WorldWideScience

Sample records for qualitative national tsunami

  1. Tsunami Hazards - A National Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In December 2004, when a tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in 11 countries around the Indian Ocean, the United States was reminded of its own tsunami risks. In fact, devastating tsunamis have struck North America before and are sure to strike again. Especially vulnerable are the five Pacific States--Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California--and the U.S. Caribbean islands. In the wake of the Indian Ocean disaster, the United States is redoubling its efforts to assess the Nation's tsunami hazards, provide tsunami education, and improve its system for tsunami warning. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is helping to meet these needs, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and with coastal States and counties.

  2. National Geophysical Data Center Tsunami Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Brocko, R.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology long-term tsunami data archive provides data and derived products essential for tsunami hazard assessment, forecast and warning, inundation modeling, preparedness, mitigation, education, and research. As a result of NOAA's efforts to strengthen its tsunami activities, the long-term tsunami data archive has grown from less than 5 gigabyte in 2004 to more than 2 terabytes in 2008. The types of data archived for tsunami research and operation activities have also expanded in fulfillment of the P.L. 109-424. The archive now consists of: global historical tsunami, significant earthquake and significant volcanic eruptions database; global tsunami deposits and proxies database; reference database; damage photos; coastal water-level data (i.e. digital tide gauge data and marigrams on microfiche); bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data as collected by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys. The tsunami data archive comes from a wide variety of data providers and sources. These include the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, NOAA National Data Buoy Center, NOAA National Ocean Service, IOC/NOAA International Tsunami Information Center, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, tsunami catalogs, reconnaissance reports, journal articles, newspaper articles, internet web pages, and email. NGDC has been active in the management of some of these data for more than 50 years while other data management efforts are more recent. These data are openly available, either directly on-line or by contacting NGDC. All of the NGDC tsunami and related databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including tsunami sources, tsunami effects, significant earthquakes

  3. The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program: Successes in Tsunami Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Formed in 1995 by Congressional Action, the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP) provides the framework for tsunami preparedness activities in the United States. The Program consists of the 28 U.S. coastal states, territories, and commonwealths (STCs), as well as three Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Since its inception, the NTHMP has advanced tsunami preparedness in the United States through accomplishments in many areas of tsunami preparedness: - Coordination and funding of tsunami hazard analysis and preparedness activities in STCs; - Development and execution of a coordinated plan to address education and outreach activities (materials, signage, and guides) within its membership; - Lead the effort to assist communities in meeting National Weather Service (NWS) TsunamiReady guidelines through development of evacuation maps and other planning activities; - Determination of tsunami hazard zones in most highly threatened coastal communities throughout the country by detailed tsunami inundation studies; - Development of a benchmarking procedure for numerical tsunami models to ensure models used in the inundation studies meet consistent, NOAA standards; - Creation of a national tsunami exercise framework to test tsunami warning system response; - Funding community tsunami warning dissemination and reception systems such as sirens and NOAA Weather Radios; and, - Providing guidance to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers regarding warning dissemination and content. NTHMP activities have advanced the state of preparedness of United States coastal communities, and have helped save lives and property during recent tsunamis. Program successes as well as future plans, including maritime preparedness, are discussed.

  4. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  5. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform

  6. 2011 Tohoku, Japan tsunami data available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Geophysical Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Mccullough, H. L.; Mungov, G.; Harris, E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility for providing tsunami warnings to the Nation, and a leadership role in tsunami observations and research. A key component of this effort is easy access to authoritative data on past tsunamis, a responsibility of the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and collocated World Service for Geophysics. Archive responsibilities include the global historical tsunami database, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART®) data, damage photos, as well as other related hazards data. Taken together, this integrated archive supports tsunami forecast, warning, research, mitigation and education efforts of NOAA and the Nation. Understanding the severity and timing of tsunami effects is important for tsunami hazard mitigation and warning. The global historical tsunami database includes the date, time, and location of the source event, magnitude of the source, event validity, maximum wave height, the total number of fatalities and dollar damage. The database contains additional information on run-ups (locations where tsunami waves were observed by eyewitnesses, field reconnaissance surveys, tide gauges, or deep ocean sensors). The run-up table includes arrival times, distance from the source, measurement type, maximum wave height, and the number of fatalities and damage for the specific run-up location. Tide gauge data are required for modeling the interaction of tsunami waves with the coast and for verifying propagation and inundation models. NGDC is the long-term archive for all NOAA coastal tide gauge data and is currently archiving 15-second to 1-minute water level data from the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. DART® buoys, which are essential components of tsunami warning systems, are now deployed in all oceans, giving coastal communities

  7. TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hubbard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS, National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC, NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

  8. Tsunami.gov: NOAA's Tsunami Information Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the new Tsunami.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of tsunami information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called Tsunami Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest tsunami alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based tsunami messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The Tsunami.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective tsunami warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand Tsunami.gov to encompass tsunami-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA Tsunami Website, National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger Tsunami Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into

  9. Tsunamis - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning harbor wave. It is a water wave or a series of waves generated by an impulsive vertical displacement of the surface of the ocean...

  10. Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Josephine Fauci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This qualitative study is aimed at analysing the impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Quality of Life of the Sri Lankan population. It focused on the factors that have contributed to an increase in the people's susceptibility to the impact of hazards - their vulnerability - as well as of the natural ability to cope of the populations affected - their resilience. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on the conduction of 10 Focus Group discussions and 18 In-depth Interviews, then analysed through a qualitative analysis software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping. The complexity of this situation opens further speculation as to how disasters and relief interventions influence relationships and dynamics in society. This should thus be further investigated, together with the effects of individual and group trauma on society.

  11. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  12. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  13. Assessment of human immediate response capability related to tsunami threats in Indonesia at a sub-national scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J.; Wegscheider, S.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Kiefl, R.; Steinmetz, T.; Strunz, G.

    2009-07-01

    Human immediate response is contextualized into different time compartments reflecting the tsunami early warning chain. Based on the different time compartments the available response time and evacuation time is quantified. The latter incorporates accessibility of safe areas determined by a hazard assessment, as well as environmental and demographic impacts on evacuation speed properties assessed using a Cost Distance Weighting GIS approach. Approximately 4.35 million Indonesians live in tsunami endangered areas on the southern coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali and have between 20 and 150 min to reach a tsunami-safe area. Most endangered areas feature longer estimated-evacuation times and hence the population possesses a weak immediate response capability leaving them more vulnerable to being directly impacted by a tsunami. At a sub-national scale these hotspots were identified and include: the Mentawai islands off the Sumatra coast, various sub-districts on Sumatra and west and east Java. Based on the presented approach a temporal dynamic estimation of casualties and displacements as a function of available response time is obtained for the entire coastal area. As an example, a worst case tsunami scenario for Kuta (Bali) results in casualties of 25 000 with an optimal response time (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning) and 120 000 for minimal response time (no evacuation). The estimated casualties correspond well to observed/reported values and overall model uncertainty is low with a standard error of 5%. The results obtained allow for prioritization of intervention measures such as early warning chain, evacuation and contingency planning, awareness and preparedness strategies down to a sub-district level and can be used in tsunami early warning decision support.

  14. The Puerto Rico Component of the National Tsunami Hazard and Mitigation Program (PR-NTHMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Lopez, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Caribbean region has a documented history of damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas. Of particular interest is the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands (PRVI) region, where the proximity of the coast to prominent tectonic faults would result in near-field tsunamis. Tsunami hazard assessment, detection capabilities, warning, education and outreach efforts are common tools intended to reduce loss of life and property. It is for these reasons that the PRSN is participating in an effort with local and federal agencies to develop tsunami hazard risk reduction strategies under the NTHMP. This grant supports the TsunamiReady program, which is the base of the tsunami preparedness and mitigation in PR. In order to recognize threatened communities in PR as TsunamiReady by the US NWS, the PR Component of the NTHMP have identified and modeled sources for local, regional and tele-tsunamis and the results of simulations have been used to develop tsunami response plans. The main goal of the PR-NTHMP is to strengthen resilient coastal communities that are prepared for tsunami hazards, and recognize PR as TsunamiReady. Evacuation maps were generated in three phases: First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios of potential underwater earthquakes were developed, and these scenarios were then modeled through during the second phase. The third phase consisted in determining the worst-case scenario based on the Maximum of Maximums (MOM). Inundation and evacuation zones were drawn on GIS referenced maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Maps and related evacuation products, like evacuation times, can be accessed online via the PR Tsunami Decision Support Tool. Based on these evacuation maps, tsunami signs were installed, vulnerability profiles were created, communication systems to receive and disseminate tsunami messages were installed in each TWFP, and tsunami response plans were

  15. The Cape Mendocino tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Bernard, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    The Cape Mendocino earthquake of April 25, 1992, generated a tsunami recorded by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) sea level gauges in California, Oregon, and Hawaii. The accompanying figure shows the tsunami waveforms acquired at twelve of these stations. the table that follows identifies these stations and gives preliminary estimates of the tsunami travel time from the source region to selected West Coast stations. 

  16. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  17. Tsunami overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Robert C; Llewellyn, D Mark

    2006-10-01

    Historically, floods and tsunamis have caused relatively few severe injuries; an exception to that tendency followed the great Andaman Island-Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of 2004. More than 280,000 people died, the coastal plains were massively scoured, and more than 1 million individuals were made homeless by the quake and resulting tsunami, which affected a 10-nation region around the Indian Ocean. This destruction overwhelmed local resources and called forth an unprecedented, prolonged, international response. The USNS Mercy deployed on a unique mission and rendered service to the people and government of Indonesia. This introduction provides background on the nature and extent of the damage, conditions upon arrival of the hospital ship 5 weeks after the initial destruction, and the configuration of professionals aboard (officers and sailors of the U.S. Navy, civilian volunteers from Project HOPE, officers of the U.S. Public Health Service, and officers and civilian mariners of the Military Sealift Command). Constraints on the mission provide context for the other articles of this issue that document and comment on the activities, challenges, methods, and accomplishments of this unique mission's "team of teams," performing humanitarian assistance and disaster relief in the Pacific theater. PMID:17447612

  18. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hock Lye, E-mail: kohhl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my [Office of Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Post Graduate Studies, UCSI University, Jalan Menara Gading, 56000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Teh, Su Yean, E-mail: syteh@usm.my [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che [Malaysian Meteorological Department, MOSTI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  19. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-01

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  20. Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

  1. Yakutat Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Yakutat, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  2. Bermuda Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bermuda Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  3. NOAA's Integrated Tsunami Database: Data for improved forecasts, warnings, research, and risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, Kelly; Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; McCullough, Heather; Carignan, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility in the United States for tsunami forecast, warning, research, and supports community resiliency. NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics provide a unique collection of data enabling communities to ensure preparedness and resilience to tsunami hazards. Immediately following a damaging or fatal tsunami event there is a need for authoritative data and information. The NGDC Global Historical Tsunami Database (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/) includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. The long-term data from these events, including photographs of damage, provide clues to what might happen in the future. NGDC catalogs the information on global historical tsunamis and uses these data to produce qualitative tsunami hazard assessments at regional levels. In addition to the socioeconomic effects of a tsunami, NGDC also obtains water level data from the coasts and the deep-ocean at stations operated by the NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, and the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and produces research-quality data to isolate seismic waves (in the case of the deep-ocean sites) and the tsunami signal. These water-level data provide evidence of sea-level fluctuation and possible inundation events. NGDC is also building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support real-time forecasts, implemented at 75 US coastal communities. After a damaging or fatal event NGDC begins to collect and integrate data and information from many organizations into the hazards databases. Sources of data include our NOAA partners, the U.S. Geological Survey, the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and International Tsunami Information Center

  4. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated

  5. Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

    2007-07-01

    The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products. PMID:17368868

  6. Tsunami Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    An important issue that vexes tsunami warning centers (TWCs) is when to cancel a tsunami warning once it is in effect. Emergency managers often face a variety of pressures to allow the public to resume their normal activities, but allowing coastal populations to return too quickly can put them at risk. A TWC must, therefore, exercise caution when cancelling a warning. Kim and Whitmore (2013) show that in many cases a TWC can use the decay of tsunami oscillations in a harbor to forecast when its amplitudes will fall to safe levels. This technique should prove reasonably robust for local tsunamis (those that are potentially dangerous within only 100 km of their source region) and for regional tsunamis (whose danger is limited to within 1000km of the source region) as well. For ocean-crossing destructive tsunamis such as the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami, however, this technique may be inadequate. When a tsunami propagates across the ocean basin, it will encounter topographic obstacles such as seamount chains or coastlines, resulting in coherent reflections that can propagate great distances. When these reflections reach previously-impacted coastlines, they can recharge decaying tsunami oscillations and make them hazardous again. Warning center scientists should forecast sea-level records for 24 hours beyond the initial tsunami arrival in order to observe any potential reflections that may pose a hazard. Animations are a convenient way to visualize reflections and gain a broad geographic overview of their impacts. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has developed tools based on tsunami simulations using the RIFT tsunami forecast model. RIFT is a linear, parallelized numerical tsunami propagation model that runs very efficiently on a multi-CPU system (Wang et al, 2012). It can simulate 30-hours of tsunami wave propagation in the Pacific Ocean at 4 arc minute resolution in approximately 6 minutes of real time on a 12-CPU system. Constructing a 30-hour animation using 1

  7. The effect analysis of 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the West Coast of Japan to Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minkyu; Rhee, Hyunme; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It is very difficult to determine and assessment for tsunami hazard. For determining a tsunami risk for NPP site, a development of tsunami hazard is one of the most important. Through the tsunami hazard analysis, a tsunami return period can be determined. For the performing a tsunami hazard analysis, empirical method and numerical method should be needed. Kim et al, already developed tsunami hazard for east coast of Korea for the calculation of tsunami risk of nuclear power plant. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, a development of tsunami catalog should be performed. In the previous research of Kim et al, the maximum wave height was assumed by the author's decision based on historical record in the annals of Chosun dynasty for evaluating the tsunami catalog. Therefore, in this study, a literature survey was performed for a quantitative measure of historical tsunami record transform to qualitative tsunami wave height for the evaluation of tsunami catalog. In this study, the 1741 tsunami was determined by using a literature review for the evaluation of tsunami hazard. The 1741 tsunami reveals a same tsunami between the historical records in Korea and Japan. The tsunami source of 1741 tsunami was not an earthquake and volcanic. Using the numerical analysis, the wave height of 1741 tsunami can be determined qualitatively.

  8. Tsunami Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Safety Highway Safety Landslide Pet Safety Poisoning Power Outage Terrorism Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire ... Facebook Twitter Flickr Youtube Donate Funds Your Donation Impacts Lives ... Disaster Relief Health and Safety Training & Education Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance ...

  9. The unperceived risk to Europe's coasts: tsunamis and the vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmann, J.; Teichman, K. V.; Welle, T.; González, M.; Olabarrieta, M.

    2010-12-01

    The development of appropriate risk and vulnerability reduction strategies to cope with tsunami risks is a major challenge for countries, regions, and cities exposed to potential tsunamis. European coastal cities such as Cadiz are exposed to tsunami risks. However, most official risk reduction strategies as well as the local population are not aware of the probability of such a phenomenon and the potential threat that tsunami waves could pose to their littoral. This paper outlines how tsunami risks, and particularly tsunami vulnerability, could be assessed and measured. To achieve this, a vulnerability assessment framework was applied focusing on the city of Cadiz as a case study in order to highlight the practical use and the challenges and gaps such an assessment has to deal with. The findings yield important information that could assist with the systematic improvement of societal response capacities of cities and their inhabitants to potential tsunami risks. Hazard and vulnerability maps were developed, and qualitative data was obtained through, for example, focused group discussions. These maps and surveys are essential for the development of a people-centred early warning and response system. Therefore, in this regard, the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected seas promoted by the UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) should encompass these assessments to ensure that action is particularly intensified and fostered by those potentially exposed. That means that besides the necessary technical infrastructure for tsunami detection, additional response and adaptation measures need to be promoted - particularly those that reduce the vulnerability of people and regions exposed - in terms of national systems. In addition, it is important to develop emergency preparedness and awareness plans in order to create an integrated regional Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) by 2011. The

  10. The unperceived risk to Europe's coasts: tsunamis and the vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Birkmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate risk and vulnerability reduction strategies to cope with tsunami risks is a major challenge for countries, regions, and cities exposed to potential tsunamis. European coastal cities such as Cadiz are exposed to tsunami risks. However, most official risk reduction strategies as well as the local population are not aware of the probability of such a phenomenon and the potential threat that tsunami waves could pose to their littoral. This paper outlines how tsunami risks, and particularly tsunami vulnerability, could be assessed and measured. To achieve this, a vulnerability assessment framework was applied focusing on the city of Cadiz as a case study in order to highlight the practical use and the challenges and gaps such an assessment has to deal with. The findings yield important information that could assist with the systematic improvement of societal response capacities of cities and their inhabitants to potential tsunami risks. Hazard and vulnerability maps were developed, and qualitative data was obtained through, for example, focused group discussions. These maps and surveys are essential for the development of a people-centred early warning and response system. Therefore, in this regard, the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected seas promoted by the UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC should encompass these assessments to ensure that action is particularly intensified and fostered by those potentially exposed. That means that besides the necessary technical infrastructure for tsunami detection, additional response and adaptation measures need to be promoted – particularly those that reduce the vulnerability of people and regions exposed – in terms of national systems. In addition, it is important to develop emergency preparedness and awareness plans in order to create an integrated regional Tsunami Early Warning

  11. Tsunami response system for ports in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H.-R.; Cho, J.-S.; Cho, Y.-S.

    2015-09-01

    The tsunamis that have occurred in many places around the world over the past decade have taken a heavy toll on human lives and property. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is not safe from tsunamis, particularly the eastern coastal areas, which have long sustained tsunami damage. The eastern coast had been attacked by 1983 and 1993 tsunami events. The aim of this study was to mitigate the casualties and property damage against unexpected tsunami attacks along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula by developing a proper tsunami response system for important ports and harbors with high population densities and high concentrations of key national industries. The system is made based on numerical and physical modelings of 3 historical and 11 virtual tsunamis events, field surveys, and extensive interviews with related people.

  12. Cordova, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cordova, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  13. Sitka, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  14. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arecibo, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  15. Seward, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seward, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  16. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  17. Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seaside, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  18. Apra Harbor, Guam Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apra Harbor, Guam Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  19. Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — As part of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), the Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R)) Project is an ongoing effort...

  20. Nawiliwili, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nawiliwili, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  1. Kihei, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kihei, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  2. Hanalei, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hanalei, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  3. CO-OPS 1-minute Raw Tsunami Water Level Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CO-OPS has been involved with tsunami warning and mitigation since the Coast & Geodetic Survey started the Tsunami Warning System in 1948 to provide warnings to...

  4. Kawaihae, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kawaihae, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  5. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  6. Lahaina, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Lahaina, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  7. Kahului, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kahului, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  8. Keauhou, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Keauhou, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  9. Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  10. Honolulu, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Honolulu, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  11. Hilo, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hilo, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  12. Haleiwa, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Haleiwa, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  13. Unalaska, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Unalaska, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  14. Savannah, Georgia Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Savannah, Georgia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  15. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  17. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  18. Point Reyes, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Point Reyes, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  19. Port Alexander, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Alexander, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  20. Los Angeles, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Los Angeles, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  1. Montauk, New York Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Montauk, New York Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  2. Florence, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florence, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  3. Port Angeles, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Angeles, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  4. Tsunami focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  5. Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald I. Zalewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII, European Summary Innovative Index (SII, Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

  6. Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R))

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), the Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R)) Project is an ongoing effort...

  7. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  8. Psychometrically and qualitatively validating a cross-national cumulative measure of fear-based xenophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Yakushko, O.; Higler, L.; Hagen, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    .40. The result, a cross-national 5-item scale measuring fear-based xenophobia, was tested by means of the Three-step Test-Interview (Hak, Van der Veer and Jansen 2008) with 10 students in The Netherlands and 10 students in Norway. The analysis of these qualitative interviews shows that individual r

  9. Predicting natural catastrophes tsunamis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    1. Tsunamis - Introduction - Definition of phenomenon - basic properties of the waves Propagation and dispersion Interaction with coasts - Geological and societal effects Origin of tsunamis - natural sources Scientific activities in connection with tsunamis. Ideas about simulations 2. Tsunami generation - The earthquake source - conventional theory The earthquake source - normal mode theory The landslide source Near-field observation - The Plafker index Far-field observation - Directivity 3. Tsunami warning - General ideas - History of efforts Mantle magnitudes and TREMOR algorithms The challenge of "tsunami earthquakes" Energy-moment ratios and slow earthquakes Implementation and the components of warning centers 4. Tsunami surveys - Principles and methodologies Fifteen years of field surveys and related milestones. Reconstructing historical tsunamis: eyewitnesses and geological evidence 5. Lessons from the 2004 Indonesian tsunami - Lessons in seismology Lessons in Geology The new technologies Lessons in civ...

  10. Tsunami Casualty Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  11. Tsunami-HySEA model validation for tsunami current predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; González-Vida, José Manuel; Ortega, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Model ability to compute and predict tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be produced by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Besides, an accurate simulation of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations is fundamental for advancing in the study of tsunami sediment transport. These considerations made the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) proposing a benchmark exercise focussed on modeling and simulating tsunami currents. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities were available to compare and to validate model results. After Tohoku 2011 many current meters measurement were made, mainly in harbors and channels. In this work we present a part of the contribution made by the EDANYA group from the University of Malaga to the NTHMP workshop organized at Portland (USA), 9-10 of February 2015. We have selected three out of the five proposed benchmark problems. Two of them consist in real observed data from the Tohoku 2011 event, one at Hilo Habour (Hawaii) and the other at Tauranga Bay (New Zealand). The third one consists in laboratory experimental data for the inundation of Seaside City in Oregon. Acknowledgements: This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069) and the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Andalucía TECH. The GPU and multi-GPU computations were performed at the Unit of Numerical Methods (UNM) of the Research Support Central Services (SCAI) of the University of Malaga.

  12. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  13. In Brief: Tsunami hits the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    A magnitude 8.1 earthquake shook the Solomon Islands on 1 April at approximately 7:40 A.M. local time. The earthquake generated a tsunami several meters high that struck many of the islands. The earthquake occurred along the boundary of the Pacific plate where the Australia, Woodlark, and Solomon Sea plates subduct beneath it, according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Program. At least 34 people were killed by the tsunami and several dozen more are still missing, according to the National Disaster Council in the Solomon Islands. The NDC estimates that 900-2500 homes were destroyed by the tsunami, displacing about 5500 people.

  14. Tsunami Risk and Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Khomarudin, Muhammad Rokhis

    2010-01-01

    The research focuses on providing reliable spatial information in support of tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment within the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project. It contributes to three major components of the project: (1) the provision of spatial information on surface roughness as an important parameter for tsunami inundation modeling and hazard assessment; (2) the modeling of population distribution, which is an essential factor in tsunami ...

  15. Tsunami Information Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2005-01-01

    I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms), propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic) modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/ero...

  16. NGDC/WDS Global Historical Tsunami Database, 2100 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Tsunami Database provides information on over 2,400 tsunamis from 2100 BC to the present in the the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; and...

  17. Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with

  18. Advanced Planning for Tsunamis in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.; Larkin, D.; Reade, S.; Carnathan, D.; Davis, M.; Nicolini, T.; Johnson, L.; Boldt, E.; Tardy, A.

    2013-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program is comprised of the California Governor's Office of Emergency Services (CalOES) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) and funded through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The program works closely with the 20 coastal counties in California, as well as academic, and industry experts to improve tsunami preparedness and mitigation in shoreline communities. Inundation maps depicting 'worst case' inundation modeled from plausible sources around the Pacific were released in 2009 and have provided a foundation for public evacuation and emergency response planning in California. Experience during recent tsunamis impacting the state (Japan 2011, Chile 2010, Samoa 2009) has brought to light the desire by emergency managers and decision makers for even more detailed information ahead of future tsunamis. A solution to provide enhanced information has been development of 'playbooks' to plan for a variety of expected tsunami scenarios. Elevation 'playbook' lines can be useful for partial tsunami evacuations when enough information about forecast amplitude and arrival times is available to coastal communities and there is sufficient time to make more educated decisions about who to evacuate for a given scenario or actual event. NOAA-issued Tsunami Alert Bulletins received in advance of a distant event will contain an expected wave height (a number) for each given section of coast. Provision of four elevation lines for possible inundation enables planning for different evacuation scenarios based on the above number potentially alleviating the need for an 'all or nothing' decision with regard to evacuation. Additionally an analytical tool called FASTER is being developed to integrate storm, tides, modeling errors, and local tsunami run-up potential with the forecasted tsunami amplitudes in real-time when a tsunami Alert is sent out. Both of these products will help

  19. Global Tsunami Database: Adding Geologic Deposits, Proxies, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has expanded the tsunami data archive to include information inferred from the geologic record. Tsunami history provides clues to what might happen in the future, including frequency of occurrence and maximum wave heights. However, instrumental and written records commonly span too little time to reveal the full range of a region's tsunami hazard, so a global database of citations to articles on tsunami deposits was added to the archive. The citation database provides additional data on historical events and extends the record of tsunamis backward in time, in some cases to prehistoric or paleotsunami deposits preserved in the geologic record. The sedimentary deposits of tsunamis, identified with the aid of modern analogs, increasingly complement instrumental and human observations. Deposit locations, their estimated age and descriptions of the deposits themselves fill in the tsunami record. Tsunamis inferred from proxies, such as evidence for coseismic subsidence, are included to estimate recurrence intervals, but are flagged to highlight the absence of a physical deposit. There are currently over 800 citations describing deposits from all over the world in the database. More than half of the deposits are from Quaternary tsunamis and over 300 are associated with a specific historic tsunami event. The tsunami deposits are integrated with the historical tsunami event database where applicable. For example, users can search for articles describing deposits related to the 1755 Lisbon tsunami and view those records, as well as link to the related historic event record. Users can search the tsunami deposit database for a given location, year or geologic age, event or author. The data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and display data from the Oracle database (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services).

  20. Community exposure to tsunami hazards in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    data from Infogroup (2011), including 168,565 employees (2 percent of the 20-county labor force) at 15,335 businesses that generate approximately $30 billion in annual sales. Although the regional percentage of at-risk employees is low, certain communities, such as Belvedere, Alameda, and Crescent City, have high percentages of their local workforce in the tsunami-inundation zone. Employees in the tsunami-inundation zone are primarily in businesses associated with tourism (for example, accommodations, food services, and retail trade) and shipping (for example, transportation and warehousing, manufacturing, and wholesale trade), although the dominance of these sectors varies substantially among the 94 cities. Although the number of occupants is not known for each site, the tsunami-inundation zone contains numerous dependent-population facilities, such as schools and child daycare centers, which may have individuals with limited mobility. The tsunami-inundation zone includes a substantial number of facilities that provide community services, such as banks, religious organizations, and grocery stores, where local residents may be unaware of evacuation procedures if previous awareness efforts focused on home preparedness. There are also numerous recreational areas in the tsunami-inundation zone, such as amusement parks, marinas, city and county beaches, and State and national parks, which attract visitors who may not be aware of tsunami hazards or evacuation procedures. During peak summer months, estimated daily attendance at city and county beaches can be approximately six times larger than the total number of residents in the tsunami-inundation zone. Community exposure to tsunamis in California varies considerably—some communities may experience great losses that reflect only a small part of their community and others may experience relatively small losses that devastate them. Among 94 incorporated communities and the remaining unincorporated areas of the 20 coastal

  1. Tsunami: The Underrated Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, Costas; Fryer, Gerard J.

    Tsunami: the Underrated Hazard, by Edward Bryant, would appear to be a welcome addition to the scholarly tsunami literature. No book on tsunamis has the broad perspective of this work. The book looks attractive, with many high-quality photographs. It looks comprehensive, with discussions of tsunami hydrodynamics, tsunami effects on coastal landscapes, and causes of tsunamis (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts). It looks practical, with a section on risk and mitigation. It also looks entertaining, with an opening chapter on tsunami legends and a closing chapter presenting fanciful descriptions of imagined events. Appearances are deceiving, though. Any initial enthusiasm for the work evaporates on even casual reading. The book is so flawed by errors, omissions, confusion, and unsupported conjecture that we cannot recommend it to anyone.

  2. A culture of tsunami preparedness and applying knowledge from recent tsunamis affecting California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    It is the mission of the California Tsunami Program to ensure public safety by protecting lives and property before, during, and after a potentially destructive or damaging tsunami. In order to achieve this goal, the state has sought first to use finite funding resources to identify and quantify the tsunami hazard using the best available scientific expertise, modeling, data, mapping, and methods at its disposal. Secondly, it has been vital to accurately inform the emergency response community of the nature of the threat by defining inundation zones prior to a tsunami event and leveraging technical expertise during ongoing tsunami alert notifications (specifically incoming wave heights, arrival times, and the dangers of strong currents). State scientists and emergency managers have been able to learn and apply both scientific and emergency response lessons from recent, distant-source tsunamis affecting coastal California (from Samoa in 2009, Chile in 2010, and Japan in 2011). Emergency managers must understand and plan in advance for specific actions and protocols for each alert notification level provided by the NOAA/NWS West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center. Finally the state program has provided education and outreach information via a multitude of delivery methods, activities, and end products while keeping the message simple, consistent, and focused. The goal is a culture of preparedness and understanding of what to do in the face of a tsunami by residents, visitors, and responsible government officials. We provide an update of results and findings made by the state program with support of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program through important collaboration with other U.S. States, Territories and agencies. In 2009 the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) completed tsunami inundation modeling and mapping for all low-lying, populated coastal areas of California to assist local jurisdictions on

  3. Psychometrically and qualitatively validating a cross-national cumulative measure of fear-based xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Veer, van der, P.; Ommundsen, R.; Yakushko, O.; Higler, L.; Hagen, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    .40. The result, a cross-national 5-item scale measuring fear-based xenophobia, was tested by means of the Three-step Test-Interview (Hak, Van der Veer and Jansen 2008) with 10 students in The Netherlands and 10 students in Norway. The analysis of these qualitative interviews shows that individual respondents’ criteria for the ranking of the scale items strongly depend on the way immigrants are framed. Ranking according to different levels of fear turned out to be only one criterion out of se...

  4. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcas, D.; Uslu, B.; Titov, V.; Chamberlin, C.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Guam is located approximately 1500 miles south of Japan, in the vicinity of the Mariana Trench. It is surrounded in close proximity by three subduction zones, Nankai-Taiwan, East Philippines and Mariana Trench that pose a considerable near to intermediate field tsunami threat. Tsunami catalogues list 14 tsunamigenic earthquake with Mw≥8.0 since 1900 only in this region, (Soloviev and Go, 1974; Lander, 1993; Iida, 1984; Lander and Lowell, 2002), however the island has not been significantly affected by some of the largest far-field events of the past century, such as the 1952 Kamchatka, 1960 Chile, and the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake. An assessment of the tsunami threat to the island from both near and far field sources, using forecast tools originally developed at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) for real-time forecasting of tsunamis is presented here. Tide gauge records from 1952 Kamchatka, 1964 Alaska, and 1960 Chile earthquakes at Apra Harbor are used to validate our model set up, and to explain the limited impact of these historical events on Guam. Identification of worst-case scenarios, and determination of tsunamigenic effective source regions are presented for five vulnerable locations on the island via a tsunami sensitivity study. Apra Harbor is the site of a National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge and the biggest harbor on the island. Tumon Bay, Pago Bay, Agana Bay and Inarajan Bay are densely populated areas that require careful investigation. The sensitivity study shows that earthquakes from Eastern Philippines present a major threat to west coast facing sites, whereas the Marina Trench poses the biggest concern to the east coast facing sites.

  5. Marin Tsunami (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  6. Seismically generated tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcas, Diego; Segur, Harvey

    2012-04-13

    People around the world know more about tsunamis than they did 10 years ago, primarily because of two events: a tsunami on 26 December 2004 that killed more than 200,000 people around the shores of the Indian Ocean; and an earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 that killed nearly 15,000 more and triggered a nuclear accident, with consequences that are still unfolding. This paper has three objectives: (i) to summarize our current knowledge of the dynamics of tsunamis; (ii) to describe how that knowledge is now being used to forecast tsunamis; and (iii) to suggest some policy changes that might protect people better from the dangers of future tsunamis.

  7. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  8. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  9. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    surveyed again. The run-up heights for both 1983 and 1993 Tsunami events are computed along the Eastern Coastline of the Korean Peninsula. Finally, a tsunami hazard map is generated based on the computed and observed run-up heights. Significant information such as proper evacuation routes, shelters and hot lines are included in the map. Acknowledgements The research described in this publication was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Reference No. 2010-0022337).

  10. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao

    Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface

  11. TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Necmioglu, O.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.; Comoglu, M.; Ozel, N. M.; Wächter, J.

    2012-04-01

    The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (CTWP) responsibilities for the NEAM region. Based on this profound experience, KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios. However, KOERI's most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools

  12. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Horspool

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500–2500 years, the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1–10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  13. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  14. Economics of Tsunami Mitigation in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, K. A.; Rizzo, A.; Sigrist, D.; Bernard, E. N.

    2011-12-01

    from tsunamis, earthquakes and tornadoes are comparable. High hazard areas for tornadoes and earthquakes cover ~40% and ~15% of the contiguous US, ~1,250,000 and ~500,000 square miles, respectively. In marked contrast, tsunami life safety risk is concentrated in communities with significant populations in areas where evacuation to high ground is impossible: probably benefit-cost ratio would be about 16 or about 80 for tsunami mitigation projects which cost 5 million or 1 million, respectively. These rough calculations indicate that tsunami mitigation projects in high risk locations are economically justified. More importantly, these results indicate that national and local priorities for natural hazard mitigation should be reconsidered, with tsunami mitigation given a very high priority.

  15. Response to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Shuto, Nobuo

    2015-10-28

    We revisited the lessons of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami disaster specifically on the response and impact, and discussed the paradigm shift of Japan's tsunami disaster management policies and the perspectives for reconstruction. Revisiting the modern histories of Tohoku tsunami disasters and pre-2011 tsunami countermeasures, we clarified how Japan's coastal communities have prepared for tsunamis. The discussion mainly focuses on structural measures such as seawalls and breakwaters and non-structural measures of hazard map and evacuation. The responses to the 2011 event are discussed specifically on the tsunami warning system and efforts to identify the tsunami impacts. The nation-wide post-tsunami survey results shed light on the mechanisms of structural destruction, tsunami loads and structural vulnerability to inform structural rehabilitation measures and land-use planning. Remarkable paradigm shifts in designing coastal protection and disaster mitigation measures were introduced, leading with a new concept of potential tsunami levels: Prevention (Level 1) and Mitigation (Level 2) levels according to the level of 'protection'. The seawall is designed with reference to Level 1 tsunami scenario, while comprehensive disaster management measures should refer to Level 2 tsunami for protection of human lives and reducing potential losses and damage. Throughout the case study in Sendai city, the proposed reconstruction plan was evaluated from the tsunami engineering point of view to discuss how the post 2011 paradigm was implemented in coastal communities for future disaster mitigation. The analysis revealed that Sendai city's multiple protection measures for Level 2 tsunami will contribute to a substantial reduction of the tsunami inundation zone and potential losses, combined with an effective tsunami evacuation plan. PMID:26392623

  16. Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Tsunami, July 12, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake occurred off the west coast of Hokkaido and the small offshore island of Okushiri in the Sea of Japan. In two to five minutes the tsunami, one of the...

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND IN VARIOUS NATIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative characteristics of accounting information presented by financial-accounting reports represent a concept which was subsequently introduced in the national legal accounting framework and, as a rule, the national conceptual frameworks represent the documents by means of which these quality criteria are established. At a worldwide level, there are more international or national organisms that have an important role in the elaboration of accounting standards in general and more specifically in the formulation of qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. We find two important ones among them, and these are: International Accounting Standards Board, which creates and promotes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, and Financial Accounting Standards Board, which elaborates Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. However, at the level of each country a standardizing authority decides the rules for producing the financial reports and the qualitative characteristics that must be respected by the information contained in these documents. In this context, this paper aims to present a few general considerations concerning the treatment of the qualitative characteristics of the financial-accounting information in different accounting systems, such as the American one, or the British, French, German, Romanian ones, with insistence on the international approach to qualitative characteristics.

  18. The Catalog of Event Data of the Operational Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) Stations at the National Data Buoy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R.; Locke, L.; Hansen, W.; Collins, S.; McArthur, S.

    2007-12-01

    DART systems are a critical component of the tsunami warning system as they provide the only real-time, in situ, tsunami detection before landfall. DART systems consist of a surface buoy that serves as a position locater and communications transceiver and a Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) on the seafloor. The BPR records temperature and pressure at 15-second intervals to a memory card for later retrieval for analysis and use by tsunami researchers, but the BPRs are normally recovered only once every two years. The DART systems also transmit subsets of the data, converted to an estimation of the sea surface height, in near real-time for use by the tsunami warning community. These data are available on NDBC's webpages, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml. Although not of the resolution of the data recorded to the BPR memory card, the near real-time data have proven to be of value in research applications [1]. Of particular interest are the DART data associated with geophysical events. The DART BPR continuously compares the measured sea height with a predicted sea-height and when the difference exceeds a threshold value, the BPR goes into Event Mode. Event Mode provides an extended, more frequent near real-time reporting of the sea surface heights for tsunami detection. The BPR can go into Event Mode because of geophysical triggers, such as tsunamis or seismic activity, which may or may not be tsunamigenic. The BPR can also go into Event Mode during recovery of the BPR as it leaves the seafloor, or when manually triggered by the Tsunami Warning Centers in advance of an expected tsunami. On occasion, the BPR will go into Event Mode without any associated tsunami or seismic activity or human intervention and these are considered "False'' Events. Approximately one- third of all Events can be classified as "False". NDBC is responsible for the operations, maintenance, and data management of the DART stations. Each DART station has a webpage with a drop-down list of all

  19. Major Tsunamis of 1992 - Nicaragua and Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At 7:16 p.m. on September 1, 1992, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.0 generated a tsunami with waves between eight and fifteen meters high that struck twenty-six...

  20. The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie; Jones, Lucile

    2013-01-01

    The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey (CGS), the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.

  1. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  2. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  3. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  4. Embedded Tsunami Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ramya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today Tsunami is the very wild natural disaster that threatens the mankind. An automated warning system should be designed to measure the pressure variations under the sea. So in the case of anyabnormal rise in the pressure level under the sea, an alarm is produced as well as messages are sent to concerned persons using mobile computing. In this study a proximity capacitive sensor and embedded micro controller is designed to announce the oncoming of Tsunami to the authorized person.

  5. Partnership disengagement from primary community care networks (PCCNs: A qualitative study for a national demonstration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng-Chieh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Primary Community Care Network (PCCN Demonstration Project, launched by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI in 2003, is still in progress. Partnership structures in PCCNs represent both contractual clinic-to-clinic and clinic-to-hospital member relationships of organizational aspects. The partnership structures are the formal relationships between individuals and the total network. Their organizational design aims to ensure effective communication, coordination, and integration across the total network. Previous studies have focused largely on how contractual integration among the partnerships works and on its effects. Few studies, however, have tried to understand partnership disengagement in PCCNs. This study explores why some partnerships in PCCNs disengage. Methods This study used a qualitative methodology with semi-structured questions for in-depth interviews. The semi-structured questions were pre-designed to explore the factors driving partnership disengagement. Thirty-seven clinic members who had withdrawn from their PCCNs were identified from the 2003-2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network Lists. Results Organization/participant factors (extra working time spend and facility competency, network factors (partner collaboration, and community factors (health policy design incompatibility, patient-physician relationship, and effectiveness are reasons for clinic physicians to withdraw or change their partnerships within the PCCNs. Conclusions To strengthen partnership relationships, several suggestions are made, including to establish clinic and hospital member relationships, and to reduce administrative work. In addition, both educating the public about the concept of family doctors and ensuring well-organized national health policies could help health care providers improve the integration processes.

  6. Perceptions of radiography and the National Health Service: a qualitative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C.R. E-mail: c.r.coombs@lboro.ac.uk; Park, J.R.; Loan-Clarke, J.; Arnold, J.; Preston, D.; Wilkinson, A.J

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the factors that determine the attractiveness of radiography as a career choice and of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer to potential recruits and returners. Methods: Individual and group interviews were conducted in the East Midlands region to explore participants' perceptions of the attractiveness of the NHS as an employer to potential radiography staff. Interviews were conducted with school pupils, radiography students, mature students, radiography assistants, agency radiographers and independent sector radiographers. Results: Eighty-eight individuals participated in the qualitative stage of the study. Analysis of the interview transcripts indicated that radiography as a career choice is perceived as boring and routine, involving high workloads and little recognition from the general public. Working with patients is the source of considerable job satisfaction but is offset by staff shortages, lack of flexibility over working hours and a lack of consideration of family commitments in the NHS. Financial costs are highlighted as dissuading many participants from considering a career as a radiographer in the NHS or returning to work for the NHS. Greater use of open days in conjunction with more advertising of the profession is suggested as tactics to improve recruitment. Conclusions: The provision of more flexible working hours, greater consideration of family commitments and increased financial support for training are necessary to improve the attractiveness of a radiography career. NHS Human Resource Managers should consider these findings concerning the applicant and returner pools when developing strategies to address the current shortfall of radiographers.

  7. Perceptions of radiography and the National Health Service: a qualitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify the factors that determine the attractiveness of radiography as a career choice and of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer to potential recruits and returners. Methods: Individual and group interviews were conducted in the East Midlands region to explore participants' perceptions of the attractiveness of the NHS as an employer to potential radiography staff. Interviews were conducted with school pupils, radiography students, mature students, radiography assistants, agency radiographers and independent sector radiographers. Results: Eighty-eight individuals participated in the qualitative stage of the study. Analysis of the interview transcripts indicated that radiography as a career choice is perceived as boring and routine, involving high workloads and little recognition from the general public. Working with patients is the source of considerable job satisfaction but is offset by staff shortages, lack of flexibility over working hours and a lack of consideration of family commitments in the NHS. Financial costs are highlighted as dissuading many participants from considering a career as a radiographer in the NHS or returning to work for the NHS. Greater use of open days in conjunction with more advertising of the profession is suggested as tactics to improve recruitment. Conclusions: The provision of more flexible working hours, greater consideration of family commitments and increased financial support for training are necessary to improve the attractiveness of a radiography career. NHS Human Resource Managers should consider these findings concerning the applicant and returner pools when developing strategies to address the current shortfall of radiographers

  8. Tsunami: ocean dynamo generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field ('ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that tsunami flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a tsunami, which propagated through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted tsunami characteristics, including the direction and velocity of propagation as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of tsunami are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of tsunami forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of tsunami early-warning systems. PMID:24399356

  9. Tsunami Generation Modelling for Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, A.; Matias, L.; Ulutas, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Carrilho, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the Institute of Meteorology in Portugal, a complete analytical tool to support Early Warning Systems is being developed. The tool will be part of the Portuguese National Early Warning System and will be used also in the frame of the UNESCO North Atlantic Section of the Tsunami Early Warning System. The system called Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) includes a worldwide scenario database that has been pre-calculated using the SWAN-JRC code (Annunziato, 2007). This code uses a simplified fault generation mechanism and the hydraulic model is based on the SWAN code (Mader, 1988). In addition to the pre-defined scenario, a system of computers is always ready to start a new calculation whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismic networks (such as USGS or EMSC) and is judged capable to generate a Tsunami. The calculation is performed using minimal parameters (epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake): the programme calculates the rupture length and rupture width by using empirical relationship proposed by Ward (2002). The database calculations, as well the newly generated calculations with the current conditions are therefore available to TAT where the real online analysis is performed. The system allows to analyze also sea level measurements available worldwide in order to compare them and decide if a tsunami is really occurring or not. Although TAT, connected with the scenario database and the online calculation system, is at the moment the only software that can support the tsunami analysis on a global scale, we are convinced that the fault generation mechanism is too simplified to give a correct tsunami prediction. Furthermore short tsunami arrival times especially require a possible earthquake source parameters data on tectonic features of the faults like strike, dip, rake and slip in order to minimize real time uncertainty of rupture parameters. Indeed the earthquake

  10. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Luchuan

    2015-04-01

    A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters Luchuan Ren, Jianwei Tian, Mingli Hong Institute of Disaster Prevention, Sanhe, Heibei Province, 065201, P.R. China It is obvious that the uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights in offshore area are partly from uncertainties of the potential seismic tsunami source parameters. A global sensitivity analysis method on the maximum tsunami wave heights to the potential seismic source parameters is put forward in this paper. The tsunami wave heights are calculated by COMCOT ( the Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model), on the assumption that an earthquake with magnitude MW8.0 occurred at the northern fault segment along the Manila Trench and triggered a tsunami in the South China Sea. We select the simulated results of maximum tsunami wave heights at specific sites in offshore area to verify the validity of the method proposed in this paper. For ranking importance order of the uncertainties of potential seismic source parameters (the earthquake's magnitude, the focal depth, the strike angle, dip angle and slip angle etc..) in generating uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights, we chose Morris method to analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to the aforementioned parameters, and give several qualitative descriptions of nonlinear or linear effects of them on the maximum tsunami wave heights. We quantitatively analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to these parameters and the interaction effects among these parameters on the maximum tsunami wave heights by means of the extended FAST method afterward. The results shows that the maximum tsunami wave heights are very sensitive to the earthquake magnitude, followed successively by the epicenter location, the strike angle and dip angle, the interactions effect between the sensitive parameters are very obvious at specific site in offshore area, and there

  11. Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily – Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grezio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial and location (streets; and (iii the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur.

