensions physical comfort; emotional support; coordination and integration of care were considered to be of less significance. The findings from this study resulted in a deeper understanding of patients' experiences and preferences and can be useful in the transition towards a more patient-centered approach of health care.

  10. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  11. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  12. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  13. An exploratory qualitative study of brand associations as a means for brand extensions: Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H Kasper; Y Strepp; NS Terblanche

    2014-01-01

    .... The focus of this study is on brand associations as means to extend the original brand. A qualitative study, in contrast with the quantitative nature of most earlier studies, was used to elicit an unbiased picture of consumers...

  14. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  15. Barriers and Facilitators of Breastfeeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-11

    BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED...BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY” beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and...breastfeeding for primiparous active duty military mothers, from their perspective, using a Husserlian phenomenological approach. A semi-structured

  16. Teachers as Researchers of New Literacies: Reflections on Qualitative Self-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Bryan; Given, Kim; Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a beginning teacher, experienced teacher, and teacher educator reflect upon their experiences with qualitative self-studies of language and literacy in teacher education courses. The goal of these course projects was to introduce teachers to sociocultural theories, qualitative research, and "new" literacies. Sharing…

  17. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  18. The Reflective Model of Intercultural Competency: A Multidimensional, Qualitative Approach to Study Abroad Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy Rundstrom

    2009-01-01

    Judging from the recent surge in research on outcomes assessment, many study abroad offices rely on quantitative surveys and measures to collect student outcomes data. This paper presents a multidimensional, qualitative approach to data collection. This approach makes qualitative data easy to collect and encourages students to reflect and…

  19. Characteristics of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify pediatric nurses' characteristics of caring self-efficacy. This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis approach. The participants included 27 pediatric nurses and clinical instructors, selected purposively. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using the content analysis method. Data analysis generated four main themes as attributes of a self-efficient pediatric nurse including: (a) professional communications; (b) management of care; (c) altruism; and (d) proficiency. Nursing managers and instructors can use these results to help develop nurses' empowerment and self-efficacy, especially in pediatric care. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Poverty of opportunity forcing women into prostitution--a qualitative study in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohsin Saeed; Johansson, Eva; Zaman, Shakila; Unemo, Magnus; Rahat, Naveed I; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2010-04-01

    Our aim for this study was to explore the factors influencing women to initiate and continue as sex workers and to explore their perceptions about human immuno deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and health seeking behavior. We conducted a qualitative study based on interviews with 20 purposively selected women selling sex. Content analysis of data resulted in identification of one main theme: "Poverty of opportunity forcing women into prostitution." The identified driving forces behind women resorting to sell sex were poverty, materialism, and the desire to move up in society. They continued to sell sex due to poverty of opportunity and influencing social factors.

  1. Effects of three types of retirement preparation program: A qualitative study of civil servants in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leandro-França, C.; van Solinge, H.; Henkens, K.; Giardini Murta, S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of retirement planning programs are relatively scarce. Retirement preparation and planning programs may assist individuals to smooth the transition to retirement and subsequent adjustment. This qualitative study examines the effects of three retirement preparation progra

  2. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mojalli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions:: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD.

  3. Self-assessment and students’ study strategies in a community of clinical practice: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Kadri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available : Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students’ and supervisors’ self-assessment and feedback training on students’ perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students’ study strategies within a community of clinical practice.: We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years’ assessment program. In the interviews, students’ perceptions and interpretations of ‘self-assessment practice’ and ‘supervisor-provided feedback’ within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored.: The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies.: This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students’ self-assessment is needed.

  4. [Adequacy of treatment for osteoporosis in primary prevention. Quantitative and qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedia Urgell, Cristina; Massot Mesquida, Mireia; Valles Fernandez, Roser; Garcia Vicente, Juan Antonio; Franzi Siso, Alicia; Muñoz Ortiz, Laura; Vilaró Jaques, Laia; Bosch Peligero, Maite

    2017-04-14

    Quantitative study: To assess the prevalence of inadequacy of treatment for osteoporosis in primary prevention (OPP) in women aged 60-74years. Qualitative study: To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment criteria of the OPP and it's variability in primary care physicians (PC) and specialists. Quantitative study: observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study. women aged 60-74years with active treatment for OPP (n=424) in May 2012. Inadequacy if they had ≤2 risk factors with a DXA or DXA T-score ≥-2.4. Qualitative study: Delphi technique (15items) and two rounds of consultation. March-April 2014. PC physicians, rheumatologists and orthopaedic surgeons (n=251). Random sampling. Quantitative study: degree of inadequacy is 63.4%. In 43.2% isn't mention a diagnosis of osteoporosis. In 82.3% there isn't mention of risk factors. bisphosphonate 40.3% and calcium +vitaminD 47.9%. Qualitative study: 23% respond to the first round, and of these 67% the second round. Items with higher agreement were the important of the evaluation of risk factors for diagnosis and bisphosphonates for treatment. Items with fewer consensuses were using the FRAX and densitometry and treatment with only calcium +vitaminD. The percentage of inadequacy is high. The degree of registration in medical history is low. The Delphi method is useful for detecting discrepancies between recommendations of clinical practice guidelines and results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Dermatoglyphic Patterns in Albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghodsi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The changes of dermal ridges in albinism patients were studied. The results obtained from subjects with albinism were compared with healthy subjects. A number of 30 patients were finally selected as our sample sizes. To gain a better understanding the results, a case-control study with the similar number of cases and control was designed. The related statistical test, t-test and chi-square, were considered to evaluate whether the discrepancy is statistically significant. The results indicated that a-b ridge counts of the right side were decreased significantly (p = 0.04. Moreover, the discrepancy between cases and controls for the case total a-b ridge count (TABRC was statistically significant (p = 0.06 at 10% significant level. Furthermore, based on the visual analysis, there was no strong evidence for the differences between cases and controls from the fingerprint shapes point of view. The general result is that dermatoglyphic can be considered as a valuable aid and promising method for genetic analysis and albinism studies.

  6. A phenomenological study on resilience of the elderly suffering from chronic disease: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkhide Hassani,1 Fatemeh-Sadat Izadi-Avanji,2 Mahnaz Rakhshan,3 Hamid Alavi Majd4 1Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 4Department of Biostatistics, Facility of Paramedical, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Resilience is a key factor in improving health and attenuating problems caused by chronic diseases in the elderly. Having a clear understanding of its meaning in a specific population can be of great help in taking efficient steps toward better health services. Given the lack of information in this regard, the aim of this study was to understand the meaning of resilience for hospitalized older people who experience chronic conditions.Methods: The study was carried out as a qualitative work based on a descriptive phenomenological approach. The participants were selected purposefully, so that 22 elderly with chronic disease were interviewed in 24 sessions. The collected data were recorded and analyzed through Colaizzi’s method.Results: Four themes were extracted from the interviews as follows: 1 “meaning of resilience in the participants’ experiences” with subthemes of “the art of overcoming pain and suffering”, “adapt to health problem of senescence”, “accepting life with the chronic disease”, and “patience and trust in God”; 2 “growth context as a prologue of resilience” with subthemes of “growth background”; 3 “external factors contributing to resilience” with subthemes of “welfare”, “received support”, “deprivation and shortage”, and “attitudes toward an elderly with health problem”; and 4

  7. When the helper humiliates the patient: a qualitative study about unintended intimidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Thesen, Janecke

    2008-01-01

    for the act. RESULTS: The participants were able to recall episodes where they later realized that they had been involved in events perceived as intimidations by the patient/client. The memory stories described events that were not isolated events, but represented issues that might occur now and then......AIMS: To explore experiences of intimidating patients/clients from the perspective of the professional. METHODS: This was a qualitative study based on memory work, a procedure whereby memories are converted into written stories. The setting was a workshop about oppression and empowerment...

