WorldWideScience

Sample records for qualitative descriptive study

  1. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    verbatim and analysed using qualitative description as the research approach. Results We identified four major categories of risk behavior: 1) Alcohol consumption being associated with no condom use. 2) Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands...... other countries, but cultural differences may raise additional or other questions in order to describe the important issues sufficiently. To design and initiate a sexual behavior surveillance program in Denmark, the aim of this qualitative study was therefore to identify focus points of special...

  3. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Baccalaureate Student Nurses' Study Habits Prior to Admission to Nursing Program: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Rhea Faye D; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Bigley, Louise; Adams, Kathryn

    2017-06-01

    Faculty continue to observe students struggling as they adapt their study strategies to learn nursing core content. This study described the study habits of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students prior to admission to the program. This study used a descriptive qualitative research design. A purposive sample of 19 BSN students (juniors [n=10] and seniors [n=9]) from a 4-year public Midwestern university were included in this study. Two focus group sessions, using a semi-structured interview guide, were conducted in the spring semester of 2013. The four themes which emerged from the analysis of data were: "I just got it," "I had a lot of time then," "I studied alone" mostly, and "…a little struggle with the sciences." The findings suggest the BSN students did not study much or employed poor study strategies during their years completing general education courses. Academic support is needed by students prior to admission to the nursing program so they can learn effective study skills and modify their study habits for easier adaptation to the rigors of nursing education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Experiences of Patients Living With Heart Failure: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Alvin Chuen Wei; Tan, Khoon Kiat; Huang Gan, Juvena Chew; Wang, Wenru

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, needs, and coping strategies of patients living with heart failure in Singapore. A descriptive qualitative design was used. A purposive sample of 15 informants was recruited from two cardiology wards of a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a semistructured interview guideline that was developed based on a review of the literature and a pilot study. Content analysis was adopted to analyze the data, and four main categories were identified: perceived causes, manifestations, and prognosis; enduring emotions; managing the condition; and needs from health care professionals. The informants were overwhelmed with the experience of living with heart failure due to the disruptive and uncertain nature of the condition. This study offers health care professionals practical and useful suggestions when providing holistic care for patients with heart failure.

  6. A humanbecoming qualitative descriptive study on quality of life with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Quality of life is a universal living experience and is significant for older adults living in long-term residential care facilities. The purposes of this research study were to: explicate the experience of quality of life for older adults, contribute to the understanding of quality of life for older adults and to nursing's extant body of knowledge by enhancing humanbecoming. Humanbecoming was selected as the theoretical perspective for the qualitative descriptive exploratory method study with 10 volunteers living in the same long-term residential care facility in Singapore. Findings showed that: quality of life is fortifying tranquillity amid potential turbulence with the gratifying engagements of diverse affiliations, as envisioning possibilities arise with discordant constraints. The findings of this study have made a significant contribution to the phenomenon - quality of life both in terms of older adults living in nursing homes and from a Singaporean context.

  7. A qualitative descriptive study of risk reduction for coronary disease among the Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Choi Wan; Lopez, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Achieving optimal control and reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) risks in Hong Kong (HK) remains significant and requires exploring. This article addresses the ability to reduce CHD risks among the HK Chinese. Through secondary analysis, a qualitative descriptive design using focus group interviews and content analysis were adopted. Older and younger adults were invited for the study. An interview schedule was used to guide discussions during focus group interviews. Four categories emerged from the data: planning of health actions, control of risk-reducing behavior, perceived opportunities for understanding CHD, and chest pain appraisal. Local culture and population needs play a central role in disease perception and prevention. The findings are essential to target strategies for initiating health acts for younger adults and establish public education resources that underscore understanding of CHD risk, symptom recognition, and disease management, particularly among those middle-aged and older people at high risk and with the diseased populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives on in situ care for pneumonia. Methods A qualitative descriptive study design was used. Participants were residents and family members of residents treated for pneumonia drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of a clinical pathway to manage nursing home-acquired pneumonia on-site. A total of 14 in-depth interviews were conducted. Interview data were analyzed using the editing style, described by Miller and Crabtree, to identify key themes. Results Both residents and family members preferred that pneumonia be treated in the nursing home, where possible. They both felt that caring and attention are key aspects of care which are more easily accessible in the nursing home setting. However, residents felt that staff or doctors should make the decision whether to hospitalize them, whereas family members wanted to be consulted or involved in the decision-making process. Conclusion These findings suggest that interventions to reduce hospitalization of nursing home residents with pneumonia are consistent with resident and family member preferences.

  9. Perceptions of patients, families, physicians and nurses regarding challenges in cancer disclosure: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Maryam; Taleghani, Fariba; Hematti, Simin; Abazari, Parvaneh

    2016-12-01

    The findings of numerous studies have illustrated that there is still a high proportion of cancer patients in Eastern and Middle-East countries including Iran, who are not properly informed of their disease due to the concealment atmosphere which still prevails. This descriptive qualitative study is aimed at exploring perceptions of patients, patients' family members, physicians and nurses regarding cancer disclosure challenges. Thirty-five participants (15 patients, 6 family members, 9 physicians, and 5 nurses) were selected through purposive sampling. The data were collected through in-depth interviews; after which they were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. Data analysis revealed the following three categories: first, challenges related to healthcare system which deals with the deficiencies, strains and concerns in medical setting and healthcare team training; second, challenges related to family insistence on concealment which includes their fear of cancer disclosure and its negative impact on the patients; and third, challenges related to policy making which consists of deficiencies in legislative and supportive institutions for advocacy of truth telling. Successful move from concealment to effective disclosure attitude in cancer patients in Iran requires a national determination for resolving challenges in medical education as well as other different social, cultural and policy making dimensions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Clinical responsibility, accountability, and risk aversion in mental health nursing: a descriptive, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Jenni; Crowe, Marie

    2014-08-01

    A number of recent, highly-publicized, perceived health-care service failures have raised concerns about health professionals' accountabilities. Relevant to these concerns, the present study sought to examine how mental health nurses understood clinical responsibility and its impact on their practice. A descriptive, qualitative design was used, and a convenience sample of 10 mental health nurses was recruited from specialist inpatient and outpatient mental health settings in Canterbury, New Zealand. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, and the transcriptions were analysed using an inductive, descriptive approach. Three major themes were identified: being accountable, fostering patient responsibility, and shifting responsibility. Being accountable involved weighing up patients' therapeutic needs against the potential for blame in an organizational culture of risk management. Fostering patient responsibility described the process of deciding in what situations patients could take responsibility for their behaviour. Shifting responsibility described the culture of defensive practice fostered by the organizational culture of risk aversion. The present study highlighted the challenges mental health nurses experience in relation to clinical responsibility in practice, including the balancing required between the needs of patients, the needs of the organization, and the perceived need for self-protection. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Qualitative studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qualitative Studies (QS) aims to become a central forum for discussions of qualitative research in psychology, education, communication, cultural studies, health sciences and social sciences in general...