  12. The Study to Improve Tsunami Preparedness Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Tanırcan, Gülüm; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Puskulcu, Seyhun; Kumamoto, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Compared to its long history on disastrous earthquakes, disaster education history in Turkey is rather short. It has just started with an initiative of Disaster Preparedness Education Unit of Bogazici University (BU/DPEU) after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Training modules and materials on disaster preparedness were prepared both for students, teachers and community. Regarding to the school education, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) reformed their education plan in 2003, and disaster education became one of eight focused components for primary-middle education. In 2011-2014 MoNE had conducted "School-based Disaster Education Project" in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The majority of the school education materials focus more on earthquake and there are very few education programs on tsunami. Within the MarDiM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) project between Turkey and Japan a multidisciplinary engineering research as well as development of disaster education, tsunami education booklet and video were newly developed in 2015. In order to investigate students' knowledge natural disasters and disaster preparedness with focus on tsunami, a questionnaire based survey was conducted. The survey aims to clarify following questions: 1) how students obtain natural disaster information, 2) how students prepare for natural disaster, 3) knowledge on tsunami (hazard mechanism, evacuation behavior, historical disaster). The study was conducted by BU/DPEU in 2015 and 375 students answered the questionnaire. Results showed that students have more interest on earthquake, flood, tsunami and landslide followed it. Most students have heard about tsunami and the school is a key resource of their information. They know relatively well about tsunami mechanism, however, they have less knowledge on tsunami evacuation behavior and tsunami history in Turkey. In order to let students have

  13. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  14. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Food Safety After a Tsunami Language: English Español (Spanish) ... baby formula that requires no added water. Keeping Foods Cold If available, dry ice can be used ...

  15. 2004 Sumatra Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongvisessomjai, S.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A catastrophic tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused devastation in the coastal region of six southern provinces of Thailand on the Andaman Sea coast. This paper summaries the characteristics of tsunami with the aim of informing and warning the public and reducing future casualties and damage.The first part is a review of the records of past catastrophic tsunamis, namely those in Chile in 1960, Alaska in 1964, and Flores, Java, Indonesia, in 1992, and the lessons drawn from these tsunamis. An analysis and the impact of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami is then presented and remedial measures recommended.Results of this study are as follows:Firstly, the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranked fourth in terms of earthquake magnitude (9.0 M after those in 1960 in Chile (9.5 M, 1899 in Alaska (9.2 M and 1964 in Alaska (9.1 M and ranked first in terms of damage and casualties. It was most destructive when breaking in shallow water nearshore.Secondly, the best alleviation measures are 1 to set up a reliable system for providing warning at the time of an earthquake in order to save lives and reduce damage and 2 to establish a hazard map and implement land-use zoning in the devastated areas, according to the following principles:- Large hotels located at an elevation of not less than 10 m above mean sea level (MSL- Medium hotels located at an elevation of not less than 6 m above MSL- Small hotel located at elevation below 6 m MSL, but with the first floor elevated on poles to allow passage of a tsunami wave- Set-back distances from shoreline established for various developments- Provision of shelters and evacuation directionsFinally, public education is an essential part of preparedness.

  16. Tsunamis from nature to physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helal, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Giza, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: mahelal@yahoo.com; Mehanna, M.S. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Giza, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-05-15

    Tsunamis are gravity waves that propagate near the ocean surface. They belong to the same family as common sea waves that we enjoy at the beach; however, tsunamis are distinct in their mode of generation and in their characteristic period, wavelength, and velocity. The type of tsunamis that induce widespread damage number about one or two per decade. Thus 'killer tsunamis' although fearful, are a relatively rare phenomenon.

  17. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2009-01-01

    I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms), propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic) modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/ero...

  18. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  19. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and tsunami resilience on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting tsunami warning communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county tsunami response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist

  20. The SAFRR tsunami scenario: improving resilience for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile M.; Miller, Kevin; Porter, Keith A.; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick I.; Bahng, Bohyun; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose C.; Brosnan, Deborah M.; Bwarie, John T.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Knight, William R.; Long, Kate; Lynett, Patrick; Mortensen, Carl E.; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Perry, Suzanne C.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Real, Charles R.; Ryan, Kenneth; Suleimani, Elena; Thio, Hong Kie; Titov, Vasily V.; Whitmore, Paul M.; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the resulting tsunami devastated Japan with a disaster of unfathomable proportions. Five thousand miles away, the waves from Tohoku caused $50 to 100 million in damages in California. Although this pales in comparison to the loss of lives and property in Japan, the U.S. Government must ask whether California, and the national economy, will someday face worse consequences from other distant-source tsunamis. Unfortunately, the answer is “yes.”

  1. Tsunami: scientific frontiers, mitigation, forecasting and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E N; Mofjeld, H O; Titov, V; Synolakis, C E; González, F I

    2006-08-15

    Tsunamis are an ever-present threat to lives and property along the coasts of most of the world's oceans. As the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 reminded the world, we must be more proactive in developing ways to reduce their impact on our global society. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of tsunamis, presents some challenges confronting advances in the field and identifies some promising frontiers leading to a global warning system. This overview is then used to develop guidelines for advancing the science of forecasting, hazard mitigation programmes and the development of public policy to realize a global system. Much of the information on mitigation and forecasting draws upon the development and accomplishments of a joint state/federal partnership that was forged to reduce tsunami hazards along US coastlines-the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Programme. By integrating hazard assessment, warning guidance and mitigation activities, the programme has created a roadmap and a set of tools to make communities more resilient to local and distant tsunamis. Among the tools are forecasting, educational programmes, early warning systems and design guidance for tsunami-resilient communities. Information on international cooperation is drawn from the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). GEOSS provides an international framework to assure international compatibility and interoperability for rapid exchange of data and information. PMID:16844645

  2. Alternative tsunami models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A; Lyatskaya, I [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)], E-mail: arjun.tan@aamu.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  3. May Gravity detect Tsunami ?

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D

    2004-01-01

    The present gravitational wave detectors are reaching lowest metric deviation fields able to detect galactic and extra-galactic gravitational waves, related to Supernova explosions up to Virgo cluster. The same gravitational wave detector are nevertheless almost able to reveal near field gravitational perturbations due to fast huge mass displacements as the ones occurring during largest Earth-Quake or Tsunami as the last on 26th December 2004 in Asiatic area. The prompt gravitational near field deformation by the Tsunami may reach the LIGO threshold sensitivity within 3000-10000 km distances. Their eventual discover (in LIGO data or in future on-line detector arrays) may offer the most rapid warning alarm system on earth. Nevertheless the later continental mass rearrangement and their gravitational field assessment on Earth must induce, for Richter Magnitude 9 Tsunami, a different terrestrial inertia momentum and a different rotation axis, as well as a detectable shrinking of the Earth radius of nearly R =1.7...

  4. ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis are low frequency but high impact natural disasters. In 2004, the Boxing Day tsunami killed hundreds of thousands of people from many nations along the coastlines of the Indian Ocean. Tsunami run-up exceeded 35 m. Seven years later, and in spite of some of the best warning technologies and levels of preparedness in the world, the Tohoku-Oki tsunami in Japan dramatically showed the limitations of scientific knowledge on tsunami sources, coastal impacts and mitigation measures. The experience from Japan raised serious questions on how to improve the resilience of coastal communities, to upgrade the performance of coastal defenses, to adopt a better risk management, and also on the strategies and priorities for the reconstruction of damaged coastal areas. Societal resilience requires the reinforcement of capabilities to manage and reduce risk at national and local scales.ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe), a 36-month FP7 project, aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in this region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all CTWPs of NEAM and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) basic knowledge of tsunami generation and recurrence going beyond simple catalogues, with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas of NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation, with focus on real-time codes and novel statistical emulation approaches, and iii) methods for assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better tools for forecast and warning for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant

  5. Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than

  6. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Eskijian, M.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase tsunami hazard preparedness and mitigation in maritime communities (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The initial goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine 'safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. We will present details of a new initiative to evaluate the future likelihood of failure for different structural components of a harbor, leading to the identification of high priority areas for mitigation. This presentation will focus on the results from California ports and harbors across the State, and will include feedback we have received from discussions with local harbor masters and port authorities. To help promote accurate and consistent products, the authors are also working through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to organize a tsunami current model benchmark workshop.

  7. The Papua New Guinea tsunami of 17 July 1998: anatomy of a catastrophic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Tappin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Papua New Guinea (PNG tsunami of July 1998 was a seminal event because it demonstrated that relatively small and relatively deepwater Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs can cause devastating local tsunamis that strike without warning. There is a comprehensive data set that proves this event was caused by a submarine slump. Yet, the source of the tsunami has remained controversial. This controversy is attributed to several causes. Before the PNG event, it was questionable as to whether SMFs could cause devastating tsunamis. As a result, only limited modelling of SMFs as tsunami sources had been undertaken, and these excluded slumps. The results of these models were that SMFs in general were not considered to be a potential source of catastrophic tsunamis. To effectively model a SMF requires fairly detailed geological data, and these too had been lacking. In addition, qualitative data, such as evidence from survivors, tended to be disregarded in assessing alternative tsunami sources. The use of marine geological data to identify areas of recent submarine failure was not widely applied.

    The disastrous loss of life caused by the PNG tsunami resulted in a major investigation into the area offshore of the devastated coastline, with five marine expeditions taking place. This was the first time that a focussed, large-scale, international programme of marine surveying had taken place so soon after a major tsunami. It was also the first time that such a comprehensive data set became the basis for tsunami simulations. The use of marine mapping subsequently led to a larger involvement of marine geologists in the study of tsunamis, expanding the knowledge base of those studying the threat from SMF hazards. This paper provides an overview of the PNG tsunami and its impact on tsunami science. It presents revised interpretations of the slump architecture based on new seabed relief images and, using these, the most comprehensive tsunami simulation of the

  8. Coordinating Post-Tsunami Field Surveys in the us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L. S.; Chiesa, C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Huart, J.; Richards, K.; Shulters, M.; Stein, A.; Tamura, G.; Wilson, R. I.; Young, E.

    2011-12-01

    Post-tsunami scientific field surveys are critical for improving the understanding of tsunamis and developing tools and programs to mitigate their effects. After a destructive tsunami, international, national, and local tsunami scientists need to gather information, much of which is perishable or degrades significantly with time. An influx of researchers can put stress on countries already overwhelmed by humanitarian response to the disaster and by the demands of emergency management and other support agencies. In the United States, in addition to university research scientists, government agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS), and state/territorial emergency management agencies and geological surveys endeavor to collect physical and social science data to better understand the physics of tsunamis and the impact they have on coastal communities and ecosystems. After a Presidential Major Disaster Declaration, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Joint Field Office works with state/territory emergency management agencies to coordinate response to disasters. In the short-term, the collection and immediate sharing of data enable decision-making that better organizes and deploys often-limited resources to the areas most critically in need of response; and in the long-term, improves recovery planning that will mitigate the losses from the next tsunami. Recent tsunamis have emphasized the need for improved coordination of data collection among scientists and federal, state, and local emergency managers. Improved coordination will ensure data collection efforts are carried out in a safe, secure, efficient, and timely manner. To improve coordination of activities that will better integrate the scientific investigations with government response, the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program and Pacific Risk Management 'Ohana (PRiMO) are working together to develop a consistent framework for

  9. METHODS OF TSUNAMI DETECTION AND OF POST-TSUNAMI SURVEYS

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    A. Kurkin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we describe some of the methods of the last 25 years which have been used extensively to examine and register tsunami traces - particularly by satellite imaging of coastal zones before and after a tsunami has struck, thus assessing quickly the extent of coastal inundation over large areas without the need of a site visit. Nearly all countries bordering oceans, seas and bodies of water have established digital systems of water level registration in the range of tsunami waves. In this article we describe methods of tsunami detection and runup measurements, some based on our own participation in post-tsunami surveys. Also, we discuss the possibility of using robotic systems to survey tsunami traces in hard-to- reach places.

  10. SAFRR Tsunami Scenarios and USGS-NTHMP Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Wood, N. J.; Cox, D. A.; Jones, L.; Cheung, K. F.; Chock, G.; Gately, K.; Jones, J. L.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Nicolsky, D.; Richards, K.; Wein, A. M.; Wilson, R. I.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard scenarios provide emergency managers and others with information to help them prepare for future disasters. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario, published in 2013, modeled a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. It presented the modeled inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the scenario tsunami. The intended users were those responsible for making mitigation decisions before and those who need to make rapid decisions during future tsunamis. It provided the basis for many exercises involving, among others, NOAA, the State of Washington, several counties in California, and the National Institutes of Health. The scenario led to improvements in the warning protocol for southern California and highlighted issues that led to ongoing work on harbor and marina safety. Building on the lessons learned in the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario, another tsunami scenario is being developed with impacts to Hawaii and to the source region in Alaska, focusing on the evacuation issues of remote communities with primarily shore parallel roads, and also on the effects of port closures. Community exposure studies in Hawaii (Ratliff et al., USGS-SIR, 2015) provided background for selecting these foci. One complicated and important aspect of any hazard scenario is defining the source event. The USGS is building collaborations with the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to consider issues involved in developing a standardized set of tsunami sources to support hazard mitigation work. Other key USGS-NTHMP collaborations involve population vulnerability and evacuation modeling.

  11. Mexican Earthquakes and Tsunamis Catalog Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Castillo-Aja, R.

    2015-12-01

    Today the availability of information on the internet makes online catalogs very easy to access by both scholars and the public in general. The catalog in the "Significant Earthquake Database", managed by the National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI formerly NCDC), NOAA, allows access by deploying tabular and cartographic data related to earthquakes and tsunamis contained in the database. The NCEI catalog is the product of compiling previously existing catalogs, historical sources, newspapers, and scientific articles. Because NCEI catalog has a global coverage the information is not homogeneous. Existence of historical information depends on the presence of people in places where the disaster occurred, and that the permanence of the description is preserved in documents and oral tradition. In the case of instrumental data, their availability depends on the distribution and quality of seismic stations. Therefore, the availability of information for the first half of 20th century can be improved by careful analysis of the available information and by searching and resolving inconsistencies. This study shows the advances we made in upgrading and refining data for the earthquake and tsunami catalog of Mexico since 1500 CE until today, presented in the format of table and map. Data analysis allowed us to identify the following sources of error in the location of the epicenters in existing catalogs: • Incorrect coordinate entry • Place name erroneous or mistaken • Too general data that makes difficult to locate the epicenter, mainly for older earthquakes • Inconsistency of earthquakes and the tsunami occurrence: earthquake's epicenter located too far inland reported as tsunamigenic. The process of completing the catalogs directly depends on the availability of information; as new archives are opened for inspection, there are more opportunities to complete the history of large earthquakes and tsunamis in Mexico. Here, we also present new earthquake and

  12. THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT

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    H. Hébert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

  13. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN THE PACIFIC: Brief Historical Review of its Establishment and Institutional Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2015 marks the 50th anniversary of operations of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific Ocean. The present report describes briefly the establishment of the rudimentary early tsunami warning system in 1948 by the USA after the disastrous tsunami of April 1, 1946, generated by a great earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, struck without warning the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the Pacific. Also reviewed are the progressive improvements made to the U.S. warning system, following the destructive tsunamis of 1952, 1957, 1960 and 1964, and of the early, support efforts undertaken in the U.S.A., initially by the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics of the University of Hawaii, by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and by the Honolulu Observatory - later renamed Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC. Following the 1964 Alaska tsunami, there was increased international cooperation, which resulted in a better understanding of the tsunami phenomenon and the development of a new field of Science of Tsunami Hazards in support of the early U.S. Warning System. Continuous supporting international cooperative efforts after 1965, resulted in the integration of the U.S. early warning system with other early regional tsunami warning systems of other nations to become the International Tsunami Warning System under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO for the purpose of mitigating the disaster’s impact in the Pacific, but later expanded to include other regions. Briefly reviewed in this paper is the subsequent institutional support of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific, by the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC, the International Tsunami Coordination Group (ICG/ITS, the Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC, the Joint Tsunami Research Effort (JTRE, NOAA’s National Geophysical Center (NGDC, the Pacific Marine Laboratory (PMEL of NOAA and of the later

  14. Japanese Experience with Long-term Recovery from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2015-12-01

    On March 11, 2011, a huge tsunami disaster hit Pacific coast of Tohoku region due to a magnitude of 9.0 earthquake, and killed almost 20,000 people. It was also the beginning of long-term recovery to prepare for next tsunami attack in the future. In this presentation, I would like to review the recovery process from the following five elements: quantification of tsunami hazards, public education, evacuation model, land-use planning, and real-time tsunami warning. It should be noted that there are lessons from the 2011 event at two different levels: national level and prefecture levels. In relation to the quantification of tsunami hazard and real-time tsunami warning, it followed a big change in tsunami policy at national level such as setting up two levels of tsunami scenarios for tsunami preparedness and mitigation: Level 1 tsunami (L1) and Level 2 tsunami (L2). L1 is the tsunami risk with 50 year return period, and L2 is the one with 1,000 year return period. As for public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning, There existed a big difference for what happened in the northern half of the coast and the southern half. Northern half of the coast belongs to Iwate Prefecture whose geography is rias coast. People in the Rias coast of Iwate Prefecture has been hit many times by tsunami on the average of about 50 years. With these many experiences, they succeeded in reducing the number of mortality down to 4,000 in comparison with 20,000 at the 1886 tsunami disaster. Most of the Southern half belongs to Miyagi Prefecture whose geography is coastal plain. People in the coastal plain in Miyagi Prefecture has little experience with tsunami disaster and end up with 14,000 deaths due to tsunami attack. The differences in the past tsunami experiences in these two prefectures resulted in big differences in public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning.

  15. Improving tsunami resiliency: California's Tsunami Policy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Charles R.; Johnson, Laurie; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie; Kontar, Y.A.; Santiago-Fandiño, V.; Takahashi, T.

    2014-01-01

    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group to facilitate development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The Tsunami Policy Working Group brings together government and industry specialists from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering. The group is acting on findings from two parallel efforts: The USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario project, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from an M 9.1 earthquake in the Aleutian Islands Subduction Zone striking California’s coastline, and the State’s Tsunami Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. The unique dual-track approach provides a comprehensive assessment of vulnerability and risk within which the policy group can identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation and risk reduction, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments, and provide advice that will assist development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard risk communication products to improve community resiliency.

  16. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico

  17. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Coral Damage and Tsunami Dynamics; Case Study: 2009 Samoa Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya I.; Titov, Vasily V.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2015-12-01

    On September 29, 2009, an Mw = 8.1 earthquake at 17:48 UTC in Tonga Trench generated a tsunami that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga islands. Tutuila island, which is located 250 km from the earthquake epicenter, experienced tsunami flooding and strong currents on the north and east coasts, causing 34 fatalities (out of 192 total deaths from this tsunami) and widespread structural and ecological damage. The surrounding coral reefs also suffered heavy damage. The damage was formally evaluated based on detailed surveys before and immediately after the tsunami. This setting thus provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between tsunami dynamics and coral damage. In this study, estimates of the maximum wave amplitudes and coastal inundation of the tsunami are obtained with the MOST model (T itov and S ynolakis, J. Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng: pp 171, 1998; T itov and G onzalez, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL 112:11, 1997), which is now the operational tsunami forecast tool used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The earthquake source function was constrained using the real-time deep-ocean tsunami data from three DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting for Tsunamis) systems in the far field, and by tide-gauge observations in the near field. We compare the simulated run-up with observations to evaluate the simulation performance. We present an overall synthesis of the tide-gauge data, survey results of the run-up, inundation measurements, and the datasets of coral damage around the island. These data are used to assess the overall accuracy of the model run-up prediction for Tutuila, and to evaluate the model accuracy over the coral reef environment during the tsunami event. Our primary findings are that: (1) MOST-simulated run-up correlates well with observed run-up for this event ( r = 0.8), it tends to underestimated amplitudes over coral reef environment around Tutuila (for 15 of 31 villages, run

  18. TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES

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    Andrei G. Marchuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.

  19. Science of Tsunami Forecasting: 2010 Chilean Tsunami Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vasily; Bernard, Eddie; Tang, Rachel; Wei, Yong; Uslu, Burak; Eble, Marie

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami forecasting with real-time models and real-time data has always been one of the main goals of tsunami research. The February 27th, 2010 Chile tsunami provided the challenge and the opportunity to test the modern state of the science in tsunami forecasting. By contrast with the previous basin-wide tsunami generated by the third largest 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the fifth largest Chilean earthquake occurred at the time and in the area where a variety of real-time measurements and model forecast models have been available to assess the generated tsunami in real-time. The Chile tsunami was generated by a Mw 8.8 earthquake (35.846S, 72.719W ), at 06:34 UTC, 115 km (60 miles) NNE of Concepcion, Chile (according to the USGS). It has been recorded at coastal sea level gages around the Pacific Ocean, staring from the near-field record that caught the wave half an hour after generation at Valparaiso, to the coastal recordings of the wave arrived at Japan and Russian Far East almost a day later. In approximately 3 hours after the earthquake, the tsunami was first recorded at DART buoy 32412, providing real-time deep ocean signature of the propagating tsunami. All that measurements provided ample data for the real-time forecast analysis and for the model performance and forecast skills assessment throughout the Pacific basin. We present results of the performance of the NOAA forecast. The forecast method uses MOST model with the data assimilated from the earthquake and deep-ocean tsunami DART measurement. The comparison with tide gages and coastal impacts provide opportunity to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the forecast. The successes, lessons learned and future challengers for the tsunami forecast science are discussed.

  20. The Tsunami challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Pietro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Many lives could have been saved on 26 December 2004, when the tsunami unleashed by an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra struck a dozen coastal villages along the Indian Ocean. Those lives could have been saved if, on that day, science communication had not resulted in a complete failure to communicate scientific information adequately in many cases, in different places and at different levels.

  1. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ostbo, Bruce I.; Oates, Don

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

  2. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right

  3. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: from Publication to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.; Burkett, E. R.; Bwarie, J.; Campbell, N. M.; Johnson, L. A.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K.; Real, C. R.; Ritchie, L. A.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario modeled a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We presented the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the scenario tsunami. The intended users were those responsible for making mitigation decisions before and those who need to make rapid decisions during future tsunamis. The Tsunami Scenario process is being evaluated by the University of Colorado's Natural Hazards Center; this is the first time that a USGS scenario of this scale has been formally and systematically evaluated by an external party. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario was publicly introduced in September, 2013, through a series of regional workshops in California that brought together emergency managers, maritime authorities, first responders, elected officials and staffers, the business sector, state agencies, local media, scientific partners, and special districts such as utilities (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1170/). In March, 2014, NOAA's annual tsunami warning exercise, PACIFEX, was based on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Many groups conducted exercises associated with PACIFEX including the State of Washington and several counties in California. San Francisco had the most comprehensive exercise with a 3-day functional exercise based on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. In addition, the National Institutes of Health ran an exercise at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in April, 2014, building on the Tsunami Scenario, focusing on the recovery phase and adding a refinery fire. The benefits and lessons learned include: 1) stimulating dialogue among practitioners to solve problems; 2) seeing groups add extra components to their exercises that best address their

  4. Tsunami hazard assessment along the U. S. East Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajalli Bakhsh, T.; Grilli, S. T.; Harris, J. C.; Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Tehranirad, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) was tasked by Congress to develop tsunami inundation maps for the entire US coastline. This work provides an overview of the modeling work related to the development inundation maps along the US east coast. In this region the paucity of historical tsunami records and lack of paleotsunami observations yields a large uncertainty on the source and magnitude of potential extreme tsunami events, and their related coastal hazard. In the Atlantic Ocean basin significant tsunami hazard may result from far-field earthquakes, such as a repeat of the M8.9 Lisbon 1755 event in the Azores convergence zone, or a hypothetical extreme M9 earthquake in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). Additionally, it is believed that a repeat of one of the large historical collapses, identified at the toe of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma (Canary Islands; i.e., with a maximum volume of 450 km3), could pose a major tsunami hazard to the entire US east coast. Finally, in the near-field, large submarine mass failure (SMF) scars have been mapped by USGS, particularly North of the Carolinas (e.g., Currituck), which are believed to have caused past tsunamis. Large SMFs can be triggered by moderate seismicity (M7 or so), such as can occur on the east coast. In fact, one of the few historical tsunamis that significantly affected this region was caused by the 1929 Grand Bank underwater slide, which was triggered by a M7.2 earthquake. In this work we identify and parameterize all potential tsunami sources affecting the US east coast, and perform simulations of tsunami generation, propagation, and coastal impact in a series of increasingly resolved nested grids. Following this methodology, tsunami inundation maps are currently being developed for a few of the most affected areas. In simulations, we use a robust and well-validated Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq long-wave model (FUNWAVE-TVD), on Cartesian or spherical grids. Coseismic tsunami

  5. Tsunami Field Survey for the Solomon Islands Earthquake of April 1, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Y.; Tanioka, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuji, Y.; Namegaya, Y.; Murata, M.; Woodward, S.

    2007-12-01

    Two weeks after the 2007 off-Solomon earthquake, an international tsunami survey team (ITST) of Japanese and US researchers performed a post tsunami survey in Ghizo and adjacent islands. Main purpose of the team was to provide information on the earthquake and tsunami to the national disaster council of the Solomon Islands, who was responsible for the disaster management at that time. The ITST had interview with the affected people and conducted reconnaissance mapping of the tsunami heights and flow directions. Tsunami flow heights at beach and inland were evaluated from watermarks on buildings and the position of broken branches and stuck materials on trees. These tsunami heights along the southern to western coasts of Ghizo Island were ca. 5m (a.s.l.). Tsunami run-up was traced by distribution of floating debris that carried up by the tsunami and deposited at their inundation limit. The maximum run-up was measured at Tapurai of Simbo Island to be ca. 9 m. Most of the inundation area was covered by 0-10 cm thick tsunami deposit that consists of beach sand, coral peaces and eroded soil. Coseismic uplift and subsidence were clearly identified by changes of the sea level before and after the earthquake, that were inferred by eyewitness accounts and evidences such as dried up coral reeves. These deformation patterns, as well as the tsunami height distribution, could constrain the earthquake fault geometry and motion. It is worthy of mention that the tsunami damage in villages in Ranongga Island has significantly reduced by 2-3 m uplift before the tsunami attack.

  6. Tsunami Preparedness in California (videos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about tsunami preparedness in California distinguish between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).

  7. SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario--Executive Summary and Introduction: Chapter A in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile M.; Miller, Kevin; Porter, Keith A.; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick I.; Bahng, Bohyun; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose C.; Brosnan, Deborah M.; Bwarie, John T.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Knight, William R.; Long, Kate; Lynett, Patrick; Mortensen, Carl E.; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Perry, Suzanne C.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Real, Charles R.; Ryan, Kenneth; Suleimani, Elena; Thio, Hong Kie; Titov, Vasily V.; Whitmore, Paul M.; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey, the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.

  8. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms, propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/erosion; hazard mitigation; land use planning; zoning; siting, design, construction and maintenance of structures and infrastructure; public awareness and education; distant and local sources; tsunami warning and evacuation programs; tsunami probability and risk criteria. A few references are on "sedimentary signatures" useful in the study of historic and prehistoric tsunamis (paleo-tsunamis. In addition to references specifically on tsunamis, there are references on long water wave and solitary wave theory; wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection; shelf and basin free and forced oscillations (bay and harbor response; seiches; edge waves; Mach- reflection of long water waves ("stem waves"; wave run-up on shore; energy dissipation. All are important in understanding tsunamis, and in hazard mitigation. References are given on subaerial and submarine landslide (and rockfall generated waves in reservoirs, fjords, bays, and ocean; volcano explosive eruptions/collapse; underwater and surface explosions; asteroid impact. This report is in two parts: 1 Bibliographies, books and pamphlets, catalogs, collections, journals and newsletters, maps, organizations, proceedings, videos and photos; 2 Articles, papers, reports listed alphabetically by author.Many papers on the Indian Ocean (Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, were given at the 22nd IUGG International Tsunami Symposium, Chania, Crete, 27-29 June 2005, but had not been published at the date of this report. For

  9. A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted that there are many missing jigsaw puzzle pieces in scientific knowledge, starting from the generating of tsunamis offshore to the countless influences to the marine ecosystems on the continental shelf, coastal areas and on land and to the economic and social systems consequences. As with all deposits that do not have a direct physical link to their causative sources, marine tsunami deposits must be distinguished from other deposits through regional correlation, dating and criteria for recognition within the deposits themselves. This study aims to provide comprehensive reviews on using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs as a chemical proxy to discriminate tsunami relateddeposits from typical marine sediments. The advantages and disadvantages of this chemical tracer will be critically reviewed and further discussed.

  10. National and International Disability Rights Legislation: A Qualitative Account of Its Enactment in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis based on the lived experiences of the study participants and the researcher (each with vision impairment) in education, post school and in the pursuit for employment is developed. The policy discourses of disability legislation--both at national and international levels--are explored with particular reference to…

  11. Regional tsunami vulnerability analysis through ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osso, Filippo; Cavalletti, Alessandra; Immordino, Francesco; Gonella, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of vulnerability to natural hazards is a key issue of prevention measures within ICZM. Knowledge of susceptibility to damage and how this is distributed along the coast allows to optimize possible prevention and mitigation actions. The present study focuses on tsunami vulnerability of a large extension of coastline: the entire westerly Thailand's coast. The work is a follow up of the CRATER project (Coastal Risk Analysis for Tsunamis and Environmental Remediation) carried out on the aftermath of the 26th December 2004 Tsunami event. Vulnerability is analyzed considering an inundation scenario given by a tsunami of seismic origin, causing a maximum run-up of 25m.. An innovative methodology have been here developed and applied, based on the combined use of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery, SRTM v-3 (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission - version #3) DEMs and GIS. Vulnerability level has been calculated combining information on coastal geomorphology, land use, topography and distance from the shoreline. Land use has been extrapolated from ASTER images through a multi-spectral analysis (a pixel-based and supervised classification process) of ASTER bands 1 to 9, plus one band for the NDVI index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Coastal geomorphology has been obtained through a photo-interpretation process. Results have been organized in a set of vectorial vulnerability maps with horizontal resolution of 90m. The proposed methodology has the great advantage of being repeatable for any case of vulnerability analysis at small-medium scale (i.e. at Regional/National level) with a moderate investment in term of costs and human resources.

  12. Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-03-01

    Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking. PMID:20167825

  13. A qualitative analysis of hate speech reported to the Romanian National Council for Combating Discrimination (2003‑2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Iordache

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the specificities of Romanian hate speech over a period of twelve years through a qualitative analysis of 384 Decisions of the National Council for Combating Discrimination. The study employs a coding methodology which allows one to separate decisions according to the group that was the victim of hate speech. The article finds that stereotypes employed are similar to those encountered in the international literature. The main target of hate speech is the Roma, who are seen as „dirty“, „uncivilized“ and a threat to Romania’s image abroad. Other stereotypes encountered were that of the „disloyal“ Hungarian and of the sexually promiscuous woman. Moreover, women are seen as unfit for management positions. The article also discusses stereotypes about homosexuals, who are seen as „sick“ and about non-orthodox religions, portrayed as „sectarian“.

  14. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  15. Processing and presentation of high-resolution DART° data for recent significant tsunami events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; Stroker, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colorado, is an integral part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. One of three NOAA data centers, NGDC hosts the long-term archive and management of tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards under collaborative development between the National Weather Service, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Data Buoy Center. Archive responsibilities include the global historic tsunami event and run-up database, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART°) event and native bottom pressure and temperature observations, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, historic marigrams, and other hazards-related data and information. In terms of tsunami observations, NGDC currently process and archives all recovered native or 15 seconds high-resolution DART° bottom pressure observation time series. Tsunami signal-to-noise ratios in the deep-ocean are such that de-tiding based on a combination of tidal harmonic predictions and carefully constructed filters are necessary to obtain clean tsunami records. The processing includes removing tides using a customized version of the IOS tidal package of Mike Foreman. Additional processing is applied for parts of the records with registered tsunami events where the noise from the intra-gravity waves and components representing larger scale oceanic processes are removed by band-pass Kaiser-Bessel filters. The NGDC tsunami archive contains processed full record high-resolution observations for the period 2002-2010. An event-specific archive of real-time and native high-resolution observations recorded during recent significant tsunamis, including the March 2011 Japan Tohoku event are now available through new event pages that have been integrated with the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami Event Database. Event pages are developed

  16. Managing and Distributing Historical Tsunami Catalogs via the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.

    2004-12-01

    Advances in internet technology have made it easy to "publish" data. The challenge now lies in meaningful presentation of these data. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Solid Earth Geophysics, Boulder, publishes large amounts of heterogeneous data on the web, including several historical tsunami catalogs that have been merged into one digital database. These catalogs vary in geographic as well as time coverage. They also have different quality levels and histories. Since historical tsunami data are valuable in the verification and testing of numerical models, it is important to know the quality of the data. It is our responsibility to make this information available with the data. NGDC is addressing this problem by developing a system that supports internal data management and improvement as well as public access to these data. These tools include a data dictionary, quality assessment tools built on relational database management systems (RDBMS), and web-based interfaces designed for many audiences. Storing the data in a RDBMS facilitates the integration of several tables related to a database, such as additional comments and references. For example, NGDC is in the process of scanning several original source documents that include eyewitness accounts of tsunami effects and making this information available as hyperlinks from the web pages. The RDBMS also facilitates the integration of several related databases, such as tsunami sources, tsunami runups, and significant earthquakes. All of these tools are more powerful when they are combined with a GIS-driven spatial selection tool integrated into an internet mapping environment. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including tsunami sources, tsunami effects, significant earthquakes, volcano locations, and various spatial reference layers such as topography, population density, and political boundaries. The map service also provides ftp

  17. Use of Advanced Tsunami Hazard Assessment Techniques and Tsunami Source Characterizations in U.S. and International Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, A. M.; Godoy, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, as well as the anticipation of the submission of license applications for new nuclear facilities, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear power plants and other coastal facilities in the United States. To undertake this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program jointly undertaken with researchers at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the purpose of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. This study identified and modeled both seismic and landslide tsunamigenic sources in the near- and far-field. The results from this work are now being used directly as the basis for the review of tsunami hazard at potential nuclear plant sites. This application once again shows the importance that the earth sciences can play in addressing issues of importance to society. Because the Indian Ocean Tsunami was a global event, a number of cooperative international activities have also been initiated within the nuclear community. The results of US efforts are being incorporated into updated regulatory guidance for both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United Nation’s International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Coordinated efforts are underway to integrate state-of-the art tsunami warning tools developed by NOAA into NRC and IAEA activities. The goal of the warning systems project is to develop automated protocols that allow scientists at these agencies to have up-to-the minute user-specific information in hand shortly after a potential tsunami has been identified by the US Tsunami Warning System. Lastly, USGS and NOAA scientists are assisting the NRC and IAEA in a special Extra-Budgetary Program (IAEA EBP) on tsunami being coordinated by the IAEA’s International Seismic Safety

  18. Introducing CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami), the Italian candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (It-cTWP) for the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Amato, Alessandro; Badiali, Lucio; Basili, Roberto; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Govoni, Aladino; Lauciani, Valentino; Lomax, Anthony; Lorito, Stefano; Mele, Francesco; Melini, Daniele; Molinari, Irene; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Selva, Jacopo; Selvaggi, Giulio; Sensale, Giampaolo; Tonini, Roberto; Vazzoler, Stefano; Zanolin, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The recently established CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami) at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) will be part of the Italian National Tsunami Warning Center (It-NTWC) and it is a candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) for the Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAMTWS). It-NTWC is a partnership of three Italian institutions: INGV, the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC) and the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, ISPRA) which provides the sea-level data of the Italian mareographic network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN) in quasi-real-time. CAT is the operational part of the It-NTWC based at the INGV 24/7 seismic monitoring centre in Rome. CAT will be committed to deliver tsunami warning messages to DPC and, when it will enter its operational cTWP phase, to any IOC/UNESCO member state that will subscribe for the service. The current implementation of CAT is based on the NEAMTWS Decision Matrix (DM). Earthquake parameters are determined automatically by the Early-Est (EE) software, and used as an input to DM and tsunami travel times calculation to provide warning messages, including earthquake parameters, plus level of alert and estimated tsunami arrival time at pre-defined forecast points along threatened coasts. Basing on updated automatic EE solutions, seismologist's revision, and sea-level readings subsequent messages can be delivered until warning status ends. The use of the DM allows a rapid implementation of a tsunami warning system, but it does not consider some important features to better characterize a tsunami forecast, such as the earthquake's focal mechanism, the directivity of tsunami propagation and the morphology of the coast. More sophisticated procedures are currently under development: a

  19. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic tsunami-tide simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grilli, Annette R.

    2016-05-01

    This work is part of a tsunami inundation mapping activity carried out along the US East Coast since 2010, under the auspice of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation program (NTHMP). The US East Coast features two main estuaries with significant tidal forcing, which are bordered by numerous critical facilities (power plants, major harbors,...) as well as densely built low-level areas: Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). HRE is the object of this work, with specific focus on assessing tsunami hazard in Manhattan, the Hudson and East River areas. In the NTHMP work, inundation maps are computed as envelopes of maximum surface elevation along the coast and inland, by simulating the impact of selected probable maximum tsunamis (PMT) in the Atlantic ocean margin and basin. At present, such simulations assume a static reference level near shore equal to the local mean high water (MHW) level. Here, instead we simulate maximum inundation in the HRE resulting from dynamic interactions between the incident PMTs and a tide, which is calibrated to achieve MHW at its maximum level. To identify conditions leading to maximum tsunami inundation, each PMT is simulated for four different phases of the tide and results are compared to those obtained for a static reference level. We first separately simulate the tide and the three PMTs that were found to be most significant for the HRE. These are caused by: (1) a flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Islands (with a 80 km3 volume representing the most likely extreme scenario); (2) an M9 coseismic source in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT); and (3) a large submarine mass failure (SMF) in the Hudson River canyon of parameters similar to the 165 km3 historical Currituck slide, which is used as a local proxy for the maximum possible SMF. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear and dispersive long wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, in a series of nested grids of increasing resolution towards the coast, by one

  20. System for Reporting High Resolution Ocean Pressures in Near Realtime for the Purposes of Tsunami Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This invention is the NOAA Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) system, which utilizes a seafloor tsunameter linked to an ocean surface buoy via...

  1. Detection of 12th September 2007 Sumatra Tsunami at Goa and Kavaratti Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Tengali, S.; Vijaykumar, K.

    Subsurface pressure based real-time reporting and Internet-accessible coastal sea-level stations designed and established by the Indian National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) reported the 12th September 2007 Sumatra tsunami waves from Goa (west...

  2. Online Dispute Resolution (ODR within Developing Nations: A Qualitative Evaluation of Transfer and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of online dispute resolution (ODR is developing both as practice and a profession. Evidence of this includes a growing community of scholars and practitioners. A Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA grant permitted 16 practitioners from developing countries to attend the 2008 ODR Forum in Victoria, British Columbia. In the year following the Forum, an evaluation was conducted to identify changes among these practitioners’ behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities and credibility. Results indicate that ODR practitioners in developing countries are engaged in a wide range of activities, many of which are technologically and logistically complex. These practitioners also face a number of political and infrastructural challenges that are not as commonly experienced by those from developed nations. Taken together, these realities have implications both for the nature of ODR’s proliferation as a legitimate practice, as well as for the provision of education and training concerning its underpinnings.

  3. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    tsunami is, if Heraklion could be affected by a tsunami, how a tsunami is generated etc. In the third part of the survey, people were asked questions regarding evacuation practices in case of a tsunami attack. In the last part, personal data, such as nationality, age, education level and more were collected. To analyse the replies received we used the statistical software SPSS. The results are really interesting showing that most people have only a general idea about the phenomenon of tsunamis while they don't feel sure about what to do or to avoid in case of a tsunami. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  4. Earthquake and Tsunami planning, outreach and awareness in Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, V.; Nicolini, T.; Larkin, D.; Dengler, L.

    2008-12-01

    Humboldt County has the longest coastline in California and is one of the most seismically active areas of the state. It is at risk from earthquakes located on and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ), other regional fault systems, and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Division of Mines and Geology published the first earthquake scenario to include both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of representatives from government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector from the three northern coastal California counties, was formed in 1996 to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation. The RCTWG and its member agencies have sponsored a variety of projects including education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning, and has sponsored an Earthquake - Tsunami Education Room at the Humboldt County fair for the past eleven years. Three editions of Living on Shaky Ground an earthquake-tsunami preparedness magazine for California's North Coast, have been published since 1993 and a fourth is due to be published in fall 2008. In 2007, Humboldt County was the first region in the country to participate in a tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD and the first area in California to conduct a full-scale tsunami evacuation drill. The County has conducted numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises using county-wide tsunami response plan. Two Humboldt County communities were recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service in 2007. Over 300 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in Humboldt County since March 2008. Six assessment surveys from 1993 to 2006 have tracked preparedness actions and personal

  5. Tsunami 2004 and the biological oceanography of Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Rahman, H.; Karuppasamy, P.K.; Nair, K.K.C.

    /plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 TSUNAMI 2004 AND THE BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF BAY OF BENGAL ROSAMMA STEPHEN, K.J. JAYALAKSHMI, HABEEB RAHMAN, P.K. KARUPPUSWAMY and K.K.C. NAIR National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, P.B.1913, Dr. Salim Ali Road...

  6. Uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.

    2016-01-01

    Erosion and deposition from tsunamis record information about tsunami hydrodynamics and size that can be interpreted to improve tsunami hazard assessment. We explore sources and methods for quantifying uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty varies with tsunami, study site, available input data, sediment grain size, and model. Although uncertainty has the potential to be large, published case studies indicate that both forward and inverse tsunami sediment transport models perform well enough to be useful for deciphering tsunami characteristics, including size, from deposits. New techniques for quantifying uncertainty, such as Ensemble Kalman Filtering inversion, and more rigorous reporting of uncertainties will advance the science of tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty may be decreased with additional laboratory studies that increase our understanding of the semi-empirical parameters and physics of tsunami sediment transport, standardized benchmark tests to assess model performance, and development of hybrid modeling approaches to exploit the strengths of forward and inverse models.