  8. Experiences of carrying out talking therapy in general practice: a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore GPs' experience of carrying out 'talking therapy'. METHODS: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 11 Danish GPs sampled purposively. The material was analysed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. RESULTS: The participants expressed difficulty...... developed over time, or more active therapeutic use of the relationship; (3) knowledge of the patient's life story, told or written, used to form a model of the patient's problems, thoughts and feelings. The sessions were not offered if the GPs lacked time. CONCLUSION: Participants were mostly self...

  9. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders.

  10. Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Avilés, Nuria Romo; Lozano, María del Río; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, María del Mar García

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context. PMID:24044583

  11. Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcos Marcos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design: The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results: Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions: The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context.

  12. Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. II: The Role of the Researcher in Qualitative Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Volume two of Qualitative Research Nexus focuses on the roles of qualitative researchers and their relationships within psychological studies. This book is a result of the presentations, discussions, and collaborations of participants at the second workshop "Qualitative Psychology" in October 2001 in Blaubeuren, Germany that was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology. The theme of the meeting was "the role of the researcher in qualitative psychology." Reading this volume of Qualit...

  13. What Instills Trust? A Qualitative Study of Phishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Markus; Tsow, Alex; Shah, Ankur; Blevis, Eli; Lim, Youn-Kyung

    This paper reports the highlights of a user study which gauges reactions to a variety of common "trust indicators" - such as logos, third party endorsements, and padlock icons - over a selection of authentic and phishing stimuli. In the course of the think-aloud protocol, participants revealed different sensitivities to email messages and web pages. Our principal result is the analysis of what makes phishing emails and web pages appear authentic. This is not only of interest from a pure scientific point of view, but can also guide the design of legitimate material to avoid unnecessary risks. A second result of ours are observations of what makes legitimate content appear dubious to consumers. This is a result with obvious applications to online advertising.

  14. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  15. A qualitative study of extended care permit dental hygienists in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinger, Janette; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Williams, Karen B

    2014-06-01

    Currently, 37 states allow some type of alternative practice settings for dental hygienists. This qualitative study was designed to explore the experiences of the Extended Care Permit (ECP) dental hygienist in the state of Kansas. As a first ever study of this workforce model, a qualitative research design was chosen to illuminate the education and experiences of extended dental hygiene practitioners in order to understand the impact ECP legislation has had on increasing the public's access to oral health care services and define the advantages and limitation of this model as one potential solution to access to oral care. Snowball sampling was used to identify study participants who were actively engaged in extended care practice. Nine subjects, which included one ECP consultant and eight ECP providers, participated in this study. Data obtained via personal interviews and through document analysis data were subsequently coded and thematically analyzed by three examiners. An independent audit was conducted by a fourth examiner to confirm dependability of results. Seven major categories emerged from the data analysis: entrepreneur dental hygienist, partnerships, funding, barriers, sustainability, models of care and the impact of the ECP. The findings of this study revealed that ECP hygienists are making an impact with underserved populations, primarily children, the elderly and special needs patients. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  16. [Self-perception of health care team leaders in Andalusia. A quantitative and qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romera, I; Danet, A; March-Cerdà, J C

    To determine the perception and self-assessment on leadership among health care team leaders in Andalusia. Design: Exploratory descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative methodology, developed between 2013 and 2015, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Andalusia. All health managers from the Primary Care Management Units and Health Management Areas of the Departments of Paediatrics, Emergency and Internal Medicine, for the quantitative study. A purposive sample of 24 health managers was used for the qualitative study. Descriptive statistical study and bivariate analysis of comparison of means. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews: Codification, category tree, and triangulation of results. The best self-assessment dimension relates to support, and the worst to considering oneself as a 'good leader'. The definition of a 'good leader' includes: Honesty, trust, and attitudes of good communication, closeness, appreciation, and reinforcement of the health team members. Different leadership styles were perceived. Main difficulties for leadership are related to the economic crisis and the management of personal conflicts. Health managers describe an adaptive leadership style, based on personal and professional support, and using communication as the main cohesive element for the team project. More studies on leaders' perspectives are important, in order to better understand their experiences, needs and expectations. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paula Denise

    This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.

  18. Explaining the experiences of nurses about post-registration nursing education context: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A Vaezi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the ways that can improve scientifically the nursing care behaviors is Post-Registration Nursing Education and sttaf development process. To achieve this objective appropriate context Post-Registration Education must be provided for nurses. Currently, despite the legal requirement for continuing education for nurses, this goal has not been achieved as desired. To achieve this goal, the underlying cause should be investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore nurses' experiences of nursing continuing education context by a qualitative study.  Methods: The study with a qualitative approach was conducted in 2011, 23 people from the Educational Supervisors, nurse managers and nurses with a purposeful sampling participated in the study . The data collected by unstructured interviews and field notes and were analyzed using conventional content analysis .  Results: During the process of content analysis, participants explained three themes includeing: 1 insufficient attitude to the required training 2 inadequate support 3 Passive training monitoring and the main theme of the study was inadequate perception of their legal education.  Conclusion: Currently, due to lack of motivation, support and effective supervision of Post-Registration Nursing Education nurses involved inactively in the learning process and continuing education is limited to the statutory approvals and business benefits of training for nurses and their organizations. So To improve this situation is required attention and good infrastructure Includeing adequate support and effective supervision.

  19. Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Marcos, Jorge; Avilés, Nuria Romo; del Río Lozano, María; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; García Calvente, María del Mar

    2013-09-16

    The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. The study provides insights into how the category 'man' is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context.

  20. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Borhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient’s dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection Results: Three central themes emerged: a Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care.

  1. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; Ghorbani, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2013-01-01

    .... This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20-30 years from three main ethnic groups in Malaysia...