  12. A descriptive qualitative study of adolescent girls’ well-being in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Wiens

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method: This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results: Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.

  13. Assessment of children's capacity to consent for research: a descriptive qualitative study of researchers' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Stasiulis, Elaine; Gutfreund, Shawna; McDonald, Maria; Dade, Lauren

    2011-08-01

    In Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers' current practices. The study used a qualitative descriptive design consisting of 14 face-to-face interviews with child health researchers and research assistants in Southern Ontario. Transcribed interviews were analysed for common themes. Procedures for assessing capacity varied considerably from the use of age cutoffs to in-depth engagement with each child. Three key issues emerged from the accounts: (1) requirements that consent be provided by a single person thwarted researchers' abilities to support family decision-making; (2) little practical distinction was made between assessing if a child was capable, versus determining if study information had been adequately explained by the researcher; and (3) participants' perceived that review boards' requirements may conflict with what they considered ethical consent practices. The results suggest that researchers' consent and capacity knowledge and skills vary considerably. Perceived discrepancies between ethical practice and ethics boards' requirements suggest the need for dialogue, education and possibly ethics board reforms. Furthermore we propose, where appropriate, a 'family decision-making' model that allows parents and their children to consent together, thereby shifting the focus from separate assent and consent procedures to approaches that appropriately engage the child and family.

  14. Descriptive ethics: a qualitative study of local research ethics committees in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Martinez, Edith; Turnbull, Bernardo; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan; Porter, John D H

    2006-05-01

    To describe how local research ethics committees (LRECs) consider and apply research ethics in the evaluation of biomedical research proposals. A qualitative study was conducted using purposeful sampling, focus groups and a grounded theory approach to generate data and to analyse the work of the LRECs. 11 LRECs of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). LRECs considered ethics to be implicit in all types of research, but that ethics reviews were only necessary for projects that included the direct participation of human beings. The LRECs appeared to understand the importance of consent, as in the completion of a consent form, but did not emphasise the importance of the process of acquiring 'informed' consent. The committees considered their main roles or functions to be: (a) to improve the methodological quality of research and to verify - if applicable - the ethical aspects; (b) to encourage personnel to undergo research training; (c) to follow-up research to oversee the adherence to norms and compliance with a specified research timetable. This study provides a valuable insight into how these LRECs understand the ethical review process. The emphasis of the committees was on rules, regulations, improving research methodology and research training, rather than a focus on efforts to protect the rights and well being of research subjects. The results encourage further normative and descriptive lines of investigation concerning education and the development of LRECs.

  15. Understanding Referral Patterns for Bone Mineral Density Testing among Family Physicians: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. P. Munce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Evidence of inappropriate bone mineral density (BMD testing has been identified in terms of overtesting in low risk women and undertesting among patients at high risk. In light of these phenomena, the objective of this study was to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing among Ontario’s family physicians (FPs. Methods. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Twenty-two FPs took part in a semi-structured interview lasting approximately 30 minutes. An inductive thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data in order to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing. Results. We identified a lack of clarity about screening for osteoporosis with a tendency for baseline BMD testing in healthy, postmenopausal women and a lack of clarity on the appropriate age for screening for men in particular. A lack of clarity on appropriate intervals for follow-up testing was also described. Conclusions. These findings lend support to what has been documented at the population level suggesting a tendency among FPs to refer menopausal women (at low risk. Emphasis on referral of high-risk groups as well as men and further clarification and education on the appropriate intervals for follow-up testing is warranted.

  16. Women’s perspectives of the fetal fibronectin testing process: a qualitative descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009 the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care funded the implementation of province-wide fetal fibronectin testing in Ontario hospitals. This paper reports results from the provincial evaluation that sought to describe the experience of fetal fibronectin testing from the perspective of women with symptoms of preterm labour. Methods A descriptive qualitative design was used, employing semi-structured telephone and face-to-face interviews with women who had fetal fibronectin testing. Results Five hospitals participated in recruiting women for the study and 17 women were interviewed. Women described their experiences of fetal fibronectin testing as an emotional process that moves from expecting, to feeling, to hoping for reassurance; and then to re-defining what is required to feel reassured. Women described feeling anxious while waiting for fetal fibronectin results. When test results were negative, women described feeling a sense of relief that their symptoms would not likely lead to an imminent preterm birth. Women with positive results expressed feeling reassured by the care decisions and quick action taken by the health care team. Conclusion Fetal fibronectin testing was acceptable and beneficial to these women with symptoms of preterm labour. Implications for practice and future research are suggested. PMID:24894630

  17. Women's perspectives of the fetal fibronectin testing process: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Wendy E; Sprague, Ann E; Reszel, Jessica; Walker, Mark; Fell, Deshayne B; Perkins, Sherry L; Dunn, Sandra I; Johnson, Moya

    2014-06-04

    In 2009 the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care funded the implementation of province-wide fetal fibronectin testing in Ontario hospitals. This paper reports results from the provincial evaluation that sought to describe the experience of fetal fibronectin testing from the perspective of women with symptoms of preterm labour. A descriptive qualitative design was used, employing semi-structured telephone and face-to-face interviews with women who had fetal fibronectin testing. Five hospitals participated in recruiting women for the study and 17 women were interviewed. Women described their experiences of fetal fibronectin testing as an emotional process that moves from expecting, to feeling, to hoping for reassurance; and then to re-defining what is required to feel reassured. Women described feeling anxious while waiting for fetal fibronectin results. When test results were negative, women described feeling a sense of relief that their symptoms would not likely lead to an imminent preterm birth. Women with positive results expressed feeling reassured by the care decisions and quick action taken by the health care team. Fetal fibronectin testing was acceptable and beneficial to these women with symptoms of preterm labour. Implications for practice and future research are suggested.