  7. A qualitative analysis of exemplary elementary science teachers' use and practice of the National Science Education Teaching Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Margaret Evans

    The dissertation's purpose was to document and discuss what 10 elementary science teachers, deemed exemplary by administrators, do in the science classroom to reflect the National Science Education Teaching Standards. To make implications for teacher education this report also explored these teachers' science professional development backgrounds. A qualitative triangulated approach of surveys, interviews and observations was used to document actualities, of what theorists have proposed should take place in a standards-based elementary science classroom. Several behavior patterns were identified among these exemplary teachers and their students. These teachers organized for collaborative and individual responsibility; planned according to the needs and interests of their students; encouraged scientific discourse and decision making among their students; facilitated the scientific inquiry process with hands-on, higher-order activities; and used alternative assessment strategies. They were involved in collaboration with peers in planning, training, and decision malting at the school, district, state, and national levels. Exposure to professional development and experience were identified as having the greatest influence on these exemplary teachers. During science lessons taught by these teachers, students were observed in high degrees of cooperation and collaboration with peers while engaging in higher-order discourse and process inquiry, regardless of their academic or social levels. Implications for science teachers' professional development are made, as are suggestions for future research in this area.

  8. Emergency management response to a warning-level Alaska-source tsunami impacting California: Chapter J in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin M.; Long, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is directed towards two audiences: Firstly, it targets nonemergency management readers, providing them with insight on the process and challenges facing emergency managers in responding to tsunami Warning, particularly given this “short fuse” scenario. It is called “short fuse” because there is only a 5.5-hour window following the earthquake before arrival of the tsunami within which to evaluate the threat, disseminate alert and warning messages, and respond. This action initiates a period when crisis communication is of paramount importance. An additional dynamic that is important to note is that within 15 minutes of the earthquake, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Weather Service (NWS) will issue alert bulletins for the entire Pacific Coast. This is one-half the time actually presented by recent tsunamis from Japan, Chile, and Samoa. Second, the chapter provides emergency managers at all levels with insights into key considerations they may need to address in order to augment their existing plans and effectively respond to tsunami events. We look at emergency management response to the tsunami threat from three perspectives:“Top Down” (Threat analysis and Alert/Warning information from the Federal agency charged with Alert and Warning) “Bottom Up” (Emergency management’s Incident Command approach to responding to emergencies and disasters based on the needs of impacted local jurisdictions) “Across Time” (From the initiating earthquake event through emergency response) We focus on these questions: What are the government roles, relationships, and products that support Tsunami Alert and Warning dissemination? (Emergency Planning and Preparedness.) What roles, relationships, and products support emergency management response to Tsunami Warning and impact? (Engendering prudent public safety response.) What are the key emergency management activities, considerations, and challenges brought

  9. Conference Report: Teaching Against the Grain: The Challenges of Teaching Qualitative Research in the Health Sciences. A National Workshop on Teaching Qualitative Research in the Health Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Eakin, Joan M.; Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag wird über einen Workshop berichtet, der sich mit dem Charakter und den besonderen Herausforderungen qualitativer Forschung in gesundheitswissenschaftlichen Settings beschäftigte. Hintergrund für die Durchführung des Workshops war das wachsende Interesse an qualitativen Methoden in den Gesundheitswissenschaften bei zugleich ungenügendem pädagogischen Wissen und unzureichender institutioneller Unterstützung für qualitative Forschungsvorhaben. In unserer Perspektive sind mit de...

  10. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  11. Distribution of tsunami interevent times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of tsunami interevent times is analyzed using global and site-specific (Hilo, Hawaii) tsunami catalogs. An empirical probability density distribution is determined by binning the observed interevent times during a period in which the observation rate is approximately constant. The empirical distributions for both catalogs exhibit non-Poissonian behavior in which there is an abundance of short interevent times compared to an exponential distribution. Two types of statistical distributions are used to model this clustering behavior: (1) long-term clustering described by a universal scaling law, and (2) Omori law decay of aftershocks and triggered sources. The empirical and theoretical distributions all imply an increased hazard rate after a tsunami, followed by a gradual decrease with time approaching a constant hazard rate. Examination of tsunami sources suggests that many of the short interevent times are caused by triggered earthquakes, though the triggered events are not necessarily on the same fault.

  12. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness.

  13. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic tsunami-tide simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grilli, Annette R.

    2016-05-01

    This work is part of a tsunami inundation mapping activity carried out along the US East Coast since 2010, under the auspice of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation program (NTHMP). The US East Coast features two main estuaries with significant tidal forcing, which are bordered by numerous critical facilities (power plants, major harbors,...) as well as densely built low-level areas: Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). HRE is the object of this work, with specific focus on assessing tsunami hazard in Manhattan, the Hudson and East River areas. In the NTHMP work, inundation maps are computed as envelopes of maximum surface elevation along the coast and inland, by simulating the impact of selected probable maximum tsunamis (PMT) in the Atlantic ocean margin and basin. At present, such simulations assume a static reference level near shore equal to the local mean high water (MHW) level. Here, instead we simulate maximum inundation in the HRE resulting from dynamic interactions between the incident PMTs and a tide, which is calibrated to achieve MHW at its maximum level. To identify conditions leading to maximum tsunami inundation, each PMT is simulated for four different phases of the tide and results are compared to those obtained for a static reference level. We first separately simulate the tide and the three PMTs that were found to be most significant for the HRE. These are caused by: (1) a flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Islands (with a 80 km3 volume representing the most likely extreme scenario); (2) an M9 coseismic source in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT); and (3) a large submarine mass failure (SMF) in the Hudson River canyon of parameters similar to the 165 km3 historical Currituck slide, which is used as a local proxy for the maximum possible SMF. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear and dispersive long wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, in a series of nested grids of increasing resolution towards the coast, by one

  14. Revisiting the 1761 Transatlantic Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Wronna, Martin; Miranda, Jorge Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The tsunami catalogs of the Atlantic include two transatlantic tsunamis in the 18th century the well known 1st November 1755 and the 31st March 1761. The 31st March 1761 earthquake struck Portugal, Spain, and Morocco. The earthquake occurred around noontime in Lisbon alarming the inhabitants and throwing down ruins of the past 1st November 1755 earthquake. According to several sources, the earthquake was followed by a tsunami observed as far as Cornwall (United Kingdom), Cork (Ireland) and Barbados (Caribbean). The analysis of macroseismic information and its compatibility with tsunami travel time information led to a source area close to the Ampere Seamount with an estimated epicenter circa 34.5°N 13°W. The estimated magnitude of the earthquake was 8.5. In this study, we revisit the tsunami observations, and we include a report from Cadiz not used before. We use the results of the compilation of the multi-beam bathymetric data, that covers the area between 34°N - 38°N and 12.5°W - 5.5°W and use the recent tectonic map published for the Southwest Iberian Margin to select among possible source scenarios. Finally, we use a non-linear shallow water model that includes the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme to solve the shallow water equations in the spherical or Cartesian coordinate to compute tsunami waveforms and tsunami inundation and check the results against the historical descriptions to infer the source of the event. This study received funding from project ASTARTE- Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe a collaborative project Grant 603839, FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3

  15. USAID Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, M.; Mooney, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS), created by an inter-agency agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), the US Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) will work toward developing a tsunami early warning and disaster management and response system for the Indian Ocean by utilizing the leadership and technical expertise of India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives, and Indonesia. Inter-agency cooperation combines expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing an infrastructure for real-time data analysis of seismicity and for rapid communication and response networks, 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international logistical and administrative support. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus will be placed on``in-country capacity building,'' so that individual nations will be self-sustaining in the future. This will be accomplished, partly, by training provided by the U.S. Government through workshops, international exchange, and institutionalizing national capabilities. The USGS program was launched in August 2005 and will be implemented over a two-year period.

  16. Sedimentary Record and Morphological Effects of a Landslide-Generated Tsunami in a Polar Region: The 2000 AD Tsunami in Vaigat Strait, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Rosser, N. J.; Strzelecki, M. C.; Long, A. J.; Lawrence, T.; Buchwal, A.; Chague-Goff, C.; Woodroffe, S.

    2012-12-01

    coast and in front of inland scarps. In the most inland parts of the inundation they are often marked only by patches of coarse sand left on the pre-tsunami soil. At several sites we observed boulder deposits, although in many cases they were likely transported as boulders in icebergs. A characteristic feature related to tsunami deposits were "mud pats" - up to 1 m in diameter and about 20 cm thick silty deposits with occasional gravels - which cover the tsunami deposit. They are interpreted as the result of melting of icebergs washed inland by the tsunami. They often occur close to the inundation limit. The mud pats are a characteristic feature for the tsunami deposits in iceberg dominated settings and are unlikely to be left by storms. The results of this study will serve as a guide for further studies of palaeotsunami in the Vaigat region and elsewhere in polar regions. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Fieldwork was supported by the Arctic Station, Disko (Danish Polar Centre). The police at Ilulissat is acknowledged for providing photographic documentation of the tsunami taken one day after the event.

  17. Tsunami risk mapping simulation for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.; Moh, Y.T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega tsunami killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant tsunamis have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami. These tsunamis grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a tsunami might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that tsunamis of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large tsunamis. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future tsunamis, an effective early warning system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding tsunami risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a tsunami occurrence. For these purposes, tsunami risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of tsunami simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a tsunami risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  18. Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through

  19. Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 80 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Almost 90% of all these historical tsunamis have been associated with earthquakes. Just since 1842, 3510 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along the Caribbean shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. Most of the countries also have a very high exposure to earthquakes. Given the elevated vulnerability, it is imperative that government officials take steps to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of these events. Nevertheless, given the low frequency of high impact earthquakes and tsunamis, in comparison to hurricanes, combined with social and economic considerations, the needed investments are not made and disasters like the 2010 Haiti earthquake occur. In the absence of frequent significant events, an important driving force for public officials to take action, is the dissemination of scientific studies. When papers of this nature have been published and media advisories issued, public officials demonstrate heightened interest in the topic which in turn can lead to increased legislation and funding efforts. This is especially the case if the material can be easily understood by the stakeholders and there is a local contact. In addition, given the close link between earthquakes and tsunamis, in Puerto Rico alone, 50% of the high impact earthquakes have also generated destructive tsunamis, it is very important that earthquake and tsunami hazards studies demonstrate consistency. Traditionally in the region, earthquake and tsunami impacts have been considered independently in the emergency planning

  20. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  1. Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

    2012-04-01

    This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database

  2. Statistical Analysis of Tsunami Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Francesca; Del Giudice, Tania; Traverso, Chiara; Valfrè, Giulio; Poggi, Pamela; Parker, Eric J.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate statistical variability of seismically generated tsunami impact. The specific goal of the work was to evaluate the variability in tsunami wave run-up due to uncertainty in fault rupture parameters (source effects) and to the effects of local bathymetry at an individual location (site effects). This knowledge is critical to development of methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment. Two types of variability were considered: • Inter-event; • Intra-event. Generally, inter-event variability refers to the differences of tsunami run-up at a given location for a number of different earthquake events. The focus of the current study was to evaluate the variability of tsunami run-up at a given point for a given magnitude earthquake. In this case, the variability is expected to arise from lack of knowledge regarding the specific details of the fault rupture "source" parameters. As sufficient field observations are not available to resolve this question, numerical modelling was used to generate run-up data. A scenario magnitude 8 earthquake in the Hellenic Arc was modelled. This is similar to the event thought to have caused the infamous 1303 tsunami. The tsunami wave run-up was computed at 4020 locations along the Egyptian coast between longitudes 28.7° E and 33.8° E. Specific source parameters (e.g. fault rupture length and displacement) were varied, and the effects on wave height were determined. A Monte Carlo approach considering the statistical distribution of the underlying parameters was used to evaluate the variability in wave height at locations along the coast. The results were evaluated in terms of the coefficient of variation of the simulated wave run-up (standard deviation divided by mean value) for each location. The coefficient of variation along the coast was between 0.14 and 3.11, with an average value of 0.67. The variation was higher in areas of irregular coast. This level of variability is

  3. A qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Dela Cruz, Jason; Massetti, Greta M; Mahendra, Reshma

    2015-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) funded eight National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2005 to 2010 and two Urban Partnership Academic Centers of Excellence (UPACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2006 to 2011. The ACEs and UPACEs constitute DVP's 2005-2011 ACE Program. ACE Program goals include partnering with communities to promote youth violence (YV) prevention and fostering connections between research and community practice. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 ACE Program using an innovative approach for collecting and analyzing data from multiple large research centers via a web-based Information System (ACE-IS). The ACE-IS was established as an efficient mechanism to collect and document ACE research and programmatic activities. Performance indicators for the ACE Program were established in an ACE Program logic model. Data on performance indicators were collected through the ACE-IS biannually. Data assessed Centers' ability to develop, implement, and evaluate YV prevention activities. Performance indicator data demonstrate substantial progress on Centers' research in YV risk and protective factors, community partnerships, and other accomplishments. Findings provide important lessons learned, illustrate progress made by the Centers, and point to new directions for YV prevention research and programmatic efforts.

  4. Disadvantaged Parents’ Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 “Right Outside” mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances. PMID:27618085

  5. Disadvantaged Parents' Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances. PMID:27618085

  6. Disadvantaged Parents’ Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneh Rowa-Dewar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 “Right Outside” mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding, motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS and opportunities to act (barriers was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  7. Historical Tsunami Event Locations with Runups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Global Historical Tsunami Database provides information on over 2,400 tsunamis from 2100 BC to the present in the the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; and...

  8. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  9. Post-crisis analysis of an ineffective tsunami alert: the 2010 earthquake in Maule, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Bastien

    2014-04-01

    Considering its huge magnitude and its location in a densely populated area of Chile, the Maule seism of 27 February 2010 generated a low amount of victims. However, post-seismic tsunamis were particularly devastating on that day; surprisingly, no full alert was launched, not at the national, regional or local level. This earthquake and associated tsunamis are of interest in the context of natural hazards management as well as crisis management planning. Instead of focusing exclusively on the event itself, this article places emphasis on the process, systems and long-term approach that led the tsunami alert mechanism to be ineffectual. Notably, this perspective reveals interrelated forerunner signs of vulnerability.

  10. Tsunami Ready Recognition Program for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Launched in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Hinds, K.; Aliaga, B.; Brome, A.; Lopes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years with 4,561 associated deaths according to the NOAA Tsunami Database. The most recent devastating tsunamis occurred in 1946 in Dominican Republic; 1865 died. With the explosive increase in residents, tourists, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coasts, the potential for human and economic loss is enormous. It has been estimated that on any day, more than 500,000 people in the Caribbean could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. In 2005 the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG CARIBE EWS) to coordinate tsunami efforts among the 48 participating countries in territories in the region. In addition to monitoring, modeling and communication systems, one of the fundamental components of the warning system is community preparedness, readiness and resilience. Over the past 10 years 49 coastal communities in the Caribbean have been recognized as TsunamiReady® by the US National Weather Service (NWS) in the case of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and jointly by UNESCO and NWS in the case of the non US jurisdictions of Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands. In response to the positive feedback of the implementation of TsunamiReady, the ICG CARIBE EWS in 2015 recommended the approval of the guidelines for a Community Performance Based Recognition program. It also recommended the adoption of the name "Tsunami Ready", which has been positively consulted with the NWS. Ten requirements were established for recognition and are divided among Preparedness, Mitigation and Response elements which were adapted from the proposed new US TsunamiReady guidelines and align well with emergency management functions. Both a

  11. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  12. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  13. TSUNAMI MITIGATION IN HAWAI`I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawai`i has a long, though sporadic history of deadly tsunami attacks.Since the 1946 tsunami disaster the State of Hawaii has developed increasingly sophisticated and effective mitigation strategies. The evolution and operation of these strategies is described in this paper. Tsunamis will no longer be Hawai`i’s deadliest natural hazard.

  14. Population vulnerability and evacuation challenges in California for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter I in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff; Shoaf, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    and county beaches, State or national parks, and amusement parks). Evacuations will be challenging, particularly for certain dependent-care populations, such as patients at hospitals and children at schools and daycare centers. We estimate that approximately 8,678 of the 91,956 residents in the scenario inundation zone are likely to need publicly provided shelters in the short term. Information presented in this report could be used to support emergency managers in their efforts to identify where additional preparedness and outreach activities may be needed to manage risks associated with California tsunamis.

  15. A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

  16. Tsunami Preparedness: Building On Past Efforts to Reach More People… California and Beyond!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Siegel, J.; Pridmore, C. L.; Benthien, M. L.; Wilson, R. I.; Long, K.; Ross, S.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program has continued to build upon past preparedness efforts, carried out year-round, while leveraging government support at all levels during National Tsunami Preparedness Week, the last week of March. A primary goal is for everyone who lives at or visits the coast to understand basic safety measures when responding to official tsunami alerts or natural warnings. In 2014, more so than ever before, many local, coastal jurisdictions conducted grass-roots activities in their areas. When requested, state and federal programs stepped in to contribute subject matter expertise, lessons learned, and support. And, this year, the new website, www.TsunamiZone.org, was developed. With a goal of establishing a baseline for future years, this website builds on the successes of the Great Shakeout Earthquake Drills (www.ShakeOut.org) by allowing people to locate and register for tsunami preparedness events in their area. Additionally, it provides a central location for basic tsunami preparedness information, and links to find out more. The idea is not only to empower people with the best available, vetted, scientifically-based public safety information, but also to provide ways in which individuals can take physical action to educate themselves and others. Several broad categories of preparedness actions include: official acknowledgement of National Tsunami Preparedness Week, local "tsunami walk" drills, simulated tsunami-based exercises, testing of sirens and notification systems, outreach materials (brochures, videos, maps), workshops, presentations, media events, and websites. Next steps include building on the foundation established in 2014 by leveraging ShakeOut audiences, providing people with more information about how they can participate in 2015, and carrying the effort forward to other states and territories.

  17. Validation and Performance Comparison of Numerical Codes for Tsunami Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, D.; Kian, R.; Yalciner, A. C.; Zaytsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    In inundation zones, tsunami motion turns from wave motion to flow of water. Modelling of this phenomenon is a complex problem since there are many parameters affecting the tsunami flow. In this respect, the performance of numerical codes that analyze tsunami inundation patterns becomes important. The computation of water surface elevation is not sufficient for proper analysis of tsunami behaviour in shallow water zones and on land and hence for the development of mitigation strategies. Velocity and velocity patterns are also crucial parameters and have to be computed at the highest accuracy. There are numerous numerical codes to be used for simulating tsunami inundation. In this study, FLOW 3D and NAMI DANCE codes are selected for validation and performance comparison. Flow 3D simulates linear and nonlinear propagating surface waves as well as long waves by solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (3D-NS) equations. FLOW 3D is used specificaly for flood problems. NAMI DANCE uses finite difference computational method to solve linear and nonlinear forms of shallow water equations (NSWE) in long wave problems, specifically tsunamis. In this study, these codes are validated and their performances are compared using two benchmark problems which are discussed in 2015 National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Annual meeting in Portland, USA. One of the problems is an experiment of a single long-period wave propagating up a piecewise linear slope and onto a small-scale model of the town of Seaside, Oregon. Other benchmark problem is an experiment of a single solitary wave propagating up a triangular shaped shelf with an island feature located at the offshore point of the shelf. The computed water surface elevation and velocity data are compared with the measured data. The comparisons showed that both codes are in fairly good agreement with each other and benchmark data. All results are presented with discussions and comparisons. The research leading to these

  18. Virtual Quake and Tsunami Squares: Scenario Earthquake and Tsunami Simulations for a Pacific Rim GNSS Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K.; Yoder, M. R.; Sachs, M. K.; Heien, E. M.; Donnellan, A.; Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Plans for the first operational prototype for a Pacific Rim Tsunami Early Warning (TEW) system utilizing real-time data from the Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) are now gaining momentum. The proposed Pacific Rim TEW prototype may resemble the Japanese Meteorological Society's early warning algorithms and use earthquake parameters rapidly determined from GPS data to select the most similar earthquake and tsunami scenario from a database of precomputed scenarios to guide alerts and disaster response. To facilitate the development of this Pacific Rim TEW system, we have integrated tsunami modeling capabilities into the earthquake simulator Virtual Quake (formerly Virtual California). We will present the first results from coupling the earthquake simulator output (seafloor displacements) with the tsunami modeling method called Tsunami Squares. Combining Virtual Quake and Tsunami Squares provides a highly scalable and flexible platform for producing catalogs of tsunami scenarios for a wide range of simulated subduction zone earthquakes.

  19. Spectral Characteristics of Wave Breaking and Dissipation in Combined Tsunami - Swell Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihatu, J. M.; Goertz, J.; Sheremet, A.; Weiss, R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that the front face of landfalling tsunamis often feature dispersive "fission" waves. These are short, almost monochromatic coherent waves which result from the piling up of water as the tsunami rapidly decelerates upon encountering land. Photographs taken during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami show these waves to resemble cnoidal waves in shape and have a spatial and temporal scale of the same order as swell waves. As part of our goal to study the tsunami in concert with other aspects of the physical environment, we investigate possible physical linkages between the background random swell, monochromatic fission waves, and the long-scale tsunami waves. This particular investigation involves the modification of the dissipation characteristics of random surface waves when interacting with a coherent wavefield (e.g., laboratory proxies for the fission wave or the tsunami). Data from laboratory experiments conducted at the Large Wave Flume at Oregon State University (part of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation supported by the National Science Foundation) were analyzed and the dissipation characteristics inferred using a steepness-regulated instantaneous dissipation mechanism. It is shown that, for random waves, the instances of significant dissipation events temporally correspond to the appearance of high frequency energy in the time-frequency spectrogram. Furthermore, these observations are strongly affected by the presence of an underlying coherent wave signal, particularly in the case of interaction with a tsunami. We further discuss the possible effect of these interactions on the forces in the hydrodynamic field responsible for sediment transport.

  20. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  1. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen

  2. A Decade After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Progress in Disaster Preparedness and Future Challenges in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppasri, Anawat; Goto, Kazuhisa; Muhari, Abdul; Ranasinghe, Prasanthi; Riyaz, Mahmood; Affan, Muzailin; Mas, Erick; Yasuda, Mari; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the most devastating tsunamis in world history. The tsunami caused damage to most of the Asian and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. After a decade, reconstruction has been completed with different levels of tsunami countermeasures in most areas; however, some land use planning using probabilistic tsunami hazard maps and vulnerabilities should be addressed to prepare for future tsunamis. Examples of early-stage reconstruction are herein provided alongside a summary of some of the major tsunamis that have occurred since 2004, revealing the tsunami countermeasures established during the reconstruction period. Our primary objective is to report on and discuss the vulnerabilities found during our field visits to the tsunami-affected countries—namely, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives. For each country, future challenges based on current tsunami countermeasures, such as land use planning, warning systems, evacuation facilities, disaster education and disaster monuments are explained. The problem of traffic jams during tsunami evacuations, especially in well-known tourist areas, was found to be the most common problem faced by all of the countries. The readiness of tsunami warning systems differed across the countries studied. These systems are generally sufficient on a national level, but local hazards require greater study. Disaster reduction education that would help to maintain high tsunami awareness is well established in most countries. Some geological evidence is well preserved even after a decade. Conversely, the maintenance of monuments to the 2004 tsunami appears to be a serious problem. Finally, the reconstruction progress was evaluated based on the experiences of disaster reconstruction in Japan. All vulnerabilities discussed here should be addressed to create long-term, disaster-resilient communities.

  3. Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7

  4. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective

  5. A new approach for tsunami early warning using tsunami observations in a source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    After the 2011 devastating Tohoku tsunami, improvement of tsunami early warning system is one of key issues in Japan. Japanese government was decided to install 125 ocean bottom pressure sensors and seismometers with a cable system along the Japan and Kurile trench. Each sensor is separated by 30km. We should develop a new approach for real-time tsunami forecast using those newly available data combined with GNSS data or seismic data. A well-recognized problem to use tsunami data at pressure sensors on the top of tsunami source area is a fact that a large vertical coseismic deformation due to a large earthquake cannot be observed at those sensors. The sensors observe a tsunami wave when it starts to propagate. Because of that problem, GSNN data or seismic data are typically used to estimate the coseismic deformation for the tsunami numerical simulation. In this paper, we develop a new technique, which solve the problem. Our technique uses the observations at pressure sensors on the tsunami source area as an input to compute the tsunami directly. Actual tsunami heights at the sensors on the source area is unknown because the cosismic vertical deformation is unknown. However, we can observe directly the time derivative of tsunami heights at those sensors. Time derivatives of tsunami heights at each point are used as inputs to compute the tsunami height distribution in the calculated area. Then we can numerically compute a tsunami using a traditional finite difference technique from the tsunami height distribution computed. For numerical test, first, we compute the synthetic tsunamis using the fault model with 1 minute grid system. The computed tsunami waveforms at 15 minutes x 15 minutes grid points are used as the observed data for this new technique. Each observed point is separated by 15 minutes, about 30km. The result show that the accuracy of tsunami computation is good enough for tsunami forecast. Tsunami generation with a long duration, such as tsunami

  6. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Ramalanjaona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. However, less reported, albeit real, is its impact in the islands of the Indian Ocean more than 1,000 miles away from its epicenter. This is the first peer-reviewed paper on the 2004 tsunami events specifically in the eleven nations bordering the Indian Ocean, as they constitute a region at risk, due to the presence of tectonic interactive plate, absence of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean, and lack established communication network providing timely information to that region. Our paper has a dual objective: the first objective is to report the 2004 tsunami event in relation to the 11 nations bordering the Indian Ocean. The second one is to elaborate on lessons learned from it from national, regional, and international disaster management programs to prevent such devastating consequences of tsunami from occurring again in the future.

  7. Historic Tsunami in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Cummins, P. R.; Burbidge, D.

    2005-12-01

    The 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami dramatically highlighted the need for a better understanding of the tsunami hazard in the Indian Ocean. One of the most important foundations on which to base such an assessment is knowledge of tsunami that have affected the region in the historical past. We present a summary of the previously published catalog of Indian Ocean tsunami and the results of a preliminary search of archival material held at the India Records Office at the British Library in London. We demonstrate that in some cases, normal tidal movements and floods associated with tropical cyclones have been erroneously listed as tsunami. We summarise interesting archival material for tsunami that occurred in 1945, 1941, 1881, 1819, 1762 and a tsunami in 1843 not previously identified or reported. We also note the recent discovery, by a Canadian team during a post-tsunami survey following the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami, of archival evidence that the Great Sumatra Earthquake of 1833 generated a teletsunami. Open ocean wave heights are calculated for some of the historical tsunami and compared with those of the Boxing Day Tsunami.

  8. Analysis of Tsunami Culture in Countries Affected by Recent Tsunamis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, M.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Shibayama, T.; Mikami, T.; Ohira, K.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 there is a growing global awareness of the risks that tsunamis pose to coastal communities. Despite the fact that these events were already an intrinsic part of the culture of some countries (such as Chile and Japan), in many other places they had been virtually unheard of before 2004. Ne

  9. Community Benchmarking of Tsunami-Induced Nearshore Current Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Wilson, R. I.; Gately, K.

    2015-12-01

    To help produce accurate and consistent maritime hazard products, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Strategic Plan includes a requirement to develop and run a benchmarking workshop to evaluate the numerical tsunami modeling of currents. For this workshop, five different benchmarking datasets were organized. These datasets were selected based on characteristics such as geometric complexity, currents that are shear/separation driven (and thus are de-coupled from the incident wave forcing), tidal coupling, and interaction with the built environment. While tsunami simulation models have generally been well validated against wave height and runup, comparisons with speed data are much less common. As model results are increasingly being used to estimate or indicate damage to coastal infrastructure, understanding the accuracy and precision of speed predictions becomes of important. As a result of this 2-day workshop held in early 2015, modelers now have a better awareness of their ability to accurately capture the physics of tsunami currents, and therefore a better understanding of how to use these simulation tools for hazard assessment and mitigation efforts. In this presentation, the model results - from 14 different modelers - will be presented and summarized, with a focus on statistical and ensemble properties of the current predictions.

  10. Implementation of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, John

    2016-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System has issued a Call for Participation to research scientists, geodetic research groups and national agencies in support of the implementation of the IUGG recommendation for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems. The call seeks to establish a working group to be a catalyst and motivating force for the definition of requirements, identification of resources, and for the encouragement of international cooperation in the establishment, advancement, and utilization of GNSS for Tsunami Early Warning. During the past fifteen years the populations of the Indo-Pacific region experienced a series of mega-thrust earthquakes followed by devastating tsunamis that claimed nearly 300,000 lives. The future resiliency of the region will depend upon improvements to infrastructure and emergency response that will require very significant investments from the Indo-Pacific economies. The estimation of earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation are critical to rapid tsunami warning. Geodetic research groups have demonstrated the use of GNSS data to estimate earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation sufficient for the accurate and timely prediction of tsunamis generated by mega-thrust earthquakes. GNSS data have also been used to measure the formation and propagation of tsunamis via ionospheric disturbances acoustically coupled to the propagating surface waves; thereby providing a new technique to track tsunami propagation across ocean basins, opening the way for improving tsunami propagation models, and providing accurate warning to communities in the far field. These two new advancements can deliver timely and accurate tsunami warnings to coastal communities in the near and far field of mega-thrust earthquakes. This presentation will present the justification for and the details of the GGOS Call for

  11. Four Business Opportunities after Tsunami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Chongqing International Economic and Technical Cooperation Corporation, which has rich experience in international engineering contracting, is actively preparing for the international bid for the reconstruction projects. Zhu Dalun,General Manager of this company, said after the great disaster happened, it would take some time for the relevant countries and regions to reconstruct their land, this tsunami in the Indian Ocean is no exception.

  12. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparation & Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Food Safety After a Tsunami Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... wash your hands with clean water and soap before and after you eat or prepare food and after you use the latrine or bathroom. ...

  13. Tsunami Tallinna lahel / Vivika Veski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veski, Vivika

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Küberneetika Instituudis tehtav mere- ja rannikuteaduse alane töö on pälvinud rahvusvahelist tähelepanu. Tallinna laht võib anda maailmale vastuse, kuidas kaitsta end tsunami eest

  14. Tsunami engineering study in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    - blish tsunami engi neering study ce n tres. We need to carry out research in the fields like: (a) developing early warning system to alert coastal residen ts based on n u merical forecasting, (b) implementing and maintaining an awareness on the war...

  15. Dispersive mudslide-induced tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubino

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear nested model for mudslide-induced tsunamis is proposed in which three phases of the life of the wave, i.e. the generation, far-field propagation and costal run-up are described by means of different mathematical models, that are coupled through appropriate matching procedures. The generation and run-up dynamics are simulated through a nonlinear shallow-water model with movable lateral boundaries: in the generation region two active layers are present, the lower one describing the slide descending on a sloping topography. For the intermediate phase, representing wave propagation far from the generation region, the hydrostatic assumption is not assumed as appropriate in general and, therefore, a nonlinear model allowing for weak phase dispersion, namely a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, is used. This choice is made in order to assess the relevance of dispersive features such as solitary waves and dispersive tails. It is shown that in some realistic circumstances dispersive mudslide-induced tsunami waves can be produced over relatively short, distances. In such cases the use of a hydrostatic model throughout the whole tsunami history turns out to give erroneous results. In particular, when solitary waves are generated during the tsunami propagation in the open sea, the resulting run-up process yields peculiar wave forms leading to amplified coastal inundations with respect to a mere hydrostatic context.

  16. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  17. The SAFRR tsunami scenario-physical damage in California: Chapter E in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Keith; Byers, William; Dykstra, David; Lim, Amy; Lynett, Patrick; Ratliff, Jaime; Scawthorn, Charles; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick

    2013-01-01

    damageability of assets exposed to loss. Then, applying the damageability model and the velocity, wave amplitude, and inundation models discussed in other SAFRR chapters we offer a single realistic depiction of damage. Other outcomes are of course possible for this hypothetical event. Where practical we estimate repair costs and estimate the duration required to restore the assets to their pre-tsunami condition. We identify opportunities to enhance the resiliency of the assets, either through making them less vulnerable to damage or able to recover more quickly in spite of the damage. Finally, we identify uncertainties in the modeling where research would improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of damage and loss or otherwise improve our ability to estimate the future impacts of tsunamis and inform risk-management decisions for tsunamis. However, it is certain that the kinds of damages discussed here have occurred in past tsunamis, even in developed nations, and in a sufficiently large event, will occur in California. Our uncertainties can operate in either direction, either leading to an overestimate of damage or an underestimate. Therefore, losses in an actual future tsunami could be greater than depicted here. Furthermore this evaluation is not intended to be an exhaustive depiction of what could happen in this or similar tsunamis. Other impacts could occur that are not presented here.

  18. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H;

    2006-01-01

    have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets...... and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed...... to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka....

  19. New Tsunami Response, Mitigation, and Recovery Planning "Playbooks" for California (USA) Maritime Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Eskijian, M.; Dengler, L. A.; Ayca, A.; Keen, A.; Admire, A. R.; Siegel, J.; Johnson, L. A.; Curtis, E.; Hornick, M.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunamis both struck the California coast offering valuable experience and raised a number of significant issues for harbor masters, port captains, and other maritime entities. There was a general call for more planning products to help guide maritime communities in their tsunami response, mitigation, and recovery activities. The State of California is working with the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), and other tsunami experts to provide communities with new tsunami planning tools to address these issues: Response Playbooks and plans have been developed for ports and harbors identifying potential tsunami current hazards and related damage for various size events. Maps have been generated showing minor, moderate, and severe damage levels that have been linked to current velocity thresholds of 3, 6, and 9 knots, respectively. Knowing this information allows harbor personnel to move ships or strengthen infrastructure prior to the arrival of distant source tsunamis. Damage probability tools and mitigation plans have been created to help reduce tsunami damage by evaluating the survivability of small and large vessels in harbors and ports. These results were compared to the actual damage assessments performed in California and Japan following the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Fragility curves were developed based on current velocity and direction to help harbor and port officials upgrade docks, piles, and related structures. Guidance documents are being generated to help in the development of both local and statewide recovery plans. Additional tools, like post-tsunami sediment and debris movement models, will allow harbors and ports to better understand if and where recovery issues are most likely to occur. Streamlining the regulatory and environmental review process is also a goal of the guidance. These maritime products and procedures are being integrated into guidance

  20. New Offshore Approach to Reduce Impact of Tsunami Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anant Chatorikar, Kaustubh

    2016-07-01

    The world is facing an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disaster that has devastating impacts on society. As per International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), it has been observed that over five million people were killed or affected in last 10 years and huge amount of economic losses occurred due to natural disaster. The 2011 tsunami in Japan showed a tremendous setback to existing technology of tsunami protection. More than 25,000 lives have been lost, Apart from that the damage to the nuclear power stations has severely affected the nearby populace and marine life. After the 2004 tsunami, world's effort has been concentrated on early warning and effective mitigation plans to defend against tsunami. It is anybody's guess as to what would have happened if such natural calamity specifically tsunami of such magnitude strikes our nation as country has already suffered from it in 2004 and seen its disastrous effects. But the point is what if such calamity strikes the mega cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata again where there is extensive human habitation and conventional warning systems and mitigation methods are not effective when it comes to huge population of these cities, destruction caused by it will be worse than nuclear weapon strike as there is also very high possibility of deaths due to stampede. This paper talks about an idea inspired from daily routine and its relation with fundamental physics as well as method of its deployment is discussed. According to this idea when wave will strike the coast, aim is not to stop it but to reduce its impact within the permissible impact limits of existing infrastructure by converting it into foam wave with help of surfactants, thereby saving human lives as well as complications of Mitigation.

  1. Testing a real-time algorithm for the detection of tsunami signals on sea-level records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.; Titov, V.

    2009-04-01

    One of the important tasks for the implementation of a tsunami warning system in the Mediterranean Sea is to develop a real-time detection algorithm. Unlike the Mediterranean Sea situation, tsunamis happen quite often in the Pacific Ocean and they have been historically recorded with a proper sampling rate. A large database of tsunami records is therefore available for the Pacific. The Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna is developing a real-time detection algorithm on synthetic records. Thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Center for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), it has been possible to test this algorithm on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gage, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska. This work has been undertaken in the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3. The detection algorithm has the goal to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal. Shortly, the algorithm is built on a parameter based on the standard deviation of the signal calculated on a short time window and on its comparison with its computed prediction through a control function. The control function indicates a tsunami detection whenever it exceeds a certain threshold. The algorithm was calibrated and tested both on coastal tide-gages and on offshore buoys that measure sea-level changes. Its calibration presents different issues if the algorithm has to be implemented on an offshore buoy or on a coastal tide-gage. In particular, the algorithm parameters are site-specific for coastal sea-level signals, because sea-level changes are here mainly characterized by oscillations induced by the coastal topography. Adak Island background signal was analyzed and the algorithm parameters were set: It was found that there is a persistent presence of seiches with periods in the tsunami range, to which the algorithm is also

  2. Issues of tsunami hazard maps revealed by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tsunami scientists are imposed responsibilities of selection for people's tsunami evacuation place after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Japan. A lot of matured people died out of tsunami hazard zone based on tsunami hazard map though students made a miracle by evacuation on their own judgment in Kamaishi city. Tsunami hazard maps were based on numerical model smaller than actual magnitude 9. How can we bridge the gap between hazard map and future disasters? We have to discuss about using tsunami numerical model better enough to contribute tsunami hazard map. How do we have to improve tsunami hazard map? Tsunami hazard map should be revised included possibility of upthrust or downthrust after earthquakes and social information. Ground sank 1.14m below sea level in Ayukawa town, Tohoku. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's research shows around 10% people know about tsunami hazard map in Japan. However, people know about their evacuation places (buildings) through experienced drills once a year even though most people did not know about tsunami hazard map. We need wider spread of tsunami hazard with contingency of science (See the botom disaster handbook material's URL). California Emergency Management Agency (CEMA) team practically shows one good practice and solution to me. I followed their field trip in Catalina Island, California in Sep 2011. A team members are multidisciplinary specialists: A geologist, a GIS specialist, oceanographers in USC (tsunami numerical modeler) and a private company, a local policeman, a disaster manager, a local authority and so on. They check field based on their own specialties. They conduct an on-the-spot inspection of ambiguous locations between tsunami numerical model and real field conditions today. The data always become older. They pay attention not only to topographical conditions but also to social conditions: vulnerable people, elementary schools and so on. It takes a long time to check such field

  3. VALIDATION OF JOKO TINGKIR SOFTWARE USING TSUNAMI IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlazim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joko Tingkir program, an application for tsunami early warning, has been utilised using real-time data processing at the Research and Development Centre, Indonesian Agency for Geophysics, Climatology and Meteorology since 2013. The program can also be used to analyse earthquake events before 2013. The aim of this study is thus to validate Joko Tingkir program for an improved performance of the Indonesian tsunami early warning system using the data recorded by at least 6 seismic stations managed by BMKG-Net where data collecting for each event is limited to only 3 minutes after origin time. The data were used to determine new tsunami parameters: the duration of rupture (Tdur, the 50 second exceed duration (T50Ex, and the dominant period (Td. Hierarchical Product Platform Realisation Method (HPPRM, which had three different phases: defining phase, modeling phase and solving phase, was used to validate the program. This study exercises records before 2014 and during 2014-2015 available at the intranet 172.19.0.13/litbang/www. For earthquakes that occurred before 2008, we make use of IRIS DMC seismic stations at http://ww.iris.edu since BMKG-Net has not yet operated. All of the data in the present study were events having magnitudes of greater than 6.5. After a conversion of quantitative data into qualitative data, the results are compared to those of tsunami importance provided by NOAA database. It was found that there is no significant differences between the results derived from the current study and the NOAA database, leading to a conclusion that the software developed is valid.

  4. Experiences with TRIDEC's Crisis Management Demonstrator in the Turkish NEAMWave12 exercise tsunami scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Necmioglu, Ocal; Lendholt, Matthias; Reißland, Sven; Schulz, Jana; Aksari, Dogan; Koseoglu, Aysegul; Ozer, Ceren; Comoglu, Mustafa; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Wächter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    On November 27-28, 2012, the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) joined other countries in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region as participants in an international tsunami response exercise. The exercise, titled NEAMWave12, simulated widespread Tsunami Watch situations throughout the NEAM region. It is the first international exercise as such, in this region, where the UNESCO-IOC ICG/NEAMTWS tsunami warning chain has been tested to a full scale for the first time with different systems. One of the systems is developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) and has been validated in this exercise among others by KOERI. KOERI, representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (TWP) responsibilities for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas. Based on this profound experience KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios in the context of UNESCO-IOC ICG/NEAMTWS activities. However, KOERI's, most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria in order to meet ICG/NEAMTWS requirements. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing related challenges. The first and second phase system demonstrator, deployed at KOERI's crisis management room has been designed and implemented, firstly, to support plausible scenarios for the Turkish NTWC to demonstrate the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a NTWC

  5. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  6. Northern Caribbean Tsunami Hazard: Earthquake and Gravity Source Contribution of the Tsunami of 2010 in Haïti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupardin, Adrien; Hébert, Hélène; Calais, Eric; Gailler, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    The Mw 7 earthquake of January 12, 2010, in Haïti was followed by a tsunami with wave heights reaching 3 m in some locations (Grand Goâve, Jacmel) on either side of the Presqu'Ile du Sud where the event took place. The tsunami was also recorded at DART buoy 42407 (about 600 km southeast of the earthquake source) and at a tide gauge in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). In the hours following the event, the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) suggested rupture of a south-dipping segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). Fritz et al. (2013) used the NEIC source model to simulate the tsunami height and match coastal run-up measurements and DART data by (1) increasing coseismic slip on the EPGF while keeping a constant Mo by scaling the regional rigidity, and (2) invoking a coastal submarine landslide in addition to ground motion. Since then, several studies have considerably improved our understanding of the 2010 Haiti earthquake source using GPS, InSAR, seismological, geological, and/or teleseismic data (Meng et al., 2012; Hayes et al., 2010, Symithe et al., 2013). All show that rupture occurred on a north-dipping blind fault (Leogâne fault) with 1/3 of its moment expressed by reverse motion and up to 60 cm of coastal uplift. Here we revisit the January 12, 2010 Haiti tsunami by modeling runup heights, DART, and tide gauge observations using these recent source models as input parameters. We propagate the tsunami using a non linear shallow water tsunami model able to account for the shoaling effect thanks to imbricated bathymetric grids. Simulations indicate run-up heights much lower than observed (1) in the Grand Goâve Bay, consistent with the hypoythesis of a landslide-triggered tsunami at this location, (2) along the southern coast of Hispaniola and at the DART buoy, closest to observations however when using Symithe et al.'s source model. We also find wave heights up to 1 m in Port-au-Prince (harbor and coastal shantytowns) when using

  7. Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport of large debris by tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel A. S.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    conservativeness of the model. This way, in highly resolved meshes and high quantities of debris, the model approaches full conservativeness only if the two-way coupling feature is present, an effect that is attenuated in coarse meshes or with small debris quantities. Aknownledgements: This work was partially funded by FEDER, program COMPETE, and by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) with project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012. References: Baptista M.A. & Miranda, J.M. (2009) Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42. Conde, D. A. S.; Baptista, M. A. V.; Sousa Oliveira, C. & Ferreira, R. M. L. (2013) A shallow-flow model for the propagation of tsunamis over complex geometries and mobile beds, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2533-2542. Conde, D. A. S.; Baptista, M. A. V.; Sousa Oliveira, C. & Ferreira, R. M. L. (2015) Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port. EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria. Ferreira, R. M. L.; Franca, M. J.; Leal, J. G. & Cardoso, A. H. (2009) Mathematical modelling of shallow flows: Closure models drawn from grain-scale mechanics of sediment transport and flow hydrodynamics, Can. J. Civil. Eng., 36, 1604-1621. LeVeque, R. J., George, D. L., & Berger, M. J. (2011) Tsunami modelling with adaptively refined finite volume methods, Acta Numerica, pp. 211-289.