  2. Factors Influencing the Introduction of Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Health Care: a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Zouwe, N. van der; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity (PA) interventions in routine primary health care (PHC) is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of successful introduction strategies. Purpose: The aim of this qualitative study was

  3. Exploring chiropractic students' experiences of the educational environment in healthcare professional training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Laksov, Klara Bolander

    2015-08-05

    The educational environment has a significant impact on students' behavior, sense of well-being, and academic advancement. While various research methodologies have been used to explore the educational environment, there is a paucity of studies employing qualitative research methods. This study engages in an in-depth exploration of chiropractic students' experiences of the meaning of the educational environment. A qualitative approach was employed by interviewing 26 students in four focus group interviews at two different points in time. A conventional manifest and latent content analysis was chosen to investigate and interpret the experiences of the educational environment in an undergraduate chiropractic training institution in Sweden. The analysis resulted in five overarching themes: Personal growth; Being part of a community; A place of meaningfulness; Trust in a regulated system; and Scaffolding relationships. Early in the training, the meaning of the educational environment was experienced as part of a vocational community and the scaffolding of intra-institutional relationships. In later stages, the environment was experienced in terms of personal growth - balancing academic pressures and progress within the professional community - thus laying the foundations for autonomy and motivation. During the clinical training, the environment was experienced as where learning happens, thus creating a place of meaningfulness. Throughout the training, the formal and clinical environments were experienced as isolating, with little bridging between the two. A regulated system - conveying an operative organization with clear communication regarding what to expect - was experienced as important for an apt educational environment. We found that experiences of an educational environment are dynamic and change over time. When restructuring or evaluating curriculums, educational managers can consider the emerged themes as constituting facets relating to the educational

  4. 'I'm fishing really'--inflammatory marker testing in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jessica; de Salis, Isabel; Hamilton, Willie; Salisbury, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory markers can be helpful as part of the diagnostic workup for specific diseases or for monitoring disease activity. A third use is as a screening and/or triage tool to differentiate between the presence or absence of disease. Most research into inflammatory markers looks at diagnosis of specific diseases and comes from secondary care. Qualitative studies to explore when and why clinicians use these tests in primary care are lacking. To identify clinicians' approaches to inflammatory marker testing in primary care. Qualitative study with 26 GPs and nurse practitioners. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured topic guide. Clinicians reviewed recent cases of inflammatory marker testing in their pathology inbox. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted by two of the authors. Clinicians are uncertain about the appropriate use of inflammatory markers and differ in their approach to testing patients with undifferentiated symptoms. Normal or significantly elevated inflammatory markers are seen as helpful, but mildly raised inflammatory markers in the context of non-specific symptoms are difficult to interpret. Clinicians describe a tension between not wanting to 'miss anything' and, on the other hand, being wary of picking up borderline abnormalities that can lead to cascades of further tests. Diagnostic uncertainty is a common reason for inflammatory marker testing, with the aim to reassure; however, paradoxically, inconclusive results can generate a cycle of uncertainty and anxiety. Further research is needed to define when inflammatory marker testing is useful in primary care and how to interpret results. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  5. Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alan; Cole, Donald C; Cho, Dan-Bi; Aslanyan, Garry; Bates, Imelda

    2013-12-14

    Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders' internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation.

  6. Engagement of nurses in their profession. Qualitative study on engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    To identify common issues of nurses with high engagement to enable us to develop the construct as it applies to nursing in more depth. Based on the constructivist paradigm and with a phenomenological approach, a qualitative content analysis was conducted using an inductive approach. Participants were nurses working in direct care in different healthcare areas. The sample size was determined by data saturation and 15 participants were interviewed. The units of meaning were grouped into 11 subcategories, and then into 7 categories termed vigour, dedication, reward, autonomy, social support, conciliation and attributes of nurses. Then these categories were grouped into 3 major themes: job characteristics, characteristics of organizations, and individual characteristics. Having high engagement does not mean ignoring the negative aspects of work and organizations. Nurses who maintain high engagement are also affected by the negative aspects, however the assessment of positive aspects such as enjoying the work, the meaning of being a nurse, reward and autonomy enable the process of depletion of engagement to be overcome. In view of the findings, we propose reconceptualising the construct, taking the features of nursing into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. INTEGRATING VOCATIONAL STREAM IN SECONDARY SCHOOL: A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hisyam Mohd. Hashim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocational stream is a new set-up in the education system of developing countries especially for countries with low population and limited area of land. Nevertheless, this countries are working on providing vocational education to their citizen particularly for their youngsters in secondary school. There are few important elements or items that can be used as guidence in a certain implementation that might be the basics of the implementation. The qualitative methodology (Inteviews, Documents analysis and observation are used. Research findings show that there are some items that can be adopted as the Guidelines On International Best Practices In Integrating Vocational Education In Secondary School especially for the vocational streamed school. It is also found that, it is still too soon for the implementation of vocational stream in the existing secondary schools if the basic requirements for it are not being formed or improved. It is suggested that, the implementation of International Best Practices in Integrating TVET in the Secondary School which was also being suggested previously for other developing countries by model pathway of voational stream student.

  8. Electronic portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Mobarhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic portfolio (e-Portfolio is known as an electronic learning record which collects the learning evidences, reflections and accomplishments. In fact, it tells the story of learning achievements. It is an important tool for students, lecturers, administrators and faculties to monitor the learning outcomes. Similarly to other technologies, e-Portfolio is also considered successful, if it is used by students continuously. Previous researches showed the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in using any technologies. However, lack of motivation has been a major concern for developing any successful online learning environments. The aim of this paper is to explain the e-Portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective. Interviews are conducted with students from one university in Malaysia in order to get better understanding of the phenomena. The target interviewees are bachelor students chosen from different faculties. Based on the qualitative content analysis of the interviews, the motivational factors affecting the continuous use of e-portfolio are coded in eight themes and then they categorized in four main groups of individual, system, social and environmental characteristics. Finally they are classified into intrinsic or extrinsic motivations.

  9. The sociology of Qi Gong: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an in-depth, idiographic study of how individuals experience others during Qi Gong practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Qi Gong groups to collect research data. These data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content and thematic analysis across and within groups. The analysis indicates extraordinary experiences of Qi Gong practitioners at various levels of their social functioning. Qi Gong influences their social health in complex and \\dimensional ways. The author compares and contrasts his results with those of recent research. Implications for practice are briefly outlined and possible strategies for future research are presented.