  18. Nursing students' understanding of critical thinking and appraisal and academic writing: a descriptive, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglin, Gunilla; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    In Sweden, regulations from the National Agency for Higher Education advocate an education that equips students with independence as well as critical, problem-based thinking, i.e. academic literacy skills. However, some research findings indicate that students may leave higher education without mastering these skills effectively. As part of quality-assuring a nursing programme at a university college in south-east Sweden we explored the nursing student's view of crucial academic literacy skills, such as critical thinking and appraisal and academic writing, by conducting a descriptive, qualitative study. Informants were recruited through an advertisement posted on the university's e-learning tool. Eight focused interviews were conducted during autumn 2010. The transcribed interviews were analysed - inspired by content analysis - and two categories became apparent: constantly questioning and formality before substance. The latter revealed a gap between the student's perception of academic writing and that of the educators, thus implying that nursing students might not be equipped with the tools they need to develop within academia. We suggest that students could benefit in their academic endeavours from theoretical educational models that integrate several academic skills simultaneously and which could be incorporated into the development of syllabuses and curriculums.

  19. Supervisor descriptions of veterinary student performance in the clinical workplace: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, E J

    2017-06-10

    This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Nurses' Learning Experiences with the Kinaesthetics Care Concept Training in a Nursing Home: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    In geriatric care, movement support skills of nurses are often limited, resulting in unnecessary functional decline of older adult residents and physical strain of nurses. Kinaesthetics training aims to improve movement competences of nurses and residents. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe nursing teams' experience with…

  1. Canadian adolescent mothers’ perceptions of influences on breastfeeding decisions: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesbitt Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased recognition of the importance of breastfeeding at a national level as evidenced by the increased number of Canadian mothers initiating breastfeeding. However, adolescent mothers ( Methods The principles of interpretive description guided this qualitative study. A purposeful, homogenous sample of 16 adolescent mothers (15–19 years were recruited to complete individual, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Conventional content analysis was used to code data, identify concepts and synthesize them into overall themes. Results Adolescent mothers in this study expressed that the decision to breastfeed was made prenatally and while partner and family member opinions about breastfeeding initiation were influential, the decision was made independently. Mothers were primarily motivated to initiate breastfeeding due to the health benefits for the infant. Lower breastfeeding duration rates were found among mothers who decided to only “try” breastfeeding when compared to the mothers who committed to breastfeeding. Influences on continued breastfeeding included: 1 the impact of breastfeeding on social and intimate relationships; 2 the availability of social support; 3 the physical demands of breastfeeding; 4 mothers’ knowledge of breastfeeding practices and benefits; and 5 mothers’ perceived sense of comfort in breastfeeding. Conclusions The results of this study provide health care providers new conceptual insight and understanding of the factors that influence adolescents’ decisions to “try” breastfeeding and to continue providing breastmilk to their infants. Professional implications drawn from this study include active engagement of adolescents in the pre and postnatal periods, including early assessment of potential barriers surrounding breastfeeding decisions. This early professional interaction highlights the professional as a form of support, and allows for sharing of evidence

  2. Physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status: are we standing on thin ice? A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Mukul; Jones, Mark; Edwards, Ian; Kumar, Saravana

    2015-04-01

    Pain is a complex problem and one that confronts many physiotherapists' working in private practice on a daily basis. While physiotherapists' understanding of pain has matured a great deal in recent times, especially the role of psychosocial (PS) factors, it is unclear if and how, physiotherapists assess their patients' psychosocial status in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to explore private practice physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status. A qualitative descriptive research design was used in this study. Participants were recruited through purposeful sampling and potential informants were invited to participate through letters or phone calls and data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted at the participants' workplaces. Data collection and analysis were conducted simultaneously and common concepts and themes were recognised, coded and grouped together into themes. Analysis of the data resulted in identification of various themes related to physiotherapists' assessment of patients' PS status. These themes relate to; physiotherapists capacity to conduct PS assessment, the barriers they face while conducting PS assessment and the suggestions they have provided to overcome these barriers. In general the physiotherapists' in this study demonstrated and acknowledged a poor understanding of the role of PS factors in their patients' clinical presentation. They were also unclear about the assessment of psychosocial factors. The barriers to assessment of psychosocial factors ranged from individual shortcomings to limitations in professional networks and time constraints. The most consistent barrier highlighted was participants' lack of formal education in PS theory and assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of

  4. Medical termination of pregnancy in general practice in Australia: a descriptive-interpretive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angela J; Nicolls, Rachel; Bateson, Deborah; Doab, Anna; Estoesta, Jane; Brassil, Ann; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-14

    Australian Government approval in 2012 for the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) allows general practitioners (GPs) to provide early gestation abortion in primary care settings. However, uptake of the MTOP provision by GPs appears to be low and the reasons for this have been unclear. This study investigated the provision of and referral for MTOP by GPs. We undertook descriptive-interpretive qualitative research and selected participants for diversity using a matrix. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews and one focus group (N = 4), were conducted with 32 GPs (8 MTOP providers, 24 non MTOP providers) in New South Wales, Australia. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A framework to examine access to abortion services was used to develop the interview questions and emergent themes identified thematically. Three main themes emerged: scope of practice; MTOP demand, care and referral; and workforce needs. Many GPs saw abortion as beyond the scope of their practice (i.e. a service others provide in specialist private clinics). Some GPs had religious or moral objections; others regarded MTOP provision as complicated and difficult. While some GPs expressed interest in MTOP provision they were concerned about stigma and the impact it may have on perceptions of their practice and the views of colleagues. Despite a reported variance in demand most MTOP providers were busy but felt isolated. Difficulties in referral to a local public hospital in the case of complications or the provision of surgical abortion were noted. Exploring the factors which affect access to MTOP in general practice settings provides insights to assist the future planning and delivery of reproductive health services. This research identifies the need for support to increase the number of MTOP GP providers and for GPs who are currently providing MTOP. Alongside these actions provision in the public sector is required. In addition

  5. A descriptive qualitative study of student learning in a psychosocial nursing class infused with art, literature, music, and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alice; Curtis, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Nursing educators have long valued and supported the integration of liberal arts in professional nursing programs. This descriptive qualitative study explores the meanings students derive from the integration of liberal arts content into a psychosocial nursing class. Questionnaires, class observation, and focus group interviews revealed five themes: an interesting hook, a deeper level of understanding, developing self-understanding, developing empathy and increasing cultural awareness. Researchers suggest that integrating liberal arts into nursing education enhances student learning.

  6. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address.

  7. Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb Mark; Chan Carusone Soo; Lohfeld Lynne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives on in...