  8. Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Watts

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available marine geology data and interpretations into successful case studies that reproduce all available tsunami observations and records. We show that nonlinear and dispersive tsunami propagation models may be necessary for many landslide tsunami case studies. GEOWAVE is a comprehensive tsunami simulation model formed in part by combining the Tsunami Open and Progressive Initial Conditions System (TOPICS with the fully non-linear Boussinesq water wave model FUNWAVE. TOPICS uses curve fits of numerical results from a fully nonlinear potential flow model to provide approximate landslide tsunami sources for tsunami propagation models, based on marine geology data and interpretations. In this work, we validate GEOWAVE with successful case studies of the 1946 Unimak, Alaska, the 1994 Skagway, Alaska, and the 1998 Papua New Guinea events. GEOWAVE simulates accurate runup and inundation at the same time, with no additional user interference or effort, using a slot technique. Wave breaking, if it occurs during shoaling or runup, is also accounted for with a dissipative breaking model acting on the wave front. The success of our case studies depends on the combination of accurate tsunami sources and an advanced tsunami propagation and inundation model.

  9. Sandy signs of a tsunami's onshore depth and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, K.; Bourgeois, J.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Lynett, P.; Jaffe, B.; Yeh, H.; Weiss, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tsunamis rank among the most devastating and unpredictable natural hazards to affect coastal areas. Just 3 years ago, in December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami caused more than 225,000 deaths. Like many extreme events, however, destructive tsunamis strike rarely enough that written records span too little time to quantify tsunami hazard and risk. Tsunami deposits preserved in the geologic record have been used to extend the record of tsunami occurrence but not the magnitude of past events. To quantify tsunami hazard further, we asked the following question: Can ancient deposits also provide guidance on the expectable water depths and speeds for future tsunamis?

  10. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    N. Horspool; I. Pranantyo; J. Griffin; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; W. Kongko; Cipta, A.; B. Bustaman; S. D. Anugrah; Thio, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia....

  11. Interdisciplinary approaches to better understand the past tsunamis -Case study of the 1771 Meiwa Tsunami, Japan-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is important to know frequency and magnitude of past tsunamis over hundred to thousand years to better understand the risk from low-frequency large tsunamis. Historical documents, archeological evidence, and sediments laid down by tsunamis in coastal environments are useful for understanding the past tsunamis. Among them, tsunami geology has become a subject of great interest since the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, Japan. This is because the 2011 tsunami was suspected as a recurrence of the AD869 Jogan tsunami, which was well known based on the geological and historical evidence. Our newly acquired geological data on the 2011 tsunami however, suggest that previous estimates of the Jogan tsunami have probably been underestimated [Goto et al., 2011]. This suggests that more interdisciplinary research is needed to better understand the historical and prehistoric tsunamis. As an example of the interdisciplinary research to better understand the past tsunami, here I review the studies of the AD1771 Meiwa Tsunami and its predecessors that struck the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Reliable historical documents suggest run-up heights of up to 30 m for this tsunami [e.g. Goto et al., 2010], which are well supported by the archeological evidence as well as local traditions. Moreover, the displacement of specific coral boulders by the tsunami is also described in detail. Geological studies and numerical modeling of the boulder transport by the tsunami further revealed that many coral boulders of several hundred tons were deposited by the tsunami [e.g. Goto et al., 2010]. Based on such researches, the source model for the tsunami was estimated by the high-resolution numerical modeling, although it remains still controversial. Our study suggests that all available historical, geological, and archaeological data should be collected to better estimate the historical and prehistoric tsunami source model. The field evidences are still increasing for the 1771 Meiwa Tsunami

  12. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  13. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground

  14. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afif, Haunan, E-mail: afif@vsi.esdm.go.id [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Cipta, Athanasius [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  15. GIS data for the Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study to modernize FEMA flood hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A Tsunami Pilot Study was conducted for the area surrounding the coastal town of Seaside, Oregon, as part of the Federal Emergency Management's (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Cascadia subduction zone extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to Vancouver Island, Canada. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities subject to tsunamis generated by far- and near-field (Cascadia) earthquakes. Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100-year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improving tsunami hazard assessment guidelines for FEMA and state and local agencies. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study model data and results are published separately as a geographic information systems (GIS) data report (Wong and others, 2006). The flood maps and GIS data are briefly described here.

  16. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization: Performance Assessment of Tsunamigenic Earthquake Discrimination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, M. T.; Lomax, A.; Hellman, S. B.; Whitmore, P.; Weinstein, S.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Knight, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami warning centers must rapidly decide whether an earthquake is likely to generate a destructive tsunami in order to issue a tsunami warning quickly after a large event. For very large events (Mw > 8 or so), magnitude and location alone are sufficient to warrant an alert. However, for events of smaller magnitude (e.g., Mw ~ 7.5), particularly for so-called "tsunami earthquakes", magnitude alone is insufficient to issue an alert and other measurements must be rapidly made and used to assess tsunamigenic potential. The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). We (ISTI) are responsible for implementing the seismic monitoring components in this new system, including real-time seismic data collection and seismic processing. The seismic data processor includes a variety of methods aimed at real-time discrimination of tsunamigenic events, including: Mwp, Me, slowness (Theta), W-phase, mantle magnitude (Mm), array processing and finite-fault inversion. In addition, it contains the ability to designate earthquake scenarios and play the resulting synthetic seismograms through the processing system. Thus, it is also a convenient tool that integrates research and monitoring and may be used to calibrate and tune the real-time monitoring system. Here we show results of the automated processing system for a large dataset of subduction zone earthquakes containing recent tsunami earthquakes and we examine the accuracy of the various discrimation methods and discuss issues related to their successful real-time application.

  17. Four Business Opportunities after Tsunami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Chongqing International Economic and Technical Cooperation Corporation, which has rich experience in international engineering contracting, is actively preparing for the international bid for the reconstruction projects. Zhu Dalun,General Manager of this company, said after the great disaster happened, it would take some time for the relevant countries and regions to reconstruct their land, this tsunami in the Indian Ocean is no exception.……

  18. Near-field tsunami forecasting using offshore tsunami data from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirata, K.; Baba, T.; Ohta, Y.; Iinuma, T.; Hino, R.; Tanioka, Y.; Sakai, S.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Maeda, K.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time tsunami forecasting is one of the effective ways to mitigate tsunami disasters. Transmission of a tsunami warning based on rapid and accurate tsunami forecasting to coastal communities helps the residents to make the decisions about their evacuation behaviors. Offshore tsunami data take an important role in tsunami forecasting. Tsunamis can be detected at offshore stations earlier than at coastal sites, and the data provide direct information about the impeding tsunamis. When the 2011 Tohoku earthquake occurred, the large tsunamis were clearly observed at various offshore observatories around Japan, such as cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges (OBPGs), GPS buoys and DART. In this study, we retrospectively applied an algorithm of near-field tsunami forecasting (Tsushima et al., 2009, 2012, JGR) to the offshore tsunami data from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake to examine how the algorithm contributes to tsunami forecasting of M9 earthquakes. Our tsunami forecasting algorithm is based on a source estimation. For the algorithm, offshore tsunami waveform data are inverted for spatial distribution of an initial sea-surface displacement, and then coastal tsunami waveforms are synthesized from the estimated source and pre-computed Green's functions by a linear superposition. No assumptions concerning the fault geometry and the size of an earthquake are required in the algorithm. The predictions are repeated by progressively updating the offshore tsunami waveform data. Because individual predictions can be calculated within a few minutes, tsunami predictions can be updated at short intervals of time, thus providing successive tsunami predictions with improved accuracy. We retrospectively applied our algorithm to the tsunami data recorded at 13 offshore stations (6 OBPGs, 6 GPS buoys, and 1 DART) during the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. As a result of the application made 20 minutes after the earthquake, tsunamis with heights of 5-10 m were forecasted at the coastal sites

  19. In Search of the Largest Possible Tsunami: An Example Following the 2011 Japan Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many tsunami hazard assessments focus on estimating the largest possible tsunami: i.e., the worst-case scenario. This is typically performed by examining historic and prehistoric tsunami data or by estimating the largest source that can produce a tsunami. We demonstrate that worst-case assessments derived from tsunami and tsunami-source catalogs are greatly affected by sampling bias. Both tsunami and tsunami sources are well represented by a Pareto distribution. It is intuitive to assume that there is some limiting size (i.e., runup or seismic moment) for which a Pareto distribution is truncated or tapered. Likelihood methods are used to determine whether a limiting size can be determined from existing catalogs. Results from synthetic catalogs indicate that several observations near the limiting size are needed for accurate parameter estimation. Accordingly, the catalog length needed to empirically determine the limiting size is dependent on the difference between the limiting size and the observation threshold, with larger catalog lengths needed for larger limiting-threshold size differences. Most, if not all, tsunami catalogs and regional tsunami source catalogs are of insufficient length to determine the upper bound on tsunami runup. As an example, estimates of the empirical tsunami runup distribution are obtained from the Miyako tide gauge station in Japan, which recorded the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami as the largest tsunami among 51 other events. Parameter estimation using a tapered Pareto distribution is made both with and without the Tohoku-oki event. The catalog without the 2011 event appears to have a low limiting tsunami runup. However, this is an artifact of undersampling. Including the 2011 event, the catalog conforms more to a pure Pareto distribution with no confidence in estimating a limiting runup. Estimating the size distribution of regional tsunami sources is subject to the same sampling bias. Physical attenuation mechanisms such as wave breaking

  20. Quadtree-adaptive tsunami modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinet, Stéphane

    2011-09-01

    The well-balanced, positivity-preserving scheme of Audusse et al. (SIAM J Sci Comput 25(6):2050-2065, 2004), for the solution of the Saint-Venant equations with wetting and drying, is generalised to an adaptive quadtree spatial discretisation. The scheme is validated using an analytical solution for the oscillation of a fluid in a parabolic container, as well as the classic Monai tsunami laboratory benchmark. An efficient database system able to dynamically reconstruct a multiscale bathymetry based on extremely large datasets is also described. This combination of methods is successfully applied to the adaptive modelling of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami. Adaptivity is shown to significantly decrease the exponent of the power law describing computational cost as a function of spatial resolution. The new exponent is directly related to the fractal dimension of the geometrical structures characterising tsunami propagation. The implementation of the method as well as the data and scripts necessary to reproduce the results presented are freely available as part of the open-source Gerris Flow Solver framework.

  1. Program and abstracts of the Second Tsunami Source Workshop; July 19-20, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.H.K.; Kirby, S.H.; Diggles, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a request by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for computing tsunami propagations in the western Pacific, Eric Geist asked Willie Lee for assistance in providing parameters of earthquakes which may be future tsunami sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tsunami Source Working Group (TSWG) was initiated in August 2005. An ad hoc group of diverse expertise was formed, with Steve Kirby as the leader. The founding members are: Rick Blakely, Eric Geist, Steve Kirby, Willie Lee, George Plafker, Dave Scholl, Roland von Huene, and Ray Wells. Half of the founding members are USGS emeritus scientists. A report was quickly completed because of NOAA's urgent need to precalculate tsunami propagation paths for early warning purposes. It was clear to the group that much more work needed to be done to improve our knowledge about tsunami sources worldwide. The group therefore started an informal research program on tsunami sources and meets irregularly to share ideas, data, and results. Because our group activities are open to anyone, we have more participants now, including, for example, Harley Benz and George Choy (USGS, Golden, Colo.), Holly Ryan and Stephanie Ross (USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.), Hiroo Kanamori (Caltech), Emile Okal (Northwestern University), and Gerard Fryer and Barry Hirshorn (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Hawaii). To celebrate the fifth anniversary of the TSWG, a workshop is being held in the Auditorium of Building 3, USGS, Menlo Park, on July 19-20, 2010 (Willie Lee and Steve Kirby, Conveners). All talks (except one) will be video broadcast. The first tsunami source workshop was held in April 2006 with about 100 participants from many institutions. This second workshop (on a much smaller scale) will be devoted primarily to recent work by the USGS members. In addition, Hiroo Kanamori (Caltech) will present his recent work on the 1960 and 2010 Chile earthquakes, Barry Hirshorn and Stuart Weinstein (Pacific Tsunami

  2. Assessment of Landslide-Tsunami Hazard for the Gulf of Mexico Using a Probabilistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampell, A.; Horrillo, J. J.; Parambath, L.; Shigihara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    given transect are then modeled to determine hazard to specific coastal locations, including maximum runup heights, inundation depth/extent, and strong currents affecting communities and infrastructure, thus mitigating the impact of tsunamis according to the guidelines of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  3. Parallel Implementation of Dispersive Tsunami Wave Modeling with a Nesting Algorithm for the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Narumi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ando, Kazuto; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Kato, Toshihiro

    2015-12-01

    Because of improvements in offshore tsunami observation technology, dispersion phenomena during tsunami propagation have often been observed in recent tsunamis, for example the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis. The dispersive propagation of tsunamis can be simulated by use of the Boussinesq model, but the model demands many computational resources. However, rapid progress has been made in parallel computing technology. In this study, we investigated a parallelized approach for dispersive tsunami wave modeling. Our new parallel software solves the nonlinear Boussinesq dispersive equations in spherical coordinates. A variable nested algorithm was used to increase spatial resolution in the target region. The software can also be used to predict tsunami inundation on land. We used the dispersive tsunami model to simulate the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on the Supercomputer K. Good agreement was apparent between the dispersive wave model results and the tsunami waveforms observed offshore. The finest bathymetric grid interval was 2/9 arcsec (approx. 5 m) along longitude and latitude lines. Use of this grid simulated tsunami soliton fission near the Sendai coast. Incorporating the three-dimensional shape of buildings and structures led to improved modeling of tsunami inundation.

  4. A qualitative exploration of workarounds related to the implementation of national electronic health records in early adopter mental health hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Ser; Ann Robertson; Aziz Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the perceptions and reported practices of mental health hospital staff using national hospital electronic health records (EHRs) in order to inform future implementations, particularly in acute mental health settings.METHODS: Thematic analysis of interviews with a wide range of clinical, information technology (IT), managerial and other staff at two early adopter mental health National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in London, UK, implementing national EHRs.RESULTS: We ana...

  5. A Qualitative Exploration of Workarounds Related to the Implementation of National Electronic Health Records in Early Adopter Mental Health Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Ser, Gloria; Robertson, Ann; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate the perceptions and reported practices of mental health hospital staff using national hospital electronic health records (EHRs) in order to inform future implementations, particularly in acute mental health settings. Methods: Thematic analysis of interviews with a wide range of clinical, information technology (IT), managerial and other staff at two early adopter mental health National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in London, UK, implementing national EHRs. Results: We an...

  6. National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forecast Models GIS Data Portal NOAA Weather Radio Services SKYWARN Storm Spotters StormReady TsunamiReady EDUCATION Be A ... For NWS Employees International National Centers Products and Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Local forecast by "City, ...

  7. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Rock magnetic and geochemical approach.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Basavaiah, N.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Deenadayalan, K.

    and Environmental Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan 608737, South Korea. ∗Corresponding author. e-mail: physicssingam@gmail.com; veerasingams@nio.org The December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) had a major impact on the geomorphology and sedi- mentology...

  8. GNSS Tsunami Warning System Augmentation for the Indo-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The years since the devastating Banda Aceh Earthquake of December, 2004 have repeatedly inflicted the terrible loss of life and economic disruption from large earthquakes and resulting tsunamis upon Indo-Pacific coastal populations. The hardest hit populations are those closest to the earthquake source, a scenario for which most Indo-Pacific nations lack an adequate early warning system. Following the Banda Aceh Earthquake, GNSS based techniques were developed to provide accurate, timely, estimates of ground displacements, the modeling and monitoring of tsunami propagation. Major investments are also being made to deploy and upgrade existing GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Beidou, Galileo, GZSS, and IRNSS) by the end of this decade. There have also been significant investments in multi-GNSS ground networks and analysis centers that often provide measurements in real time. These multi-national investments now present the possibility for significant improvements to the Indo-Pacific region's tsunami warning. The development of GNSS based tsunami warning integrated with existing seismic based tsunami warning systems will provide a robust, accurate, timely, and cost effective network to provide effective warning for the Indo-Pacific coastal communities. The UN General Assembly has called for the sharing of geodetic data for the mitigation of natural hazards while the IUGG and IGS recommend the implementation of a GNSS based augmentation to the Tsunami Early Warning System. The same GNSS ground networks and constellations that support the Tsunami Early Warning network also provide Positioning, Navigation, and Timing and other benefits to these communities thereby insuring a sustainable and reliable capability.

  9. Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical

  10. Tsunami source uncertainty estimation: The 2011 Japan tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Jan; Hawkins, Rhys; Cummins, Phil R.; Hossen, Jakir; Sambridge, Malcolm; Hino, Ryota; Inazu, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    This paper studies the initial sea surface displacement and its uncertainty after an earthquake based on tsunami waveforms. The spatial distribution is inferred with a Bayesian approach that provides probabilities that are interpreted as uncertainties of the displaced sea surface. The parameterization is nonlinear and treats apparent rupture velocity as unknown but assumes rise time to be fixed at 30 s. Importantly, the spatial complexity of the source is constrained by observations using a transdimensional algorithm based on a wavelet decomposition of the displacement field. In this approach, the number of wavelet coefficients is an unknown random variable that is also estimated as part of the inversion. The resulting parameterization is parsimonious in that it can adapt to the spatially varying source complexity while being consistent with the information in the tsunami waveforms. In this way, the resolution of displacement varies across the source region with more parameters introduced for parts of the source that are resolved well by the data and/or have significant complexity. The noise level (standard deviation) at each gauge is initially treated as unknown to estimate data covariance matrices. These matrices are applied in subsequent inversion and include unknown scaling which eliminates the requirement to assume station weights and accounts for temporally correlated waveform noise. The method is applied to waveforms recorded during the 2011 Japan Tsunami and results show high resolution (low uncertainty) in most parts of the source region and a previously unreported level of source detail. In particular, the main peak of the source is elongated trench parallel and shows a well-resolved bimodal finger-like feature in the northern source region that closely follows the trench.

  11. A New Tool for Inundation Modeling: Community Modeling Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Greenslade, D. J. M.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Badal, R.; Synolakis, C. E.; Kânoğlu, U.

    2011-11-01

    Almost 5 years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, the 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami demonstrated that accurate forecasting is possible using the tsunami community modeling tool Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT). ComMIT is designed for ease of use, and allows dissemination of results to the community while addressing concerns associated with proprietary issues of bathymetry and topography. It uses initial conditions from a precomputed propagation database, has an easy-to-interpret graphical interface, and requires only portable hardware. ComMIT was initially developed for Indian Ocean countries with support from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To date, more than 60 scientists from 17 countries in the Indian Ocean have been trained and are using it in operational inundation mapping.

  12. Progress in developing an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.; Kelly, A.; Atwater, B.; Sipkin, S.; Petersen, M.; Hudnut, K.

    2007-12-01

    Nearly three years following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there is much progress to report on building a new Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) which will provide tsunami early warnings and framework for disaster management and response systems. To date, the IOTWS has utilized the leadership and technical expertise of many countries including Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, together with assistance from international partners. Inter-agency cooperation has combined expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing infrastructures for both real-time analysis of seismic data and rapid communication and warnings (including the upgrade of several Indonesian seismic and GPS stations), 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international support for logistics, communications, training, management and administration. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus was placed on "in-country capacity building," so that individual nations can be self-sustaining in their efforts. We believe that this has been accomplished through extensive training sessions, workshops and site visits.

  13. Risk analysis and perception of an hypothetic volcanogenic tsunami along the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Nicola; Gravina, Teresita

    2016-04-01

    The Marsili volcano is the largest and active seamount in Europe, located in the Marsili Basin back-arc basin (Aeolian Arc, Italy). Its flanks are unstables and a large collapse could originate a disastrous tsunami that will strike the tyrrhenian coasts of Southern Italy. In this work we used a GIS methodology in order to calculate the tsunami travel time starting from Marsili volcano, in particular the time that the wave needs to arrive on the tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria (South Italy). Although, we made a qualitative risk perception analysis by distributing a questionnaire at the population from different parts of Calabria. As a result, we obtained a tsunami travel time of 20-25 minutes for almost all the Calabria coasts and a tsunami celerity above the normal because of the great sea depth near the analysed coasts. The majority of the population declare to know the meaning of "tsunami" and a great number of them retain to be affected by a tsunami risk in the place where they live, but they are no instructed about this risk. A great quantity of people links the tsunami generation to a submarine volcanic eruption. In conclusion, by looking at the tsunami travel time calculated through GIS, the installation of an alert system need along the tyrrhenian coast of Calabria, with an alert advise of around 10 minutes and an evacuation plan of 10 minutes. More integration within GIS and the questionnaire data needs in order to create right evacuation plans and to conduct formative activities for each area.

  14. Mathematics of tsunami: modelling and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivorotko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami (long waves in the deep water) motion caused by underwater earthquakes is described by shallow water equations ( { ηtt = div (gH (x,y)-gradη), (x,y) ∈ Ω, t ∈ (0,T ); η|t=0 = q(x,y), ηt|t=0 = 0, (x,y) ∈ Ω. ( (1) Bottom relief H(x,y) characteristics and the initial perturbation data (a tsunami source q(x,y)) are required for the direct simulation of tsunamis. The main difficulty problem of tsunami modelling is a very big size of the computational domain (Ω = 500 × 1000 kilometres in space and about one hour computational time T for one meter of initial perturbation amplitude max|q|). The calculation of the function η(x,y,t) of three variables in Ω × (0,T) requires large computing resources. We construct a new algorithm to solve numerically the problem of determining the moving tsunami wave height S(x,y) which is based on kinematic-type approach and analytical representation of fundamental solution. Proposed algorithm of determining the function of two variables S(x,y) reduces the number of operations in 1.5 times than solving problem (1). If all functions does not depend on the variable y (one dimensional case), then the moving tsunami wave height satisfies of the well-known Airy-Green formula: S(x) = S(0)° --- 4H (0)/H (x). The problem of identification parameters of a tsunami source using additional measurements of a passing wave is called inverse tsunami problem. We investigate two different inverse problems of determining a tsunami source q(x,y) using two different additional data: Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) measurements and satellite altimeters wave-form images. These problems are severely ill-posed. The main idea consists of combination of two measured data to reconstruct the source parameters. We apply regularization techniques to control the degree of ill-posedness such as Fourier expansion, truncated singular value decomposition, numerical regularization. The algorithm of selecting the truncated number of

  15. Tsunami early warning system for the western coast of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Partheniu, Raluca; Cioflan, Carmen; Constantin, Angela; Danet, Anton; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ghica, Daniela; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Moldovan, Iren; Neagoe, Cristian; Radulian, Mircea; Raileanu, Victor; Verdes, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea area is liable to tsunamis generation and the statistics show that more than twenty tsunamis have been observed in the past. The last tsunami was observed on 31st of March 1901 in the western part of the Black Sea, in the Shabla area. An earthquake of magnitude generated at a depth of 15 km below the sea level , triggered tsunami waves of 5 m height and material losses as well. The oldest tsunami ever recorded close to the Romanian shore-line dates from year 104. This paper emphasises the participation of The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) to the development of a tsunami warning system for the western cost of the Black Sea. In collaboration with the National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar), the Institute of Oceanology and the Geological Institute, the last two belonging to the Bulgarian Academy of Science, NIEP has participated as partner, to the cross-border project "Set-up and implementation of key core components of a regional early-warning system for marine geohazards of risk to the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area - MARINEGEOHAZARDS", coordinated by GeoEcoMar. The main purpose of the project was the implementation of an integrated early-warning system accompanied by a common decision-support tool, and enhancement of regional technical capability, for the adequate detection, assessment, forecasting and rapid notification of natural marine geohazards for the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea cross-border area. In the last years, NIEP has increased its interest on the marine related hazards, such as tsunamis and, in collaboration with other institutions of Romania, is acting to strengthen the cooperation and data exchanges with institutions from the Black Sea surrounding countries which already have tsunami monitoring infrastructures. In this respect, NIEP has developed a coastal network for marine seismicity, by installing three new seismic stations in the coastal area of the Black Sea, Sea Level Sensors

  16. Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chule Kim, Dong; Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2014-05-01

    This study is based on a series of three dimensional numerical modeling experiments to understand the tsunami run-up and inundation process at the circular shape Babi Island in the Indonesia caused by 1992 Flores earthquake tsunami and at Monai valley in Okushiri Island, west part of East (Japan) Sea caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. The wave field in the coastal area is modeled within the framework of fully nonlinear dispersive Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations solved using the FLOW3D code. Boundary conditions for this model were extracted from computed wave characteristics obtained from the 2D tsunami propagation model based on the shallow water equations. This model has shown it effectivity to explain extreme runup characteristics during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami (Kim et al, 2013). In case of the 1992 Flores Island tsunami the results of numerical simulation run-up results are compared with field measured run-up heights. It has good agreement with measurement and computational run-up heights. The particle velocity distribution is also computed. In the case of 1993 Okushiri tsunami the numerical simulation reproduces extreme run-up at the Monai valley (31.7 m).

  17. Second international tsunami workshop on the technical aspects of tsunami warning systems, tsunami analysis, preparedness, observation and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop on the Technical Aspects of Tsunami Warning Systems, Tsunami Analysis, Preparedness, Observation, and Instrumentation, sponsored and convened by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was held on 1-2 August 1989, in the modern and attractive research town of Academgorodok, which is located 20 km south from downtown Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, USSR. The Program was arranged in eight major areas of interest covering the following: Opening and Introduction; Survey of Existing Tsunami Warning Centers - present status, results of work, plans for future development; Survey of some existing seismic data processing systems and future projects; Methods for fast evaluation of Tsunami potential and perspectives of their implementation; Tsunami data bases; Tsunami instrumentation and observations; Tsunami preparedness; and finally, a general discussion and adoption of recommendations. The Workshop presentations not only addressed the conceptual improvements that have been made, but focused on the inner workings of the Tsunami Warning System, as well, including computer applications, on-line processing and numerical modelling. Furthermore, presentations reported on progress has been made in the last few years on data telemetry, instrumentation and communications. Emphasis was placed on new concepts and their application into operational techniques that can result in improvements in data collection, rapid processing of the data, in analysis and prediction. A Summary Report on the Second International Tsunami Workshop, containing abstracted and annotated proceedings has been published as a separate report. The present Report is a Supplement to the Summary Report and contains the full text of the papers presented at this Workshop. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  19. Shallow water models as tool for tsunami current predictions in ports and harbors. Validation with Tohoku 2011 field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Vida, J. M., Sr.; Macias Sanchez, J.; Castro, M. J.; Ortega, S.

    2015-12-01

    Model ability to compute and predict tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be produced by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Besides, an accurate simulation of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations is fundamental for advancing in the study of tsunami sediment transport. These considerations made the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) proposing a benchmark exercise focused on modeling and simulating tsunami currents. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities were available to compare and to validate model results. After Tohoku 2011 many current meters measurement were made, mainly in harbors and channels. In this work we present a part of the contribution made by the EDANYA group from the University of Malaga to the NTHMP workshop organized at Portland (USA), 9-10 of February 2015. We have selected three out of the five proposed benchmark problems. Two of them consist in real observed data from the Tohoku 2011 event, one at Hilo Habour (Hawaii) and the other at Tauranga Bay (New Zealand). The third one consists in laboratory experimental data for the inundation of Seaside City in Oregon. For this model validation the Tsunami-HySEA model, developed by EDANYA group, was used. The overall conclusion that we could extract from this validation exercise was that the Tsunami-HySEA model performed well in all benchmark problems proposed. The greater spatial variability in tsunami velocity than wave height makes it more difficult its precise numerical representation. The larger variability in velocities is likely a result of the behaviour of the flow as it is channelized and as it flows around bathymetric highs and structures. In the other hand wave height do not respond as strongly to chanelized flow as current velocity.

  20. Housing Reconstruction in Disaster Recovery: A Study of Fishing Communities Post-Tsunami in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Disaster recovery after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 led to a number of challenges and raised issues concerning land rights and housing reconstruction in the affected countries. This paper discusses the resistance to relocation of fishing communities in Chennai, India. Qualitative research methods were used to describe complexities in the debate between the state and the community regarding relocation, and the paper draws attention to the dimensions of the state–community interface in the...

  1. Quakes and tsunamis detected by GOCE (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R.; Doornbos, E.; Bruinsma, S.; Hebert, H.

    2013-12-01

    The aerodynamic accelerations measured by GOCE are used to calculate air density variations and air velocity estimates along GOCE orbit track. The detection of infrasonic waves generated by seismic surface waves and gravity waves generated by tsunamis are presented for earthquakes and tsunamis generated in Tohoku (11/03/2011) and Samoa (29/09/2009) regions. For the seismic/infrasonic waves, a wave propagation modelling is presented and synthetic data are compared to GOCE measurements. The travel time and amplitude discrepancies are discussed in terms of lateral velocity variations in the solid Earth and the atmosphere. For the tsunami/gravity waves, a plane wave analysis is performed and relations between vertical velocity, cross-track velocity and density variations are deduced. By using these relations, an indicator of gravity wave presence is constructed. It allows scanning of the GOCE data to search for gravity wave crossings. Simulations of the gravity wave crossing space/time ranges, using models of tsunami and gravity wave propagation, demonstrate that the observed gravity waves coincide with model-predicted tsunami generated gravity waves for the Tohoku event. This study demonstrates that very low earth orbit spacecraft with high-resolution accelerometers are able to detect atmospheric waves generated by the tectonic activity. Such spacecraft may supply additional data to tsunami alert systems in order to validate some tsunami alerts.

  2. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    integrates OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of hazardous events, like earthquakes, sea level anomalies, ocean floor occurrences, and ground displacements. Using OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture. The integration of a simulation system to identify affected areas is considered using the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) together with addressing information defined via the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The first system demonstrator has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios demonstrating the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC). The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Developments of the system are based to the largest extent on free and open source software (FOSS) components and industry standards. Emphasis has been and will be made on leveraging open source technologies that support mature system architecture models wherever appropriate. All open source software produced is foreseen to be published on a publicly available software repository thus allowing others to reuse results achieved and enabling further development and collaboration with a wide community including scientists, developers, users and stakeholders. This live demonstration is linked with the talk "TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis" (EGU2012-7275) given in the session "Architecture of Future Tsunami Warning Systems" (NH5.7/ESSI1.7).

  3. Direct bed stress measurements under solitary tsunami-type waves and breaking tsunami wave fronts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; Baldock, T.E.

    connecting pipelines and associated structures. Changes in the seabed that are associated with the tsunami are seldom reported due to the difficulties in ascertaining the regional extent of the instability and the importance of the study region. Deep... ocean pipelines routing up the continental slope with changing bathymetry are vulnerable to hazards derived from extreme events like Tsunamis. Tsunami loading on offshore pipelines is not often considered in the design process and also the resultant...

  4. Employers' perceptions and attitudes toward the Canadian national standard on psychological health and safety in the workplace: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi

    2016-01-01

    The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive.

  5. Concepts and Perceptions of Democracy and Governance beyond the Nation State: Qualitative Research in Education for European Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Eis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The empirical research presented in this paper focuses on concepts and perceptions of European politics and citizenship which are expressed by students and teachers in secondary schools. The qualitative study is based on semi-standardized interviews, written surveys, and classroom research (video transcripts, observation records. The results suggest that many young people are amenable towards transnational patterns of identity and they tend to combine pragmatic-optimistic expectations with European Union citizenship. Many of the students interviewed seem willing to adapt themselves to a larger European environment. However, many of the teachers voiced ambivalent notions while expressing veiled scepticism, although they rarely expressed open criticism based on their own fears towards political developments in a unified Europe. The classroom research shows that in the examined civic education lessons, the everyday concepts of students are seldom questioned and sparsely developed towards social-science-based explanatory models. Sometimes even misleading concepts are enforced in classroom interaction instead of being clarified by the development of adequate categories and models.

  6. Steps Towards the Implementation of a Tsunami Detection, Warning, Mitigation and Preparedness Program for Southwestern Coastal Areas of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farreras, Salvador; Ortiz, Modesto; Gonzalez, Juan I.

    2007-03-01

    The highly vulnerable Pacific southwest coast of Mexico has been repeatedly affected by local, regional and remote source tsunamis. Mexico presently has no national tsunami warning system in operation. The implementation of key elements of a National Program on Tsunami Detection, Monitoring, Warning and Mitigation is in progress. For local and regional events detection and monitoring, a prototype of a robust and low cost high frequency sea-level tsunami gauge, sampling every minute and equipped with 24 hours real time transmission to the Internet, was developed and is currently in operation. Statistics allow identification of low, medium and extreme hazard categories of arriving tsunamis. These categories are used as prototypes for computer simulations of coastal flooding. A finite-difference numerical model with linear wave theory for the deep ocean propagation, and shallow water nonlinear one for the near shore and interaction with the coast, and non-fixed boundaries for flooding and recession at the coast, is used. For prevention purposes, tsunami inundation maps for several coastal communities, are being produced in this way. The case of the heavily industrialized port of Lázaro Cárdenas, located on the sand shoals of a river delta, is illustrated; including a detailed vulnerability assessment study. For public education on preparedness and awareness, printed material for children and adults has been developed and published. It is intended to extend future coverage of this program to the Mexican Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas.

  7. Quantification of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast; implications for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen G.; Delaney, Keith B.

    2015-04-01

    including life-loss risk. Our analysis further indicates that in terms of life-loss risk, communities on Canada's Pacific Coast that are exposed to high tsunami hazard, experience the highest natural risk in Canada. Although sparsely populated, the (outer) coast of British Columbia has important critical infrastructure that includes port developments, shoreline facilities related to forest resource exploitation, a large number of First Nations Reserves, small municipal centres, towns, and villages, (some of which are ecotourism and sport fishing centres), and a limited number of industrial facilities. For selected areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island inundation maps have been prepared for a range of tsunami scenarios. We find that key facilities and critical infrastructure are exposed to the hazards associated with tsunami inundation.

  8. A qualitative risk assessment of factors contributing to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle along the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B; Bengis, R; Brahmbhatt, D; Gummow, B; Thomson, G R

    2009-12-01

    Between November 2000 and the end of 2007, five outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle in the area adjacentto the Kruger National Park (KNP) in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. To help understand the factors behind these outbreaks a qualitative risk assessment based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) assessment framework was adopted, using available data from published sources and various unpublished South African sources. Risk was assessed on the basis of the following factors: data on South African Territories (SAT) type infections of buffalo and impala in the KNP, permeability of the fence along the western boundary of the KNP, the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife susceptible to FMD in areas adjacent to the KNP, and the level of herd immunity in cattle generated by prophylactic vaccination. Scenario pathways for FMD occurrence outside the KNP are presented as a conceptual framework to qualitatively assess the risk of FMD outbreaks. Factors that are likely to have most influence on the risk were identified: fence permeability, vaccination coverage, or the efficiency of animal movement control measures. The method and results are provided as an approach that may be used as a basis to evaluate the risk of FMD outbreaks occurring in other wildlife/livestock interface areas of southern Africa.

  9. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century - a contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tinti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  10. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century – a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maramai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  11. Tsunami Warning Services for the U.S. and Canadian Atlantic Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Knight, W.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developed a tsunami warning program for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Within a year, this program extended further to the Atlantic coast of Canada and the Caribbean Sea. Warning services are provided to U.S. and Canadian coasts (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) by the NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) while the NOAA/Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides services for non-U.S. entities in the Caribbean Basin. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is also an active partner in the Caribbean Basin warning system. While the nature of the tsunami threat in the Atlantic Basin is different than in the Pacific, the warning system philosophy is similar. That is, initial messages are based strictly on seismic data so that information is provided to those at greatest risk as fast as possible while supplementary messages are refined with sea level observations and forecasts when possible. The Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) acquire regional seismic data through many agencies, such as the United States Geological Survey, Earthquakes Canada, regional seismic networks, and the PRSN. Seismic data quantity and quality are generally sufficient throughout most of the Atlantic area-of-responsibility to issue initial information within five minutes of origin time. Sea level data are mainly provided by the NOAA/National Ocean Service. Coastal tide gage coverage is generally denser along the Atlantic coast than in the Pacific. Seven deep ocean pressure sensors (DARTs), operated by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Data Buoy Center, are located in the Atlantic Basin (5 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Caribbean, and 1 in the Gulf of Mexico). The DARTs provide TWCs with the means to verify tsunami generation in the Atlantic and provide critical data with which to calibrate forecast models. Tsunami warning response criteria in the Atlantic Basin

  12. A qualitative exploration of workarounds related to the implementation of national electronic health records in early adopter mental health hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ser

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the perceptions and reported practices of mental health hospital staff using national hospital electronic health records (EHRs in order to inform future implementations, particularly in acute mental health settings. METHODS: Thematic analysis of interviews with a wide range of clinical, information technology (IT, managerial and other staff at two early adopter mental health National Health Service (NHS hospitals in London, UK, implementing national EHRs. RESULTS: We analysed 33 interviews. We first sought out examples of workarounds, such as delayed data entry, entering data in wrong places and individuals using the EHR while logged in as a colleague, then identified possible reasons for the reported workarounds. Our analysis identified four main categories of factors contributing to workarounds (i.e., operational, cultural, organisational and technical. Operational factors included poor system integration with existing workflows and the system not meeting users' perceived needs. Cultural factors involved users' competence with IT and resistance to change. Organisational factors referred to insufficient organisational resources and training, while technical factors included inadequate local technical infrastructure. Many of these factors, such as integrating the EHR system with day-to-day operational processes, staff training and adequate local IT infrastructure, were likely to apply to system implementations in various settings, but we also identified factors that related particularly to implementing EHRs in mental health hospitals, for example: EHR system incompatibility with IT systems used by mental health-related sectors, notably social services; the EHR system lacking specific, mental health functionalities and options; and clinicians feeling unable to use computers while attending to distressed psychiatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: A better conceptual model of reasons for workarounds should help with designing, and

  13. Tsunami wave suppression using submarine barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, Aleksei M [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alperovich, Leonid S; Pustil' nik, Lev A; Shtivelman, D [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Shemer, L; Liberzon, D [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Marchuk, An G [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    Submerged barriers, single or double, can be used to greatly reduce the devastating effect of a tsunami wave according to a research flume study conducted at Tel Aviv University. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  14. Tsunamis and Hurricanes A Mathematical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Tsunamis and hurricanes have had a devastating impact on the population living near the coast during the year 2005. The calculation of the power and intensity of tsunamis and hurricanes are of great importance not only for engineers and meteorologists but also for governments and insurance companies. This book presents new research on the mathematical description of tsunamis and hurricanes. A combination of old and new approaches allows to derive a nonlinear partial differential equation of fifth order describing the steepening up and the propagation of tsunamis. The description includes dissipative terms and does not contain singularities or two valued functions. The equivalence principle of solutions of nonlinear large gas dynamics waves and of solutions of water wave equations will be used. An extension of the continuity equation by a source term due to evaporation rates of salt seawater will help to understand hurricanes. Detailed formula, tables and results of the calculations are given.

  15. Tsunami wave suppression using submarine barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submerged barriers, single or double, can be used to greatly reduce the devastating effect of a tsunami wave according to a research flume study conducted at Tel Aviv University. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  16. Hydrophysical manifestations of the Indian ocean tsunami

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murthy, T.V.R.; Rao, B.P.

    described in detail by several authors. This chapter summarises the results of our investigations on the hydrophysical manifestations (salinity and temperature, coastal currents, internal waves, etc.) of the tsunami on the coastal environments in India...

  17. ON THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF TSUNAMI RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the spectrum of the tsunami radiation at the following wavelengths: 0.73 μm, 10.8μm, 12.0μm, 6.8μm and 3.8 μm (or 13,698 cm-1, 925 cm-1, 833 cm-1, 1,470 cm-1 and 2,631 cm-1 in wave numbers. By comparing with infrared spectroscopic measurements of water, we are able to identify these transitions corroborating our hypothesis that the radiation originates from the transition of vibrational quantum energy levels of water molecules in aggregate. We have also repeated our previous study of the decay rate of tsunamis for a different tsunami. An estimate of the intensity of the tsunami radiation is made.

  18. Peers and peer-based interventions in supporting reintegration and mental health among National Guard soldiers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Blow, Adrian J; Miller, Erin; Forman, Jane; Dalack, Gregory W; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-12-01

    National Guard soldiers experience high levels of mental health symptoms following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, yet many do not seek treatment. We interviewed 30 National Guard soldiers with prior deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan to assess mental health treatment barriers and the role of peers in treatment engagement. Interview transcripts were analyzed by a multidisciplinary research team using techniques drawn from grounded theory. The following themes were identified: (1) personal acceptance of having a mental health problem rather than treatment access is the major barrier to treatment entry; (2) tightly connected, supportive peer networks can decrease stigma related to mental health problems and encourage treatment; however, soldiers in impoverished or conflicted peer networks are less likely to receive these benefits; and (3) soldiers are generally positive about the idea of peer-based programs to improve treatment engagement, although they note the importance of leadership support, peer assignment, and unit specialty in implementing these programs. We conclude that some, but not all, naturally occurring peer networks serve to overcome stigma and encourage mental health treatment seeking by soldiers. Formal peer-based programs may assist soldiers not sufficiently benefitting from natural peer networks, although there are barriers to implementation.

  19. Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

  20. Messina straits tsunami of December 28, 1908

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinti, S.; Giuliani, D. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    We examine the tsunami which occurred on December 28, 1908, in the Straits of Messina. We collect and review a wide set of data coming from a number of sources in order to get a picture as clear as possible of the generation and evolution of the event. We estimate the tsunami magnitude according to the Murty-Loomis scale, based upon the evaluation of the initial wave disturbance energy.

  1. An Algorithm for Early Warning of Tsunami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Dec. 26, 2004 earthquake under the Indian Ocean floor triggered an outbreak of devastating tsunami,leading to incredible damages and tragic losses of life in littoral countries. Records showed that the killer tsunami reached the seaside Indonesian islands after half an hour, and within several hours it reached the beach lands of Sri Lanka, Thailand and other countries at the rim of the Ocean.

  2. Economic impacts of the SAFRR tsunami scenario in California: Chapter H in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Anne; Rose, Adam; Sue Wing, Ian; Wei, Dan

    2013-01-01

    to peak at ‒1.63 percent in the second quarter after the event and stagnate for the rest of the year. The majority of the economic impacts are attributed to the tsunami rather than the earthquake. The hardest hit sectors are identified as agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing, retail, and tourism. Other relevant studies have focused on the economic impacts of threats that close POLA and POLB. We find one analysis of a potential tsunami scenario affecting the California economy through disruption of port operations. Borrero and others (2005) estimated economic impacts to the southern California economy of $7 to $40 billion from a locally generated tsunami that closes POLA and POLB for as much as 1 year. There have also been several studies of the economic impacts of non-tsunami events affecting POLA and POLB. Analyses of an 11-day labor lockout produced a range of estimated national impacts of as much as $1.94 billion/day (Park and others 2008, Martin Associates 2001). Examination of a potential terrorist attack that closes the San Pedro port for 1 month yielded a $29 billion impact to the California economy (Park, 2008). These studies have reinforced the importance of recognizing economic resilience in economic impact analyses. Hall (2004) criticized the upper-end estimate of national economic impacts from the labor lockout based on model shortcomings that neglected short-run substitution behavior and fixed the long-run economic behaviors. Following the 2011 Japanese tsunami, resilience was observed in the forms of rapid recovery of manufacturing sectors, energy conservation, and insurance (Kajitani and others, 2013).

  3. How Can Museum Exhibits Enhance Earthquake and Tsunami Hazard Resiliency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    their behaviors changed as a result of learning about earthquakes and tsunamis, and other related questions. In this presentation, results from this qualitative study will be shared along with future research this is planned to explore the issue of community and individual resiliency further.

  4. International Cooperation for an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, S. T.; Mooney, W. D.; Hudnut, K.; Atwater, B.; Sipkin, S.