  10. Male Menopause And Decision-Making: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Claassen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore how a small group of white South African men going through menopause attached meaning to this major event in their lives, and also how it affected the decisions they took as leaders in the financial sector. The findings indicated that menopause symptoms in particular (physical, psychological and sexual dimensions had a profound influence on the systemic male. A provisional substantive theory was developed – “work power trade-offs result in decreased decision-making power during the male menopause�? – and a number of recommendations were proposed

  11. Family Stigma Associated With Epilepsy: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi Amjad, Reza; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Navab, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Harmful nature of epilepsy can affect the patient and their parent. Stigma, arising from it, affects the patient and their family. To relieve it understanding the experiences of the parent are useful. This study was aimed at understanding the experiences of parent of child with epilepsy in Iran. Methods: In this interpretative phenomenological study, 10 parents who took care of their child with epilepsy were participated. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. After transcription, data were analyzed using Van Manen’s method. Results: Family stigma emerged as a main theme in data analysis with three subthemes including becoming verbally abusive, a dull and heavy shadowed look, and associates interference. Conclusion: Family stigma is a major challenge for parents of child with epilepsy need to special attention by health system. Nurses, as a big part of the system, can play an important role to manage this problem. PMID:28299298

  12. Enhancing School Asthma Action Plans: Qualitative Results from Southeast Minnesota Beacon Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Jason S.; Textor, Lauren; Knoebel, Erin; McWilliams, Deborah; Aleman, Marty; Yawn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explores ways southeast Minnesota schools currently address asthma problems, identifies areas for improvement, and assesses the potential value of asthma action plans (AAPs) in schools. Methods: Focus groups were used to query stakeholder groups on asthma care in schools. Groups were held separately for elementary school…

  13. Enhancing School Asthma Action Plans: Qualitative Results from Southeast Minnesota Beacon Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Jason S.; Textor, Lauren; Knoebel, Erin; McWilliams, Deborah; Aleman, Marty; Yawn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explores ways southeast Minnesota schools currently address asthma problems, identifies areas for improvement, and assesses the potential value of asthma action plans (AAPs) in schools. Methods: Focus groups were used to query stakeholder groups on asthma care in schools. Groups were held separately for elementary school…

  14. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingall, G; Cropley, M.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during...

  15. Perceptions of thalassemia and its treatment among Malaysian thalassemia patients: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ismahanisa Ismail; Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali; Maryam Farooqui; Fahad Saleem; Hisham Aljadhey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thalassemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and one of the most common chronic and genetic disorders. Aims The present qualitative study explores knowledge about thalassemia, perceptions about conventional therapies and the points that affect Malaysian patients with thalassemia in taking medications correctly. Methods This study used a qualitative method. Purposive and theoretical samplings were combined to explore the issues related to thalassaemia and...

  16. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

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    Braga Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  17. Preserving self-concept in the burn survivors: A qualitative study

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    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injury is a devastating experience affecting all aspects of a person′s essence, including his/her identity and perception. These patients require complex cognitive efforts to redefine their identity to deal with difficult condition after burn injury and preserve self-concept. The experience of life after burn injury is generally a solitary one, closely related to the patients′ cultural and religious context. Therefore, this study was conducted aiming at investigating burn patients′ experiences regarding how to preserve self-concept in life after burn injury in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was carried out using qualitative content analysis and in-depth unstructured interviews with 17 surviving burn subjects. Results: During the qualitative content analysis process, the concept of "locating" as the essence of the participants′ experience was extracted as follows: (A self-exploration (exploring the changes in one′s life, (B others′ exploration (exploring the changes in the life of family members and the relationship between self and others, (C position evaluation (self-position analysis, and (D self-concept preservation. Conclusion: The present study has developed new understandings of mental experiences of burn patients′ self-concept by describing the concept of "self-locating." It helps us in classifying and understanding the concepts described in comprehensive theories developed in this area. They do this by focusing on what burn patients experience for choosing self-preservation strategies and having a meaningful life. The finding can be used as a conceptual framework for palliative care program in Iran.

  18. Training in virtual reality: qualitative results from a comparison of technology types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebok, Angelia; Nystad, Espen

    2005-08-15

    The study described in HWR-734 consisted of three experiments. The first experiment compared procedural and configuration learning using four display technology types; the second experiment compared these same four technology types in a retention and transfer of training condition, and the third experiment compared assembly learning using three types of displays. The purpose of the study was to determine if the technology types differed in their ability to support learning. Thus, several different types of learning tasks were included (i.e., procedures, configuration and assembly). For all types of learning, short term training effectiveness was evaluated: subjects were tested immediately after the training session, in the same conditions in which they had been trained. In addition, procedural learning was also evaluated in a retention and transfer of training condition, where subjects were tested 24 hours after the initial training, in a real-world talk-through condition. In the Procedural / Configuration knowledge conditions, four technology types were evaluated. These include a desktop monoscopic display (DM), a desktop stereoscopic display (DS), a large-screen stereoscopic display (LS-S), and a head-mounted display with orientation tracking. In the Assembly knowledge condition, three technology types were evaluated: a desktop monoscopic display (DM), a large-screen monoscopic display (LS-M), and a head-mounted display without orientation tracking (HMD-nt). Twenty-four employees at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) participated in the study. The study lasted for one week, so all subjects attended for multiple days. Prior to starting the experiment, subjects attended a briefing where they were given instructions on how to use the equipment. They were allowed 10 minutes practice to get familiar with each technology type before each experimental session. During and after the experimental sessions, data were collected. These included objective data, such as

  19. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  20. The meaning of family members' presence during intensive care stay: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kristin Dahle; Dysvik, Elin; Hansen, Britt Saetre

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate what the presence of family members meant to patients in intensive care units. The study employed a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis. Eleven intensive care patients were interviewed at a university hospital in Norway. The results of the study indicated that the patients desired some limitation of visitors' presence and preferred visits only from those who were closest in daily life. Visits had a variety of functions for intensive care patients, including promoting support for patients and families. However, visits also caused stress for patients and worries about creating stress for family members. The patients' requirements for information differed. The findings suggest that information to the families is important for the patients need for reality orientation. Visits in intensive care units and information to the families have mutual importance for the patients and their families. The study supports prior claims that flexible visiting routines are challenging for ICU nurses. A dialogue with the families is recommended in order to find a balance between the social support and the stress caused by visits. This puts the families in a better position to give support to the patients during recovery.

  1. Danish women's experiences of the rebozo technique during labour: A qualitative explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Midtgaard, Julie; Ekelin, Maria; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to explore women's experiences of the rebozo technique during labour. This was a qualitative study based on individual telephone interviews, analysed by means of qualitative content analysis and inspired by interpretive description. 17 participants were recruited from two different-sized Danish hospitals and identified by applying a purposeful sample strategy. The main theme expressed the women's overall experience with the rebozo: "Joined movements in a harmless effort towards a natural birth". The women experienced that the technique created bodily sensations, which reduced their pain, and furthermore they expressed that it interrelated the labour process and produced mutual involvement and psychological support from the midwife and the women's partner. The rebozo technique was in most situations carried out because the midwife suspected a foetus malposition. The experiences of the rebozo technique were overall positive and both of a physical and psychological nature. The results indicate that health professionals should view rebozo as an easy accessible clinical tool with high user acceptance and possible positive psychological and clinical implications. The study contributes with a deeper and more nuanced understanding of a topic where only limited knowledge exists, however, efficacy studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spiritual concerns in Hindu cancer patients undergoing palliative care: A qualitative study

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    Srinagesh Simha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Spiritual concerns are being identified as important components of palliative care. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of spiritual concerns in cancer patients undergoing palliative care in a hospice in India. Materials and Methods: The methodology used was a qualitative method: Interpretive phenomenological analysis. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data, based on Indian and western literature reports. Certain aspects like karma and pooja, relevant to Hindus, were included. Theme saturation was achieved on interviewing 10 participants. Results: The seven most common spiritual concerns reported were benefit of pooja, faith in God, concern about the future, concept of rebirth, acceptance of one′s situation, belief in karma, and the question "Why me?" No participant expressed four of the concerns studied: Loneliness, need of seeking forgiveness from others, not being remembered later, and religious struggle. Conclusions: This study confirms that there are spiritual concerns reported by patients receiving palliative care. The qualitative descriptions give a good idea about these experiences, and how patients deal with them. The study indicates the need for adequate attention to spiritual aspects during palliative care.