  8. Emergency nurses' perceptions of emergency department preparedness for an ebola outbreak: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincha Baduge, Mihirika Sds; Moss, Cheryle; Morphet, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Ebola Virus Disease is highly contagious and has high mortality. In 2014, when the outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, emergency departments in Australia commenced preparation and vigilance for people presenting with ebola like symptoms, to limit spread of the disease. To examine Australian emergency nurses' perceptions regarding their own and their emergency departments' preparedness to manage an ebola outbreak. A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect and analyse data in one metropolitan emergency department in Victoria, Australia. Four focus groups were conducted with 13 emergency nurses. Data were thematically analysed. Major themes emerged from the data: organisational, personal and future preparedness. Participants' believed that both the organisation and themselves had achieved desirable and appropriate preparedness for ebola in their emergency setting. Participants trusted their organisation to prepare and protect them for ebola. Appropriate policies, procedures, and equipment infrastructure were reportedly in place. Nurses' decisions to care for a patient with ebola were informed by professional commitment, and personal responsibilities. Participants were concerned about transmitting ebola to their families, and suggested that more regular training in personal protective equipment would increase confidence and skill in self-protection. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Specialist nurses' perceptions of inviting patients to participate in clinical research studies: a qualitative descriptive study of barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Caroline; Stavropoulou, Charitini

    2016-08-11

    Increasing the number of patients participating in research studies is a current priority in the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The role of specialist nurses in inviting patients to participate is important, yet little is known about their experiences of doing so. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of barriers and facilitators held by specialist nurses with experience of inviting adult NHS patients to a wide variety of research studies. A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study was conducted between March and July 2015. Participants were 12 specialist nurses representing 7 different clinical specialties and 7 different NHS Trusts. We collected data using individual semi-structured interviews, and analysed transcripts using the Framework method to inductively gain a descriptive overview of barriers and facilitators. Barriers and facilitators were complex and interdependent. Perceptions varied among individuals, however barriers and facilitators centred on five main themes: i) assessing patient suitability, ii) teamwork, iii) valuing research, iv) the invitation process and v) understanding the study. Facilitators to inviting patients to participate in research often stemmed from specialist nurses' attitudes, skills and experience. Positive research cultures, effective teamwork and strong relationships between research and clinical teams at the local clinical team level were similarly important. Barriers were reported when specialist nurses felt they were providing patients with insufficient information during the invitation process, and when specialist nurses felt they did not understand studies to their satisfaction. Our study offers several new insights regarding the role of specialist nurses in recruiting patients for research. It shows that strong local research culture and teamwork overcome some wider organisational and workload barriers reported in previous studies. In addition, and in contrast to common practice

  10. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Turunen, Hannele; Bondas, Terese

    2013-09-01

    Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Factors affecting planned return to work after trauma: A prospective descriptive qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkard, S S; Bloomfield, T D; Page, P R J; Wilson, D; Ricketts, D M; Rogers, B A

    2016-12-01

    The use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in trauma is limited. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate qualitative responses and factors affecting planned return to work following significant trauma, for which there is currently a poor evidence base. National ethical approval was obtained for routine prospective PROMs data collection, including EQ-5D, between Sept 2013 and March 2015 for trauma patients admitted to the Sussex Major Trauma Centre (n=92). 84 trauma patients disclosed their intended return to work at discharge. Additional open questions asked 'things done well' and 'things to be improved'. EQ-5D responses were valued using the time trade-off method. Statistical analysis between multiple variables was completed by ANOVA, and with categorical categories by Chi squared analysis. Only 18/68 of patients working at admission anticipated returning to work within 14days post-discharge. The injury severity scores (ISS) of those predicting return to work within two weeks and those predicting return to work longer than two weeks were 14.17 and 13.59, respectively. Increased physicality of work showed a trend towards poorer return to work outcomes, although non-significant in Chi-squared test in groups predicting return in less than or greater than two weeks (4.621, p=0.2017ns). No significant difference was demonstrated in the comparative incomes of patients with different estimated return to work outcomes (ANOVA r(2)=0.001, P=0.9590ns). EQ-5D scores were higher in those predicting return to work within two weeks when compared to greater than two weeks. Qualitative thematic content analysis of open responses was possible for 66/92 of respondents. Prominent positive themes were: care, staff, professionalism, and communication. Prominent negative themes were: food, ward response time, and communication. This pilot study highlights the importance of qualitative PROMs analysis in leading patient-driven improvements in trauma care. We provide standard

  12. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede

    Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents....... Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one......’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from...

  13. Specialist nurses’ perceptions of inviting patients to participate in clinical research studies: a qualitative descriptive study of barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline French

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the number of patients participating in research studies is a current priority in the National Health Service (NHS in the United Kingdom. The role of specialist nurses in inviting patients to participate is important, yet little is known about their experiences of doing so. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of barriers and facilitators held by specialist nurses with experience of inviting adult NHS patients to a wide variety of research studies. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study was conducted between March and July 2015. Participants were 12 specialist nurses representing 7 different clinical specialties and 7 different NHS Trusts. We collected data using individual semi-structured interviews, and analysed transcripts using the Framework method to inductively gain a descriptive overview of barriers and facilitators. Results Barriers and facilitators were complex and interdependent. Perceptions varied among individuals, however barriers and facilitators centred on five main themes: i assessing patient suitability, ii teamwork, iii valuing research, iv the invitation process and v understanding the study. Facilitators to inviting patients to participate in research often stemmed from specialist nurses’ attitudes, skills and experience. Positive research cultures, effective teamwork and strong relationships between research and clinical teams at the local clinical team level were similarly important. Barriers were reported when specialist nurses felt they were providing patients with insufficient information during the invitation process, and when specialist nurses felt they did not understand studies to their satisfaction. Conclusion Our study offers several new insights regarding the role of specialist nurses in recruiting patients for research. It shows that strong local research culture and teamwork overcome some wider organisational and workload barriers reported in

  14. Perspectives on enhancing international practical training of students in health and social care study programs - A qualitative descriptive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Hopia, Hanna; Sihvonen, Sanna; Diwan, Sadhna; Sen, Soma; Skela-Savič, Brigita

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization of practical training in health and social care study programs is an important aspect of higher education. However, field mentors' and classroom teachers' competence in guiding culturally diverse students varies widely in European countries, and the majority does not have enough training in guiding foreign students. This study aimed to examine which factors enhance the efficacy of international practical placement experiences in health and social care study programs. A qualitative descriptive case study design was used. The study was conducted at six higher education institutions-two in Finland and one in Croatia, Estonia, the Netherlands and Slovenia. A convenience sample of 14 mentors, 15 teachers and 14 students with international experiences from six higher education institutions which are part of the Bologna Process was recruited. The data were collected from six focus groups using a semi-structured questionnaire based on a literature review. Each higher education institution conducted one group interview that was tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed for themes. Participants made several recommendations for enhancing the practical placement experience of students, teachers, and mentors. Most recommendations dealt with practical supervision of students. Three major themes noted were: 'Attitudes towards internationalization of practical placements', 'Factors impacting the international placement experience', and 'Pedagogical methods used and structural support available for internationalization.' The study highlights the need for strengthening the multicultural knowledge and skills of mentors and teachers. The findings provide practical guidelines for improving the international placement experience across health and social care fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffoni, Marina; Giardini, Anna; Pierobon, Antonia; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient's subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination) and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver's stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients' and caregiver's point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view.