    2006-05-01

    A new Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) will provide tsunami early warnings and framework for disaster management and response systems. The system will utilize the leadership and technical expertise of many countries, including Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, together with assistance from international partners. Inter-agency cooperation combines expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing an infrastructure for real-time analysis of seismic data, and for rapid communication and warning networks, 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international support for logistics, communications, training, management and administration. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus will be placed on "in-country capacity building," so that individual nations will be self- sustaining in the future. This will be accomplished, partly, by training provided during workshops, international exchange, and building national capabilities. The USAID/USGS program was launched in August, 2005 and will be implemented over a two-year period. Participating U.S. government Agencies: the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), and the US Forest Service (USFS).

  5. Tsunami Modeling of Hikurangi Trench M9 Events: Case Study for Napier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Nyst, M.; Farahani, R.; Bryngelson, J.; Lee, R.; Molas, G.

    2015-12-01

    RMS has developed a tsunami model for New Zealand for the insurance industry to price and to manage their tsunami risks. A key tsunamigenic source for New Zealand is the Hikurangi Trench that lies offshore on the eastside of the North Island. The trench is the result of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North Island at a rate of 40-45 mm/yr. Though there have been no M9 historical events on the Hikurangi Trench, events in this magnitude range are considered in the latest version of the National Seismic Hazard Maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2012). The RMS modeling approaches the tsunami lifecycle in three stages: event generation, ocean wave propagation, and coastal inundation. The tsunami event generation is modeled based on seafloor deformation resulting from an event rupture model. The ocean wave propagation and coastal inundation are modeled using a RMS-developed numerical solver, implemented on graphic processing units using a finite-volume approach to approximate two-dimensional, shallow-water wave equations over the ocean and complex topography. As the tsunami waves enter shallow water and approach the coast, the RMS model calculates the propagation of the waves along the wet-dry interface considering variable land friction. The initiation and characteristics of the tsunami are based on the event rupture model. As there have been no historical M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench, this rupture characterization posed unique challenges. This study examined the impacts of a suite of event rupture models to understand the key drivers in the variations in the tsunami inundation footprints. The goal was to develop a suite of tsunamigenic event characterizations that represent a range of potential tsunami outcomes for M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench. The focus of this case study is the Napier region as it represents an important exposure concentration in the region and has experience tsunami inundations in the past including during the 1931 Ms7

  6. Sedimentology of Coastal Deposits in the Seychelles Islands—Evidence of the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Vanessa; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Monthy, Devis

    2015-03-01

    The Seychelles, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean at a distance of 4,500-5,000 km from the west coast of Sumatra, were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami with wave heights up to 4 m. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historical record, it is important to study the geological traces of high energy events preserved along their coasts. We conducted a survey of the impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on the inner Seychelles islands. In detail we studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond in the Curieuse Marine National Park on the east coast of Curieuse Island. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami in 2004 by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap and assuring a low energetic hydrodynamic environment for the protection of the mangroves. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The tsunami caused a change of habitat by the sedimentation of sand lobes in the mangrove forest. The dark organic rich mangrove soil (1.9 Φ) was covered by bimodal fine to medium carbonate sand (1.7-2.2 Φ) containing coarser carbonate shell fragments and debris. Intertidal sediments and the mangrove soil acted as sources of the lobe deposits. The sand sheet deposited by the tsunami is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of the morphology of the onshore area. The maximum extent of 180 m from the shoreline indicates the minimum inundation distance to the tsunami. The top parts of the sand lobes cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. There is no landward fining trend along the sand lobes and normal grading of the deposits is rare, occurring only in 1 of 7 sites. The sand lobe deposits also lack sedimentary structures. On the surface of the sand lobes numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and

  7. Quakes and tsunamis detected by GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Doornbos, Eelco; Bruinsma, Sean; Hebert, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    The aerodynamic accelerations measured by GOCE are used to calculate air density variations and air velocity estimates along GOCE orbit track. The detection of infrasonic waves generated by seismic surface waves and gravity waves generated by tsunamis are presented for earthquakes and tsunamis generated by the great Tohoku quake (11/03/2011). For the seismic/infrasonic waves, a wave propagation modelling is presented and synthetic data are compared to GOCE measurements. The travel time and amplitude discrepancies are discussed in terms of lateral velocity variations in the solid Earth and the atmosphere. For the tsunami/gravity waves, a plane wave analysis is performed and relations between vertical velocity, cross-track velocity and density variations are deduced. From theoretical relations between air density, and vertical and horizontal velocities inside the gravity wave, we demonstrate that the measured perturbations are consistent with a gravity wave generated by the tsunami, and provide a way to estimate the propagation azimuth of the gravity wave. By using these relations, an indicator of gravity wave presence is constructed. It will allow to scan the GOCE data set to search for gravity wave crossings. This study demonstrates that very low earth orbit spacecraft with high-resolution accelerometers are able to detect atmospheric waves generated by the tectonic activity. Such spacecraft may supply additional data to tsunami alert systems in order to validate some tsunami alerts.

  8. Evaluation and Application of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

    2014-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) and URS Corporation are in the process of generating tsunami hazard map products for land-use planning and construction through the California Seismic Hazard Mapping Act (Public Resources Code, sec 2690 et seq.). Similar to seismic hazard zonation, these products for land-use and development decision-making are typically based on a probabilistic analysis, and require information on the frequency of occurrence through a probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). In Phase 1 of CGS's work, the California PTHA Work Group was established to evaluate the results of PTHA demonstration projects in Crescent City and Huntington Beach. The results of this Phase 1 review of the two independent analyses indicate PTHA's can be developed with recommended improvements in source characterization, PTHA methods, and numerical model use. An immediate significant improvement is to align the characterization of the Cascadia Subduction Zone PTHA with the seismic characterization of the National Seismic Hazard Map Program of the USGS. In addition to applying PTHA to land-use planning and the two demonstration projects, CGS and the CA-PTHA Work Group identified other potential applications for various PTHA risk levels (ARP = Average Return Period), including flood insurance (100 and 500 year ARP), building codes (2,500 year ARP), and emergency response planning (1000 year ARP or larger). CGS is working with URS Corp., the California Office of Emergency Services, and FEMA on a Phase 2 plan to produce a single set of reliable and consistent PTHA maps for multiple risk levels and work with various end-users to determine how to use the maps. The California PTHA and the results of the Work Group review are also proposed to be used by the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to develop guidelines for production in other coastal states.

  9. Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Pressure Water Injection Injury Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare ... Pets Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training and Education Social Media What CDC is Doing Blog: Public ...

  10. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  11. Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework, in particu......This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework......, in particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses...... are used to explore the focus area. The results are grouped in three major themes, which characterize core elements of the coaches' practical sense: 1) visual experience and pattern recognition, 2) recognition of individual paths and personal styles, and 3) a model of top-level football coaches...

  12. National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SARS Fires Residential Fires Wildfires Floods Hurricanes Tornadoes Tsunamis Promising Practices Psychological First Aid Psychological First Aid ... Day of Service and Remembrance Preparedness Month National PTSD Awareness Day World Refugee Awareness Month LGBT Pride ...

  13. Some events in Central Italy: are they all tsunamis? A revision for the Italian tsunami catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tertulliani

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he catalogs available in the literature show that tsunamis affecting Italian coasts are not very strong, except for a few well analyzed events, i.e. the Messina December 28, 1908 tsunami. This study aims at making a careful revision of some minor tsunamigenic events, in particular those occurred along the coasts of the Central Tyrrhenian Sea, considering tsunamis associated with earthquakes, from 1700 to 1919. These events have been poorly studied so far, and need a check to verify their reliability, even though they are reported in the catalogs. The results show how it is difficult to get a clear definition of those tsunamis, because of a gap in the historical sources, in spite of the large amount of seismological data concerning earthquakes related to the anaIyzed tsunamis. This analysis proposes to delete from the catalog some events for which a clear groundlessness appeared.

  14. The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plant (3). Outline of tsunami fragility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) standard was issued in February 2012 by Standard Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). This article detailed tsunami fragility analysis, which calculated building and structure damage probability contributing core damage and consisted of five evaluation steps: (1) selection of evaluated element and damage mode, (2) selection of evaluation procedure, (3) evaluation of actual stiffness, (4) evaluation of actual response and (5) evaluation of fragility (damage probability and others). As an application example of the standard, calculation results of tsunami fragility analysis investigation by tsunami PRA subcommittee of AESJ were shown reflecting latest knowledge of damage state caused by wave force and others acted by tsunami from the 'off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake'. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Tsunami deposits caused by the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami in the Soma region, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, R.; Shirai, M.

    2012-12-01

    The March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami is considered to be a recurrence of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami (A.D. 869), and generated tsunamis that caused great damage to a wide range of the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. Tsunami deposits are useful to estimate recurrence intervals and scale of past tsunamis, and these estimations are helpful to prevent tsunami disasters. However, identifying tsunami deposits from onshore depositional succession and estimating scale of paleo-tsunami from the tsunami deposits are difficult. Investigation of modern tsunami deposits is necessary to test estimating more accurate scales of the tsunami from deposits themselves. We therefore attempt to find new characteristics of the tsunami deposits which are caused by the March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami, at the Soma region, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan. We found evidences being consistent with previous studies on tsunami deposits in the area and also report characteristics which have not yet been well-documented. Identified characteristics of the tsunami deposits, which have been reported by previous studies, at the investigation area, as follows, (i) the tsunami deposits, which have normal or inverse grading, become generally thinner and finer with distance from the shoreline, (ii) these often intercalate organic-rich silt layers which are deposited during the stagnant phase, and (iii) display variations in thickness due to local surface relief. Although further verification is required, we found the high-angle landward dipping sedimentary structures influenced tsunami on the backshore deposits. We also found the dewatering structures influenced tsunami in the foreshore deposits at the coast in front of the Sendai airport, north of the Soma region. These results suggest tsunami deposits might be preserved in the coastal environment, even though erosion is the primary factor in the environment. The tide gauge records at the Soma port were missed after the first tsunami run-up, therefore

  16. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  17. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/ National Data Buoy Center. URL: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://sift.pmel.noaa.gov/thredds/dodsC/uncompressed/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/model.html Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail

  18. The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maramai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified catalogue containing 290 tsunamis generated in the European and Mediterranean seas since 6150 B.C. to current days is presented. It is the result of a systematic and detailed review of all the regional catalogues available in literature covering the study area, each of them having their own format and level of accuracy. The realization of a single catalogue covering a so wide area and involving several countries was a complex task that posed a series of challenges, being the standardization and the quality of the data the most demanding. A “reliability” value was used to rate equally the quality of the data for each event and this parameter was assigned based on the trustworthiness of the information related to the generating cause, the tsunami description accuracy and also on the availability of coeval bibliographical sources. Following these criteria we included in the catalogue events whose reliability ranges from 0 (“very improbable tsunami” to 4 (“definite tsunami”. About 900 documentary sources, including historical documents, books, scientific reports, newspapers and previous catalogues, support the tsunami data and descriptions gathered in this catalogue. As a result, in the present paper a list of the 290 tsunamis with their main parameters is reported. The online version of the catalogue, available at http://roma2.rm.ingv.it/en/facilities/data_bases/52/catalogue_of_the_euro-mediterranean_tsunamis, provides additional information such as detailed descriptions, pictures, etc. and the complete list of bibliographical sources. Most of the included events have a high reliability value (3= “probable” and 4= “definite” which makes the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue an essential tool for the implementation of tsunami hazard and risk assessment.

  19. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of

  20. Near-Field Tsunami Early Warning and Preparedeness in the Mediterranean: the EU NEARTOWARN Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Karastathis, Vasilis; Novikova, Tatyana; Fokaefs, Anna; Minadakis, George; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Zaniboni, Filippo; Georgiou, George; Aniel Quiroga, Inigo; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose Antonio; Lesne, Olivia; Renou, Camille; Mangin, Antoine; Schindele, Francois; Argyris, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea region is characterized by near-field tsunamis (travel times less than 30 min.). An efficient end-to-end warning system should fulfill the condition that the time needed from an earthquake detection to evacuation is less than the arrival time of the first wave, which is a very hard task in the Mediterranean. The project NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention program aims, among others, to establish a pilot system in Rhodes island, SE Aegean Sea, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local tsunami early warning but applicable in other coastal zones of the Mediterranean and beyond. To minimize emergency time in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SEDs) make the core component of alerting. SEDs are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P- phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field domain and for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SEDs activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide- gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, Greece, has been selected as a test- area for the development of the prototype system. To promote the future development of such local systems in other coastal zones of the Mediterranean the NEARTOWARN partners review current status of early warning systems, produce digital inventories of wave travel times from several tsunami sources to a number of forecasting points, standardize data bases for pre-simulated tsunami scenarios and optimize triggering thresholds for the SED alerting networks. A local system such as the one developed by NEARTOWARN is expected to function in synergy with national and regional warning systems such as the one coordinated NEAMTWS.

  1. Evaluation of Indian nuclear coastal sites for tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of tsunami wave modelling based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The results of in-house finite element code Tsunami Solution(TSUSOL) is highlighted through numerical simulation of Sumatra-2004 and Makran-1945 tsunami events. The TSUSOL code is shown to have special capability of coupled tsunami and acoustic wave simulation, which is an important feature for the early warning system

  2. Tsunamis: Detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    in tsunami analysis resulted in a deep-rooted realization and consensual opinion that real-time deep-sea and mid-ocean sea-level measurements, which are free of coastal contamination, are vital for realistic tsunami forecasting and source identification... to mesoscale eddies and other error sources. As emphasized before, the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami has been a major driving force in accelerating the implementation of a tsunami forecast system within and beyond the Pacific Ocean. Before...

  3. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  4. Mental health in Aceh--Indonesia: A decade after the devastating tsunami 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Yessi, Sarifah; Aichberger, Marion C; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-02-01

    The province of Aceh has suffered enormously from the perennial armed conflict and the devastating Tsunami in 2004. Despite the waves of external aid and national concern geared toward improving healthcare services as part of the reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts after the Tsunami, mental health services still require much attention. This paper aims to understand the mental healthcare system in Aceh Province, Indonesia; its main focus is on the burden, on the healthcare system, its development, service delivery and cultural issues from the devastating Tsunami in 2004 until the present. We reviewed those published and unpublished reports from the local and national government, from international instances (UN bodies, NGOs) and from the academic literature pertaining to mental health related programs conducted in Aceh. To some extent, mental health services in Aceh have been improved compared to their condition before the Tsunami. The development programs have focused on procurement of policy, improvement of human resources, and enhancing service delivery. Culture and religious beliefs shape the pathways by which people seek mental health treatment. The political system also determines the development of the mental health service in the province. The case of Aceh is a unique example where conflict and disaster serve as the catalysts toward the development of a mental healthcare system. Several factors contribute to the improvement of the mental health system, but security is a must. Whilst the Acehnese enjoy the improvements, some issues such as stigma, access to care and political fluctuations remain challenging. PMID:26957340

  5. A Tsunami PSA for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied in this study. At first, an empirical tsunami hazard analysis performed for an evaluation of tsunami return period. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. Finally, a system analysis performed in the case of tsunami event for an evaluation of a CDF of Ulchin 56 NPP site. For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. As a result, in the case of tsunami event, functional failure is mostly governed total failure probability of facilities in NPP site

  6. Hunting for Ancient Tsunamis in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.

    2007-05-01

    Paleotsunami deposits may prove harder to find in tidal wetlands and beach-ridge plains around the tropical Indian Ocean than in temperate but otherwise comparable settings on the Pacific Rim. The reasons for this challenge are probably unrelated to tsunami size or recurrence. Estuarine marshes and grassy beach-ridge plains provide widespread opportunities for tsunamis to lay down preservable sand sheets in northeastern Japan, Kamchatka, the northwestern United States, and south-central Chile. The small plants of these lowlands offered little resistance to tsunami flow. Coseismic subsidence and net late Holocene submergence provided caps of tidal mud that help preserve the sand. By contrast in tidal wetlands overrun by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, mangrove swamps and their inhibit the formation and preservation of tsunami sand sheets. For example, in mangrove swamps along tidal inlets near Ban Nam Kem and Tab Lamu, Thailand, sandy deposits of the 2004 tsunami were probably limited to feather- shaped channel-margin areas where the tsunami lost much of its momentum to the toppling of leafy trees. When these deposits were examined in July 2006, deposit-feeding crabs were busily mixing the sand into muddy, peaty mangrove soils. Such limitations of mangrove swamps as paleotsunami recorders may help explain why a reconnaissance in May 2006 turned up no sand sheets in the soils of mangroves near Cilacap, on the south coast of Java. Thus far it is unclear whether this coast, which faces the Sunda Trench, lacks potential for tsunamis as enormous as Aceh's in 2004, or whether it has a history of enormous tsunamis that simply failed to leave a long-lasting record in the Cilacap mangroves. Disturbance by humans limits the paleotsunami targets on beach-ridge plains facing the Indian Ocean. Thai coastal plains, though apparently grassy where undisturbed, have been extensively modified by placer mining for tin. In Java and southeastern India, most coastal plains have been under

  7. Development of Real-time Tsunami Inundation Forecast Using Ocean Bottom Tsunami Networks along the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Suzuki, W.; Hirata, K.; Nakamura, H.; Kunugi, T.; Kubo, T.; Maeda, T.

    2015-12-01

    In the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, in which huge tsunami claimed a great deal of lives, the initial tsunami forecast based on hypocenter information estimated using seismic data on land were greatly underestimated. From this lesson, NIED is now constructing S-net (Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench) which consists of 150 ocean bottom observatories with seismometers and pressure gauges (tsunamimeters) linked by fiber optic cables. To take full advantage of S-net, we develop a new methodology of real-time tsunami inundation forecast using ocean bottom observation data and construct a prototype system that implements the developed forecasting method for the Pacific coast of Chiba prefecture (Sotobo area). We employ a database-based approach because inundation is a strongly non-linear phenomenon and its calculation costs are rather heavy. We prepare tsunami scenario bank in advance, by constructing the possible tsunami sources, and calculating the tsunami waveforms at S-net stations, coastal tsunami heights and tsunami inundation on land. To calculate the inundation for target Sotobo area, we construct the 10-m-mesh precise elevation model with coastal structures. Based on the sensitivities analyses, we construct the tsunami scenario bank that efficiently covers possible tsunami scenarios affecting the Sotobo area. A real-time forecast is carried out by selecting several possible scenarios which can well explain real-time tsunami data observed at S-net from tsunami scenario bank. An advantage of our method is that tsunami inundations are estimated directly from the actual tsunami data without any source information, which may have large estimation errors. In addition to the forecast system, we develop Web services, APIs, and smartphone applications and brush them up through social experiments to provide the real-time tsunami observation and forecast information in easy way to understand toward urging people to evacuate.

  8. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  9. Application of heavy minerals analysis in studies of tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodziński, R.; Sternal, B.; Szczuciński, W.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunami deposits are very important for assessment of tsunami hazard. However, their identification is often difficult because they are depended on many factors and there is no unique set of features, which could be applied. The presence of heavy minerals (HM) have been frequently noted in tsunami deposits, however, so far they were little studied in detail. The HM analyses may be useful in finding the sediment provenance (e.g. marine), and trends (vertical and spatial) in HM assemblages within the tsunami deposits resulting from hydraulic sorting processes that had been acting during the tsunami. To test usefulness of HM analysis in tsunami deposits studies the modern tsunami deposits left by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on Kho Khao Island, Thailand (details in Jagodziński et al. 2009), and by 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on Sendai plain, Japan, were studied. The HM fraction content and mineral assemblages significantly differs between the two studied cases. Tsunami deposits from 2004 tsunami contained only ~ 1.7 % of HM and 99 % of them were tourmalines, micas, limonites, zircon and opaque minerals. The Tohoku-oki tsunami deposits were composed on average in 34 % from HM. They were in 97 % represented by amphiboles, pyroxenes and opaque minerals. The HM assemblages of 2004 tsunami were different from beach sediments and pre-tsunami soils, and were partly derived from marine sediments. Moreover, observed variations within HM suit, in particular in share of flake-shaped micas, reflected sedimentation from suspension by particular waves. The HM analyses of Tohoku-oki tsunami deposits revealed no significant difference between tsunami deposits, beach sediments and pre-tsunami soils. It suggested that the contribution of marine sediments may be very small, as suggested also by micropaleontological studies. There is also no regular trend within tsunami deposits apart from steady landward decrease of HM fraction content. The HM analysis may be useful supplementary tool in

  10. Simulation systems for tsunami wave propagation forecasting within the French tsunami warning center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2013-10-01

    A model-based tsunami prediction system has been developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center (operational since 1 July 2012). It involves a precomputed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored). For the Mediterranean basin, the faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults. An automated composite scenarios calculation tool is implemented to allow the simulation of any tsunami propagation scenario (i.e., of any seismic moment). Uncertainty on the magnitude of the detected event and inaccuracy of the epicenter location are taken into account in the composite scenarios calculation. Together with this forecasting system, another operational tool based on real time computing is implemented as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center. This second tsunami simulation tool takes advantage of multiprocessor approaches and more realistic seismological parameters, once the focal mechanism is established. Three examples of historical earthquakes are presented, providing warning refinement compared to the rough tsunami risk map given by the model-based decision matrix.

  11. DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

    2013-09-01

    In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

  12. The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarpour Morteza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. Methods A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. Results Six themes emerged: (1 A sense of being overwhelmed, (2 A multitude of health issues, (3 critical challenges in providing health care, (4 access to health and settlement services, (5 overall successes and (6 need for a coordinated approach to migration health. Conclusions For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

  13. Tsunami forecast by joint inversion of real-time tsunami waveforms and seismic of GPS data: application to the Tohoku 2011 tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wei; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

    2014-01-01

    Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model–data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

  14. Tsunami Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tsunami observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that tsunami traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave tsunami simulations occur during tsunami propagation in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the tsunami traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of tsunamis and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of tsunamis. Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of trans-oceanic tsunamis. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) Tsunami speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the tsunami velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.

  15. New Perspective of Tsunami Deposit Investigations: Insight from the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in Martinique, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J.; Clouard, V.; Moizan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The recent devastating tsunamis having occurred during the last decades have highlighted the essential necessity to deploy operationnal warning systems and educate coastal populations. This could not be prepared correctly without a minimum knowledge about the tsunami history. That is the case of the Lesser Antilles islands, where a few handfuls of tsunamis have been reported over the past 5 centuries, some of them leading to notable destructions and inundations. But the lack of accurate details for most of the historical tsunamis and the limited period during which we could find written information represents an important problem for tsunami hazard assessment in this region. Thus, it is of major necessity to try to find other evidences of past tsunamis by looking for sedimentary deposits. Unfortunately, island tropical environments do not seem to be the best places to keep such deposits burried. In fact, heavy rainfalls, storms, and all other phenomena leading to coastal erosion, and associated to human activities such as intensive sugarcane cultivation in coastal flat lands, could caused the loss of potential tsunami deposits. Lots of places have been accurately investigated within the Lesser Antilles (from Sainte-Lucia to the British Virgin Islands) the last 3 years and nothing convincing has been found. That is when archeaological investigations excavated a 8-cm thick sandy and shelly layer in downtown Fort-de-France (Martinique), wedged between two well-identified layers of human origin (Fig. 1), that we found new hope: this sandy layer has been quickly attributed without any doubt to the 1755 tsunami, using on one hand the information provided by historical reports of the construction sites, and on the other hand by numerical modeling of the tsunami (wave heights, velocity fields, etc.) showing the ability of this transoceanic tsunami to wrap around the island after ~7 hours of propagation, enter Fort-de-France's Bay with enough energy to carry sediments, and

  16. Solomon Islands Tsunami, One Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Brian G.; Fritz, Hermann; Jackson, Kelly L.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Kruger, Jens; Bonte-Grapentin, Michael; Moore, Andrew L.; Rafiau, Wilson B.; Billy, Douglas; Tiano, Braddley

    2008-04-01

    The geologic and economic effects of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami are distinctly visible a little more than a year after the event. Coral reef colonies that were sheared off and uplifted are slowly recovering, and many new earthquake-triggered landslides remain mobile. Large volumes of sediment created by the earthquake and mobilized by the tsunami have been flushed from the lagoons between the reef and shoreline into deeper water, although significant quantities remain on land. Sediment from the lagoons covers piles of shattered coral that the tsunami moved from the lagoons to the base of channels in the barrier reef. These shattered corals have a higher chance of preservation as paleotsunami deposits than the material deposited on land.

  17. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    the evolution of initial rectangular shaped humps of water propagating large distances over a constant depth. The objective is to clarify under which circumstances the front of the wave can develop into an undular bore with a leading soliton. In this connection we discuss and test various measures...... of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection......Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...

  18. Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2006-12-01

    An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes

  19. Tsunami Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk assessment for the coast of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; MArtínez, Jara; Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Fernandez, Felipe; Medina, Raúl; Al-Yahyai, Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, and causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructures around the world. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of new methodologies in this field. This work presents the methodology that has been followed for developing the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment for the coast of Oman, including maps containing the results of the process. Oman is located in the south eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula and of the Arabian plate, in front of the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ), which is the major source of earthquakes in the eastern border of the Arabian plate and Oman (Al-Shaqsi, 2012). There are at least three historical tsunamis assigned to seismic origin in the MSZ (Heidarzadeh et al., 2008; Jordan, 2008). These events show the high potential for tsunami generation of the MSZ, being one of the most tsunamigenic zones in the Indian Ocean. For the tsunami hazard assessment, worst potential cases have been selected, as well as the historical case of 1945, when an 8.1 earthquake generated a tsunami affecting the coast of Oman, and prompting 4000 casualties in the countries of the area. These scenarios have been computationally simulated in order to get tsunami hazard maps, including flooding maps. These calculations have been carried out at national and local scale, in 9 municipalities all along the coast of Oman, including the cities of Sohar, Wudam, Sawadi, Muscat, Quriyat, Sur, Masirah, Al Duqm, and Salalah. Using the hazard assessment as input, this work presents as well an integrated framework for the tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment carried out in the Sultanate of Oman. This framework considers different dimensions (human, structural) and it is developed at two different spatial resolutions, national and local scale. The national

  20. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  1. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  2. New computational methods in tsunami science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J; Dias, F

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are rare events with severe consequences. This generates a high demand on accurate simulation results for planning and risk assessment purposes because of the low availability of actual data from historic events. On the other hand, validation of simulation tools becomes very difficult with such a low amount of real-world data. Tsunami phenomena involve a large span of spatial and temporal scales-from ocean basin scales of [Formula: see text] to local coastal wave interactions of [Formula: see text] or even [Formula: see text], or from resonating wave phenomena with durations of [Formula: see text] to rupture with time periods of [Formula: see text]. The scale gap of five orders of magnitude in each dimension makes accurate modelling very demanding, with a number of approaches being taken to work around the impossibility of direct numerical simulations. Along with the mentioned multi-scale characteristic, the tsunami wave has a multitude of different phases, corresponding to different wave regimes and associated equation sets. While in the deep ocean, wave propagation can be approximated relatively accurately by linear shallow-water theory, the transition to a bore or solitary wave train in shelf areas and then into a breaking wave in coastal regions demands appropriate mathematical and numerical treatments. The short duration and unpredictability of tsunami events pose another challenging requirement to tsunami simulation approaches. An accurate forecast is sought within seconds with very limited data available. Thus, efficiency in numerical solution processes and at the same time the consideration of uncertainty play a big role in tsunami modelling applied for forecasting purposes. PMID:26392612

  3. Understanding the tsunami with a simple model

    CERN Document Server

    Helene, O

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we use the approximation of shallow water waves (Margaritondo G 2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) to understand the behaviour of a tsunami in a variable depth. We deduce the shallow water wave equation and the continuity equation that must be satisfied when a wave encounters a discontinuity in the sea depth. A short explanation about how the tsunami hit the west coast of India is given based on the refraction phenomenon. Our procedure also includes a simple numerical calculation suitable for undergraduate students in physics and engineering.

  4. A Guidebook to Help Coastal Sumatran Communities Prepare for Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, L.; Tobin, L. T.; Tucker, B. E.

    2007-12-01

    One way to save lives in future tsunamis in coastal Sumatran communities - where more than one million people live and where tsunamis can strike less than one half hour after the triggering earthquake - is to help these communities prepare themselves. To this end, GeoHazards International (GHI) has developed, with a team of advisors from the fields of earth science, civil engineering, emergency response management and social science, a tsunami preparedness guidebook that summarizes state-of-the-art research and worldwide experience in community tsunami preparedness. This guidebook (available at no cost on www.geohaz.org) introduces essential information about tsunamis, tsunami risk mapping, evacuation planning, community education, tsunami warning systems, and the reduction of damage that tsunamis can cause. It describes how to plan and conduct effective tsunami safety programs. Particular emphasis is placed on methods to evacuate quickly and safely all areas that could be flooded. Each section of the guidebook points to sources that provide supplementary, detailed information that may be important to particular communities. The guidebook is aimed at any person - a concerned citizen, government official, business leader, or member of a community organization - who is willing to become an advocate for local tsunami safety. Scientific expertise is not needed. GHI now seeks assistance in distributing this guidebook and in working with grassroots and international organizations to help Sumatran coastal communities use it to prepare for the next tsunami.

  5. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic stations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions. The NOAA National Weather Service Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program prepares and distributes monthly reports on real time and archived seismic data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  6. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  7. Simulation of Andaman 2004 tsunami for assessing impact on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Liu, Philip Li-Fan; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.; Lee, Hooi Ling

    2009-09-01

    Mistakenly perceived as safe from the hazards of tsunami, Malaysia faced a rude awakening by the 26 December 2004 Andaman tsunami. Since the event, Malaysia has started active research on some aspects of tsunami, including numerical simulations of tsunami and the role of mangrove as a mitigation measure against tsunami hazards. An in-house tsunami numerical simulation model TUNA has been developed and applied to the 26 December 2004 Andaman tsunami to simulate the generation, propagation and inundation processes along affected beaches in Malaysia. Mildly nonlinear bottom friction term in the deeper ocean is excluded, as it is insignificant to the simulation results, consistent with theoretical expectation. On the other hand, in regions with shallow depth near the beaches, friction and nonlinearity are significant and are included in TUNA. Simulation results with TUNA indicate satisfactory performance when compared with COMCOT and on-site survey results.

  8. NEARTOWARN: A new EU-DG ECHO-supported project for the near-field tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The early warning for near-field (local) tsunamis, with travel times of no more than about 30 min. from the tsunami source to the closest coastal zones, is today a hot topic of great importance in the international effort to reduce the loss of human lives and to mitigate other tsunami risks. Particularly, in the Mediterranean region earthquakes, and more rarely volcanic eruptions and landslides, produce near-field tsunamis threatening nearly all the coastal zones but mainly those in the Hellenic Arc and Trench (South Peloponnese, Cyclades, Crete, Rhodes, SW Turkey), in the Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Messina strait and the east Sicily (Italy) in the Ligurian Sea, the Algeria and the Balearic islands, in the west Mediterranean basin, and the Cyprus-Lebanon area in the easternmost Mediterranean. The North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS), which is under construction with the supervision of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, is oriented to issue warnings only in regional scales, that is for about 1 hour of tsunami propagation time. For near-field warning it is unrealistic to rely on a unique system for the entire basin. Instead, several local systems working on the basis of some joint principles but with local adjustements is the most promising solution. This is exactly the aim of the new project NEARToWARN (Near-field Tsunami Warning) which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO. Partnership includes the National Observatory of Athens (Coordinator, Greece), the University of Bologna (Italy), the University of Cyprus, the ACRI-ST (Sophia-Antipolis, France), the University of Cantabria (Spain) and the Municipility of Rhodes. The main concept is to develop a prototype local early tsunami warning system. To minimize the time for emergency in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SED's) make the core component of the system. SED's are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P-phase of seismic wave is detected in

  9. NOAA Tsunami Inundation DEM Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA

  11. A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Sheen, Dong Hoon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA.

  12. Performance Benchmarking of tsunami-HySEA for NTHMP Inundation Mapping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vida, Jose M.; Castro, Manuel J.; Ortega Acosta, Sergio; Macías, Jorge; Millán, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    According to the 2006 USA Tsunami Warning and Education Act, the tsunami inundation models used in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) projects must be validated against some existing standard problems (see [OAR-PMEL-135], [Proceedings of the 2011 NTHMP Model Benchmarking Workshop]). These Benchmark Problems (BPs) cover different tsunami processes related to the inundation stage that the models must meet to achieve the NTHMP Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee (MMS) approval. Tsunami-HySEA solves the two-dimensional shallow-water system using a high-order path-conservative finite volume method. Values of h, qx and qy in each grid cell represent cell averages of the water depth and momentum components. The numerical scheme is conservative for both mass and momentum in flat bathymetries, and, in general, is mass preserving for arbitrary bathymetries. Tsunami-HySEA implements a PVM-type method that uses the fastest and the slowest wave speeds, similar to HLL method (see [Castro et al, 2012]). A general overview of the derivation of the high order methods is performed in [Castro et al, 2009]. For very big domains, Tsunami-HySEA also implements a two-step scheme similar to leap-frog for the propagation step and a second-order TVD-WAF flux-limiter scheme described in [de la Asunción et al, 2013] for the inundation step. Here, we present the results obtained by the model tsunami-HySEA against the proposed BPs. BP1: Solitary wave on a simple beach (non-breaking - analytic experiment). BP4: Solitary wave on a simple beach (breaking - laboratory experiment). BP6: Solitary wave on a conical island (laboratory experiment). BP7 - Runup on Monai Valley beach (laboratory experiment) and BP9: Okushiri Island tsunami (field experiment). The analysis and results of Tsunami-HySEA model are presented, concluding that the model meets the required objectives for all the BP proposed. References - Castro M.J., E.D. Fernández, A.M. Ferreiro, A. García, C. Parés (2009

  13. Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for Tsunami events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early warning stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of Tsunami early warning by Charter activations following the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004, the Chile Tsunami 2010 and the Honshu Tsunami 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication

  14. Tsunami Penetration in Tidal Rivers, with Observations of the Chile 2015 Tsunami in Rivers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena

    2016-02-01

    An extensive data set of water level measurements of the September 2015 Chilean tsunami in rivers in Japan and a new methodology for data processing are used to verify that tsunami dissipation in a river at each instant and locality depends on the tidally-modified wave-locked slope of the river surface. As deduced from the observations, a relatively small tsunami or ocean noise traveling at mild wave-locked slopes can propagate virtually without losses to the upstream locations where observed tidal ranges are a fraction of that downstream; though at the higher slopes, tidal and riverine currents combined efficiently damp the shorter waves. The observed correlations between the tsunami admittance upriver and the traveled wave-locked slopes are explained analytically under the fully non-linear shallow-water approximation. It is found that the wave-locked slope in a purely incident wave relates to the bottom drag in the same manner as a steady surface slope does for a stationary flow. For a small-amplitude tsunami in the study rivers, the wave-locked slope in a co-propagating tidal wave defines the background current and thereby friction experienced by the tsunami.

  15. Scientific Animations for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's YouTube Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.

    2013-12-01

    Outreach and education save lives, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has a new tool--a YouTube Channel--to advance its mission to protect lives and property from dangerous tsunamis. Such outreach and education is critical for coastal populations nearest an earthquake since they may not get an official warning before a tsunami reaches them and will need to know what to do when they feel strong shaking. Those who live far enough away to receive useful official warnings and react to them, however, can also benefit from PTWC's education and outreach efforts. They can better understand a tsunami warning message when they receive one, can better understand the danger facing them, and can better anticipate how events will unfold while the warning is in effect. The same holds true for emergency managers, who have the authority to evacuate the public they serve, and for the news media, critical partners in disseminating tsunami hazard information. PTWC's YouTube channel supplements its formal outreach and education efforts by making its computer animations available 24/7 to anyone with an Internet connection. Though the YouTube channel is only a month old (as of August 2013), it should rapidly develop a large global audience since similar videos on PTWC's Facebook page have reached over 70,000 viewers during organized media events, while PTWC's official web page has received tens of millions of hits during damaging tsunamis. These animations are not mere cartoons but use scientific data and calculations to render graphical depictions of real-world phenomena as accurately as possible. This practice holds true whether the animation is a simple comparison of historic earthquake magnitudes or a complex simulation cycling through thousands of high-resolution data grids to render tsunami waves propagating across an entire ocean basin. PTWC's animations fall into two broad categories. The first group illustrates concepts about seismology and how it is critical to

  16. Testing Numerical Tsunami Simulations Against the Inland Extents of Prehistoric Cascadia Tsunami Deposits at Cannon Beach, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R. C.; Zhang, Y. J.; Priest, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    Cannon Beach, Oregon faces extreme flooding hazards from future tsunamis generated by seafloor deformation during Cascadia megathrust earthquakes. Trans-Pacific tsunamis also threaten the City as exemplified by the 1964 Alaska tsunami that caused $230,000 of damage. Field mapping of prehistoric tsunami deposits and historical accounts of the 1964 tsunami are used to delineate the inland extents of past tsunamis for comparison with simulations performed with hydrodynamic models. The comparisons offer an empirical test of the credibility of numerical tsunami simulations used to develop evacuation routes and emergency response tactics for coastal communities in Oregon. Although the mapped extents of tsunami deposits can only define minimum estimates of runup and inundation, their inland limits can be used to identify simulations of tsunami inundation that underestimate real-world conditions, while increasing confidence in simulated inundations that meet or surpass the distribution of deposits left by tsunamis. At least three Cascadia tsunamis flooded the lower 1.4-1.6 km of the Ecola Creek valley within the last 1000 years. Estimates of the minimum inundation come from the mapped extents of three sand layers, all of which satisfy 8-9 out of 10 criteria that favor a tsunami origin. The sand layers exhibit physical attributes of beach sand, the presence of fossil brackish-marine diatoms, sharp or eroded lower contacts, landward-thinning trends, and 14C ages that are consistent with regional Cascadia earthquake and tsunami chronologies. The youngest deposit records flooding by the AD 1700 Cascadia tsunami. Age ranges for two earlier tsunamis span 520-800 and 910-980 cal yr BP. A fourth sand layer deposited by a large flood of Ecola Creek about 1.3 ka was distinguished from the three younger tsunami deposits because it shares attributes of sand from the active creek channel. The deposit lacks a landward-thinning trend and its distribution along the central axis of the

  17. Advancing Tsunami Risk Communication through Geographic Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Lonergan, Christopher Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in geovizualization research and technologies present new opportunities to develop sophisticated risk communication strategies in at-risk coastal communities. This thesis seeks to improve tsunami risk communication in coastal communities through the development of new empirical methodologies, conceptual frameworks, and visualization prototypes through several key research contributions. The development of a conceptual framework for 3D visibility analysis presents an opportunity...

  18. Reflections on post-tsunami psychosocial work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Galappatti

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In Sri Lanka psychosocial interventions became a priorityfor emergency response largely led by the concerns of the international media and aid agencies. Interventions were quickly launched but coordination was poor and lessons learned from years of pre-tsunami conflict-related psychosocial programmes were not heeded.

  19. Leading Wave Amplitude of a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a tsunami might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan tsunami, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean tsunami reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of warning to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a tsunami generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the ocean floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and tsunami focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk

  20. Tsunami Prediction and Earthquake Parameters Estimation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Sawlan, Zaid A

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami concerns have increased in the world after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Consequently, tsunami models have been developed rapidly in the last few years. One of the advanced tsunami models is the GeoClaw tsunami model introduced by LeVeque (2011). This model is adaptive and consistent. Because of different sources of uncertainties in the model, observations are needed to improve model prediction through a data assimilation framework. Model inputs are earthquake parameters and topography. This thesis introduces a real-time tsunami forecasting method that combines tsunami model with observations using a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble Kalman smoother. The filter is used for state prediction while the smoother operates smoothing to estimate the earthquake parameters. This method reduces the error produced by uncertain inputs. In addition, state-parameter EnKF is implemented to estimate earthquake parameters. Although number of observations is small, estimated parameters generates a better tsunami prediction than the model. Methods and results of prediction experiments in the Red Sea are presented and the prospect of developing an operational tsunami prediction system in the Red Sea is discussed.

  1. The Great 1787 Corralero, Oaxaca, Tsunami Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Aguilar, B.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruíz-Fernández, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

    2013-05-01

    In 28th March 1787, more than two centuries ago, a deadly tsunami (related to the the San Sixto earthquake) poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland, the tsunami destroyed mostly farmlands, and livestock and few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time, according to known historical accounts. We report the first geological evidence from the Corralero (Alotengo) lagoon coastal area to support these historical accounts. A transect was made with coring and test pits every 100 m from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that had been deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at about 36 to 64 cm depth. It thickness varies, averaging 28 cm in the middle of a swale. Based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, we deduced that this might be the evidence of its existence. As the only major tsunami described at that time, the San Sixto earthquake-triggered tsunami. We used the stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic properties such as magnetic susceptibility, remanent magnetization analyses to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. These proxies support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported by an extreme sea-wave inland. Further analysis will confirm the estimated age of this event.

  2. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  3. Re-thinking the Distant Tsunami Hazard to Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, C. C.; Petty, E. A.; Knight, W. R.; Curtis, J. C.; Albanese, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    The science of tsunami has created as many questions as it has answers for vulnerable areas like those in Alaska's coastal communities. How a tsunami might inundate is determined by a variety of event-unique factors that are difficult to accurately prepare for; near shore dynamics and local bathymetry guarantee a distinctive experience at every locality. The island of St. Paul, located in the middle of the Bering Sea, measured a significant tsunami during the Japanese event in 2011. Believing that the Aleutian Chain would minimize tsunami energy into the Bering Sea, this was an eye-opening observation. Real science gives us real answers. The only way to accurately understand the effect of a tsunami is to have a tsunami; a completely unpredictable event without a season. Over the last few years, there have been several large events. Assessing impacts from the Chilean tsunami of 2010 and the Japanese tsunami of 2011, as well as other events such as Samoa and Haiti, has offered a fine-tuning to tsunami understanding and modeling. Using observed amplitudes, tsunami history, oral stories, and improved static modeling techniques, the ability to access threat by community is becoming possible. Communities previously ranked on broad generalizations are now assessed more specifically with data and modeling, providing new insights to their threat ranking. The critical though complex task of preparedness for Alaska, the state with the most coast-line and the least road system, is expensive and difficult. Translating the potential effects to emergency managers is a vague undertaking depending on the possible scenarios considered. Our understanding, with fine tuning, is proving to be essential in our approach. The reanalysis of the distance tsunami threat determined by updated tsunami science gives local officials the opportunity to improve community preparedness and allow communities to allocate scarce resources wisely.; Japanese Tsunami measured at Saint Paul Island showing

  4. Assessing historical rate changes in global tsunami occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2011-10-01

    The global catalogue of tsunami events is examined to determine if transient variations in tsunami rates are consistent with a Poisson process commonly assumed for tsunami hazard assessments. The primary data analyzed are tsunamis with maximum sizes >1 m. The record of these tsunamis appears to be complete since approximately 1890. A secondary data set of tsunamis >0.1 m is also analyzed that appears to be complete since approximately 1960. Various kernel density estimates used to determine the rate distribution with time indicate a prominent rate change in global tsunamis during the mid-1990s. Less prominent rate changes occur in the early- and mid-20th century. To determine whether these rate fluctuations are anomalous, the distribution of annual event numbers for the tsunami catalogue is compared to Poisson and negative binomial distributions, the latter of which includes the effects of temporal clustering. Compared to a Poisson distribution, the negative binomial distribution model provides a consistent fit to tsunami event numbers for the >1 m data set, but the Poisson null hypothesis cannot be falsified for the shorter duration >0.1 m data set. Temporal clustering of tsunami sources is also indicated by the distribution of interevent times for both data sets. Tsunami event clusters consist only of two to four events, in contrast to protracted sequences of earthquakes that make up foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequences. From past studies of seismicity, it is likely that there is a physical triggering mechanism responsible for events within the tsunami source 'mini-clusters'. In conclusion, prominent transient rate increases in the occurrence of global tsunamis appear to be caused by temporal grouping of geographically distinct mini-clusters, in addition to the random preferential location of global M >7 earthquakes along offshore fault zones.