  3. A chemical energy approach of avascular tumor growth: multiscale modeling and qualitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzoglou, Pantelis; Dassios, George; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Kourea, Helen P; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    In the present manuscript we propose a lattice free multiscale model for avascular tumor growth that takes into account the biochemical environment, mitosis, necrosis, cellular signaling and cellular mechanics. This model extends analogous approaches by assuming a function that incorporates the biochemical energy level of the tumor cells and a mechanism that simulates the behavior of cancer stem cells. Numerical simulations of the model are used to investigate the morphology of the tumor at the avascular phase. The obtained results show similar characteristics with those observed in clinical data in the case of the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the breast.

  4. Adolescents' impressions of antismoking media literacy education: qualitative results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Fine, Danielle; Yang, Christopher K; Wickett, Dustin; Zickmund, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Although media literacy represents an innovative venue for school-based antismoking programming, studies have not systematically compared student impressions of these and traditional programs. This study utilized data from a randomized trial comparing these two types of programs. After each program, students responded to three open-ended questions related to their assigned curriculum. Two coders, blinded to student assignments, independently coded these data. Coders had strong inter-rater agreement (kappa = 0.77). Our primary measures were spontaneously noted overall assessment, enjoyment/interest and the likelihood of changing smoking behavior. Of the 531 participants, 255 (48.0%) were randomized to the intervention (media literacy) group. Intervention participants had more net positive responses [rate ratio (RR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05, 1.54], more responses rating the program as compelling (RR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.29) and fewer responses rating the program as non-compelling (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.97). However, the intervention group was not more likely to suggest that the curriculum was likely to change behavior positively (RR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.30, 1.06). Findings suggest that although media literacy provides a compelling format for the delivery of anti-tobacco programming, integration of components of traditional programming may help media literacy programs achieve maximal efficacy.

  5. Emotions in veterinary surgical students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Tanggaard, Lene; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Berendt, Mette

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus and engagement. Our study identified the most common sources of positive and negative emotions to be "being able to prepare well" and "lack of self-confidence," respectively. Our findings suggest that there are factors that we can influence in the surgical learning environment to minimize negative emotions and enhance positive emotions and engagement, thereby improving students' learning.

  6. Bizarre delusions: A qualitative study on Indian schizophrenia patients

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    Sreeja De

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delusions are an important symptom for the diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ in both the commonly used international classificatory systems - the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV - American Psychiatric Association, 2000 and the International Classification of Diseases, X (ICD X - World Health Organization, 1992. Of special significance are "bizarre delusions" the presence of which is alone sufficient for a diagnosis of SZ in DSM IV. In an attempt to find out the frequency, criteria for classification, and other clinical aspects of bizarre delusions and justification of their importance in the diagnostic system, this retrospective study was conducted. Methodology: Records of 1952 Indian patients affected with SZ, recruited for various research projects at one center were included in this study. All had a diagnosis of DSM IV SZ; all symptoms of SZ from the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies were asked regardless of the presence of specific symptoms - like bizarre delusions - sufficient for diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of bizarre delusions was 2.56%. Five themes, identified on analyzing their contents are described. Main themes were unnatural, bodily sensation, change in identity, sexual, and religious. Conclusions: These themes were culture based, but definitely out of context, excessive or extremely odd. Moreover, the rarity of bizarre delusions makes it difficult to include them as a sole criterion for diagnosis.

  7. Success factors for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study of healthcare administrators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; Spaulding, Aaron; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Success factors related to the implementation of change initiatives are well documented and discussed in the management literature, but they are seldom studied in healthcare organizations engaged in multiple strategic change initiatives. The purpose of this study was to identify key success factors related to implementation of change initiatives based on rich qualitative data gathered from health leader interviews at two large health systems implementing multiple change initiatives. In-depth personal interviews with 61 healthcare leaders in the two large systems were conducted and inductive qualitative analysis was employed to identify success factors associated with 13 change initiatives. Results from this analysis were compared to success factors identified in the literature, and generalizations were drawn that add significantly to the management literature, especially to that in the healthcare sector. Ten specific success factors were identified for the implementation of change initiatives. The top three success factors were (1) culture and values, (2) business processes, and (3) people and engagement. Two of the identified success factors are unique to the healthcare sector and not found in the literature on change models: service quality and client satisfaction (ranked fourth of 10) and access to information (ranked ninth). Results demonstrate the importance of human resource functions, alignment of culture and values with change, and business processes that facilitate effective communication and access to information to achieve many change initiatives. The responses also suggest opportunities for leaders of healthcare organizations to more formally recognize the degree to which various change initiatives are dependent on one another.

  8. Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Tora Abebayehu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

  9. Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

    2004-09-01

    In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

  10. The Co-operative Education Process and Organisational Socialisation: A Qualitative Study of Student Perceptions of Its Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Murphy, Claire

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study investigated the perspectives of six third-level cooperative education students of the student socialization process (getting into the organization, breaking in, settling in). Results indicate that cooperative education allows students to acquire essential practical skills through exposure to the real world. (Contains 76…

  11. The Consequences of Spasmodic Dysphonia on Communication-Related Quality of Life: A Qualitative Study of the Insider's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, C.R.; Yorkston, K.M.; Eadie, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the biopsychosocial consequences of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) as experienced by people with SD. Qualitative research methods were used to investigate the insider's perspective of living with SD. Six adults with SD participated in face-to-face phenomenological interviews. The results are summarized in a model…

  12. A practical approach to evidence-based dentistry: VIII: How to appraise an article based on a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Joanna E M; Amin, Maryam; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Glick, Michael; Guyatt, Gordon H; Azarpazhooh, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Because of qualitative researchers' abilities to explore social problems and to understand the perspective of patients, qualitative research studies are useful to provide insight about patients' fears, worries, goals, and expectations related to dental care. To benefit fully from such studies, clinicians should be aware of some relevant principles of critical appraisal. In this article, the authors present one approach to critically appraise the evidence from a qualitative research study. Critical appraisal involves assessing whether the results are credible (the selection of participants, research ethics, data collection, data analysis), what are these results, and how they can be applied in clinical practice. The authors also examined how the results could be applied to patient care in terms of offering theory, understanding the context of clinical practice, and helping clinicians understand social interactions in clinical care. By applying these principles, clinicians can consider qualitative studies when trying to achieve the best possible results for their own practices. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nurses' Learning Experiences with the Kinaesthetics Care Concept Training in a Nursing Home: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    In geriatric care, movement support skills of nurses are often limited, resulting in unnecessary functional decline of older adult residents and physical strain of nurses. Kinaesthetics training aims to improve movement competences of nurses and residents. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe nursing teams' experience with…