  16. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffoni, Marina; Pierobon, Antonia; Ferrazzoli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient's subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination) and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver's stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients' and caregiver's point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view. PMID:28243481

  17. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Maffoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient’s subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver’s stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients’ and caregiver’s point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view.

  18. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.

    2008-01-01

    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often present in addition to the results of bivariate and multivariable analyses. Qualitative metasummary, which includes the extraction, grouping, and formatting of findings, and the calculation of frequency and intensity effect sizes, can be used to produce mixed research syntheses and to conduct a posteriori analyses of the relationship between reports and findings. PMID:17243111

  19. Student exchange for nursing students: does it raise cultural awareness'? A descriptive, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Doris M; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-05-01

    With free movement for citizens within the European Union and with distant parts of our globe becoming more accessible, cultural awareness and cultural competence are becoming important skills for nurses. Internationalisation and raising awareness of other cultural contexts are essential elements in Swedish higher education, thus explaining the variety of student exchange programmes that are available. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of student exchange and their experiences. Data were collected through group interviews and then analysed following the principles of content analysis. Our analysis resulted in three categories: Preparing to go abroad, Reasons for going abroad and From expectation to experience. Cultural aspects and cultural awareness were emphasised as strong motivational factors, both personal and professional, behind participation in student exchange programmes. Information was also highlighted as a crucial means of reaching potential students as well as the power of knowledge through personal experience. This study highlights the importance of student exchange in expanding the individual student's personal and professional horizons. It also stresses the importance of including a transcultural nursing element in nursing curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The transferability of information and communication technology skills from university to the workplace: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembridge, Elizabeth; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Jeong, Sarah Yeun-Sim

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study that explored whether the information and communication technology (ICT) skills nurses acquired at university are relevant and transferable to contemporary practice environments. Whilst universities have attempted to integrate information and communication technology into nursing curricula it is not known whether the skills developed for educational purposes are relevant or transferable to clinical contexts. A qualitative descriptive study was used to explore the perspectives of a small group of new graduate nurses working in a regional/semi-metropolitan healthcare facility in New South Wales, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were used and the data thematically analysed. The themes that emerged from the study are presented in accordance with the conceptual framework and structured under the three headings of pre-transfer, transition and post-transfer. The transferability of information and communication technology skills from university to the workplace is impacted by a range of educational, individual, organisational and contextual factors. Access to adequate ICT and the necessary training opportunities influences new graduates' work satisfaction and their future employment decisions. The ability to effectively use information and communication technology was viewed as essential to the provision of quality patient care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma. The aim of this Canadian study was to describe users’ perceptions of and responses to the stigma attached to using CTP. Methods Twenty-three individuals who were using CTP for a range of health problems took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcribed data were analyzed using an inductive approach and comparative strategies to explore participants’ perceptions of CTP and identify themes. Results Participant experiences of stigma were related to negative views of cannabis as a recreational drug, the current criminal sanctions associated with cannabis use, and using cannabis in the context of stigmatizing vulnerability (related to existing illness and disability. Strategies for managing the resulting stigma of using CTP included: keeping CTP ‘undercover’; educating those who did not approve of or understand CTP use; and using cannabis responsibly. Conclusions Understanding how individuals perceive and respond to stigma can inform the development of strategies aimed at reducing stigma associated with the use of CTP and thereby address barriers faced by those using this medicine.

  2. The impact of short term clinical placement in a developing country on nursing students: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvund, Ingeborg; Mordal, Elin

    2017-08-01

    Offering nursing students' international clinical placement during the educational program is one response to meet the need of cultural competence among nurses. This paper provides insight into the impact of clinical placement, in a developing country, on third year nursing students. In the study we investigated how short term international clinical placement impacted Norwegian nursing students' development of cultural competency. In this study we utilised a qualitative descriptive design and used individual interviews with eighteen Norwegian nursing students who had all participated in an international clinical placement. The data were analysed using the principles of systematic text condensation. In spite the international clinical placement only was four weeks, the findings suggested that real life experience culturally awakened the students and forced an ongoing process developing cultural competence. However, it is important to give students time to reflection. Although increased cultural awareness and a growing cultural competence was identified by the students undertaking international clinical placement, further research is required. It is important to investigate the best methods to support the students' reflection such that the experiences lead to learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncovering nursing students' views of their relationship with educators in a university context: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Tong, Chien Wai; Henderson, Saras

    2017-02-01

    Power dynamics is a key element in the educator-student relationship, and can be influential to the learning outcomes of students. Power relations are inherent in the interaction between educators and students. The educator-student relationship is still an under-explored area of power dynamics. The aim of the study was to investigate nursing students' perceptions of the power dynamics in the educator-student relationship in a university learning context in order to offer educators some understanding of how such a relationship was perceived by students. A descriptive qualitative study using focus group inquiry. Through convenience sampling, a total of 56 students were recruited and eight focus group interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was adopted to capture the meanings extracted from the student narratives. Four core themes of the educator-student relationship were identified. Referring to these themes, some implications were drawn, such as the significance of the educator-student relationship; an educator's power matters; and polarized views among the students on whether or not an educator should be a friend. The power dynamics varied depending on an educator's personality, communication skills, ability to effectively monitor large classes, and teaching style. More efforts are needed to investigate the preferred conceptions and types of educator-student relationships in order to evaluate the impact that these have on learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of a game-based learning platform to engage nursing students: A descriptive, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cara; Tesar, Abigail J; Connor, Kelley; Martz, Kim

    2017-08-30

    Baccalaureate nursing programs require students to complete a research course, and faculty find it challenging to engage students. Educational gaming has recently gained attention as a technique to motivate students and enhance learning. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe undergraduate nursing students' reflections of their experiences with 3D Gamelab(©), a game-based learning platform. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to elicit students' reflections of their experiences. Educational content such as handouts, videos, activities, and recommended resources for a required junior level nursing research course was organized into quests for use in 3D GameLab(©). At the end of the semester, students were invited to give their feedback through a survey with open-ended questions. Thematic analysis resulted in the following components of the game-based learning experience: navigation, motivation, gaming concept, knowledge, technology, and target population. Although the overall response to 3D GameLab(©) in this course was negative, game-based learning does have the potential to engage students and enhance learning. To better understand how educational gaming could be used in nursing, further research should be conducted to determine the most motivating elements and the types of course content best delivered in this manner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. To walk or not to walk: insights from a qualitative description study with women suffering from fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Baños, Yolanda; Pastor, María-Ángeles; Velasco, Lilian; López-Roig, Sofía; Peñacoba, Cecilia; Lledo, Ana; Rodríguez, Charo