  5. Very Fast Characterization of Focal Mechanism Parameters Through W-Phase Centroid Inversion in the Context of Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Julien; Duperray, Pierre; Schindelé, François

    2016-03-01

    Most of the tsunami potential seismic sources in the NEAM region are in a magnitude range of 6.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.5 (e.g. the tsunami triggered by the Boumerdes earthquake of 2003 with Mw=6.9 ). The CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis (CENALT), in operation since 2012 as the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) and Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP), has to issue warning messages within 15 min of earthquake origin time. These warnings are based on the seismic source parameters (Mw magnitude, focal depth and type of fault), which are computed by focal mechanisms and centroid inversion methods. The W-phase method, developed by Kanamori and Rivera, allows quick computation of seismic source parameters due to the early arrival time between P-waves and surface waves, and is therefore particularly useful for monitoring. We assess the W-phase method with 29 events of magnitude M_w ≥ 5.8 for the period 2010-2015 in the NEAM region. Results with 10 min of signal length are in good agreement compared to the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalog.

  6. Forensic identification and identity politics in 2004 post-tsunami Thailand : negotiating dissolving boundaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Merli, C.; Buck, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the contexts and processes of forensic identification in 2004 post-tsunami Thailand as examples of identity politics. The presence of international forensic teams as carriers of diverse technical expertise overlapped with bureaucratic procedures put in place by the Thai government. The negotiation of unified forensic protocols and the production of estimates of identified nationals straddle biopolitics and 'thanatocracy'. The immense identification task testified on the...

  7. Field Survey of the 2015 Chile Tsunami with Emphasis on Coastal Wetland and Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-López, Manuel; Winckler, Patricio; Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Andaur-Álvarez, Adolfo; Cortés-Molina, Fernanda; Guerrero, Camila J.; Mizobe, Cyntia E.; Igualt, Felipe; Breuer, Wolfgang; Beyá, José F.; Vergara, Hernán; Figueroa-Sterquel, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    The September 16th 2015 Illapel M8.3 earthquake, Chile, generated a tsunami that affected a sparsely populated region, causing 15 casualties and destroying 1069 houses (USGS 2015). A maximum surface elevation of +4.5 m was observed in Coquimbo's tide gauge while in other sites of the tide network, the tsunami did not exceed +2.0 m. A post-tsunami survey team comprised by local researchers was deployed from September 17th to November 14th 2015. The survey covered approximately 80 sites along 500 km of the primary impact zone, from the northernmost site where damage was reported, Bahía Carrizalillo (29.11°S; 71.46°W), southward to El Yali National Reserve (33.75°S; 71.73°W) beyond which no tsunami damage occurred. The results of the survey in coastal towns with evident damage and isolated sites where the tsunami signature remained almost intact are summarized in this paper. A large amount of quantitative material is presented; including (1) inundation lines in five coastal sites, (2) 157 profiles including wave runup and flow depths and (3) 47 interviews to eyewitness, generally 2-3 per site. About two-thirds of the data were collected in isolated areas to guarantee spatial homogeneity along the impact zone. The type of damage in specific areas of biological interest and in coastal cities such as Concón, Tongoy and Coquimbo is also reported. A maximum runup of 13.6 m was recorded in La Cebada (30.97°S; 71.65°W). The information presented herein provides spatial completeness in places that may have not been surveyed by other teams, and redundancy in areas surveyed by others.

  8. Observed and Modeled Currents from the Tohoku-oki, Japan and other Recent Tsunamis in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Amanda R.; Dengler, Lori A.; Crawford, Gregory B.; Uslu, Burak U.; Borrero, Jose C.; Greer, S. Dougal; Wilson, Rick I.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the currents produced by recent tsunamis in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City, California. The region is susceptible to both near-field and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 kms north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 28 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 26 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these currents in northern California, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz 2D acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) with a 1-min sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. One other tsunami was recorded on the Humboldt Bay tide gauge during the period of ADCP operation, but was not visible on the ADCP, suggesting a threshold water level value of about 0.2 m to produce an observable ADCP record. The 2010 tsunami currents persisted in Humboldt Bay for approximately 30 h with peak amplitudes of about 0.35 m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 40 h with peak amplitude of 0.84 m/s. The strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level approximately 67 min after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, currents for the first three and one-half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master, approximately 70 m away from the NOAA-NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The currents reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured current velocities

  9. Characteristics of seismic and tsunami fragility of industries, revealed by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Y.; Hasegawa, I.; Yoshimi, M.; Namegaya, Y.; Horikawa, H.; Nakai, M.; Masuda, S.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed seismic and tsunami fragility curves of industries by using damage data of industrial companies, estimated strong motions and estimated tsunami heights of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The damage data were obtained from 7,019 industrial companies, which responded to an inquiry survey to 30,000 companies carried out by the Regional Innovation Research Center of Tohoku University. As a damage level indicator for each company, we introduced a ratio of an economical damage of physical fixed assets excluding lands to previous balance of the physical fixed assets. The estimated strong motions of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake at all the sites of the companies were from the database of the so-called QuiQuake system (Quick estimation system for earthquake maps triggered by observation records) operated by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). It is noted that the estimated data were obtained by taking account of seismic local site effects and the actually observed ones. The tsunami height data at each site of the company were obtained by interpolating the confirmed data compiled by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group (2013). A frequency-damage level distribution for each seismic intensity is well correlated with a binominal distribution where the only parameter characterizing the distribution is an average value of the damage levels in each seismic intensity. The averaged damage levels of all the data for respective seismic intensity scales are 0.016 for SIj 5 lower, 0.042 for SIj 5 upper, 0.067 for SIj 6 lower, 0.092 for SIj 6 upper, and 0.16 for SIj 7, where SIj stands for the Japanese seismic intensity scale. The data were sorted into several classified industries and fragility curve for each classified industry is found to have a different character from each other. The tsunami fragilities are also obtained as a function of the tsunami height in the same way. The averaged damage levels of all

  10. Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick; Weiss, Robert; Renteria, Willington; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio; Son, Sangyoung; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel

    2013-06-01

    On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Galapagos Local Time), the Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan, spawning a Pacific-wide tsunami. Approximately 12,000 km away, the Galapagos Islands experienced moderate tsunami impacts, including flooding, structural damage, and strong currents. In this paper, we present observations and measurements of the tsunami effects in the Galapagos, focusing on the four largest islands in the archipelago; (from west to east) Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Access to the tsunami affected areas was one of the largest challenges of the field survey. Aside from approximately ten sandy beaches open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are restricted to anyone without a research permit; open cooperation with the Galapagos National Park provided the survey team complete access to the Islands coastlines. Survey locations were guided by numerical simulations of the tsunami performed prior to the field work. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum tsunami heights were generally in the range of 3-4 m with the highest runup of 6 m measured in a small pocket beach on Isla Isabela. Puerto Ayora, on Santa Cruz Island, the largest harbor in the Galapagos experienced significant flooding and damage to structures located at the shoreline. A current meter moored inside the harbor recorded relatively weak tsunami currents of less than 0.3 m/s (0.6 knot) during the event. Comparisons with detailed numerical simulations suggest that these low current speed observations are most likely the result of data averaging at 20-min intervals and that maximum instantaneous current speeds were considerably larger. Currents in the Canal de Itabaca, a natural waterway between Santa Cruz Island and a smaller island offshore, were strong enough to displace multiple 5

  11. Real-time forecasting of near-field tsunamis based on source estimation from offshore tsunami data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Maeda, K.; Yokota, T.

    2013-12-01

    Near-field tsunamis in areas close to subduction zones can reach the coast in a few tens of minutes or less, and cause loss of life as well as severe damage to houses and infrastructures in coastal communities. Real-time tsunami forecasting is one of the effective ways to mitigate tsunami disasters. Transmission of a tsunami warning based on rapid and accurate tsunami forecasting to coastal communities helps the residents to make the decisions about their evacuation behaviors. Offshore tsunami data take an important role in tsunami forecasting. Tsunamis can be detected at offshore stations earlier than at coastal sites, and the data provide direct information about the impending tsunamis. In this paper, we present a method to forecast near-field tsunamis from offshore tsunami data using inversion and tsunami amplification factor techniques. We also introduce a prototype of tsunami forecasting system in which our forecasting method is installed. Our tsunami forecasting algorithm is based on a source estimation. For the algorithm, offshore tsunami waveform data are inverted for spatial distribution of an initial sea-surface displacement, and then tsunami waveforms are synthesized from the estimated source and pre-computed Green's functions by a linear superposition to forecast tsunamis at an offshore point near a coastal site. The predicted tsunami heights at the offshore points are amplified to obtain those at coastal sites using the amplification factors derived from actual tsunami observations empirically. No assumptions concerning the fault geometry and the size of an earthquake are required in the algorithm. An empirical amplification factor includes the effect of actual topography on tsunami heights that should be difficult to be modeled by the linear combination of the Green's functions. The predictions are repeated by progressively updating the offshore tsunami waveform data. Because individual predictions can be calculated within a few minutes, tsunami

  12. Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Source regions of concern to U.S. interests derived from NOAA Tsunami Forecast Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, M. C.; uslu, B. U.; Wright, L.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic tsunamis generated from source regions around the Pacific Basin are analyzed in terms of their relative impact on United States coastal locations.. The region of tsunami origin is as important as the expected magnitude and the predicted inundation for understanding tsunami hazard. The NOAA Center for Tsunami Research has developed high-resolution tsunami models capable of predicting tsunami arrival time and amplitude of waves at each location. These models have been used to conduct tsunami hazard assessments to assess maximum impact and tsunami inundation for use by local communities in education and evacuation map development. Hazard assessment studies conducted for Los Angeles, San Francisco, Crescent City, Hilo, and Apra Harbor are combined with results of tsunami forecast model development at each of seventy-five locations. Complete hazard assessment, identifies every possible tsunami variation from a pre-computed propagation database. Study results indicate that the Eastern Aleutian Islands and Alaska are the most likely regions to produce the largest impact on the West Coast of the United States, while the East Philippines and Mariana trench regions impact Apra Harbor, Guam. Hawaii appears to be impacted equally from South America, Alaska and the Kuril Islands.

  13. What is important for you? A qualitative interview study of living with diabetes and experiences of diabetes care to establish a basis for a tailored Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for the Swedish National Diabetes Register

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Maria Svedbo; Leksell, Janeth; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is a growing emphasis on the perspective of individuals living with diabetes and the need for a more person-centred diabetes care. At present, the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) lacks patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) based on the perspective of the patient. As a basis for a new PROM, the aim of this study was to describe important aspects in life for adult individuals with diabetes. DESIGN: Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using content analy...

  14. Concept study of radar sensors for near-field tsunami early warning

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Thomas; Galletti, Michele; Marquart, Nicolas Pascal; Krieger, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Off-shore detection of tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective tsunami early warning system (TEWS). Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local tsunamis, namely tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes after generation. In this paper we propose new concepts for near-field tsunami early detection, based on innovative and up-to-date microwave remote sensing techniques. We particularly introduce the NESTRAD (NEar-Space Tsunami RADar) concept, which consists of a...

  15. New concepts for space-borne Tsunami early warning using microwave sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Thomas; Galletti, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Off-shore detection of tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective tsunami warning system (TWS). Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local tsunamis, namely tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes from the triggering quake. In this presentation we propose two new concepts for tsunami detection. NESTRAD (Near-Space Tsunami Radar) consists of a real aperture radar accommodated inside a stationary stratospheric airship providing continuous monitoring of tsunamigen...

  16. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...... the roots and paradigm of contemporary economic theory. But advances economics along a pathway to becoming a science. The book presents a strong set of core philosophical arguments directed toward making economics a true science. In short, this volume will lead to further debate and discussion of economics...... becoming a science. As all scientific inquiry should do - review data and information in order to create a new or different perspective. Part I reviews the philosophical roots of the Lifeworld tradition are primarily European. Lifeworld can be traced in order to set the stage for the interactionism...

  17. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific....

  18. Modelling of Charles Darwin's tsunami reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great 1835 earthquake. He described his impressions and results of the earthquake-induced natural catastrophe in The Voyage of the Beagle. His description of the tsunami could easily be read as a report from Indonesia or Sri Lanka, after the catastrophic tsunami of 26 December 2004. In particular, Darwin emphasised the dependence of earthquake-induced waves on a form of the coast and the coastal depth: ‘… Talcuhano and Callao are situated at the head of great shoaling bays, and they have always suffered from this phenomenon; whereas, the town of Valparaiso, which is seated close on the border of a profound ocean... has never been overwhelmed by one of these terrific deluges…' . He reports also, that ‘… the whole body of the sea retires from the coast, and then returns in great waves of overwhelming force ...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). The coastal evolution of a tsunami was analytically studied in many publications (see, for example, Synolakis, C.E., Bernard, E.N., 2006. Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Ser. A, 364, 2231-2265; Tinti, S., Tonini, R. 205. J.Fluid Mech., 535, 11-21). However, the Darwin's reports and the influence of the coastal depth on the formation and the evolution of the steep front and the profile of tsunami did not practically discuss. Recently, a mathematical theory of these phenomena was presented in researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474. The theory describes the waves which are excited due to nonlinear effects within a shallow coastal zone. The tsunami elevation is described by two components: . Here is the linear (prime) component. It describes the wave coming from the deep ocean. is the nonlinear component. This component may become very important near the coastal line. After that the theory of the shallow waves is used. This theory yields the linear equation for and the weakly

  19. Tsunami focusing and leading wave height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku

    2016-04-01

    Field observations from tsunami events show that sometimes the maximum tsunami amplitude might not occur for the first wave, such as the maximum wave from the 2011 Japan tsunami reaching to Papeete, Tahiti as a fourth wave 72 min later after the first wave. This might mislead local authorities and give a wrong sense of security to the public. Recently, Okal and Synolakis (2016, Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735) discussed "the factors contributing to the sequencing of tsunami waves in the far field." They consider two different generation mechanisms through an axial symmetric source -circular plug; one, Le Mehaute and Wang's (1995, World Scientific, 367 pp.) formalism where irritational wave propagation is formulated in the framework of investigating tsunamis generated by underwater explosions and two, Hammack's formulation (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) which introduces deformation at the ocean bottom and does not represent an immediate deformation of the ocean surface, i.e. time dependent ocean surface deformation. They identify the critical distance for transition from the first wave being largest to the second wave being largest. To verify sequencing for a finite length source, Okal and Synolakis (2016) is then used NOAA's validated and verified real time forecasting numerical model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng., 124, 157-171) through Synolakis et al. (2008, Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228). As a reference, they used the parameters of the 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile earthquake over real bathymetry, variants of this source (small, big, wide, thin, and long) over a flat bathymetry, and 2010 Chile and 211 Japan tsunamis over both real and flat bathymetries to explore the influence of the fault parameters on sequencing. They identified that sequencing more influenced by the source width rather than the length. We extend Okal and Synolakis (2016)'s analysis to an initial N-wave form (Tadepalli

  20. Learning from Fukushima. A holistic approach to tsunami risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two devastating tsunamis in the 21st century were caused by large megathrust earthquakes on tectonic plate boundaries; the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 and the Great Tohoku tsunami in 2011. Both of these events have led to a focus on tsunamis caused by megathrusts when assessing risks to coastal nuclear power plants. From a longer time perspective, however, such earthquakes are not the only - or even the most significant - sources of large tsunamis. It is important that the key lesson from the impact of the Great Tohoku earthquake and associated tsunami on the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant - that unexpected combinations of events can cause complete failure of defence in depth - is not lost by looking in too much detail at these particular incidents. Instead a wider assessment of events that can give rise to giant waves and major inundation should be considered. (author)

  1. DID A SUBMARINE SLIDE TRIGGER THE 1918 PUERTO RICO TSUNAMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hornbach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1918 tsunami that inundated northwest Puerto Rico with up to 6 m waves has been attributed to seafloor faulting associated with the 1918 Mona Canyon earthquake. During the earthquake a series of submarine cable breaks occurred directly off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico where the largest tsunami waves came ashore. Here, we use a recently compiled geophysical data set to reveal that a 9 km long landslide headwall exists in the region where cable breaks occurred during the 1918 earthquake. We incorporate our interpretations into a near-field tsunami wave model to evaluate whether the slide may have triggered the observed 1918 tsunami. Our analysis indicates that this slide could generate a tsunami with phase, arrival times, and run-ups similar to observations along the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. We therefore suggest that a submarine slide offers a plausible alternative explanation for generation of this large tsunami.

  2. HySEA model verification for Tohoku 2011 Tsunami. Application for mitigation tsunami assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Jorge; González-Vida, José Manuel; García, Javier; Castro, Manuel; Ortega, Sergio; de la Asunción, Marc

    2015-04-01

    In many aspects Tohoku-Oki 2011 mega tsunami has changed our perception of tsunami risk. The tsunami-HySEA model is used to numerically simulate this event and observed data will we used to verify the model results. Three nested meshes of enhanced resolution (4 arc-min, 32 arc-sec and 2 arc-sec) will be used by the numerical model. The propagation mesh covers all Pacific Ocean with more of 7 million cells. An intermediate mesh with 5 millions cells contains the Japanese archipelago and, finally, two finer meshes, with nearly 8 and 6 millions cells, cover Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures at Tohoku region, the most devastated areas hit by the tsunami. The presentation will focus on the impact of the tsunami wave in these two areas and comparisons with observed data will be performed. DART buoys time series, inundation area and observed runup is used to assess model performance. The arrival time of the leading flooding wave at the vicinity of the Senday airport, as recorded by video cameras, is also used as verification data for the model. After this tsunami, control forests as well as breakwaters has been discussed as suitable mitigation infrastructures. As particular case, we will analyse the evolution of the tsunami in the area around the Sendai airport (Miyagi Prefecture) and its impact on the airport. A second simulation has been performed, assuming the existence of a coastal barrier protecting the area. The role of this barrier in modifying tsunami wave evolution and mitigating flooding effects on the airport area are discussed. The protection effect of the breakwaters near Kamaishi (Iwate Prefecture) is also assessed. The numerical model shows how these structures, although did not provide a full protection to tsunami waves, they helped to largely mitigate its effects in the area. Acknowledgements. This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069), the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012

  3. Tsunami generation by ocean floor rupture front propagation: Hamiltonian description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pavlov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hamiltonian method is applied to the problem of tsunami generation caused by a propagating rupture front and deformation of the ocean floor. The method establishes an alternative framework for analyzing the tsunami generation process and produces analytical expressions for the power and directivity of tsunami radiation (in the far-field for two illustrative cases, with constant and gradually varying speeds of rupture front propagation.

  4. Tsunamis: A large-scale earth and ocean phenomena

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    parenleftex February 2005 GENERAL parenleftex ARTICLE Tsunamis are surface gravity waves that are triggered due to perturbation of the ocean floor. The tsunamis that occurred in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004 were due to an earthquake off the coast... Institute of Oceanography, Goa, studying physical oceanography of the waters around India. GENERAL parenleftex ARTICLE 9 discusses special features of tsunamis, including their genera- tion, and finally examines the events of 26 December 2004. 2. Surface...

  5. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    N. Horspool; I. Pranantyo; J. Griffin; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; W. Kongko; Cipta, A.; B. Bustaman; S. D. Anugrah; Thio, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern...

  6. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard in New Zealand Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.; Greer, S. Dougal; Power, William L.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the effects of far-field tsunamis in New Zealand ports. Four sites (Marsden Point, Tauranga, Harbor, Port Taranaki and Lyttelton Harbor) were selected based on a combination of factors such as economic importance and the availability of historical and/or instrumental data. Numerical models were created using the ComMIT tsunami modeling tool and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) hydrodynamic model. Comparison of model results to measured data from recent historical events showed that, for particular sites and events, the model correlated well with the timing and amplitude of the observed tsunami, and, in most cases, there was generally good agreement between the and modeled tsunami heights and current speeds. A sensitivity analysis for tsunami heights and current speeds was conducted using a suite of large ( M W 9) tsunamigenic earthquake sources situated at regular 15° intervals in azimuth along the Pacific Rim while another set of scenarios focused on regional tsunami sources in the Southwest Pacific. Model results were analyzed for tsunami heights and current speeds as a function of the source region. In terms of currents, the analysis identified where speeds were greatest and which source was responsible. Results suggested that tsunamis originating from Central America produced the strongest response in New Zealand. The modeling was also used to determine the timing and duration of potentially dangerous current speeds as well as minimum `safe depths' for vessel evacuation offshore. This study was motivated by the desire to reduce damage and operational losses via improved forecasting of far-field tsunamis at New Zealand ports. It is important that forecasts are accurate since tsunami damage to ships and facilities is expensive and can be mitigated given timely warnings and because preventable false alarms are also costly in terms of lost productivity. The modeling presented here will

  7. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and along the coast will also be addressed. With the support of Member States and other countries and organizations it has been possible to significantly expand the sea level network thus reducing the amount of time it now takes to verify tsunamis.

  8. Qualitative Capacities as Imprecise Possibilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Didier; Prade, Henri; Rico, Agnés

    2013-01-01

    National audience This paper studies the structure of qualitative capacities, that is, monotonic set-functions, when they range on a finite totally ordered scale equipped with an order-reversing map. These set-functions correspond to general representations of uncertainty, as well as importance levels of groups of criteria in multicriteria decision-making. More specifically, we investigate the question whether these qualitative set-functions can be viewed as classes of simpler set-function...

  9. Validating Velocities in the GeoClaw Tsunami Model using Observations Near Hawaii from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    CERN Document Server

    Arcos, M E M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velo...

  10. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

    2011-03-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  11. Quantification of Tsunami Bathymetry Effect on Finite Fault Slip Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Sladen, Anthony; Delouis, Bertrand; Mattéo, Lionel

    2015-12-01

    The strong development of tsunami instrumentation in the past decade now provides observations of tsunami wave propagation in most ocean basins. This evolution has led to the wide use of tsunami data to image the complexity of earthquake sources. In particular, the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is the first mega-event for which such a tsunami instrumentation network was available with an almost complete azimuthal coverage. Source inversion studies have taken advantage of these observations which add a lot of constrain on the solutions, especially in the shallow part of the fault models where other standard data sets tend to lack resolution: while on-land data are quite insensitive to slip on the often-distant shallow part of a subduction fault interface, tsunami observations are directly sensitive to the shallowest slip. And it is in this shallow portion that steep bathymetry combined with horizontal motion, the so-called bathymetry effect, can contribute to the tsunami excitation, in addition to the direct vertical sea-bottom deformation. In this study, we carefully investigate the different steps involved in the calculation of this bathymetry effect, from the initial sea-floor deformation to the prediction of the tsunami records, and evaluate its contribution across the main subduction zones of the world. We find that the bathymetry effect locally exceeds 10 % of the tsunami excitation in all subduction zones and 25 % in those known to produce the largest tsunami, either from mega- or tsunami- earthquakes. We then show how the bathymetry effect can modify the tsunami wave predictions, with time shifts of the wavefront and amplitudes sometimes varying by a factor of two. If the bathymetry effect can have a strong impact on the simulated tsunami, it will also affect the solution of the finite-fault slip inversion. We illustrate this later aspect in the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We find that not accounting for the bathymetry effect will not necessarily

  12. Studies provide new insights into Japan's March 2011 tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    New data, field studies, modeling efforts, and surveys are revealing a wealth of information about the devastating tsunami that followed the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The earthquake and resulting tsunami caused massive destruction and the loss of about 20,000 lives. At the AGU Fall Meeting last week in San Francisco, Calif., scientists reported a variety of new insights about the tsunami and its effects and about tsunami defense mechanisms, ways to forecast tsunami inundation, and public perception of risk. For example, part of the reason the tsunami generated by the Tohoku quake was so large and destructive was that it was a "merging tsunami." Merging tsunamis, which have been hypothesized but not previously observed with certainty, grow in size dramatically when seafloor topography alters the direction in which the waves are traveling and causes two waves to merge into a larger wave. The alteration of wave paths by complex ocean-floor topography makes it difficult to predict where the largest waves will strike land. "Tsunamis often destroy some coastal areas while leaving others with little damage," explained Tony Song of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, at a 5 December press conference.

  13. Historical tsunami database for France and its overseas territories

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, J.; M. Terrier

    2011-01-01

    A search and analysis of a large number of historical documents has made it possible: (i) to discover so-far unknown tsunamis that have hit the French coasts during the last centuries, and (ii) conversely, to disprove the tsunami nature of several events referred to in recent catalogues. This information has been structured into a database and also made available as a website (tsunamis.f/" target="_blank">http://www.tsunamis.fr) that is accessible in French,...

  14. Understanding of urban hazards, fire, and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Walter W.; ,

    1997-01-01

    Understanding of the causes and solutions of an urban area's (e.g., Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Oakland, Seattle, Portland, Anchorage, Salt Lake City, Memphis, St. Louis, Charleston, Boston, San Juan) vulnerability to earthquakes, fire, and tsunamis has increased significantly during the past 50 years, and during the current International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Vulnerability is caused by flaws in planning, siting, design, construction, and use. It is fundamentally dependent upon the hazard, built, and policy environments of the urban area. Reduction of vulnerability is directly related to the decision-making process that calls for the adoption and enforcement of risk management programs (e.g., mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, and recovery measures) that are designed to make the urban area resilient to earthquakes, fires, and, as appropriate, tsunamis.

  15. REMOTE: RECONNAISSANCE AND MONITORING OF TSUNAMI EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C. Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a prototype we built and named REMOTE for detecting and monitoring in real time tsunami events, based on changes in infrared radiation emitted from the sea when up thrust crustal movements from a major or a great tsunamigenic earthquake disturb the ocean floor and change the thermal properties of the water column in the source region. Specifically, we describe the hardware and software components of this system and present its performance results from recent tsunamis. Declouding of satellite images is often required and this is accomplished by the application of wavelet analysis. Also, in the present study we address the problem of signal delay due to the satellite scanning cycle and discuss possible solutions. Finally, we enumerate the relative benefits of our system. Our proposed system is available to all the countries with access to a geostationary weather satellite.

  16. Assessing the magnitude of the 869 Jogan tsunami using sedimentary deposits: Prediction and consequence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Imamura, Fumihiko; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Minoura, Koji

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the spatial distribution and sedimentological features of the 869 Jogan tsunami deposit along the Pacific coast of Japan are reviewed to evaluate deposit-based estimates of the magnitude of the Jogan tsunami and the use of tsunami deposits in the prediction of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami. Inundation of the Sendai Plain and the offshore wave sources of both tsunamis are compared. The Jogan tsunami deposit is ubiquitous on the coastal plains of Sendai Bay, whereas, to date, it is only identified in a few locations along the Sanriku and Joban Coasts. This resulted in an underprediction of the size of the wave source of the Tohoku-oki tsunami. The inland boundary of the inundation area of the Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Sendai Plain is approximately equivalent to that of the Jogan tsunami, although many sedimentological and geomorphologic factors make a direct comparison of the tsunamis complicated and difficult. The magnitude of the Jogan earthquake (Mw = 8.4), which was derived from the tsunami deposit inland extent and numerical inundation modeling, was too small to predict the magnitude of the Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw = 9.0-9.1) and tsunami. Additional research is needed to improve deposit-based estimates of the magnitudes of past tsunamis and to increase the ability to use tsunami deposits, in conjunction with inundation modeling, to assess future tsunami hazards.

  17. Year in Diabetes 2012: The Diabetes Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwin, R; Jastreboff, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes affects more than 300 million individuals globally, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes continue to escalate with the force of an approaching tsunami, it is imperative that we better define the biological mechanisms causing both obesity and diabetes and identify optimal prevention and treatment strategies that will enable a healthier environment and calmer waters. New guidelines from the American Diabetes Associat...

  18. Analysis of Tsunami Evacuation Issues Using Agent Based Modeling. A Case Study of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Yuriage, Natori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Takagi, H.; Adriano, B.; Hayashi, S.; Koshimura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami reminded that nature can exceed structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people to find nearby haven. This event, as many others before, confirmed the importance of early evacuation, tsunami awareness and the need for developing much more resilient communities with effective evacuation plans. To support reconstruction activities and efforts on developing resilient communities in areas at risk, tsunami evacuation simulation can be applied to tsunami mitigation and evacuation planning. In this study, using the compiled information related to the evacuation behavior at Yuriage in Natori during the 2011 tsunami, we simulated the evacuation process and explored the reasons for the large number of fatalities in the area. It was found that residents did evacuate to nearby shelter areas, however after the tsunami warning was increased some evacuees decided to conduct a second step evacuation to a far inland shelter. Simulation results show the consequences of such decision and the outcomes when a second evacuation would not have been performed. The actual reported number of fatalities in the event and the results from simulation are compared to verify the model. The case study shows the contribution of tsunami evacuation models as tools to be applied for the analysis of evacuees' decisions and the related outcomes. In addition, future evacuation plans and activities for reconstruction process and urban planning can be supported by the results provided from this kind of tsunami evacuation models.

  19. New Edition of the UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Borrero, J. C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Fritz, H. M.; Imamura, F.; Kong, L. S.; Koshimura, S.; McAdoo, B. G.; Satake, K.; Yalciner, A. C.; Yulianto, E.

    2011-12-01

    A subcommittee of the IUGG International Tsunami Commission was convened in 2010 to revise and update the 1998 UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. The revised Guide addresses the developments in the tsunami field since 1998, the need to accommodate vastly increased amounts of data, and to incorporate disciplines that were not covered in the original guide. The Guide also advocates a systems-approach to assessing tsunami impacts that examines the full range of physical, environmental, and socio-economic effects and their interrelationship, bringing tsunami research efforts into a closer alignment with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). This Field Guide is intended to provide a flexible framework to facilitate the acquisition of critical data in the immediate aftermath of significant tsunamis and to balance the needs of international researchers with those of communities and agencies involved with response and recovery. It will be of use to a variety of people and organizations who may either participate in, assist in coordination, or host post-tsunami field surveys. It is hoped that this Guide will promote pre-event planning in countries at risk of tsunamis to reduce the stresses of developing organizational logistics in the post-emergency response phase and make the process of conducting an ITST easier and more productive for both participating researchers and host country organizations. A complete draft of the Guide will be presented at the meeting and members of the tsunami community invited to comment.

  20. The Algorithm Development of the Tsunami Impact Intensity Analysis and the Application to the 1867 Keelung Tsunami Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. R.; Wu, H.; Li, P. Y.; Lee, C. J.; Tsai, Y. L.; Chuang, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    As a tsunami scientist, I've been frequently asked where the tsunami will/did come from? The conventional answer to this question is based on the understanding of trench and bathymetry distributions. Sometimes, for a precise answer, a series of scenario studies have to be performed in priori. Even hundreds of scenarios are created and studied, however, potential tsunami sources could be neglected unintentionally.. For this, I've created a new algorithm to efficiently locate the possible tsunami sources, which is called Impact Intensity Analysis (IIA). Briefly speaking, this algorithm scans the entire computational domain and find out the distribution of maximum wave height of each unit source. After that, the result presents a clear view of potential tsunami energy transport pattern. For example, the result of IIA shows that the southern east of Taiwan is under the threat of tsunamis sourcing from the northern segment of Yap Trench; and so is the northern segment of Manila Trench. A clear energy path can be seen, linking Taiwan and the Yap Trench. The result matches the scenario study of potential Yap tsunami very well (Figure 1). This indicates that once the tsunami source is located in the energy path, with a proper wave direction, the tsunami energy can be transported to the study site with relatively less energy loss. Therefore, this algorithm can help us analyze the potential tsunami source systematically; and more importantly, get rid of the impossible source candidates quickly. In this paper, we present the detailed validation of this algorithm, including the directionality and the effect of on and off the energy path. At the end, we employ this algorithm to analyze the potential tsunami source of 1867 Keelung tsunami event. The result shows that this event was possibly caused by a submarine landslide generated tsunami and the landslide occurred in the north-east offshore Taiwan.Figure 1. The Impact Intensity Analysis (IIA) of the south-east Taiwan (left

  1. Influence of sedimentary layering on tsunami generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys

    2008-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the influence of sediment layers on the process of tsunami generation. The main scope here is to demonstrate and especially quantify the effect of sedimentation on seabed vertical displacements due to an underwater earthquake. The fault is modelled as a Volterra-type dislocation in an elastic half-space. The elastodynamics equations are integrated with a finite element method. A comparison between two cases is performed. The first one corresponds to the classical situation of an elastic homogeneous and isotropic half-space, which is traditionally used for the generation of tsunamis. The second test case takes into account the presence of a sediment layer separating the oceanic column from the hard rock. Some important differences are revealed. The results of the present study may partially explain why the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 produced such a big tsunami. More precisely, we conjecture that the wave amplitude in the generation region may have bee...

  2. SIMULATION OF TSUNAMI FORCE ON ROWS OF BUILDINGS IN ACEH REGION AFTER TSUNAMI DISASTER IN 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radianta Triatmadja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 in Aceh, houses and other buildings were reconstructed by government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO. The new buildings near the coastline are open directly to similar tsunami attack. The layout of such new residential are normally arranged and aligned as rows of buildings. The front rows of the buildings suffer more tsunami force due to their location that are closer to the beach and the effect of the reflection from the adjacent buildings. This research aims to analyze the tsunami force on buildings of different types, and the effect of other buildings nearby. The research was conducted using a physical model at the Hydraulic and Hydrology Laboratory, Research Centre for Engineering Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia. The physical model simulations were carried out in a flume of 24 m long, 1.45 m wide, and 1.5 m high, that was facilitated with tsunami generator based on dam break system. The models of the buildings were made of plywood and were placed in a row perpendicular to the flume. The distance between the buildings was varied to observe the effect of the gaps. The results show that the force on the building depends on the gap between the buildings. Although the effect of the gap was more significant on low buildings, the effect of force on high buildings was more sensitive to the change of the gap size. Simple equation for practical use is proposed to calculate the tsunami force on building with the effect of nearby buildings.

  3. Consistent Estimates of Tsunami Energy Show Promise for Improved Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V.; Song, Y. Tony; Tang, L.; Bernard, E. N.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Wei, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Early tsunami warning critically hinges on rapid determination of the tsunami hazard potential in real-time, before waves inundate critical coastlines. Tsunami energy can quickly characterize the destructive potential of generated waves. Traditional seismic analysis is inadequate to accurately predict a tsunami's energy. Recently, two independent approaches have been proposed to determine tsunami source energy: one inverted from the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) data during the tsunami propagation, and the other derived from the land-based coastal global positioning system (GPS) during tsunami generation. Here, we focus on assessing these two approaches with data from the March 11, 2011 Japanese tsunami. While the GPS approach takes into consideration the dynamic earthquake process, the DART inversion approach provides the actual tsunami energy estimation of the propagating tsunami waves; both approaches lead to consistent energy scales for previously studied tsunamis. Encouraged by these promising results, we examined a real-time approach to determine tsunami source energy by combining these two methods: first, determine the tsunami source from the globally expanding GPS network immediately after an earthquake for near-field early warnings; and then to refine the tsunami energy estimate from nearby DART measurements for improving forecast accuracy and early cancelations. The combination of these two real-time networks may offer an appealing opportunity for: early determination of the tsunami threat for the purpose of saving more lives, and early cancelation of tsunami warnings to avoid unnecessary false alarms.

  4. The Nature of Qualitative Research and Implications for National Education Research%论质性研究的本质及其对民族教育研究的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石梦

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research methods is one of social science research fields. Debating about qualitative re-search methods and quantitative research methods has been a topic of concern in academia. Nature of qualitative re-search methodology system is under the guidance of the materialist worldview, which has its own characteristics, is the study of national education can learn and use methods of constructing national system of education research meth-ods is important.%质性研究方法,是社会科学研究领域的方法之一。关于质性研究方法与量化研究方法的争论,一直是学术界关注的话题。质性研究的本质是唯物主义世界观指导下的方法论体系,并有其自身的特点,是民族教育研究可以借鉴和使用的方法,对构建民族教育研究方法体系具有重要意义。

  5. The 2009 South Pacific tsunami - implications for tsunami hazard in the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, William; Wilson, Kate; Prasetya, Gegar; Bradley, Brendon; Wang, Xiaoming; Beavan, John; Holden, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    On 29 September 2009 a Mw8.0 earthquake at the northern end of the Tonga Trench created a tsunami with a devastating impact on the islands of Tutuila (American Samoa), Upolu (Samoa) and Niuatoputapu (Tonga). The intensity of the tsunami impact on islands close to the source was surprising for an earthquake of this magnitude, which is presumably a consequence of an unusual earthquake source. Moment tensor solutions suggest a mechanism of normal faulting in the outer-rise though this is not fully consistent with the polarity of waves observed at DART buoys within the Pacific. The written history of tsunami in the southwest Pacific is relatively short, especially for the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi trench, and includes few events; consequently the question ‘How typical is this event of tsunami from this subduction zone?' is critical for understanding the tsunami hazard of the region. An important source of information on the tsunami comes from post-event surveys. Researchers from GNS Science participated in survey teams on each of the three strongly affected islands. Information collected by these surveys is very varied, and includes: estimates of physical parameters such as the distribution of run-up heights, flow depths, and inundation distances; engineering observations regarding the damage to, and relative fragility of, different types of buildings and infrastructure; observations of environmental impact and the role of the environmental factors, such as coral reefs, forests, and sand dunes, on influencing the tsunami impact; and observations of the response to the events by the local communities. This presentation will include a summary of the main findings from these surveys. The earthquake source for this event appears to have an unusual mechanism for a tsunamigenic earthquake, and to be relatively complex. Attempts to invert for the source using any one of the various collected datasets - the survey data described above, DART buoy sea level records, geodetic

  6. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.

    2014-09-28

    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for

  7. How prepared individuals and communities are for evacuation in tsunami-prone areas in Europe? Findings from the ASTARTE EU Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine; Goeldner-Gianella, Lydie; Karanci, Nuray; Dogulu, Nilay; Kanoglu, Utku; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; El Mouraouah, Azelarab; Benchekroun, Sabah; Birouk, Abdelouahad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social vulnerability to tsunamis provides risk managers with the required information to determine whether individuals have the capacity to evacuate, and therefore to take mitigation measures to protect their communities. In the frame of the EU programme ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), we conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 1,661 people from 41 nationalities living in, working in, or visiting 10 Test Sites from 9 different countries. The questions, which have been translated in 11 languages, focused on tsunami hazard awareness, risk perception, and knowledge of the existing warning systems. Our results confirm our initial hypothesis that low attention is paid in Europe to tsunami risk. Among all type of hazards, either natural or not, tsunami rank first in only one site (Lyngen fjord in Norway), rank third in 3 other sites (Eforie Nord in Romania, Nice and Istanbul), rank 4 in Gulluk Bay, 5 in Sines and Heraklion, and 10 in Siracusa (Sicily) and San Jordi (Balearic Islands). Whatever the respondent's status (i.e. local population, local authorities, or tourists), earthquakes and drawdown of the sea are cited as tsunami warning signs by 43% and 39% of the respondents, respectively. Therefore self-evacuation is not expected for more than half of the population. Considering that most European countries have no early warning system for tsunamis, a disaster is likely to happen in any coastal area exposed to this specific hazard. Furthermore, knowledge of past tsunami events is also very limited: only 22% of people stated that a tsunami has occurred in the past, whereas a deadly tsunami occurs every century in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. in AD 365, 1660, 1672 or 1956 in the eastern part, 1908, 1979 or 2003 in the western part), and high tsunami waves devastated the Portugal and Moroccan coasts in 1755. Despite this lack of knowledge and awareness of past events, 62% of the respondents think that the site of

  8. Asian tsunami relief: Department of Defense public health response: policy and strategic coordination considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Dave

    2006-10-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004, was one of the most devastating natural disasters in modern history. In particular, this disaster created massive, unique, public health threats, necessitating equally massive public health response efforts. The U.S. government (USG), including the Department of Defense (DoD), played a pivotal role in the response. This article examines some of the central policy issues and strategic coordination and planning measures involved in the public health response. The nearly unanimous consensus of international public health experts has been that the potential public health crisis in the aftermath of the Asian tsunami was averted largely because of the coordinated efforts of host nation officials and professionals, international and nongovernmental health organizations, and bilateral donors, especially the USG, including the DoD. The DoD played a central role in public health efforts through coordination and communication assistance, logistical and materiel support, disease surveillance activities, health needs assessments, and the contributions of the USS Mercy hospital ship. The core lessons involve the importance of an early, dedicated, public health response as a component of the overall disaster relief effort, as well as seamless coordination of health sector stakeholders in the USG and with those of the international community and affected host nations, which allows each organization to play to its strengths and to avoid duplication. The Asian tsunami relief effort highlighted the value of civil-military cooperation in disaster relief, particularly in the area of public health. The prominent role of the DoD in tsunami relief efforts, including public health efforts, also yielded beneficial secondary effects by bolstering security cooperation and winning "hearts and minds" in the region.

  9. Mental and social health in disasters: the Sphere standards and post-tsunami psychosocial interventions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Silja E K; Elsass, Peter; Berliner, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to examine and inform the mental health and psychosocial support standards of the 2011 edition of the Sphere Project's Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. This is done through a qualitative analysis of internal evaluation documents, reflecting four long-term humanitarian psychosocial programmes in different countries in post-tsunami Asia. The analysis yielded three overall conclusions. First, the Sphere standards on mental health and psychosocial support generally are highly relevant to long-term psychosocial interventions after disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, and their application in such settings may improve the quality of the response. Second, some of the standards in the current Sphere handbook may lack sufficient guidance to ensure the quality of humanitarian response required. Third, the long-term intervention approach poses specific challenges to programming, a problem that could be addressed by including additional guidance in the publication. PMID:26574293

  10. A new approach to UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Field Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L. S.; Steffen, J.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Biukoto, L.; Titimaea, A.; Thaman, R.; Vaa, R.

    2009-12-01

    The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST-Samoa, Oct 14-23, 2009), and the Report presented to the Government of Samoa (GoS) immediately upon conclusion, was an unprecedented science effort, setting a benchmark for future coordinated international post-tsunami science surveys that will support national early recovery efforts, and through tsunami research, improve tsunami mitigation and preparedness and so build a stronger resilience of coastal communities. By working together, we achieved outcomes much stronger and more valuable than any one of us could produce alone. For the first time, strong principles of professional conduct, mutual respect, collaboration, partnership, and concern for the welfare of the affected communities, were explictly embeded in the work plan. The 29 September 2009 regional tsunami resulted in loss of life and damage to human infrastructure and environmental systems. Common to many tsunamis, international scientists expressed the intent to undertake science assessments. Traditionally, these surveys, sometimes under UNESCO-IOC auspices, have been single-discipline, and conducted individually with moderate government coordination, so that afterward, the country was left with a large integration task to produce a single coherent study. This changed in Samoa, where an integrated and coordinated approach emerged. The ITST-Samoa was comprised of more than 60 scientists (seismologists, geologists, engineers, social scientists, modellers) from Australia, Fiji, French-Polynesia, Italy, Japan, New Zealand and USA who volunteered to work in collaboration with the GoS, Samoa Red Cross Society, Samoa scientists, and non-government representatives. They worked as one survey team to collect data and assist the GoS to prioritise short- and long-term risk reduction strategies. Their novel work (1) partnered with a regional university to include South Pacific expertise and with the GoS to ensure that (a) international scientists worked in a culturally

  11. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  12. A fast global tsunami modeling suite as a trans-oceanic tsunami hazard prediction and mitigation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, F.; Li, S.; Jalali Farahani, R.; Williams, C. R.; Astill, S.; Wilson, P. S.; B, S.; Lee, R.