  14. Individual Differences in Students' Knowing and Learning about Fractions: Evidence from an In-Depth Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempeni, Maria; Vamvakoussi, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an in-depth qualitative study that examined ninth graders' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions as well as their approach to mathematics learning, in particular fraction learning. We traced individual differences, even extreme, in the way that students combine the two kinds of knowledge. We also provide…

  15. All Beer and Skittles? A Qualitative Pilot Study of the Role of Alcohol in University College Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Clarissa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a small qualitative pilot study on the role of alcohol in college life, undertaken at three residential colleges at an Australian university. Focus groups (involving 43 students aged between 17 and 23 years) investigated participants' views of the social functions of alcohol in the residential college environment.…

  16. Why Do Emergency Medicine Residents Experience Burn Out? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Kamaloo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency medicine residents are a high–risk group for burnout syndrome. This was a qualitative study with content analysis on emergency medical residents with 2 aims: evaluating the incidence of occupational burnout syndrome and identifying the points of view and attitudes of emergency medical residents about factors related to occupational burnout syndrome.Method: For this study, 2 sessions of focus group discussions were set up at Imam Khomeini hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each session took 90 minutes, and 20 emergency medicine residents in their first or second year of emergency medicine residency participated in the sessions. Data were coded   by MAXQDA10 software.Results: Data were categorized in 4 themes as follow: (1 the characteristics of emergency medicine; (2 ambiguity in residents’ duties; (3 educational planning; and (4 careers.Data on the proposed solutions by residents were analyzed and coded in 3 groups including (1 changes in personal life; (2 arrangement in shifts; and  (3 educational issues.Conclusion: According to findings of this qualitative study, most of emergency medicine residents have experienced exhaustion sometime during the course of their residency. Psychological supports may help the residents to cope with their career difficulties and probable burn out.

  17. Living with a peripherally inserted central catheter: the perspective of cancer outpatients-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parás-Bravo, Paula; Paz-Zulueta, María; Santibañez, Miguel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Herrero-Montes, Manuel; Caso-Álvarez, Vanesa; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to describe the experience of using a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in cancer sufferers receiving outpatient treatment. A qualitative, phenomenological study was performed. Purposeful sampling methods were used. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews and researcher field notes. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. The study was conducted following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Eighteen patients (61% women, mean age 58 years) participated. They spent a mean duration of 155 days with the line in place. Two themes were identified with different subgroups. The theme "Living with a PICC line," including the subthemes "Benefits" and "Disadvantages," displays how the implantation is experienced by patients in a dichotomous manner. This highlighted both the beneficial and negative aspects of the implantation. The second theme was "Adapting to life with the catheter" and comprised three subthemes: "Advantages," "Lifestyle modifications," and "Overall assessment of the peripherally inserted central catheter," which shows how patients gradually accept the catheter by adapting their lifestyle. Over time, most patients considered having a PICC line to be a positive experience that they would recommend to other patients, as they found that it did not alter their quality of life. These results can be applied in Oncology Units for developing specific protocols for patients.

  18. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rabori, Roghayeh Mehdipour

    2016-01-01

    Patient's dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection. Three central themes emerged: a) Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b) Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c) Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care.

  19. Experiences of Infertile Women Seeking Assisted Pregnancy in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are complicated and stressful techniques and the social and cultural norms are major obstacles against their use. Many qualitative studies have been done in the field of women’s experiences of infertility, but less is known about the experiences of infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to understand and describe the experience of women who have used assisted reproductive technologies for their current pregnancy. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on a content analysis approach. With purposive sampling, 12 pregnant women who were using ART were recruited from Avicenna Fertility Center in Tehran. Women were selected purposefully and with maximum variation. Interviews were performed after a positive test of pregnancy and women were introduced to researchers in their first visit of pregnancy in the prenatal clinic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently. Semi-structured interviews were coded, categorized and the themes were also identified. Results: Four main themes were uncovered which included struggle to achieve pregnancy, fear and uncertainty, escape from stigma and the pursuit to achieve husband satisfaction. Conclusion: It is essential for these women to be counseled and prepared by their health care providers after the use of ARTs. Distress can be reduced for infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy when they are prepared for possible failures, empowered to deal with stigma, and have their partners’ involvement in counseling sessions. PMID:27110521

  20. Factors Influencing Adherence in Cancer Patients Taking Oral Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Grypdonck, Mieke; Quaghebeur, Marijke; Verschueren, Caroline; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Nonadherence in cancer patients taking oral anticancer drugs is common. Reasons for nonadherence are still not really understood as influencing factors are often complex, dynamic, and interrelated. A qualitative study was conducted to gain insight into (non-)adherence behavior in patients taking oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors by exploring (1) processes and factors influencing (non-)adherence and (2) their interrelatedness. Semistructured interviews were held with 30 patients of different ages and with different types of cancer. A grounded theory approach was used. Three foci were found when dealing with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors: (1) a focus on survival, (2) a focus on quality of life, and (3) a balance between survival and quality of life. The process of adherence was determined by a set of complex and interrelated influencing factors: treatment-related side effects, hope, anxiety, trust, and feedback mechanisms. This qualitative study gives insight into processes and factors influencing (non-)adherence behavior in patients taking oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The results of this study can help healthcare professionals understand why patients taking oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors do not always adhere to their therapy. Conditions should be created by which patients get maximum opportunity to establish a balance between survival and quality of life. An open climate and a trust-based relationship should be established in which patients feel comfortable to openly discuss their therapy and the difficulties they experience.

  1. Battling illness with wellness: a qualitative case study of a young rapper's experiences with music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Petter

    2015-07-03

    Mental health difficulties are connected with major interpersonal and social challenges. Recent qualitative research indicates that music therapy can facilitate many of the core elements found to promote social recovery and social inclusion, findings also reflected in results from a growing body of effect studies. The objective of this study was to explore how music therapy might afford possibilities for social recovery to one man with psychosis admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit. This was achieved by means of a qualitative case study featuring a description of the music therapeutic process alongside first-hand accounts of the participant's subjective experiences. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings are presented in a narrative form reflecting processes and activities considered particularly important for the process of social recovery. Theoretical perspectives from the recovery literature and current perspectives in music therapy are discussed with a view to the possible use of music therapy for strengthening agency, (re)building identity, developing positive relationships, and expanding social networks.

  2. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths.