    2016-08-01

    Walking improves health outcomes in fibromyalgia; however, there is low adherence to this practice. The aim of this research was to explore the beliefs of women suffering from fibromyalgia toward walking, and the meaning that they attribute to the behavior of walking as part of their fibromyalgia treatment. This study is a qualitative description research. Forty-six (46) women suffering from fibromyalgia and associated with local fibromyalgia associations located in four different Spanish cities (Elche, Alicante, Madrid, and Talavera de la Reina) participated in focus group discussions in the summer 2012. Thematic content analysis was performed in transcribed verbatim from interviews. Participants perceived several inhibitors for walking even when they had positive beliefs toward its therapeutic value. Whereas participants believed that walking can generate improvement in their disease and their health in general, they did not feel able to actually do so given their many physical impediments. Furthermore, participants struggled with social isolation and stigma, which was lessened through the conscious support of family. Advice from family doctors was also a very important facilitator to participants. In a health care delivery context that favors person-centered care, and in order to foster adherence to walking-based fibromyalgia treatments, it is recommended that therapeutic walking programs be tailored to each woman' individual circumstances, and developed in close collaboration with them to help them increase control over their health and their condition.

  6. Evidence-informed decision-making by professionals working in addiction agencies serving women: a descriptive qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse among mothers have been developed but not widely implemented. Implementation studies suggest that the adoption of evidence-based practices in the field of addictions remains low. There is a need, therefore, to better understand decision making processes in addiction agencies in order to develop more effective approaches to promote the translation of knowledge gained from addictions research into clinical practice. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore: 1 the types and sources of evidence used to inform practice-related decisions within Canadian addiction agencies serving women; 2 how decision makers at different levels report using research evidence; and 3 factors that influence evidence-informed decision making. A purposeful sample of 26 decision-makers providing addiction treatment services to women completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Interview data were coded and analyzed using directed and summative content analysis strategies as well as constant comparison techniques. Results Across all groups, individuals reported locating and using multiple types of evidence to inform decisions. Some decision-makers rely on their experiential knowledge of addiction and recovery in decision-making. Research evidence is often used directly in decision-making at program management and senior administrative levels. Information for decision-making is accessed from a range of sources, including web-based resources and experts in the field. Individual and organizational facilitators and barriers to using research evidence in decision making were identified. Conclusions There is support at administrative levels for integrating EIDM in addiction agencies. Knowledge transfer and exchange strategies should be focussed towards program managers and administrators and include capacity building for locating, appraising and using research evidence

  7. Primary care nursing activities with patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Ariane; Hudon, Catherine; Poitras, Marie-Eve; Roberge, Pasquale; Chouinard, Maud-Christine

    2017-05-01

    To describe nursing activities in primary care with patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders. Patients in primary care who are affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression require care and follow-up based on their physical and mental health condition. Primary care nurses are increasingly expected to contribute to the care and follow-up of this growing clientele. However, little is known about the actual activities carried out by primary care nurses in providing this service in the Province of Quebec (Canada). A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were obtained through semistructured individual interviews with 13 nurses practising among patients with physical chronic disease in seven Family Medicine Groups in Quebec (Canada). Participants described five activity domains: assessment of physical and mental health condition, care planning, interprofessional collaboration, therapeutic relationship and health promotion. The full potential of primary care nurses is not always exploited, and some activities could be improved. Evidence for including nurses in collaborative care for patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders has been shown but is not fully implemented in Family Medicine Groups. Future research should emphasise collaboration among mental health professionals, primary care nurses and family physicians in the care of patients with physical chronic disease and common mental disorders. Primary care nurses would benefit from gaining more knowledge about common mental disorders and from identifying the resources they need to contribute to managing them in an interdisciplinary team. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Qualitative description - the poor cousin of health research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited.The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples...... of use. DISCUSSION: Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients......', relatives' or professionals' experiences with a particular topic. Another great advantage of the method is that it is suitable if time or resources are limited. SUMMARY: As a consequence of the growth in qualitative research in the health sciences, researchers sometimes feel obliged to designate their work...

  9. A description of the "event manager" role in resuscitations: A qualitative study of interviews and focus groups of resuscitation participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine L; Parshuram, Christopher S; Ferri, Susan; Mema, Briseida

    2017-06-01

    Communication during resuscitation is essential for the provision of coordinated, effective care. Previously, we observed 44% of resuscitation communication originated from participants other than the physician team leader; 65% of which was directed to the team, exclusive of the team leader. We called this outer-loop communication. This institutional review board-approved qualitative study used grounded theory analysis of focus groups and interviews to describe and define outer-loop communication and the role of "event manager" as an additional "leader." Participants were health care staff involved in the medical management of resuscitations in a quaternary pediatric academic hospital. The following 3 domains were identified: the existence and rationale of outer-loop communication; the functions fulfilled by outer-loop communication; and the leadership and learning of event manager skills. The role was recognized by all team members and evolved organically as resuscitation complexity increased. A "good" manager has similar qualities to a "good team leader" with strong nontechnical skills. Event managers were not formally identified and no specific training had occurred. "Outer-loop" communication supports resuscitation activities. An event manager gives direction to the team, coordinates activities, and supports the team leader. We describe a new role in resuscitation in light of structural organizational theory and cognitive load with a view to incorporating this structure into resuscitation training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals for adolescent girls' wellbeing in northern Finland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Wellbeing is complex, holistic, and subjectively perceived. Issues such as gender, age, and environment seem to affect it. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals towards 13-16-year-old girls' wellbeing in Northern Finland. In the spring of 2014, through purposive sampling, a total of 19 girls participated in semi-structured interviews from various parts of Northern Finland. The data were analysed using content analysis. Afterwards, the analysis combining the category participatory involvement with environment was found, and this consisted of three main categories: adaptation to seasonal changes, restorative nature, and empowering interactivity with animals. Seasonal changes had an effect on girls' wellbeing; in the summertime, they felt happy and vivacious, active, and outgoing. Instead, during the winter months, girls' mood and activity seemed to be lower and they felt lazier and depressed. Nature brought mainly positive feelings to girls; being in nature was experienced as liberating and relaxing, and it offered opportunities to relax and have sensory perceptions. Interaction with animals was perceived as empowering. They were experienced as altruistic and comforting companions. Animals were important to girls, and they contributed to girls' lives through positive effects towards their mental and physical wellbeing. Based on the results of this study, we can recommend that being in nature and interacting with animals should be supported because they seem to have benefits towards adolescent girls' health and wellbeing. In order to facilitate the negative effects of winter, the school days should be arranged in such a way that it would be possible for girls to have outdoor activities during the daytime. The challenge for the future is perhaps the purposeful utilisation of nature's and the animals' positive effects towards their wellbeing.