    2014-12-01

    The past decade has been witness to two mega-tsunami events, 2004 Indian ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami and multiple major tsunami events; 2006 Java, Kuril Islands, 2007 Solomon Islands, 2009 Samoa and 2010 Chile, to name a few. These events generated both local and far field tsunami inundations with runup ranging from a few meters to around 40 m in the coastal impact regions. With a majority of the coastal population at risk, there is need for a sophisticated outlook towards catastrophe risk estimation and a quick mitigation response. At the same time tools and information are needed to aid advanced tsunami hazard prediction. There is an increased need for insurers, reinsurers and Federal hazard management agencies to quantify coastal inundations and vulnerability of coastal habitat to tsunami inundations. A novel tool is developed to model local and far-field tsunami generation, propagation and inundation to estimate tsunami hazards. The tool is a combination of the NOAA MOST propagation database and an efficient and fast GPU (Graphical Processing Unit)-based non-linear shallow water wave model solver. The tsunamigenic seismic sources are mapped on to the NOAA unit source distribution along subduction zones in the ocean basin. Slip models are defined for tsunamigenic seismic sources through a slip distribution on the unit sources while maintaining limits of fault areas. A GPU based finite volume solver is used to simulate non-linear shallow water wave propagation, inundation and runup. Deformation on the unit sources provide initial conditions for modeling local impacts, while the wave history from propagation database provides boundary conditions for far field impacts. The modeling suite provides good agreement with basins for basin wide tsunami propagation to validate local and far field tsunami inundations.

  13. Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Brizuela, B.; Cavalletti, A.; Gonella, M.; Tinti, S.

    2010-07-01

    The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy) is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 December 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco), which poured approximately 2-3×107 m3 of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves impacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m) and Panarea. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment, version 3). The PTVA-3 Model calculates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI) for every building, based on a set of selected physical and structural attributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to occur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are "average"/"low" and "very low", respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Stromboli are classified as having a "high" or "average" vulnerability. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualitative comparison with photographs taken by INGV and the University of Bologna during the post-tsunami

  14. Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 December 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco, which poured approximately 2–3×107 m3 of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves impacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m and Panarea.

    The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment, version 3. The PTVA-3 Model calculates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI for every building, based on a set of selected physical and structural attributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to occur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are "average"/"low" and "very low", respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Stromboli are classified as having a "high" or "average" vulnerability. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualitative comparison with photographs taken by INGV and

  15. TSUNAMI PROPAGATION OVER THE NORTH PACIFIC: DISPERSIVE AND NONDISPERSIVE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Horrillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrostatic (HY and non-hydrostatic (NHY tsunami physics is compared by application to the Kuril Island Tsunami (KIT of November 2006 and the Japan Tsunami (JT of March 2011. Our purpose is to study the significance of dispersive vs. non-dispersive long waves on global tsunami propagation. A tool which is well suited to revealing tsunami wave transformations is the energy flux. Expressions for dispersive and non-dispersive fluxes have been formulated. This provides an understanding of the role of dispersion in tsunami propagation and dissipation. Separating the pressure field into two parts i.e., HY and NHY shows that dispersive waves extract energy from the main wave, directing the dispersive energy flux away from the wave front. The major result of the application of the energy flux to non-dispersive waves is an enhanced understanding of later tsunami wave train arrivals at distant points – with arrivals sometimes occurring several hours after an initial forerunner wave. Computations show that strong differences between non-dispersive and dispersive waves develop along the length of the main energy beam. This has important consequences for accurate tsunami prediction and warnings.

  16. Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankaew, K.; Atwater, B.F.; Sawai, Y.; Choowong, M.; Charoentitirat, T.; Martin, M.E.; Prendergast, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent centuries provide no precedent for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, either on the coasts it devastated or within its source area. The tsunami claimed nearly all of its victims on shores that had gone 200 years or more without a tsunami disaster. The associated earthquake of magnitude 9.2 defied a Sumatra-Andaman catalogue that contains no nineteenth-century or twentieth-century earthquake larger than magnitude 7.9 (ref. 2). The tsunami and the earthquake together resulted from a fault rupture 1,500 km long that expended centuries' worth of plate convergence. Here, using sedimentary evidence for tsunamis, we identify probable precedents for the 2004 tsunami at a grassy beach-ridge plain 125 km north of Phuket. The 2004 tsunami, running 2 km across this plain, coated the ridges and intervening swales with a sheet of sand commonly 5-20 cm thick. The peaty soils of two marshy swales preserve the remains of several earlier sand sheets less than 2,800 years old. If responsible for the youngest of these pre-2004 sand sheets, the most recent full-size predecessor to the 2004 tsunami occurred about 550-700 years ago. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  18. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  19. Numerical Techniques for Simulation of Tsunami Based on Finite Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Masaji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ming Jun

    2006-01-01

    Numerical techniques to simulate tsunamis are described. Partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations to which appropriate numerical solvers can be applied. The techniques are illustrated with an example in which tsunami due to an earthquake is simulated.

  20. Risk mapping and tsunami mitigation in Gunungkidul area, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiatno, Djati; Sunarto, WF, Lies Rahayu; Saptadi, Gatot; Ayuningtyas, Efrinda Ari

    2015-04-01

    Coastal area of Gunungkidul Regency is one of the areas prone to tsunami in Indonesia. In contrary, currently, this area is very intensively developed as one of the favourite tourism destination. This paper is aimed at explaining tsunami risk and a mitigation type in Gunungkidul Area, Yogyakarta. Digital elevation model (DEM) and coastal morphology were used to generate tsunami hazard map. Vulnerability was analysed by utilizing land use data. Information from previous studies (e.g. from GTZ) were also considered for analysis. Tsunami risk was classified into three classes, i.e. high risk, medium risk, and low risk and visualized in the form of tsunami risk map. Tsunami risk map is a tool which can be used as disaster reduction instrument, such as for evacuation routes planning. Based on the preliminary results of this research, it is clear that tsunami risk in this area is varied depend on the morphological condition of the location. There are five coastal area selected as the location, i.e. Ngrenehan, Baron, Sepanjang, PulangSawal, and Sadeng. All locations have the high risk zone to tsunami, especially for bay area. Evacuation routes were generated for all locations by considering the local landscape condition. There are several differences of evacuation ways for each location.

  1. VALIDATION OF THE JRC TSUNAMI PROPAGATION AND INUNDATION CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zamora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years several numerical codes have been developed to analyse tsunami waves. Most of these codes use a finite difference numerical approach giving good results for tsunami wave propagation, but with limitations in modelling inundation processes. The HyFlux2 model has been developed to simulate inundation scenario due to dam break, flash flood and tsunami-wave run-up. The model solves the conservative form of the two-dimensional shallow water equations using a finite volume method. The implementation of a shoreline-tracking method provides reliable results. HyFlux2 robustness has been tested using several tsunami events. The main aim of this study is code validation by means of comparing different code results with available measurements. Another objective of the study is to evaluate how the different fault models could generate different results that should be considered for coastal planning. Several simulations have been performed to compare HyFlux2 code with SWAN-JRC code and the TUNAMI-N2. HyFlux2 has been validated taking advantage of the extensive seismic, geodetic measurements and post-tsunami field surveys performed after the Nias March 28th tsunami. Although more detailed shallow bathymetry is needed to assess the inundation, diverse results in the wave heights have been revealed when comparing the different fault mechanism. Many challenges still exist for tsunami researchers especially when concern to early warning systems as shown in this Nias March 28th tsunami.

  2. New study on the 1941 Gloria Fault earthquake and tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel; Batlló, Josep; Lisboa, Filipe; Luis, Joaquim; Maciá, Ramon

    2016-08-01

    The M ˜ 8.3-8.4 25 November 1941 was one of the largest submarine strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded in the Northeast (NE) Atlantic basin. This event occurred along the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary between the Azores and the Strait of Gibraltar. After the earthquake, the tide stations in the NE Atlantic recorded a small tsunami with maximum amplitudes of 40 cm peak to through in the Azores and Madeira islands. In this study, we present a re-evaluation of the earthquake epicentre location using seismological data not included in previous studies. We invert the tsunami travel times to obtain a preliminary tsunami source location using the backward ray tracing (BRT) technique. We invert the tsunami waveforms to infer the initial sea surface displacement using empirical Green's functions, without prior assumptions about the geometry of the source. The results of the BRT simulation locate the tsunami source quite close to the new epicentre. This fact suggests that the co-seismic deformation of the earthquake induced the tsunami. The waveform inversion of tsunami data favours the conclusion that the earthquake ruptured an approximately 160 km segment of the plate boundary, in the eastern section of the Gloria Fault between -20.249 and -18.630° E. The results presented here contribute to the evaluation of tsunami hazard in the Northeast Atlantic basin.

  3. Geographical Information Analysis of Tsunami Flooded Area by the Great East Japan Earthquake Using Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarai, M.; Okatani, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakamura, T.; Hasegawa, M.

    2012-07-01

    The great earthquake occurred in Tohoku District, Japan on 11th March, 2011. This earthquake is named "the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake", and the damage by this earthquake is named "the Great East Japan Earthquake". About twenty thousand people were killed or lost by the tsunami of this earthquake, and large area was flooded and a large number of buildings were destroyed by the tsunami. The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has provided the data of tsunami flooded area interpreted from aerial photos taken just after the great earthquake. This is fundamental data of tsunami damage and very useful for consideration of reconstruction planning of tsunami damaged area. The authors analyzed the relationship among land use, landform classification, DEMs data flooded depth of the tsunami flooded area by the Great East Japan Earthquake in the Sendai Plain using GIS. Land use data is 100 meter grid data of National Land Information Data by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism (MLIT). Landform classification data is vector data of Land Condition Map produced by GSI. DEMs data are 5 meters grid data measured with LiDAR by GSI after earthquake. Especially, the authors noticed the relationship between tsunami hazard damage and flooded depth. The authors divided tsunami damage into three categories by interpreting aerial photos; first is the completely destroyed area where almost wooden buildings were lost, second is the heavily damaged area where a large number of houses were destroyed by the tsunami, and third is the flooded only area where houses were less destroyed. The flooded depth was measured by photogrammetric method using digital image taken by Mobile Mapping System (MMS). The result of these geographic analyses show the distribution of tsunami damage level is as follows: 1) The completely destroyed area was located within 1km area from the coastline, flooded depth of this area is over 4m, and no relationship

  4. Spatial and Temporal Characterization of the 11 March 2012 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, M. C.; Mungov, G.; Rabinovich, A.; Harris, E.; Titov, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Japan Tohoku tsunami data set of March 2011 contains the richest collection of coastal and deep-ocean observations ever recorded during a single tsunami event. These data were collected in partnership by an international community and provide a historic opportunity to characterize a tsunami in both space and time. Analyses of bottom pressure recorder time series at more than 30 deep ocean locations indicate a difference in the decay rate of high versus low wave packet frequency components during basin wide propagation of the tsunami. Investigation of tsunami arrival at each deep-ocean site highlights the role filtering techniques may play in masking either a leading trough or peak. More than 350 coastal water level records show regions of signal attenuation and amplification due to refraction, reflection, and bathymetric focusing. The location of a coastal water level station either along an open coast or within a protected harbor is a coarse predictor for these non-linearities.

  5. Assessment of the tsunami-induced current hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick J.; Borrero, Jose; Son, Sangyoung; Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of tsunami damage is not limited to events causing coastal inundation. Even without flooding, maritime assets are vulnerable to significant damage from strong currents and associated drag forces. While such impacts have been observed in the past, they have not been well studied in any context. Nearshore tsunami currents are governed by nonlinear and turbulent physics and often have large spatial and temporal variability making high-fidelity modeling particularly challenging. Furthermore, measured data for the validation of numerical simulations is limited, with few quality data sets appearing after recent tsunami events. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the interpretation of measured tsunami-induced current impacts as well as a validation approach for simulation tools. The methods and results provided here lay the foundation for much needed efforts to assess tsunami hazards in ports and harbors.

  6. Geochemical and Mineralogical Proxies for characterizing Tsunami and Paleotsunami Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwhagen, L.; Jankaew, K.; Kylander, M. E.; Skelton, A.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show how geochemistry and mineralogy can be used to correlate between previously dated tsunami and paleotsunami deposits in western Thailand. We do this based on cores from three parallel swales along a transect from the shoreline inland. Stratigraphy, together with geochemical and mineralogical analyses was used to correlate between tsunami and paleotsunami layers at these sites. Using element biplots (Ti-Zr, Ti-Y and Zr-Y) and mineralogical constraints, source signatures of each of the tsunami and paleotsunami layers were used to correlate between sand layers representing the 2004 tsunami and sand layers representing at least three paleotsunamis. Based on our correlations between these swales, we predict different inundation distances and directions for these paleotsunamis. Our study shows that a combination of geochemical and mineralogical analysis provides a powerful tool for correlation between tsunami and paleotsunami layers.

  7. A Model for TSUnami FLow INversion from Deposits (TSUFLIND)

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Modern tsunami deposits are employed to estimate the overland flow characteristics of tsunamis. With the help of the overland-flow characteristics, the characteristics of the causative tsunami wave can be estimated. The understanding of tsunami deposits has tremendously improved over the last decades. There are three prominent inversion models: Moore advection model, Soulsby's model and TsuSedMod model. TSUFLIND incorporates all three models and adds new modules to better simulate tsunami deposit formation and calculate flow condition. TSUFLIND takes grain-size distribution, thickness, water depth and topography information as inputs. TSUFLIND computes sediment concentration, grain-size distribution of sediment source and initial flow condition to match the sediment thickness and grain size distribution from field observation. Furthermore, TSUFLIND estimates the flow speed, Froude number and representative wave amplitude. The model is tested by using field data collected at Ranganathapuram, India after the 20...

  8. No-source tsunami forecasting for Alaska communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Suleimani, E.

    2014-12-01

    The presented tsunami forecasting technique employs observations of the approaching tsunami at DART stations near the Aleutian trench to provide fast local forecasts for the Alaska communities. The suggested technique yields a prediction independent of the tsunami source estimate; increases forecast accuracy by using observations close to the target area; allows for checking the accuracy of the inversion-based forecast before the wave hits the coast. We demonstrate this forecasting technology, introduced in (Power and Tolkova, 2013, Ocean Dynamics, 63(11), 1213-1232), with imitating real-time forecasts of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami at several coastal sites in Alaska (to be compared with the gage records). The coastal forecasts are generated as the wave is registered at regional DART stations (46402, 46043, 46409, 46410). Note that while the DART array spans the Pacific Rim, the inversion-based forecasting methodologies can incorporate data from only 1-3 stations in the vicinity of the tsunami origin. We present a forecasting method which complements existing forecasting tools by using tsunami observations in a region to generate regional predictions independent of the tsunami source estimate. This method allows to utilize observing capabilities of the DART array, as well as tsunami detectors in cabled underwater networks (e.g. NEPTUNE in Canada). Future instrumentation on submarine communication cables will supply larger selection of open-ocean measurements and many more opportunities for this method. Figure: (Top) record of the 2012/10/28 Haida Gwaii tsunami at DART 46411; (Bottom) the tsunami record at Monterey tide gage (red) and its forecast (blue). The forecast is been made as the wave is been registered at the DART one hour before arriving at the gage (Power and Tolkova, 2013).

  9. Application of Seismic Array Processing to Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami wave predictions of the current tsunami warning systems rely on accurate earthquake source inversions of wave height data. They are of limited effectiveness for the near-field areas since the tsunami waves arrive before data are collected. Recent seismic and tsunami disasters have revealed the need for early warning to protect near-source coastal populations. In this work we developed the basis for a tsunami warning system based on rapid earthquake source characterisation through regional seismic array back-projections. We explored rapid earthquake source imaging using onshore dense seismic arrays located at regional distances on the order of 1000 km, which provides faster source images than conventional teleseismic back-projections. We implement this method in a simulated real-time environment, and analysed the 2011 Tohoku earthquake rupture with two clusters of Hi-net stations in Kyushu and Northern Hokkaido, and the 2014 Iquique event with the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array. The results yield reasonable estimates of rupture area, which is approximated by an ellipse and leads to the construction of simple slip models based on empirical scaling of the rupture area, seismic moment and average slip. The slip model is then used as the input of the tsunami simulation package COMCOT to predict the tsunami waves. In the example of the Tohoku event, the earthquake source model can be acquired within 6 minutes from the start of rupture and the simulation of tsunami waves takes less than 2 min, which could facilitate a timely tsunami warning. The predicted arrival time and wave amplitude reasonably fit observations. Based on this method, we propose to develop an automatic warning mechanism that provides rapid near-field warning for areas of high tsunami risk. The initial focus will be Japan, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where dense seismic networks with the capability of real-time data telemetry and open data accessibility, such as the Japanese HiNet (>800

  10. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  11. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System with instant Tsunami Propagation Calculations in the GPU Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.

    2014-12-01

    Usually, tsunami early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses tsunami early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated tsunami simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand tsunami predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the

  12. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2013-12-01

    the recommended concentrations for freshwater plants after one year. The new soil formation and vegetation recovery depends mainly on the rate of biological production. In tropical climate the vegetation largely recovered already after the first rainy season and supported the new soil formation. In temperate climate this process was much slower, in particular in flat lying areas and on coastal dunes with poor sandy soils. In polar climate only limited vegetation recovery (mainly of Salix species) has been observed after 12 years and vegetation withered due to salt stress still marked the tsunami inundation limit and the new soil formation was very slow and focused on low lying, wet areas buried with thin tsunami deposits cover. The post-tsunami recovery processes may be grouped into climate-related (vegetation recovery, removal of salts from soils) and non climate-related (e.g. beach recovery) or modified by climatic and local factors (for instance, the rate of tsunami deposits reworking and thus new soil formation). The rate of recovery varies from days / weeks as in case of beach recovery to several decades as in case of new soil formation on tsunami deposits. The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. The review results from studies in collaboration with number of researchers from Australia, Japan, Poland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to whom I express sincere thanks.

  13. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization:Developing a Maintainable and Extensible Open Source Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, S. B.; Lisowski, S.; Baker, B.; Hagerty, M.; Lomax, A.; Leifer, J. M.; Thies, D. A.; Schnackenberg, A.; Barrows, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). While this project was funded by NOAA to solve a specific problem, the requirements that the delivered system be both open source and easily maintainable have resulted in the creation of a variety of open source (OS) software packages. The open source software is now complete and this is a presentation of the OS Software that has been funded by NOAA for benefit of the entire seismic community. The design architecture comprises three distinct components: (1) The user interface, (2) The real-time data acquisition and processing system and (3) The scientific algorithm library. The system follows a modular design with loose coupling between components. We now identify the major project constituents. The user interface, CAVE, is written in Java and is compatible with the existing National Weather Service (NWS) open source graphical system AWIPS. The selected real-time seismic acquisition and processing system is open source SeisComp3 (sc3). The seismic library (libseismic) contains numerous custom written and wrapped open source seismic algorithms (e.g., ML/mb/Ms/Mwp, mantle magnitude (Mm), w-phase moment tensor, bodywave moment tensor, finite-fault inversion, array processing). The seismic library is organized in a way (function naming and usage) that will be familiar to users of Matlab. The seismic library extends sc3 so that it can be called by the real-time system, but it can also be driven and tested outside of sc3, for example, by ObsPy or Earthworm. To unify the three principal components we have developed a flexible and lightweight communication layer called SeismoEdex.

  14. Effects of fringing reefs on tsunami inundation: American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, G.; Apotsos, A.; Stevens, A.W.; Jaffe, B.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model of tsunami inundation, Delft3D, which has been validated for the 29 September 2009 tsunami in Tutuila, American Samoa, is used to better understand the impact of fringing coral reefs and embayments on tsunami wave heights, inundation distances, and velocities. The inundation model is used to explore the general conditions under which fringing reefs act as coastal buffers against incoming tsunamis. Of particular interest is the response of tsunamis to reefs of varying widths, depths, and roughness, as well as the effects of channels incised in the reef and the focusing effect of embayments. Model simulations for conditions similar to Tutuila, yet simplified to be uniform in the alongshore, suggest that for narrow reefs, less than about 200 m wide, the shoaling owing to shallow water depths over the fringing reef dominates, inducing greater wave heights onshore under some conditions and farther inundation inland. As the reef width increases, wave dissipation through bottom friction begins to dominate and the reef causes the tsunami wave heights to decrease and the tsunami to inundate less far inland. A sensitivity analysis suggests that coral reef roughness is important in determining the manner in which a fringing reef affects tsunami inundation. Smooth reefs are more likely to increase the onshore velocity within the tsunami compared to rough reefs. A larger velocity will likely result in an increased impact of the tsunami on structures and buildings. Simulations developed to explore 2D coastal morphology show that incised channels similar to those found around Tutuila, as well as coastal embayments, also affect tsunami inundation, allowing larger waves to penetrate farther inland. The largest effect is found for channels located within embayments, and for embayments that narrow landward. These simulations suggest that embayments that narrow landward, such as Fagafue Bay on the north side of Tutuila, and that have an incised deep channel, can

  15. Can undersea voltage measurements detect tsunamis?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Neetu, S.; Harinarayana, T.

    -monitoring systems (Gonz´alez et al. (1998)). We show that undersea voltage measurements can also detect water movement. A drawback of voltage measurements in this context will be lack of the location information of water movement along the cable. This shortcoming... scale, Memoirs of the Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, 29, 1–81, 2000. Gonz´alez, F., H. Milburn, E. Bernard, and J. Newman, Deep-ocean assessment and reporting of tsunamis (DART): Brief overview and status report, in Proceedings of the International...

  16. Tsunami related to solar and geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already

  17. Field Survey of Tsunami Effects in Sri Lanka due to the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2007-03-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.

  18. Integration of WERA Ocean Radar into Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzvonkovskaya, Anna; Helzel, Thomas; Kniephoff, Matthias; Petersen, Leif; Weber, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    High-frequency (HF) ocean radars give a unique capability to deliver simultaneous wide area measurements of ocean surface current fields and sea state parameters far beyond the horizon. The WERA® ocean radar system is a shore-based remote sensing system to monitor ocean surface in near real-time and at all-weather conditions up to 300 km offshore. Tsunami induced surface currents cause increasing orbital velocities comparing to normal oceanographic situation and affect the measured radar spectra. The theoretical approach about tsunami influence on radar spectra showed that a tsunami wave train generates a specific unusual pattern in the HF radar spectra. While the tsunami wave is approaching the beach, the surface current pattern changes slightly in deep water and significantly in the shelf area as it was shown in theoretical considerations and later proved during the 2011 Japan tsunami. These observed tsunami signatures showed that the velocity of tsunami currents depended on a tsunami wave height and bathymetry. The HF ocean radar doesn't measure the approaching wave height of a tsunami; however, it can resolve the surface current velocity signature, which is generated when tsunami reaches the shelf edge. This strong change of the surface current can be detected by a phased-array WERA system in real-time; thus the WERA ocean radar is a valuable tool to support Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). Based on real tsunami measurements, requirements for the integration of ocean radar systems into TEWS are already defined. The requirements include a high range resolution, a narrow beam directivity of phased-array antennas and an accelerated data update mode to provide a possibility of offshore tsunami detection in real-time. The developed software package allows reconstructing an ocean surface current map of the area observed by HF radar based on the radar power spectrum processing. This fact gives an opportunity to issue an automated tsunami identification message

  19. Fast characterization of moment magnitude and focal mechanism in the context of tsunami warning in the NEAM region : W-phase and PDFM2 algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelé, François; Roch, Julien; Duperray, Pierre; Reymond, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Over past centuries, several large earthquakes (Mw ≥ 7.5) have been reported in the North East Atlantic and Mediterranenan sea (NEAM) region. Most of the tsunami potential seismic sources in the NEAM region, however, are in a magnitude range of 6.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.5 (e.g. tsunami triggered by the earthquake of Boumerdes in 2003 of Mw = 6.9). The CENALT (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis) in operation since 2012 as the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) and Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) has to issue warning messages within 15 minutes of the earthquake origin time. The warning level is currently based on a decision matrix depending on the magnitude, and the location of the hypocenter. Two seismic source inversion methods are implemented at CENALT: the W-phase algorithm, based on the so-called W-phase and PDFM2 algorithm , based on the surface waves and first P wave motions. They both give accurate moment magnitude and focal magnitude respectively in 10 min and 20 min. The results of the Mw magnitude, focal depth and type of fault (reverse, normal, strike-slip) are the most relevant parameters used to issue tsunami warnings. In this context, we assess the W-phase and PDFM2 methods with 29 events of magnitude Mw ≥ 5.8 for the period 2010-2015 in the NEAM region. Results with 10 and 20 min for the W-phase algorithm and with 20 and 30 min for the PDFM2 algorithm are compared to the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. The W-phase and PDFM2 methods gives accurate results respectively in 10 min and 20 min. This work is funded by project ASTARTE -- Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  20. Sedimentary features observed in the tsunami deposits at Rikuzentakata City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Hajime; Arai, Kazuno; Matsumoto, Dan; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shota; Tanaka, Gengo; Murayama, Masafumi

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami triggered by an earthquake off the east coast of northeastern Honshu Island (Tohoku region), Japan, deposited large amounts of sediment on land, including the Sendai Plain and Sanriku Coast. This study reports on the characteristics of the tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City, southeastern Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. A field survey identified the inundation pattern of the tsunami in this region and the facies model of the tsunami deposits at the bay-head deltas of estuarine systems. The tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City generally consist of one to four units that represent a discrete runup or backwash flow. Each unit is characterized by initial inverse grading and successive normal grading that correspond to the accelerating and decelerating stages of the flow, respectively. An internal erosional surface often developed between the inverse-graded and normal-graded units. It corresponds to the maximum shear velocity of the flow and truncates the underlying inverse-graded unit. In the case of the runup unit, silty fine-grained drapes overlay the graded sandy interval. A correlation of the sedimentary structures and grain fabric analysis revealed that the Tohoku-Oki tsunami inundated Rikuzentakata City at least twice and that the flow velocity exceeded 2.4 m/s. Paleontological analysis of the sediment and kriging estimation of the total volume of the tsunami deposit implied that the sediments were sourced not only from eroded beach sands but also from the seafloor of Hirota Bay or more offshore regions.

  1. Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this tsunami in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku tsunami near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early warning systems.

  2. General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, R.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

  3. Historical tsunami database for France and its overseas territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lambert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A search and analysis of a large number of historical documents has made it possible: (i to discover so-far unknown tsunamis that have hit the French coasts during the last centuries, and (ii conversely, to disprove the tsunami nature of several events referred to in recent catalogues. This information has been structured into a database and also made available as a website (tsunamis.f/" target="_blank">http://www.tsunamis.fr that is accessible in French, English and Spanish. So far 60 genuine ("true" tsunamis have been described (with their dates, causes, oceans/seas, places observed, number of waves, flood and ebb distances, run-up, and intensities and referenced against contemporary sources. Digitized documents are accessible online. In addition, so as to avoid confusion, tsunamis revealed as "false" or "doubtful" have been compiled into a second catalogue.

    Both the database and the website are updated annually corresponding to the state of knowledge, so as to take into account newly discovered historical references and the occurrence of new tsunamis on the coasts of France and many of its overseas territories: Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Réunion, and Mayotte.

  4. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  5. Influence of Earthquake Parameters on Tsunami Wave Height and Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulangara Madham Subrahmanian, D.; Sri Ganesh, J.; Venkata Ramana Murthy, M.; V, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    After Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) on 26th December, 2004, attempts are being made to assess the threat of tsunami originating from different sources for different parts of India. The Andaman - Sumatra trench is segmented by transcurrent faults and differences in the rate of subduction which is low in the north and increases southward. Therefore key board model with initial deformation calculated using different strike directions, slip rates, are used. This results in uncertainties in the earthquake parameters. This study is made to identify the location of origin of most destructive tsunami for Southeast coast of India and to infer the influence of the earthquake parameters in tsunami wave height travel time in deep ocean as well as in the shelf and inundation in the coast. Five tsunamigenic sources were considered in the Andaman - Sumatra trench taking into consideration the tectonic characters of the trench described by various authors and the modeling was carried out using TUNAMI N2 code. The model results were validated using the travel time and runup in the coastal areas and comparing the water elevation along Jason - 1's satellite track. The inundation results are compared from the field data. The assessment of the tsunami threat for the area south of Chennai city the metropolitan city of South India shows that a tsunami originating in Car Nicobar segment of the Andaman - Sumatra subduction zone can generate the most destructive tsunami. Sensitivity analysis in the modelling indicates that fault length influences the results significantly and the tsunami reaches early and with higher amplitude. Strike angle is also modifying the tsunami followed by amount of slip.

  6. Sobrevivendo a un tsunami: lecciones de Chile, Hawai y Japon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compilado por Atwater, Brian F.; Cisternas V., Marco; Bourgeois, Joanne; Dudley, Walter C.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Este folleto contiene historias veridicas que ilustran como sobrevivir, y como no sobrevivir, a un tsunami. Esta publicacion esta dirigida a las personas que viven, trabajan o, simplemente, se divierten a lo largo de las costas que pueden ser afectadas por un tsunami. Tales costas rodean la mayor parte del Oceano Pacifico pero tambien incluyen algunas areas costeras de los Oceanos Atlantico e Indico. Aunque mucha gente llama a los tsunamis 'olas de marea', estos no estan relacionados a las mareas, sino son una serie de olas, o 'tren de olas', generalmente causadas por cambios en el nivel del fondo marino durante los terremotos. Los tsunamis tambien pueden ser generados por la erupcion de volcanes costeros, islas volconicas, deslizamientos submarinos e impactos de grandes meteoritos en el mar. Como sucedio en Sumatra en el 2004, los tsunamis pueden alcanzar alturas de 15 metros, no tan solo en la costa sino tambien kilometros tierra adentro. Los relatos presentados en este folleto fueron seleccionados de entrevistas realizadas a personas que sobrevivieron al tsunami del Oceano Pacifico de 1960. Muchas de estas personas, incluyendo a la enfermera de la foto, se enfrento a las olas generadas a poca distancia, en la costa chilena. En cambio, otros debieron hacer frente al tsunami muchas horas despues, en Hawai y Japon. La mayoria de las entrevistas fueron realizadas a fines de los anos ochenta y en los noventa. Las historias ofrecen una mezcla de lecciones de supervivencia a un tsunami. En algunos casos se presentan las acciones que confiablemente salvaron vidas: poner atencion a los avisos de la naturaleza, abandonar los bienes, dirigirse rapidamente a un sector alto y permanecer alli hasta que el tsunami realmente haya terminado. Otras historias describen como se encontro refugio al subir a construcciones y arboles o flotar sobre desechos, tacticas que tuvieron diferentes resultados y que pueden ser recomendadas solo como actos desesperados de personas atrapadas en

  7. Lessons from the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Tsunamis, Developments, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the worst tsunami disaster in history with 230,000 casualties, was generated by the largest earthquake (M 9.1) since the 1960 Chilean and 1964 Alaskan earthquakes, but such a giant earthquake was not anticipated in the Indian Ocean. Besides its size, lack of tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean and lack of knowledge about tsunami among the coastal residents enhanced the tsunami disaster, while scientific knowledge and technology for far-field tsunami warning system existed. Developments since 2004 include paleo-tsunami studies, global tsunami observations and tsunami warning and hazard mitigation systems. Tsunami deposits found in Indonesia, Thailand and India show that giant tsunamis similar to the 2004 tsunami occurred in the past. Deep ocean pressure gauges (DART system), GPS buoys and coastal tide gauges have been installed with real-time data-telemetry capability in Indian Ocean as well as the Pacific Ocean. Three regional tsunami warning centers are now in operation in India, Indonesia and Australia. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake was also generated by a giant (M 9.0) earthquake. While such an earthquake was unexpected in Japan, similar tsunamis occurred in the past and caused damage on Sanriku coast and Sendai plain. The tsunami warning, issued 3 min after the earthquake, saved many lives yet caused significant (~19,000) fatalities, partly because of underestimation of earthquake size. The insufficient tsunami hazard assessment caused the significant number of casualties and the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Existed coastal sea walls might have given inappropriate belief to coastal residents that they were protected from tsunami disaster. Scientific and technological developments needed for the future include estimation of probable maximum earthquake size for tsunami hazard assessment, and real-time estimation of earthquake and tsunami size based on seismic and sea level measurements. In addition, limitation of

  8. OCEAN-WIDE TSUNAMIS, MAGNITUDE THRESHOLDS, AND 1946 TYPE EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of magnitudes and runups in Hawaii for more than 200 tsunamigenic earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific reveals that all of the earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.6 or greater produced significant Pacific-wide tsunamis. Such findings can be used as a basis for early warnings of significant ocean-wide tsunamis as a supplement to, or in the absence of, more comprehensive data from other sources. Additional analysis of magnitude and runup data suggests that 1946 type earthquakes and tsunamis may be more common than previously believed.

  9. Qualitative Research Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

    2011-01-01

    This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses ab...

  10. D5.10 - Interaction of the tsunami with the seabed. Implications for wind farms, aquaculture, coastal ecosystems and marine protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Sumer, B. Mutlu;

    2015-01-01

    (Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations) report titled “The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture” released in May 2014.] For this purpose, we first briefly provide and introductory summary on aquaculture. This is followed by the section “Vulnerability of Fisheries...... “Engineering Design of Aquaculture Systems”. In Chapter 3, tsunami impact on coastal ecosystems is investigated. Ecosystems along the coast of Portugal are considered and a detailed numerical modelling of tsunami impact is performed for the Ria Formosa lagoon (an important ecosystem located in the southern...

  11. The Tsunami Project: Integrating engineering, natural and social sciences into post-tsunami surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Goff, J. R.; Fritz, H. M.; Cochard, R.; Kong, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Complexities resulting from recent tsunamis in the Solomon Islands (2007), Java (2006) and Sumatra (2004, 2005) have demonstrated the need for an integrated, interdisciplinary team of engineers, natural and social scientists to better understand the nature of the disaster. Documenting the complex interactions in the coupled human-environment system necessitate a coordinated, interdisciplinary approach that combines the strengths of engineering, geoscience, ecology and social science. Engineers, modelers and geoscientists untangle the forces required to leave an imprint of a tsunami in the geologic record. These same forces affect ecosystems that provide services from buffers to food security; therefore coastal ecologists play a vital role. It is also crucial to understand the social structures that contribute to disasters, so local or regional policy experts, planners, economists, etc. should be included. When these experts arrive in a disaster area as part of an Interdisciplinary Tsunami Survey Team, the interactions between the systems can be discussed in the field, and site-specific data can be collected. A diverse team in the field following a tsunami shares critical resources and discoveries in real-time, making the survey more efficient. Following the 2006 Central Java earthquake and tsunami, civil engineers covered broad areas quickly, collecting ephemeral water level data and communicating areas of interest to the geologists, who would follow to do the slower sediment data collection. The 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to the coral reef, which highlighting the need to have an ecologist on the team who was able to identify species and their energy tolerance. Rather than diluting the quality of post-tsunami data collection, this approach in fact strengthens it- engineers and geoscientists no longer have to indentify coral or mangrove species, nor do ecologists evaluate the velocity of a wave as it impacted a forested

  12. A method to estimate expected fatalities and economic loss of buildings in an urban environment as a step toward tsunami risk assessment: an application to the city of Siracusa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Accorsi, Eleonora; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Siracusa, an important city of the south-east Sicily, is located in an area highly exposed to the danger of tsunami, local and remote. Among the many events that affected this area those with a major effect are the AD 365 tsunami generated by an earthquake in the Western Hellenic Arc, the event of 11 January 1693, following an earthquake in the area of Augusta, and the tsunami of 28 December 1908 generated in the Messina strait. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of exposed people and of fatalities as well as the type of damage to constructions and the associated loss of economic value in case of a tsunami, based on a simple tsunami scenario, i.e. on assuming a uniform inundation level of 5 m. This figure is considered appropriate for this preliminary tsunami loss analysis since it is compatible with historical tsunami observations and is also supported by recent tsunami hazard studies carried out for this area (Armigliato et al., 2015). The main physical tsunami parameter used in computations is the water column, which is merely the difference between the assumed inundation level and the topographic altitude. We use numerical geo-referenced 1:2000 maps providing a database of constructions in the area of Siracusa together with data from national and local statistical institutions to make estimates on the number and type of buildings and on the number of people that may be found in the inundation area in different periods of the year, discriminating between residents and tourists. Using a variant of the Terrier et al. (2012) table and tsunami mortality curves proposed by Koshimura et al. (2009) we are able to estimate expected fatalities with tsunami inundation reaching at most the first floor of buildings. We calculate economic loss by taking into account both residential buildings and commercial-industrial structures and data from the real estate market. This study is funded by the EU Project ASTARTE - "Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for

  13. The Tsunami and the Chit Fund- Evidence from the Indian Ocean Tsunami Hit on Credit Demand in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Czura, Kristina; Klonner, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on credit demand in South India. Combining data from a semi-formal financial intermediary with geophysical data on the Tsunami, we estimate the extent to which the price of credit and the structure of credit flows changed in response to this shock. We find a significant increase in the interest rate by 5.3 per cent on average in the affected branches around the Tsunami. Interest rates increased most dramatically in the first three months...

  14. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  15. “Hello, HELLO! Anyone there? - on the need to assess the tsunami risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Goff, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    National economies are increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system - and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. Submarine cable traffic represents about 30% of global GDP so the cost of losing, or even simply slowing, communications traffic is high. Many natural hazards are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure but tsunamis are the most significant threat, particularly in waters >1000 m deep. Submarine cables and their shore-based infrastructure (the anchor points), are at risk from direct and indirect tsunami-related effects. During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in India and Indonesia, cables were broken (direct effect) as the tsunami eroded supporting sediments, and were further damaged by floating/submerged objects and intense nearshore currents. Shore-based infrastructure was also directly damaged in India, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a submarine landslide and tsunami off Newfoundland which broke 12 submarine telegraph cables. In 2006, an earthquake in Taiwan generated submarine landslides and a tsunami. These landslides caused one of the largest disruptions of modern telecommunications history when nine cables in the Strait of Luzon were broken disabling vital connections between SE Asia and the rest of the world. Although electronic traffic in and out of Australia was slowed, it did not cease because >70% of our traffic is routed via cables that pass through Hawaii. This is extremely significant because Hawaii is an internationally recognised bottleneck or “choke point” in the global telecommunications network. The fact that Hawaii is a choke point is important because it is regularly affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazards. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia

  16. Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events (ASCETE) - Simulation Techniques for Realistic Tsunami Process Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; Breuer, Alexander N.; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-A.; Galvez Barron, Percy E.; Rahnema, Kaveh; Vater, Stefan; Wollherr, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    At the End of phase 1 of the ASCETE project a simulation framework for coupled physics-based rupture generation with tsunami propagation and inundation is available. Adaptive mesh tsunami propagation and inundation by discontinuous Galerkin Runge-Kutta methods allows for accurate and conservative inundation schemes. Combined with a tree-based refinement strategy to highly optimize the code for high-performance computing architectures, a modeling tool for high fidelity tsunami simulations has been constructed. Validation results demonstrate the capacity of the software. Rupture simulation is performed by an unstructured tetrahedral discontinuous Galerking ADER discretization, which allows for accurate representation of complex geometries. The implemented code was nominated for and was selected as a finalist for the Gordon Bell award in high-performance computing. Highly realistic rupture events can be simulated with this modeling tool. The coupling of rupture induced wave activity and displacement with hydrodynamic equations still poses a major problem due to diverging time and spatial scales. Some insight from the ASCETE set-up could be gained and the presentation will focus on the coupled behavior of the simulation system. Finally, an outlook to phase 2 of the ASCETE project will be given in which further development of detailed physical processes as well as near-realistic scenario computations are planned. ASCETE is funded by the Volkswagen Foundation.

  17. Vulnerability assessment and protective effects of coastal vegetation during the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Renaud, F. G.; Lüchters, G.

    2009-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. Understanding the elements causing different vulnerabilities is crucial to reducing the impact of future events, yet capturing them comprehensively at the local level is a complex task. This research was conducted in a tsunami-affected area in southwestern Sri Lanka to evaluate firstly the role of coastal vegetation in buffering communities against the tsunami and secondly to capture the elements of vulnerability of affected communities. The area was chosen because of its complex landscape, including the presence of an inlet connecting the Maduganga estuary with the sea, and because of the presence of remaining patches of coastal vegetation. The vulnerability assessment was based on a comprehensive vulnerability framework and on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in order to detect inherent vulnerabilities of different livelihood groups. Our study resulted in the identification of fishery and labour-led households as the most vulnerable groups. Unsurprisingly, analyses showed that damages to houses and assets decreased quickly with increasing distance from the sea. It could also be shown that the Maduganga inlet channelled the energy of the waves, so that severe damages were observed at relatively large distances from the sea. Some reports after the tsunami stated that mangroves and other coastal vegetation protected the people living behind them. Detailed mapping of the coastal vegetation in the study area and subsequent linear regression revealed significant differences

  18. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in…

  19. Impact Forces from Tsunami-Driven Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, H.; Cox, D. T.; Riggs, H.; Naito, C. J.; Kobayashi, M. H.; Piran Aghl, P.

    2012-12-01

    Debris driven by tsunami inundation flow has been known to be a significant threat to structures, yet we lack the constitutive equations necessary to predict debris impact force. The objective of this research project is to improve our understanding of, and predictive capabilities for, tsunami-driven debris impact forces on structures. Of special interest are shipping containers, which are virtually everywhere and which will float even when fully loaded. The forces from such debris hitting structures, for example evacuation shelters and critical port facilities such as fuel storage tanks, are currently not known. This research project focuses on the impact by flexible shipping containers on rigid columns and investigated using large-scale laboratory testing. Full-scale in-air collision experiments were conducted at Lehigh University with 20 ft shipping containers to experimentally quantify the nonlinear behavior of full scale shipping containers as they collide into structural elements. The results from the full scale experiments were used to calibrate computer models and used to design a series of simpler, 1:5 scale wave flume experiments at Oregon State University. Scaled in-air collision tests were conducted using 1:5 scale idealized containers to mimic the container behavior observed in the full scale tests and to provide a direct comparison to the hydraulic model tests. Two specimens were constructed using different materials (aluminum, acrylic) to vary the stiffness. The collision tests showed that at higher speeds, the collision became inelastic as the slope of maximum impact force/velocity decreased with increasing velocity. Hydraulic model tests were conducted using the 1:5 scaled shipping containers to measure the impact load by the containers on a rigid column. The column was instrumented with a load cell to measure impact forces, strain gages to measure the column deflection, and a video camera was used to provide the debris orientation and speed. The

  20. Joko Tingkir program for estimating tsunami potential rapidly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlazim,, E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id; Hariyono, E., E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA) , Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The purpose of the study was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (T{sub dur}), dominant periods (T{sub d}) and exceeds duration (T{sub 50Ex}) simultaneously for local events, shallow earthquakes which occurred off the coast of Indonesia. Although the all earthquakes had parameters of magnitude more than 6,3 and depth less than 70 km, part of the earthquakes generated a tsunami while the other events (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis using Joko Tingkir of the above stated parameters helped understand the tsunami generation of these earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters can provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why the events generated a tsunami, while the others did not.

  1. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting

  2. The importance of mangrove forest in tsunami disaster mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Rabindra; Tanaka, Shigenobu; Tokioka, Toshikazu

    2009-04-01

    Tsunamis and storm surges have killed more than one million people and some three billion people currently live with a high risk of these disasters, which are becoming more frequent and devastating worldwide. Effective mitigation of such disasters is possible via healthy coastal forests, which can reduce the energy of tsunamis. In recent years, these natural barriers have declined due to adverse human and natural activities. In the past 20 years, the world has lost almost 50 per cent of its mangrove forests, making them one of the most endangered landscapes. It is essential to recover them and to use them as a shield against a tsunami and as a resource to secure optimal socio-economic, ecological and environmental benefits. This paper examines the emerging scenario facing mangrove forests, discusses protection from tsunamis, and proposes a way to improve the current situation. We hope that practical tips will help communities and agencies to work collectively to achieve a common goal. PMID:18699857

  3. The 17 July 2006 Tsunami earthquake in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.; Mooney, W.D.; Afnimar,; Kurniawan, S.; Anaya, A.I.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2007-01-01

    A tsunami earthquake (Mw = 7.7) occurred south of Java on 17 July 2006. The event produced relatively low levels of high-frequency radiation, and local felt reports indicated only weak shaking in Java. There was no ground motion damage from the earthquake, but there was extensive damage and loss of life from the tsunami along 250 km of the southern coasts of West Java and Central Java. An inspection of the area a few days after the earthquake showed extensive damage to wooden and unreinforced masonry buildings that were located within several hundred meters of the coast. Since there was no tsunami warning system in place, efforts to escape the large waves depended on how people reacted to the earthquake shaking, which was only weakly felt in the coastal areas. This experience emphasizes the need for adequate tsunami warning systems for the Indian Ocean region.