  3. Perception of social support among family caregivers of vegetative patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Esmat; Peyrovi, Hamid; Imani Goghary, Zahra; Kazemi, Majid

    2016-04-01

    A vegetative state (VS) is the probable result after brain damage. After VS patients are discharged from the hospital, the responsibility of caring of them is transferred to their families, which impacts a caregiver's physical and psychological health. Social support as a valuable resource reduces the negative effects of stressful events. This study aimed to explore the perception of social support among family caregivers of VS patients. This study is a part of a larger qualitative study which used the descriptive and qualitative method. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was done, and data was gathered through face-to-face, in-depth interviews. The four categories of "Family, a supporter in all aspects," "Beautiful emanation of the nurse's role," "Revitalization via empathy and companionship," and "Defects in support," were extracted. The primary concern of participants was receiving social support which can facilitate caregiving and coping with difficulties, but there are many shortcomings in supporting these caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Iranian Nursing Students' Experiences of Case-Based Learning: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Saki, Mandana; Toulabi, Tahereh; Kordestani Moghadam, Parastou; Hossein Pour, Amir Hossein; Dostizadeh, Reza

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of undergraduate nursing students of the implementation of case-based learning in an emergency nursing course. The present qualitative study was conducted using the qualitative content analysis method. Participants consisted of 18 third year undergraduate nursing students selected through purposive sampling, which continued until the saturation of the data. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and were analyzed concurrently with their collection through the constant comparison method. The process of data analysis led to the emergence of 4 main themes, including "the continuum of knowledge from production to transfer competence," "a positive atmosphere of interaction," "the process of stress relieving," "the sense of role-playing in professional life," and the emergence of 12 subthemes signifying participants' experiences and perceptions with regard to the implementation of case-based learning (CBL) in teaching the emergency nursing course. The results of the present study showed that CBL is a stressful but pleasant and empowering experience for Iranian nursing students that develops critical thinking and stress management skills, reinforces peers' potentials, improves diagnostic abilities, and helps acquire professional competencies for use in future practices through the creation of a positive environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient tracking in earthquake emergency response in Iran: A qualitative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahid; Tavakoli; Mohammad; H; Yarmohammadian; Reza; Safdari; Mahmoud; Keyvanara

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a disaster, all victims have to be rapidly and accurately identified for locating, tracking and regulating them. The purpose of this study was to summarize people’s experiences that how the patients were tracked in past earthquake disasters in Iran.METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out in 2015. This was an interview-based qualitative study using content analysis. The interviewed people included physicians, nurses, emergency medical technicians, disaster managers, Red Crescent Society’ first responders and managers. Participants were identified using a snow ball sampling method. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, coded, and entered into MAXQDA(version 10) for coding and content analysis.RESULTS: Three main themes and seven categories including content(recoding data), function(identification of victims, identification of the deceased, informing the patients’ relatives, patients’ evacuation and transfer, and statistical reporting), technology(the state of using technology) were identifi ed that showed the patient tracking status in past earthquakes in Iran.CONCLUSION: Participants believed that to identify and register the data related to patients or the dead, no consistent action plan was available. So developing a consistent patient tracking system could overcome this issue and improve patient safety.

  6. Defective support network: a major obstacle to coping for patients with heart failure: a qualitative study

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    Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure as a chronic disease poses many challenges for a patient in his or her everyday life. Support in various aspects of life positively affects coping strategies and influences the well-being and health outcomes of heart failure patients. Inadequate support may lead to a worsening of symptoms, increased hospital readmissions, psychological disorders, and a reduced quality of life. Objective: This study explored obstacles to coping related to support for heart failure patients as viewed by the patients themselves and their family members and caregivers. Design: This qualitative study was conducted using content analysis. The 20 Iranian participants included 11 patients with heart failure, three cardiologists, three nurses, and three family members of heart failure patients selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the Lundman and Graneheim qualitative content analysis method. Results: During data analysis, ‘defective support network’ developed as the main theme along with four other categories of ‘inadequate family performance’, ‘inadequate support by the healthcare team’, ‘distorted societal social support’, and ‘inadequate welfare support’. Conclusion: The findings of the current study can assist health authorities and planners in identifying the needs of patients with heart failure so as to focus and plan on facilitating their coping as much as possible by obviating the existing obstacles.

  7. The impact of prompted narrative writing during internship on reflective practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M

    2008-12-01

    Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of 2002. Interns wrote narratives every 8 weeks. At study completion, interns wrote a final narrative describing the affect that being in the study had on them. Responses were reviewed and organized into domains. Writing throughout the year resulted in reflection and encouraged interns to reconsider their core values and priorities. Some found that the exercise promoted greater self-awareness and provided an emotional outlet. Writing about difficult experiences coupled with reflection motivated some interns to want to improve. Prompted narrative writing led to reflection among interns and promoted self-awareness. Educators may consider incorporating narrative writing into residency education.

  8. Mothers’ Experiences about Febrile Convulsions in Their Children: A Qualitative Study

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    Mahbobeh Sajadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile convulsion in children is a frightening experience for the mothers. This experience may have unknown aspects, which must be investigated in order to plan better support for the mothers and children. This study is conducted with the aim of exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffer from febrile convulsion. Methods: This study was based on a qualitative content analysis. 12 mothers in Amir Kabir hospital of Arak city participated in the study and shared their experiences through semi-structured interviews. The gathered data were analysed using Graneheim and Lundman’s (2004 method. Results: Exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffered from febrile convulsion reflected three themes: perceived threat, seeking solution, and difference in adaptation. Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study, comprehensive supportive care plans can be designed for enabling the mothers to better cope with their children’s febrile convulsion.

  9. Sedentary behaviour in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A qualitative study

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    Tanja Thomsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA describe their daily SB. Methods: Fifteen patients with RA (10 women and 5 men from 23 to 73 years of age and with a disease duration ranging from 4 to 27 years were interviewed following a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using the content analysis method described by Graneheim. Results: SB appeared in three categories covering: 1 A constant battle between good and bad days; SB could be a consequence of RA in terms of days with pronounced pain and fatigue resulting in many hours of SB. 2 Adaptation to everyday life; living with the unpredictability of RA included constant modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3 It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way of living independent of the disease. Conclusions: SB is perceived, motivated, and performed differently in patients with RA. An individually tailored approach may be essential in understanding and encouraging patients’ motivation towards sustainable change in SB and activity patterns.

  10. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis

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    Krautter M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance

  11. The unique experience of adults with multimorbidity: a qualitative study

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    Cynthia Duguay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Findings from several countries indicate that the prevalence of multimorbidity is very high among clients of primary healthcare. A deeper understanding of patients’ experiences from their own perspective can greatly enrich any intervention to help them live as well as possible with multimorbidity. Objective: To describe the fundamental structure of adults’ experience with multimorbidity. Design: A phenomenological study was undertaken to describe the experiences of 11 adults with multimorbidity. These adults participated in two semi-structured interviews, the content of which was rigorously analyzed. Results: At the core of the study participants’ multimorbidity experience are the impression of aging prematurely, difficulties with self-care management, and issues with access to the healthcare system, which contribute to the problem’s complexity. Despite these issues, participants with multimorbidity report attempting to take control of their situation and adjusting to daily living. Conclusions: The description of this experience, through the systemic vision of participants, provides a better understanding of the realities experienced by people with multimorbidity.