  11. Social aspects of living with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative descriptive study in Soweto, South Africa – a low resource context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabile Esther

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic illness with important functional, social and employment consequences. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional study, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, to investigate the personal and social consequences of RA in women, living under largely impoverished conditions. Methods A qualitative case study design was used with a convenience sample of 60 women with RA living in Soweto, South Africa. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to cover a range of experiences including onset of disease, treatment, environmental barriers and facilitators, employment, and social inclusion in family and community life. The outcomes are described according the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability framework at the body, person and societal levels and looking at both personal and environmental factors. Results The main features of living with RA were pain, muscle stiffness at the body level, difficulties in doing various activities such as mobility, washing, dressing, domestic activities, using transport and obtaining and maintaining employment at the person level. At the societal level the participants described difficulties moving around, interacting socially and taking part in community activities, fulfilling social roles and earning a living. Environmental facilitators such as assistive devices and health care services improved functioning. Barriers such as physical environments, lack of transport and basic services, such as electricity, and attitudes of others lead to social exclusion, loss of a sense of self and independence. Low income, lack of sufficient public transport, and sparse basic services were poverty features that exacerbated negative experiences. Conclusion The experiences of living with RA in a low resource context are similar to those in mid- and high resource contexts, but are exacerbated by

  12. Understanding risk perceptions and responses of the public and health care professionals toward Clostridium difficile: A qualitative interpretive description study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Emma; Corlett, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection is a major health-related risk. How the public and health care professionals perceive and respond to a health-related risk is shaped by socially and contextually structured evaluations and interpretations. Risk perceptions and responses are context dependent and therefore need to be understood within the context in which they are perceived and experienced. This interpretive description study used 8 public focus groups (39 participants) and 7 health care professional focus groups (29 participants) in 2 geographic areas (an area that had experienced a C difficile outbreak and an area that had not). Both the public and health care professionals expressed varying concerns about the perceived consequences of C difficile occurring and the potential influence on emotional and physical health and well-being. In doing so, they drew upon a range of direct and indirect experiences and accounts from the media. Conceptual factors found to be important in influencing risk perceptions and responses included feelings of vulnerability, attribution of responsibility, judgments about competence, and evaluations of risk communicators. If risk management and communication strategies are to achieve desired responses toward C difficile and wider risks, those responsible for managing risk must consider already established risk perceptions in addition to factors that have influenced them. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sociocultural Determinants to Adoption of Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices in Nyakach, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Wasonga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of safe water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene has been lauded as one way of preventing diarrheal infections and improving health especially in developing countries. However, lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices in most parts of rural Kenya have posed a challenge that exposes the populace to diarrhea cases and possible deaths. In this regard, many nongovernmental organizations and governmental agencies have tried to provide water, sanitation, and hygiene services with poor results. This study was conducted using qualitative research methods in Central Nyakach in Kisumu County, Kenya. The methods were focus group discussions (FGD, key informant interviews (KII, and observation of homesteads. The data were then analyzed thematically. Findings revealed that water issues are gendered and its use is socially and culturally categorized. Water storage is affected by traditions such as use of a clay pot, while sanitation and hygiene issues are ritualized and bound by taboos. Latrines are majorly constructed by men and sharing the same with in-laws and older children is prohibited. Children faeces are thrown out in the open fields as a means of disposal and hand washing with soap is nonexistent, since it is believed that doing so would make a person lose the ability to rear livestock. The implications of these findings are that some of these sociocultural practices have a profound effect on health of the population. This affects health care delivery through high incidence rates of disease, encourages “unhealthy” environments through open defecation and pollution, and negates the government’s commitment to national and international policies on universal health care provision.

  14. Qualitative description - the poor cousin of health research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2009-01-01

    of use. DISCUSSION: Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients...

  15. Qualitative Description of Architectural Quality in Inclusive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla; Kajita, Masashi; Sørensen, Rene

    2016-01-01

    as reflects an applied method for producing the qualitative description of selected buildings that embody UD through creative solutions. The qualitative description of collected examples appears to be effective in delineating sensory aspects of spatial experience; however the systematic development...... of spatial implication of UD, this paper aims to contribute for articulating a means to assess the quality of UD in architecture. Drawing upon numerous cases from research conducted at the Danish Building Research Institute, the paper focuses on sensory aspects of spatial quality, and discusses as well...

  16. Perceptions of Breast Cancer Survivors on the Supporting Practices of Their Supervisors in the Return-to-Work Process: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Maryse; Durand, Marie-José; Tremblay, Dominique

    2017-03-07

    Purpose Supervisors are known to be key actors in ensuring the success of absent employees in their return-to-work process. However, to date, little is known about the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during this process. The objective of this study was to describe the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during their return-to-work process. Method A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with breast cancer survivors (n = 10) who had returned to work after treatment and were still at work more than 18 months later. Each interview was audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim for qualitative thematic content analysis using a semi-open codification framework. Results Participants identified three main practices put in place by their supervisors to support them and which they perceived as particularly helpful during the return-to-work process: (1) maintaining communication during their period of absence; (2) working with them to structure their return-to-work process before their actual return; and (3) allowing them flexibility in their schedule for a certain period, particularly at the beginning of the return-to-work process. Breast cancer survivors also identified an omission in the practice of employers: lack of follow-up over time. Conclusion Knowledge about the practices perceived as helpful by breast cancer survivors during their return-to-work process lays the groundwork for the eventual development of services to help breast cancer survivors in their return to work.