  4. Concept Design of a Near-Space Radar for Maritime Surveillance and Near-Field Tsunami Early-Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Galletti, Michele; Börner, Thomas; Krieger, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Off-shore detection of Tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective Tsunami early warning system (TEWS). Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local Tsunamis, namely Tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes from the triggering quake. In this paper we propose a new concept for near-field Tsunami early warning. NESTRAD (Near-Space Tsunami Radar) consists of a real aperture radar accommodated inside a stationary stratospheric airship providing continuous monitoring o...

  5. Field Survey of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H. H.; Sato, S.; Tajima, Y.; Okayasu, A.; Fritz, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake struck the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing loss of life and catastrophic damage. The infamous nuclear accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred immediately after the event. The earthquake and tsunami flooding of the nuclear power plant resulted in a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials. Because of the sudden impact of the accident, all the residents had to vacate the area within a 20 km radius from the NPP. Consequently, no tsunami survey had been permitted in the restricted area. Likewise debris removal and reconstruction had been widely postponed. In February 2012, almost eleven months later, a small group of tsunami scientists entered the exclusion zone with a special permit and surveyed tsunami effects along this 40 km stretch of coastline for the first time. The recent partial lift of the access restriction allowed more detailed follow-up surveys in June and August 2012. Here we report tsunami runup measurements along the Fukushima coasts where the data had been absent. The envelope of the tsunami runup heights along the coast was found to be approximately at the level of 13 m T.P. (Tokyo Peil), while a localized maximum runup of 21.1 m T.P. was measured on a coastal bluff 8.5 km south of the nuclear power plant. The runup pattern along the restricted Fukushima coast is consistent with the interpolation from the runup values previously measured outside of the restricted area. We also discuss the persistence of observed tsunami effects that remained in the environment given the human absence for almost one full year: included are the damage patterns of coastal structures, geomorphologic changes, and tsunami deposits.; A scene of Tomioka Fishing Port: 9 km south of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP.

  6. Adjustment and recovery in Thailand two years after the tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhiprabha, Bhanupong

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Thailand's responses to the December 2004 tsunami and evaluates its reconstruction effort two years after the disaster, supplementing publicly available data with information from a field survey. Though the immediate response to the disaster can be considered a success, and much progress has been made with reconstruction, poor coordination among agencies has hampered effective and equitable delivery. Most households saw the tsunami as a 'temporary shock', and were primaril...

  7. Comparison of the 2010 and 2007 Solomon Island Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligeris, N.; Fritz, H.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.; Lifton, Z. M.; Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Uslu, B. U.

    2010-12-01

    The 3 January 2010 Mw 7.1 earthquake off Rendova and Tetepare Islands, Western Province, Solomon Islands, generated surprisingly large tsunami waves, completely destroying Retavo village at Rendova Island’s south shore, located approximately 15 km from the trench. A reconnaissance team was deployed within a week, measuring local tsunami heights, maximum tsunami runup/inundation, coastal subsidence, co-seismic offset and afterslip, and interviewed eyewitnesses per established methods. This event occurred three years after the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 megathrust earthquake that generated a wide-spread tsunami across the Western Province Islands, causing 52 human casualties (Fritz and Kalligeris 2008). Although much smaller in magnitude than the 2007 event (below the assumed tsunamigenic magnitude threshold of ~Mw 7.5), the 2010 event produced a larger localized flow depth, and only moderately smaller runup, reaching a maximum value of 7 m on the southern shore of Rendova Isl. Observations of widespread subsidence on the south coasts of Rendova and Tetepare Islands ruled out the most probable shallow-dipping megathrust model of earthquake rupture. Instead, a high-angle conjugate intraslab thrust within the down going plate is preferred, agreeing with the seismically defined moment tensor, the observed coseismic subsidence, and enhanced tsunami excitation. The two events showed that SI population is very aware of its vulnerability to tsunamis, which we attribute to ancestral tsunami knowledge. Similar observations were made in Chile this year, where residents in most areas self-evacuated, significantly containing human casualties. We will compare the two Solomon Island events, in terms of our field findings, the source deformation models that best fit the observations, and present preliminary tsunami modeling results. Inundation in Tapurai village, Simbo Island in 2007 (left), and in Retavo village, Rendova Island in 2010 (right).

  8. Does MoSE cope with inland tsunamis hazard?

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, Giuliano Francesco; Romanelli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this work we use morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition techniques to identify a potential seismic source located inland very near Venice, and then we evaluate how a tsunami wave generated from this source can affect the MoSE gates if they are standing up (closed) during the tsunami event. From our simulation we get both peaks and troughs as first arrivals: the behavior of the barriers in these two situations could be a very important design matter.

  9. After The Tsunami: Human Rights of Vulnerable Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Laurel; Stover, Eric; Weinstein, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    The tsunami of December 26, 2004 devastated thousands of communities along the coastline of the Indian Ocean. More than 240,000 people were killed, with tens of thousands missing and presumed dead, and more than a million people displaced. Immediately following the tsunami, international aid agencies feared that human traffickers might seize the opportunity to compel those most vulnerable (women, children, and migrant workers) into situations of forced labor. Fortunately, few incidents of tra...

  10. Concept study of radar sensors for near-field tsunami early warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Börner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Off-shore detection of tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective tsunami early warning system (TEWS. Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local tsunamis, namely tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes after generation. In this paper we propose new concepts for near-field tsunami early detection, based on innovative and up-to-date microwave remote sensing techniques. We particularly introduce the NESTRAD (NEar-Space Tsunami RADar concept, which consists of a real aperture radar accommodated inside a stationary stratospheric airship providing continuous monitoring of tsunamigenic oceanic trenches.

  11. Qualitative Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses about the several approaches and data collection methods of qualitative research.

  12. Elements of the tsunami precursors' detection physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor

    In accordance with the main physical principles and geophysical data, we formulated a nonlinear mathematical model of seismo-hydro-electromagnetic (EM) geophysical field interaction and calculated generation and propagation of elastic, EM, temperature and hydrodynamic seismically generated disturbances (i.e. signals) in the basin of a marginal sea. We show transferring of seismic and electromagnetic (EM) energy from the upper mantle beneath the sea into its depths and EM emission from the sea surface into the atmosphere. Basing on the calculated characteristics of the signals of different physical nature (computations correspond to measurements of other authors) we develop the project of a Lithosphere-Ocean-Atmosphere Monitoring System (LOAMS) including: a bottom complex, a moored ocean surface buoy complex, an observational balloon complex, and satellite complex. The underwater stations of the bottom complex of the LOAMS will record the earlier signals of seismic activation beneath a seafloor (the ULF EM signals outrun seismic ones, according to the above calculations) and localize the seafloor epicenter of an expected seaquake. These stations will be equipped, in particular, with: magnetometers, the lines for the electric field measurements, and magneto-telluric blocks to discover dynamics of physical parameters beneath a sea floor as signs of a seaquake and/or tsunami preparation process. The buoy and balloon complexes of the LOAMS will record the meteorological and oceanographic parameters' variations including changes of reflection from a sea surface (tsunami ‘shadows’) caused by a tsunami wave propagation. Cables of the balloon and moored buoy will be used as receiving antennas and for multidisciplinary measurements including gradients of the fields (we show the cases are possible when the first seismic EM signal will be registered by an antenna above a sea). Also, the project includes radio-tomography with satellite instrumentation and sounding of the

  13. Entanglement tsunami: universal scaling in holographic thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Suh, S Josephine

    2014-01-10

    We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin shell of matter resulting in a black hole. In the limit of large regions of entanglement, the evolution of entanglement entropy is controlled by the geometry around and inside the event horizon of the black hole, resulting in regimes of pre-local-equilibration quadratic growth (in time), post-local-equilibration linear growth, a late-time regime in which the evolution does not carry memory of the size and shape of the entangled region, and a saturation regime with critical behavior resembling those in continuous phase transitions. Collectively, these regimes suggest a picture of entanglement growth in which an "entanglement tsunami" carries entanglement inward from the boundary. We also make a conjecture on the maximal rate of entanglement growth in relativistic systems.

  14. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Magnitude 9.0) was the largest earthquake in Japan's history. Huge seafloor displacement and details of earthquake fault motion were revealed by recently-installed extensive land and marine geophysical observation networks. The earthquake generated devastating tsunami, which resulted nearly 20,000 casualties, as well as serious damage to Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Similar tsunami disasters occurred in the past on the Sanriku coast and the Sendai plain, as revealed by historical literature and geological studies. The Japanese long-term forecast of large earthquakes failed to foresee the gigantic size of this earthquake, because it was based on a characteristic earthquake model and post historical data of a few centuries. The tsunami hazard assessment for Japanese nuclear power stations was based on deterministic method based on past tsunamis in the last few centuries. Epistemic uncertainties such as possibilities of 'tsunami earthquakes' in the region with no historical data were considered in probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, but were not implemented. (author)

  15. A combined model for tsunami generation and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vania; Baptista, Maria Ana; Avilez-Valente, Paulo; Miranda, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Several tsunami models apply different wave models and numerical schemes with the aim of modelling the wide variety of wave phenomena, as its generation, propagation, transformation and run-up. However, models are limited by mathematical and numerical formulations which constrain their scope of applications. Combined models are an interesting option as they allow merging the advantages of different existent models into a single one. In this work a tsunami combined model which couples the GeoClaw code, an extension of the Clawpack software for geophysical flows using adaptive finite volume methods, with the fully non-linear, phase-resolving, time-stepping Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD for near-shore water wave propagation is presented. GeoClaw is used for the seismic tsunami generation of the 1969 Portugal tsunami and with FUNWAVE-TVD we study the propagation of the tsunami and near-shore surface elevations. Both codes have been individually benchmarked with some mandatory established benchmark problems. The results obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with existent observational data along the Portuguese coast for this historical event. This work received funding from FCT (SFRH/BD/96725/2013) and project ASTARTE - Assessment Strategy and risk Reduction For Tsunamis in Europe - Grant 603839 - FP7.

  16. Impact of Hellenic Arc Tsunamis on Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Audrey; Schindelé, F.; Hébert, H.

    2016-08-01

    In the historical period, the Eastern Mediterranean has been devastated by several tsunamis, the two most damaging were those of AD 365 and AD 1303, generated by great earthquakes of magnitude >8 at the Hellenic plate boundary. Recently, events of 6-7 magnitude have occurred in this region. As the French tsunami warning center has to ensure the warning for the French coastlines, the question has raised the possibility for a major tsunami triggered along the Hellenic arc to impact the French coasts. The focus is on the Corsica coasts especially, to estimate what would be the expected wave heights, and from which threshold of magnitude it would be necessary to put the population under cover. This study shows that a magnitude 8.0 earthquake nucleated along the Hellenic arc could induce in some cases a tsunami that would be observed along the Corsica coasts, and for events of 8.5 magnitude amplitudes exceeding 50 cm can be expected, which would be dangerous in harbors and beach areas especially. The main contribution of these results is the establishment of specific thresholds of magnitude for the tsunami warning along the French coasts, 7.8 for the advisory level (coastal marine threat with harbors and beaches evacuation), and 8.3 for the watch level (inland inundation threat) for tsunamis generated along the Hellenic arc.

  17. Mental health status in children exposed to tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, L; Kannan, G K; Daniel, S J

    2006-12-01

    As a vulnerable group, children are more prone to experiencing trauma and its sequelae. After the Asian tsunami we set out to evaluate the effect of exposure to the tsunami nearly one year after the event and to explore the family history of psychopathology on the mental health of children. This community-based study of 230 children was conducted in Srinivasapuram, a coastal village in Tamil Nadu. A youth self-report form (YSR) of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), exposure to the tsunami, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and family history of psychopathology were assessed. The severity of exposure to the tsunami correlated with anxiety and somatic domains of the DSM IV and PTSD symptoms. Family history of psychopathology correlated with affective and somatic symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that family psychopathology influenced affective problems (R2 = 0.071 (n = 199), F = 15.13, p = 0.00) while exposure to the tsunami influenced anxiety problems (R2 = 0.046 (n = 208), F = 9.91, p = 0.002). The findings from this study reveal that targeted specialized mental health services are needed for children with severe exposure to the tsunami and positive family history of psychopathology.

  18. PEMETAAN KERAWANAN TSUNAMI DI KECAMATAN PELABUHANRATU KABUPATEN SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Surya Pramana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pelabuhanratu sub-district located in the southern part of West Java has the tsunami disaster vulnerability is high, because the South region of West Java directly adjacent to the zone plate’s movement and in the Indian Ocean. So that this region is very vulnerable to an earthquake that occurred under the sea, earthquake phenomenon is largely a high potential for the occurrence of the tsunami disaster. This article will explain the vulnerability of the tsunami in the District Pelabuhanratu, through the application of GIS and field survey which will be known the factors causing the high value of the vulnerability, the potential damage, and tsunami evacuation locations in District Pelabuhanratu. Subdistrict Pelabuhanratu indicate that value or category of vulnerability tsunami in the District Pelabuhanratu dominated by the 46% category Rawan, Rawan Enough 19% and 17% Highly Prone. With these conditions, the District of Pelabuhanratu categorized as tsunami-prone area. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/sd.v2i1.1383

  19. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajas...

  20. Year in diabetes 2012: The diabetes tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, R; Jastreboff, A M

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes affects more than 300 million individuals globally, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes continue to escalate with the force of an approaching tsunami, it is imperative that we better define the biological mechanisms causing both obesity and diabetes and identify optimal prevention and treatment strategies that will enable a healthier environment and calmer waters. New guidelines from the American Diabetes Association/European Association of the Study of Diabetes and The Endocrine Society encourage individualized care for each patient with diabetes, both in the outpatient and inpatient setting. Recent data suggest that restoration of normal glucose metabolism in people with prediabetes may delay progression to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, several large clinical trials have underscored the limitations of current treatment options once T2DM has developed, particularly in obese children with the disease. Prospects for reversing new-onset type 1 diabetes also appear limited, although recent clinical trials indicate that immunotherapy can delay the loss of β-cell function, suggesting potential benefits if treatment is initiated earlier. Research demonstrating a role for the central nervous system in the development of obesity and T2DM, the identification of a new hormone that simulates some of the benefits of exercise, and the development of new β-cell imaging techniques may provide novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of early diabetes detection for optimization of interventions. Today's message is that a diabetes tsunami is imminent, and the only way to minimize the damage is to create an early warning system and improve interventions to protect those in its path. PMID:23185035

  1. Sheltered coastal environments as archives of paleo-tsunami deposits: Observations from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Vanessa; Rajendran, Kusala; Rajendran, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 earthquake left several traces of coseismic land deformation and tsunami deposits, both on the islands along the plate boundary and distant shores of the Indian Ocean rim countries. Researchers are now exploring these sites to develop a chronology of past events. Where the coastal regions are also inundated by storm surges, there is an additional challenge to discriminate between the deposits formed by these two processes. Paleo-tsunami research relies largely on finding deposits where preservation potential is high and storm surge origin can be excluded. During the past decade of our work along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the east coast of India, we have observed that the 2004 tsunami deposits are best preserved in lagoons, inland streams and also on elevated terraces. Chronological evidence for older events obtained from such sites is better correlated with those from Thailand, Sri Lanka and Indonesia, reiterating their usefulness in tsunami geology studies.

  2. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    delegation, it was clear that a multidisciplinary approach was required to properly analyze the emergency response, technical, and social components of this disaster. A diverse and knowledgeable delegation was necessary to analyze the Chilean response in a way that would be beneficial to preparedness in California, as well as improve mitigation efforts around the United States. By most standards, the Maule earthquake was a catastrophe for Chile. The economic losses totaled $30 billion USD or 17% of the GDP of the country. Twelve million people, or ¾ of the population of the country, were in areas that felt strong shaking. Yet only 521 fatalities have been confirmed, with 56 people still missing and presumed dead in the tsunami. The Science and Technology Team evaluated the impacts of the earthquake on built environment with implications for the United States. The fires following the earthquake were minimal in part because of the shutdown of the national electrical grid early in the shaking. Only five engineer-designed buildings were destroyed during the earthquake; however, over 350,000 housing units were destroyed. Chile has a law that holds building owners liable for the first 10 years of a building’s existence for any losses resulting from inadequate application of the building code during construction. This law was cited by many our team met with as a prime reason for the strong performance of the built environment. Overall, this earthquake demonstrated that strict building codes and standards could greatly reduce losses in even the largest earthquakes. In the immediate response to the earthquake and tsunami, first responders, emergency personnel, and search and rescue teams handled many challenges. Loss of communications was significant; many lives were lost and effective coordination to support life-sustaining efforts was gravely impacted due to a lack of inter- and intra-agency coordination. The Health and Medical Services Team sought to understand the medical

  3. Compilation and Analysis of a Database of Local Tsunami Bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) to the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency (HI-EMA) between September 2003 and July, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, V.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Walsh, D.; Becker, N. C.; McCreery, C.

    2015-12-01

    The PTWC functions not only as official international tsunami warning center (TWC) for nations with coasts around the Pacific rim, the Caribbean, and other regions of the world, but also as the local TWC for the State of Hawaii. The PTWC began sending local tsunami messages to HI-EMA only since September, 2003. As part of its routine operations, the PTWC strives to send a local tsunami message product for any Hawaii earthquake with a 4.0 magnitude or larger within five minutes of origin time. To evaluate PTWC's performance in that regard, however, we must first compile a suitable local tsunami bulletins' database. For this purpose, we scanned all the available logs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) communications' circuit between 2003 and 2015 and retrieved 104 local bulletins. We parsed these bulletins and extracted the parametric data needed to evaluate PTWC's performance in terms of essential statistics such as message delay time, epicenter offsets, and magnitude residuals as compared with more authoritative earthquake source parametrizations. To that end, we cross-validated 88 of these seismic events having magnitudes between 2.8 and 6.7 with the corresponding source parameters obtained from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and the National Earthquake Information Center's (NEIC) online catalog. Analysis of events with magnitude 4.0 or larger gives a median message delay time of 3 minutes and 33 seconds, a median epicentral offset of 3.2 km, and a median magnitude residual of 0.2 unit. Several message delay outliers exist due to the fact that PTWC has sent local tsunami information statements (TIS) for felt events with magnitudes as small as 2.8 located west of the Big Island. Routine use of a synthetic Wood-Anderson magnitude since the end of 2012 appears to have brought consistency to PTWC's local magnitude estimates and a reduction in the message delays. Station site corrections, a refined attenuation model, and optimization of the peak

  4. Tsunami Observations on Hydrophones and Island Seismic Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. A.; Bowman, J. R.; Reasoner, C. L.; Shields, G.

    2007-12-01

    The tsunami generated by the great Indonesian earthquake of 26 December 2004 was recorded across a myriad of technologies, many of which had not been designed, nor expected, to record tsunami signals. We reported on the tsunami signals from this event observed at hydrophones, intended for nuclear test monitoring, and broadband seismometers that are part of the global seismic network (GSN). Our observations led us to examine more recently reported tsunamis and other historic tsunamis. The great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.1) produced high-frequency (greater than 5 mHz) dispersed tsunami signals, in addition to the destructive wave, recorded by hydrophone stations offshore from Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin, Australia, and by many seismic stations in the Indian Ocean and on the coast of Antarctica. Dispersed energy was observed to 60 mHz. The details within the dispersed signal provided source information to which tide gauge data are insensitive. The source of high-frequency signals could be determined using event- to-station distances estimated from the dispersion. Fine structure in the tsunami signal indicated a possible secondary high-frequency source. The dispersion observations and modeling also identified individual reflector sources over basin-wide distances. Two other recent tsunamis were observed in the Indian Ocean. The 28 March 2005 earthquake (Mw 8.6) produced high-frequency tsunami waves (to 20 mHz) observed at the Diego Garcia hydrophone station and the AIS seismic station. In addition, the lower frequency, non-dispersed tsunami waves were seen at four other seismic stations. The Mw 7.7 earthquake on 17 July 2006 south of Java also generated high frequency tsunami waves (to 10 mHz). Clear, dispersed signals were observed on hydrophone stations and seismic stations at the Cocos-Keeling Islands, and Casey, Antarctica. The first arriving energy is consistent with a source located at the earthquake epicenter. However, the strongest signals at Cocos

  5. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, E.; Inan, A.; Annunziato, A.

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related tsunami, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The tsunami simulation system is an integral part of the GDACS. In more detail, the study aims to assess the tsunami hazard on the Mentawai and Sumatra coasts: the tsunami heights and arrival times have been estimated employing three propagation models based on the long wave theory. The analysis was performed in three stages: (1) pre-calculated simulations by using the tsunami scenario database for that region, used by the GDACS system to estimate the alert level; (2) near-real-time simulated tsunami forecasts, automatically performed by the GDACS system whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismological data providers; and (3) post-event tsunami calculations using GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor) fault mechanism solutions proposed by US Geological Survey (USGS) for this event. The GDACS system estimates the alert level based on the first type of calculations and on that basis sends alert messages to its users; the second type of calculations is available within 30-40 min after the notification of the event but does not change the estimated alert level. The third type of calculations is performed to improve the initial estimations and to have a better understanding of the extent of the possible damage. The automatic alert level for the earthquake was given between Green and Orange Alert, which, in the logic of GDACS, means no need or moderate need of international humanitarian assistance; however, the earthquake generated 3 to 9 m tsunami run-up along southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands where 431 people died. The post

  6. The 1946 Unimak Tsunami Earthquake Area: revised tectonic structure in reprocessed seismic images and a suspect near field tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; von Huene, Roland; Ryan, Holly F.

    2014-01-01

    In 1946 at Unimak Pass, Alaska, a tsunami destroyed the lighthouse at Scotch Cap, Unimak Island, took 159 lives on the Hawaiian Islands, damaged island coastal facilities across the south Pacific, and destroyed a hut in Antarctica. The tsunami magnitude of 9.3 is comparable to the magnitude 9.1 tsunami that devastated the Tohoku coast of Japan in 2011. Both causative earthquake epicenters occurred in shallow reaches of the subduction zone. Contractile tectonism along the Alaska margin presumably generated the far-field tsunami by producing a seafloor elevation change. However, the Scotch Cap lighthouse was destroyed by a near-field tsunami that was probably generated by a coeval large undersea landslide, yet bathymetric surveys showed no fresh large landslide scar. We investigated this problem by reprocessing five seismic lines, presented here as high-resolution graphic images, both uninterpreted and interpreted, and available for the reader to download. In addition, the processed seismic data for each line are available for download as seismic industry-standard SEG-Y files. One line, processed through prestack depth migration, crosses a 10 × 15 kilometer and 800-meter-high hill presumed previously to be basement, but that instead is composed of stratified rock superimposed on the slope sediment. This image and multibeam bathymetry illustrate a slide block that could have sourced the 1946 near-field tsunami because it is positioned within a distance determined by the time between earthquake shaking and the tsunami arrival at Scotch Cap and is consistent with the local extent of high runup of 42 meters along the adjacent Alaskan coast. The Unimak/Scotch Cap margin is structurally similar to the 2011 Tohoku tsunamigenic margin where a large landslide at the trench, coeval with the Tohoku earthquake, has been documented. Further study can improve our understanding of tsunami sources along Alaska’s erosional margins.

  7. DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM for Tsunamis - A wide-area and multi-hazard approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    system and to extend the CCUI with hazard specific functionality. The presentation covers the DEWS project, the system architecture and the CCUI in conjunction with details of information logistics. The DEWS Wide Area Centre connecting national centres to allow the international communication and warning exchange is presented also. REFERENCES: [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the recon¬struction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  8. 2006: STATUS OF TSUNAMI SCIENCE RESEARCH AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Keating

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, Dr. Robert Wiegel compiled “Tsunami Information Sources”. The compilation has been made available via a website and has been published as an issue in Science of Tsunami Hazards. The compiled references have been assigned keyword descriptions, and compiled in order to review the breath and depth of Tsunami Science publications.The review indicates that tsunami research involves eight major scientific disciplines: Geology, Seismology, Tsunami Science, Engineering, Disaster Management, Meteorology and Communications. These disciplines were subdivided into many topical subjects and the results were tabulated.The topics having the largest number of publications include: tsunamigenic earthquakes, numerical modeling, field surveys, engineering models, harbor, bay, and canal modeling and observations, energy of tsunamis, workshops, tsunami warning centers, instrumentation, tsunami catalogs, tsunami disaster mitigation, evaluation of hazards, the aftermath of tsunamis on humans, and AID provided to Tsunami Damaged Communities.Several areas of research were identified as likely directions for future research, including: paleotsunami studies, risk assessments, instrumentation, numerical modeling of earthquakes and tsunami, particularly the 2004 Indian Ocean event. There is a dearth of recent publications available on tsunami hazards education for the general public.

  9. An evaluation of tsunami hazard using Bayesian approach in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R. B. S.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Tripathi, J. N.; Chopra, S.

    2013-05-01

    The present study deals with the estimation of tsunami hazard parameters (maximum regional tsunami intensity Imax, slope β-value (where, β = b / log10e) of tsunami intensity-frequency relationship and tsunami activity rate λ) in the whole Indian Ocean as well as Andaman-Sumatra-Java (ASJ) region using Bayesian statistics technique. For this purpose a reliable, homogeneous and complete tsunami catalog during the period 1797 to 2006 with tsunami intensities (Soloviev-Imamura intensity scale) I ≥ 2.0, having average wave heights H ≥ 2.83 m, is utilized. The slope (b-value) of linear tsunami intensity-frequency relationship (Log10N = a - b ∗ I) of G-R type for observed tsunami data with intensities I ≥ 2.0 is calculated as 0.41. The applied method of Bayesian statistics follow three assumptions viz. Poissonian character of tsunami events, existence of the frequency-intensity relation of G-R type with a cut-off maximum value of tsunami intensities and catalog contains rather sizable events. In this study, the maximum regional tsunami intensity (Imax) has been estimated as 5.39 ± 0.30 and 5.41 ± 0.31 for the whole Indian Ocean and ASJ regions, respectively, which is reasonably comparable to the maximum observed tsunami intensity of 5.0 for August 27, 1883 Indonesia tsunami. The slope β-value of tsunami intensity-frequency relationship is calculated as 0.81 for both the Indian Ocean and ASJ regions by Bayesian statistics theory. We have also estimated quantiles of true and apparent tsunami intensities for future time intervals of 20, 30, 40 and 50 years with confidence limits for probability levels of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 95% in the Indian Ocean along with ASJ region. It is observed that the differences between true and apparent quantiles of tsunami intensities are negligible revealing that a good quality of tsunami data is used in the study. The results estimated in the present study have potential useful implications in the probabilistic tsunami

  10. Atmospheric coupling of Tsunami: observations from Tohoku and impact on tsunami physical properties and phase/group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Coisson, P.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Yahagi, T.; Khelfi, K.; Sladen, A.; Hebert, H.; Makela, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunamis, through a dynamic coupling between the ocean and atmosphere, are generating atmospheric waves, detected in the ionosphere for tsunamis with amplitudes as much as 1 cm in the open ocean. Signals associated to the Tohoku tsunami have therefore been observed with huge signal to noise ratio, not only over Japan, but all over the Pacific, up to Chili. These signals have been moreover modelled, not only for the Total Electronic Contents perturbation signals, but also of the airglow detected for the first time over Hawaii and for the magnetic perturbations detected in Japan. We present in this paper the two sides of this coupling. The first side resumes the different observations and modelling of the Tohoku ionospheric signals observed by GEONET, by the GSI magnetic network and by Airglow cameras in Hawaii and Chili. Comparison between data and modelling are shown. The second side present the effects of the atmospheric coupling on the tsunami properties, i.e. amplitudes, phase/group velocities and excitation coefficients. By taking into account the coupling of tsunami with both the solid Earth and atmosphere, we show that specific resonances between the ocean and the atmosphere exist, enabling to understand the large and peaked signal spectrum. Local Time and geographical variations of this coupling is studied, as well as its dependence with the ocean depth. The impacts of atmospheric coupling on the propagation travel time of tsunamis is finally presented and discussed.

  11. Local Tsunami Hazard In The Marquesas Islands (french Polynesia) : Numerical Modeling of The 1999 Fatu Hiva Landslide and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Heinrich, P.; Piatanesi, A.; Okal, E. A.

    In French Polynesia, the Marquesas Islands are particularly prone to amplification of tsunamis generated at the Pacific Rim, due to relatively mild submarine slopes and to large open bays not protected by any coral reef. These islands are also threatened by local tsunamis, as shown by the recent 1999 event on Fatu Hiva. On September 13, 1999, Omoa Bay was struck by 2 to 5 m high water waves: several buildings, among them the school, were flooded and destroyed but no lives were lost. Observations gath- ered during a post-event survey revealed the recent collapse into the sea of a 300x300 m, at least 20-m thick, cliff located 5 km southeast of Omoa. This cliff failure most certainly triggered the tsunami waves since the cliff was reported intact 45 min earlier. We simulate the tsunami generation due to a subaerial landslide, using a finite- difference model assimilating the landslide to a flow of granular material. Numerical modeling shows that a 0.0024-km3 landslide located in the presumed source area ac- counts well for the tsunami waves reported in Omoa Bay. We show that the striking amplification observed in Omoa Bay is related to the trapping of waves due to the shallow submarine shelf surrounding the island. These results stress the local tsunami hazard that should be taken into account in the natural hazard assessment and mitiga- tion of the area, where historical cliff collapses can be observed and should happen again.

  12. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    delegation, it was clear that a multidisciplinary approach was required to properly analyze the emergency response, technical, and social components of this disaster. A diverse and knowledgeable delegation was necessary to analyze the Chilean response in a way that would be beneficial to preparedness in California, as well as improve mitigation efforts around the United States. By most standards, the Maule earthquake was a catastrophe for Chile. The economic losses totaled $30 billion USD or 17% of the GDP of the country. Twelve million people, or ¾ of the population of the country, were in areas that felt strong shaking. Yet only 521 fatalities have been confirmed, with 56 people still missing and presumed dead in the tsunami. The Science and Technology Team evaluated the impacts of the earthquake on built environment with implications for the United States. The fires following the earthquake were minimal in part because of the shutdown of the national electrical grid early in the shaking. Only five engineer-designed buildings were destroyed during the earthquake; however, over 350,000 housing units were destroyed. Chile has a law that holds building owners liable for the first 10 years of a building’s existence for any losses resulting from inadequate application of the building code during construction. This law was cited by many our team met with as a prime reason for the strong performance of the built environment. Overall, this earthquake demonstrated that strict building codes and standards could greatly reduce losses in even the largest earthquakes. In the immediate response to the earthquake and tsunami, first responders, emergency personnel, and search and rescue teams handled many challenges. Loss of communications was significant; many lives were lost and effective coordination to support life-sustaining efforts was gravely impacted due to a lack of inter- and intra-agency coordination. The Health and Medical Services Team sought to understand the medical

  13. Sedimentary Record of the February 27, 2010, Chile Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B. M.; Morton, R. A.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Buckley, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The February 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami altered the coastal landscape along a section of coast characterized by broad sand beaches, fluvial deltas, and occasional rocky headlands. We examined tsunami geologic impacts at five relatively natural sites along a 200 km segment of coast centered on the earthquake epicenter. Data collected included measurements of topography, flow depths, flow directions and flow direction history, inundation distances, vertical erosion, and sediment deposition. The depositional record consisted mostly of sand deposits that were typically less than 25 cm thick. Exceptions were thick tsunami deposits near the mouths of Rio Huenchullami (La Trinchera) and Rio Maule (Constitucion) where sediment supply was abundant. Observations of tsunami geologic impacts included: (1) up to meter-scale changes in coastal-plain elevation as a result of tsunami-induced erosion and deposition; (2) erosion of the land surface was typically greatest near the shoreline and was the result of multiple processes such as tsunami return-flow, inundation scour around the bases of trees and other structures, and a general planation of the land surface near the shoreline; (3) tsunami sand deposits were widespread and extended to near the limit of inundation at most sites; (4) evidence of inundation by multiple waves that arrived at different times from different directions at open coast sites; (5) layers of plane-parallel stratification in some tsunami deposits and the presence of large bedforms at one site indicated that at least some of the sediment was transported as bed load and not as suspended load; (6) where available, coarse clasts such as mud boulders and rock cobbles were transported inland; (7) in forested coastal areas large debris ramparts were constructed near the limit of inundation. A significant finding was that vegetation height and density exerted a strong control on tsunami deposit thickness in the Coliumo Valley. Agricultural and ranching activities

  14. Understanding and mitigating tsunami risk for coastal structures and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki

    Tsunamis have attracted the world's attention over the last decade due to their destructive power and the vast areas they can affect. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, killed more than 200,000 people, and the 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, resulted in 15,000 deaths and an estimated US $300B in damage, are recent examples. An improved understanding of tsunamis and their interactive effects on the built environment will significantly reduce loss of life in tsunamis. In addition, it is important to consider both the effect of the earthquake ground motion and the tsunami it creates for certain coastal regions. A numerical model to predict structural behavior of buildings subjected to successive earthquakes and the tsunamis was developed. Collapse fragilities for structures were obtained by subjecting a structure to a suite of earthquake ground motions. After each motion the numerically damaged structural model was subjected to tsunami wave loading as defined by FEMA P646. This approach was then extended to the community level; a methodology to determine the probability of fatalities for a community as a function of the number of vertical evacuation shelters was computed. Such an approach also considered the location and number of vertical evacuation sites as an optimization problem. Both the single structure cases and the community analyses were presented in terms of fragilities as a function of the earthquake intensity level and evacuation time available. It is envisioned that the approach may be extended to any type of structure as they are typically modeled nonlinearly with strength and stiffness degradation. A logical fragility-based, or performance-based, procedure for vertical evacuation for coastal buildings and for whole communities was developed. A mechanism to obtain a reduction in the collapse risk of structure and more critically maximize the survival rate for a community was a major outcome of this dissertation. The proposed tsunami vertical

  15. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  16. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  17. Rapid estimate of earthquake source duration: application to tsunami warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Dominique; Jamelot, Anthony; Hyvernaud, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for estimating the source duration of the fault rupture, based on the high-frequency envelop of teleseismic P-Waves, inspired from the original work of (Ni et al., 2005). The main interest of the knowledge of this seismic parameter is to detect abnormal low velocity ruptures that are the characteristic of the so called 'tsunami-earthquake' (Kanamori, 1972). The validation of the results of source duration estimated by this method are compared with two other independent methods : the estimated duration obtained by the Wphase inversion (Kanamori and Rivera, 2008, Duputel et al., 2012) and the duration calculated by the SCARDEC process that determines the source time function (M. Vallée et al., 2011). The estimated source duration is also confronted to the slowness discriminant defined by Newman and Okal, 1998), that is calculated routinely for all earthquakes detected by our tsunami warning process (named PDFM2, Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism, (Clément and Reymond, 2014)). Concerning the point of view of operational tsunami warning, the numerical simulations of tsunami are deeply dependent on the source estimation: better is the source estimation, better will be the tsunami forecast. The source duration is not directly injected in the numerical simulations of tsunami, because the cinematic of the source is presently totally ignored (Jamelot and Reymond, 2015). But in the case of a tsunami-earthquake that occurs in the shallower part of the subduction zone, we have to consider a source in a medium of low rigidity modulus; consequently, for a given seismic moment, the source dimensions will be decreased while the slip distribution increased, like a 'compact' source (Okal, Hébert, 2007). Inversely, a rapid 'snappy' earthquake that has a poor tsunami excitation power, will be characterized by higher rigidity modulus, and will produce weaker displacement and lesser source dimensions than 'normal' earthquake. References: CLément, J

  18. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  19. Disability rights advocacy and employment: a qualitative study of the National Centre for the Employment of Disabled People (NCPEDP) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshoff, Laura; Barrera, Magda; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    In India, the low rate of employment of people with disabilities is a large problem in the growing economy. Looking at one advocacy group's strategies for influencing the private sector and lobbying the Indian government for more responsive employment policies, this article focuses on NCPEDP's holistic approach to increasing employment of people with disabilities as an example of notable, innovative practice. The article examines NCPEDP's strategies towards the private sector, public policy, and civil society, including its Disability Awards (highlighting inclusive workplaces), the 2001 and 2011 Census campaigns' efforts for people with disabilities to become accurately counted, and its networks of disability organizations that disseminate relevant information and campaign for greater equality across the nation. The benefits and limitations of these strategies are then assessed for lessons regarding the strategies available to small nongovernmental organizations seeking to influence employment, the private sector and public policy in other settings.

  20. The Boxing Day Tsunami: Could the Disaster have been Anticipated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Burbdige, D.

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence of the 26 December, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the accompanying "Boxing Day" Tsunami, which killed over 280,00, has been described as one of the most lethal natural disasters in human history. Many lives could have been saved had a tsunami warning system, similar to that which exists for the Pacific Ocean, been in operation for the Indian Ocean. The former exists because great subduction zone earthquakes have generated destructive, Pacific-wide tsunami in the Pacific Ocean with some frequency. Prior to 26 December, 2004, all of the world's earthquakes with magnitude > 9 were widely thought to have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, where they caused destructive tsunami. Could the occurrence of similar earthquakes and tsunami in the Indian Ocean been predicted prior to the 2004 Box Day Tragedy? This presentation will argue that the answer is "Yes". Almost without exception (the exception being the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake) the massive subduction zone earthquakes and tsunami of the Pacific Ocean have been associated with the subduction of relatively young ocean lithosphere (literature and were the subject of recent research. In particular, research by Zachariasen et al. (1999 and 2000) had inferred that the magnitude of the 1833 event may have been as high as 9.2. Calculations for the tsunami that might have been associated with this event had shown, prior to 26 Dec, that it would affect the entire Indian Ocean basin, although due to the earthquake's location 1000 km southeast of the Boxing day event, the effects in the Bay of Bengal would not have been as severe. Thus, it seems to this author that the Boxing Day event could and should have been anticipated. This presentation will further consider why it was not, and what steps can be taken to anticipate and mitigate the effects of future events that may occur in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere.

  1. On The Source Of The 25 November 1941 - Atlantic Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Lisboa, F. B.; Miranda, J. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analyze the tsunami recorded in the North Atlantic following the 25 November 1941 earthquake. The earthquake with a magnitude of 8.3, located on the Gloria Fault, was one of the largest strike slip events recorded. The Gloria fault is a 500 km long scarp in the North Atlantic Ocean between 19W and 24W known to be a segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary between Iberia and the Azores. Ten tide stations recorded the tsunami. Six in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira Islands), two in Morocco, one in the United Kingdom and one in Spain (Tenerife-Canary Islands). The tsunami waves reached Azores and Madeira Islands less than one hour after the main shock. The tide station of Casablanca (in Morocco) recorded the maximum amplitude of 0.54 m. All amplitudes recorded are lower than 0.5 m but the tsunami reached Portugal mainland in high tide conditions where the sea flooded some streets We analyze the 25 November 1941 tsunami data using the tide-records in the coasts of Portugal, Spain, Morocco and UK to infer its source. The use of wavelet analysis to characterize the frequency content of the tide-records shows predominant periods of 9-13min e 18-22min. A preliminary location of the tsunami source location was obtained Backward Ray Tracing (BRT). The results of the BRT technique are compatible with the epicenter location of the earthquake. We compute empirical Green functions for the earthquake generation area, and use a linear shallow water inversion technique to compute the initial water displacement. The comparison between forward modeling with observations shows a fair agreement with available data. This work received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe)"

  2. Dinoflagellates, a new proxy for evidencing (paleo)tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S.; Do Couto, D.; Suc, J.; Gorini, C.

    2012-12-01

    As a preliminary investigation, dinoflagellates have been searched in the Sri Lanka tsunami deposits (2004, Sumatra earthquake). The goals of this analysis were (1) to establish if dinoflagellate cysts (marine algae) are preserved in such types of deposits, and (2) to delimit the inland flooded surface. This work was performed on only 1-2 grams of sands, which had been sterilized at 121°C to prevent any microbial activity. The analysis points out the presence of several marine dinoflagellate cysts with a poor to moderate preservation, allowing to estimate the extent of the flooded area. In addition, a sample provided two dinoflagellate thecae, an exceptional occurrence because the cellulosic form of a dinoflagellate (i.e. the theca) is generally considered as unable to be preserved within sediments. In laboratory experiments, thecae are known to persist between 2 and 72 hours, depending of the species. If we accept a possible preservation of thecae in "peculiar" conditions, their presence in a tsunami sedimentary sequence may sign a precise instant of a tsunami event. Dinoflagellates have been searched in sedimentary basins affected by intense seismic activity: the Black Sea (Quaternary) and Alboran Sea (Messinian - Zanclean), two areas marked by important environmental changes. Marine dinoflagellate cysts are recorded in the Black Sea before its Holocene connection with Mediterranean through the Bosphorus Strait. Their occurrence constitutes a robust support for tsunamis already described in the region. In Late Messinian and Early Pliocene deposits from the Sorbas and Malaga basins (Alboran Sea region), cysts and thecae of marine dinoflagellates have been evidenced for the first time, maybe in relation with possible tsunamis. This new approach is to be developed on other recent tsunami deposits in order to contribute to identify past tsunami events. One must mention that dinoflagellates may help in reconstruction of past sea-surface physical parameters (salinity

  3. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  4. Applicability of the Decision Matrix of North Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System to the Italian tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami catastrophe, UNESCO through the IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission sponsored the establishment of Intergovernmental Coordination Groups (ICG with the aim to devise and implement Tsunami Warning Systems (TWSs in all the oceans exposed to tsunamis, in addition to the one already in operation in the Pacific (PTWS. In this context, since 2005, efforts have begun for the establishment of TWSs in the Indian Ocean (IOTWS, in the Caribbean area (CARIBE EWS and in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAMTWS.

    In this paper, we focus on a specific tool that was first introduced in the PTWS routine operations, i.e., the Decision Matrix (DM. This is an easy-to-use table establishing a link between the main parameters of an earthquake and the possible ensuing tsunami in order to make quick decision on the type of alert bulletins that a Tsunami Warning Center launches to its recipients. In the process of implementation of a regional TWS for the NEAM area, two distinct DMs were recently proposed by the ICG/NEAMTWS, one for the Atlantic and the other for the entire Mediterranean area.

    This work applies the Mediterranean NEAMTWS DM to the earthquakes recorded in Italy and compares the action predicted by the DM vs. the action that should be appropriate in view of the observed tsunami characteristics with the aim to establish how good the performance of the Italian TWS will be when it uses the DM for future events. To this purpose, we make use of the parametric catalogue of the Italian earthquakes (CPTI04 compiled in 2004 and the most recent compilation of the Italian tsunami, based on the Italian Tsunami Catalogue of 2004 and the subsequent revisions. In order to better compare the TWS actions, we have identified four different kinds of action coding them from 0 to 3 according to the tsunami severity and have further considered three different distance ranges where

  5. A preliminary probabilistic analysis of tsunami sources of seismic and non-seismic origin applied to the city of Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, R.; Anita, G.

    2011-12-01

    In both worldwide and regional historical catalogues, most of the tsunamis are caused by earthquakes and a minor percentage is represented by all the other non-seismic sources. On the other hand, tsunami hazard and risk studies are often applied to very specific areas, where this global trend can be different or even inverted, depending on the kind of potential tsunamigenic sources which characterize the case study. So far, few probabilistic approaches consider the contribution of landslides and/or phenomena derived by volcanic activity, i.e. pyroclastic flows and flank collapses, as predominant in the PTHA, also because of the difficulties to estimate the correspondent recurrence time. These considerations are valid, for example, for the city of Naples, Italy, which is surrounded by a complex active volcanic system (Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Ischia) that presents a significant number of potential tsunami sources of non-seismic origin compared to the seismic ones. In this work we present the preliminary results of a probabilistic multi-source tsunami hazard assessment applied to Naples. Th