  12. Recruitment and retention of emergency medical technicians: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Probst, Janice C; Leith, Katherine H; Corwin, Sara J; Powell, M Paige

    2005-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics. Information was drawn from three focus groups of EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic personnel recruited from participants at an annual conference. Thoughts and feelings of EMTs and paramedics were investigated using eight questions designed to explore entry into emergency medical services, what it is like to be an EMT or paramedic, and the EMT educational process. Data were analyzed at the group level for common themes using NVivo. For a majority of respondents, emergency medical services was not a primary career path. Most respondents entered the industry as an alternate or replacement for a nursing career or as a second career following military medic service. The majority of respondents believed the job was stressful yet rewarding, and although it negatively affected their personal lives, the occupation gave them a sense of accomplishment and belonging. Respondents expressed a preference for EMT education resulting in college credit or licensure versus professional certification. Job-related stress produced by numerous factors appears to be a likely contributor to low employee retention. Recruitment and retention efforts should address study findings, incorporating key findings into educational, evaluation, and job enhancement programs.

  13. Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study

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    Coleman Rosarie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. Methods This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Results Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. Conclusion In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings.

  14. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN AHWAZ CITY; WITH EMPHASIS ON HOSPITAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Omrani; A.R. Mesdaghinia; A.E. Amoui

    1998-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of hospital and municipal solid waste are necessary for selecting the best and most appropriate method of health care collection, storage, transportation and disposal of this kind of wastes. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of hospital and municipal wastes have been studied in Ahwaz city during spring 1996. The amount of solid wastes in five regions of the city was 560,000 Kg perday (0.648 Kg per capita). Also, the rate of waste production in 6 hospi...

  15. Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study

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    White Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props and those that hinder (burdens behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological, social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600

  16. A phenomenological study on resilience of the elderly suffering from chronic disease: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Parkhide; Izadi-Avanji, Fatemeh-Sadat; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Background Resilience is a key factor in improving health and attenuating problems caused by chronic diseases in the elderly. Having a clear understanding of its meaning in a specific population can be of great help in taking efficient steps toward better health services. Given the lack of information in this regard, the aim of this study was to understand the meaning of resilience for hospitalized older people who experience chronic conditions. Methods The study was carried out as a qualitative work based on a descriptive phenomenological approach. The participants were selected purposefully, so that 22 elderly with chronic disease were interviewed in 24 sessions. The collected data were recorded and analyzed through Colaizzi’s method. Results Four themes were extracted from the interviews as follows: 1) “meaning of resilience in the participants’ experiences” with subthemes of “the art of overcoming pain and suffering”, “adapt to health problem of senescence”, “accepting life with the chronic disease”, and “patience and trust in God”; 2) “growth context as a prologue of resilience” with subthemes of “growth background”; 3) “external factors contributing to resilience” with subthemes of “welfare”, “received support”, “deprivation and shortage”, and “attitudes toward an elderly with health problem”; and 4) “personal factors to overcome illness” with subthemes of “enthusiasm for following up the treatment program”, “aversion to physical dependence”, “hope for improvement”, “motivation and purpose”, and “being content with one’s belongings and blessings”. Conclusion Improvement in resilience is associated with a patient-oriented approach. Providers of health services might make proper interventions based on unique needs of patients to improve their resilience and ability to overcome health problems. This can be performed by family members, health team, and related organizations and bodies

  17. Sampling and recruitment issues in qualitative drugs research: reflections on the study of club drug users in metro New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes the role and implications of sampling and recruitment in qualitative drugs research. To provide further detail of some issues pertaining to sampling in qualitative and ethnographic projects, the author describes recent experiences utilizing theoretical sampling and time-space sampling to study club drug users. The author details practical challenges experienced with the implementation of these sampling methodologies and with the results they produced. Attention is paid to the role that the environmental factors at clubs play in the implementation of sampling methods, issues related to network methods in recruitment, and practical implications of managing team-based recruitment strategies.

  18. Experiences of Iranian Nurses on the Facilitators of Pain Management in Children: A Qualitative Study

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    Parvin Aziznejadroshan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite decades of research and the availability of effective analgesic approaches, many children continue to experience moderate-to-severe pain after hospitalization. Greater research efforts are needed to identify the factors that facilitate effective pain management. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of Iranian nurses on facilitators of pain management in children. Materials and Methods. This qualitative study collected the data profoundly through unstructured interviews with 19 nurses in Amirkola Children’s Hospital in Babol and Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, during 2013-2014. Purposeful sampling and analysis of the data were conducted using conventional qualitative content analysis. Results. Four themes were extracted through data analysis: mother and child participation in diagnosis and pain relief, the timely presence of medical staff and parents, proper communication, and training and supportive role of nurses. Conclusion. Mother and child participation in the report and diagnosis of pain and nonpharmacological interventions for pain by the mother, the timely presence of medical team at the patient’s bedside, and proper interaction along with the training and supportive role of a nurse enhanced the optimal pain management in hospitalized children.

  19. Socio-cultural contexts of domestic violence against women: A qualitative study

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    Naghmeh Razaghi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is a problem that is closely correlated with the social and cultural contexts and many societies in different aspects encounter this problem. The aim of this study was to explore socio-cultural factors of violence against women. Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis. The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women as the victims of domestic violence. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. The collected data analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results: Seven themes were explored of the women, which represented their experiences of social-cultural factors influencing on violence against women. The themes included: the failure of masculine authority, lack of social life skills, addiction, inappropriate marriage, fake friend, powerlessness, and irrational beliefs. Conclusion: Social and cultural factors are effective in the destruction of the family life through domestic violence. The community education, to develop the real position of the family and women situation in Islam, women empowerment, marriage problem solving methods, and family management skills needed to prevent and to control the violence against women.

  20. Improving identification and management of partner violence: examining the process of academic detailing: a qualitative study

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    le Roux Helena D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many physicians do not routinely inquire about intimate partner violence. Purpose This qualitative study explores the process of academic detailing as an intervention to change physician behavior with regard to intimate partner violence (IPV identification and documentation. Method A non-physician academic detailer provided a seven-session modular curriculum over a two-and-a-half month period. The detailer noted written details of each training session. Audiotapes of training sessions and semi-structured exit interviews with each physician were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions were qualitatively and thematically coded and analyzed using Atlas ti®. Results All three study physicians reported increased clarity with regard to the scope of their responsibility to their patients experiencing IPV. They also reported increased levels of comfort in the effective identification and appropriate documentation of IPV and the provision of ongoing support to the patient, including referrals to specialized community services. Conclusion Academic detailing, if presented by a supportive and knowledgeable academic detailer, shows promise to improve physician attitudes and practices with regards to patients in violent relationships.