  17. An all time low utilization of intrauterine contraceptive device as a birth spacing method- a qualitative descriptive study in district Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Amna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan was among the leading countries in south Asia which started the family planning program in late 50s, forecasting the need to control the population. Despite this early intervention, fertility rate has declined but slower in Pakistan as compared to most other Asian countries. Pakistan has almost a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate for more than a decade now, perhaps owing to the inadequate performance of the family planning programs. The provision and use of long term contraceptives such as IUCD has always been low (around 2% and associated with numerous issues. Married women who want to wait before having another child, or end childbearing altogether, are not using any long term method of contraception. Methodology A descriptive qualitative study was conducted from May to July 2012, to explore and understand the perceptions of women regarding the use of IUCDs and to understand the challenges/issues at the service provider’s end. Six FGDs with community women and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with family planning providers. The data was analyzed using the Qualitative Content Analysis approach. Results The study revealed that the family planning clients are reluctant to use IUCDs because of a number of myths and misconceptions associated with the method. They have reservations about the provider’s capability and quality of care at the facility. Private health providers are not motivated and are reluctant to provide the IUCDs because of inadequate counseling skills, lack of competence and improper supporting infrastructure. Government programs either do not have enough supplies or trained staff to promote the IUCD utilization. Conclusion Besides a well-designed community awareness campaign, providers’ communication and counseling skills have to be enhanced, as these are major contributing factors in IUCD acceptance. Ongoing training of all family planning service providers in IUCD insertion is very

  18. Consumer providers' experiences of recovery and concerns as members of a psychiatric multidisciplinary outreach team: A qualitative descriptive study from the Japan Outreach Model Project 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to clarify consumer providers (CPs) subjective experiences as members of a psychiatric multidisciplinary outreach team that provided services to individuals with a mental illness living in the community. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was conducted through semi-structured interviews. Participants were clients hired as CPs in the Japanese Outreach Model Project from September 2011 until March 2014. Of the seventeen CPs, nine participated in this study. We looked at the CPs' subjective experiences of fulfillment and difficulty. Results In the process of providing services, CPs experienced both achievements and concerns. They had a sense of achievement by caring for their clients and they experienced that they themselves were recovering. They were also concerned about having inadequate knowledge and skills to provide psychiatric services to their clients. Further, there were concerns about their dual role on the multidisciplinary team and being support staff while they were still using mental health services themselves. Conclusion The results show that the activities of CPs included fulfillment, recovery, and dilemmas. Clarifications will likely contribute to an increase in understanding and cooperation between CPs and other professionals with whom they work. Further studies are needed to investigate policies related to mental health consumers who are also providers of mental health services. PMID:28257462

  19. Exploring awareness and help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in Ireland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of malignant and benign testicular disorders among young men is on the rise. Evidence from three reviews suggest that men's knowledge of these disorders is lacking and their help-seeking intention for testicular symptoms is suboptimal. Qualitative studies have addressed men's awareness of testicular cancer, with none exploring their awareness of non-malignant diseases such as epididymitis, testicular torsion, and varicocele and none including sexual minorities. To explore, in-depth, heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men's awareness of testicular disorders and their help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms in the Irish context. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Data were collected via face-to-face individual interviews and focus groups. Participation was sought from a number of community and youth organisations and one university in Southern Ireland. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit a heterogeneous sample. A total of 29 men partook in this study. Participants were men, aged between 18 and 50 years, and residents of the Republic of Ireland. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Reflective field notes were taken following each interview. A summary of the interview was shared with selected participants for member-check. Data were analysed and validated by three researchers. Inductive qualitative analysis of manifest content was used. Latent content was captured in the field notes. Data analysis yielded two key themes. The themes that emerged from the interviews were: Awareness of testicular disorders and their screening, and help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms. Although most participants heard of testicular cancer, most did not know the different aspects of this malignancy including its risk factors, symptoms, treatments, and screening. Several men had a number of misconceptions around testicular disorders which negatively impacted their intentions to seek prompt help

  20. Exploring men's preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18-47 years. Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used. Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives, ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies). Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Personal health promotion at US medical schools: a quantitative study and qualitative description of deans' and students' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon Lisa K

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior literature has shown that physicians with healthy personal habits are more likely to encourage patients to adopt similar habits. However, despite the possibility that promoting medical student health might therefore efficiently improve patient outcomes, no one has studied whether such promotion happens in medical school. We therefore wished to describe both typical and outstanding personal health promotion environments experienced by students in U.S. medical schools. Methods We collected information through four different modalities: a literature review, written surveys of medical school deans and students, student and dean focus groups, and site visits at and interviews with medical schools with reportedly outstanding student health promotion programs. Results We found strong correlations between deans' and students' perceptions of their schools' health promotion environments, including consistent support of the idea of schools' encouraging healthy student behaviors, with less consistent follow-through by schools on this concept. Though students seemed to have thought little about the relationships between their own personal and clinical health promotion practices, deans felt strongly that faculty members should model healthy behaviors. Conclusions Deans' support of the relationship between physicians' personal and clinical health practices, and concern about their institutions' acting on this relationship augurs well for the role of student health promotion in the future of medical education. Deans seem to understand their students' health environment, and believe it could and should be improved; if this is acted on, it could create important positive changes in medical education and in disease prevention.

  2. Qualitative Description of Obscuration Factors in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    enviroments , In late 1977 the Army Vice Chief of Staff expressed concern about the use of realistic battlefield enviromental conditions throughout the Army...are discussed in the chapter on natural obscurants. Battlefield ohscurants are dust, smoke , and fire resulting from battle and intentional smoke . The...APPENDIX B. QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF SMOKE ......... 102 1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS....... . ........ 102 2. DISSEMINATION AO,.4.........,.,.,. , 103

  3. Maternal health care professionals' perspectives on the provision and use of antenatal and delivery care: a qualitative descriptive study in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krantz Gunilla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High quality maternal health care is an important tool to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Services offered should be evidence based and adapted to the local setting. This qualitative descriptive study explored the perspectives and experiences of midwives, assistant physicians and medical doctors on the content and quality of maternal health care in rural Vietnam. Method The study was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Four focus group discussions with health care professionals at primary health care level were conducted. The data was analysed using qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Result Two main themes emerged: "Contextual conditions for maternal health care" and "Balancing between possibilities and constraints". Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women's use of maternal health care and health care professionals' performance. The study participants stated that women's uses of maternal health care were influenced by economical constraints and cultural norms that impeded their autonomy in relation to childbearing. Structural constraints within the health care system included inadequate financing of the primary health care, resulting in lack of human resources, professional re-training and adequate equipment. Conclusion Contextual conditions strongly influenced the performance and interaction between pregnant women and health care professionals within antenatal care and delivery care in a rural district of Vietnam. Although Vietnam is performing comparatively well in terms of low maternal and child mortality figures, this study revealed midwives' and other health care professionals' perceived difficulties in their daily work. It seemed maternal health care was under-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and continuing education activities. The cultural setting in Vietnam constituting a strong patriarchal society and prevailing Confucian norms limits women's autonomy and

  4. Interpretive description: a noncategorical qualitative alternative for developing nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, S; Kirkham, S R; MacDonald-Emes, J

    1997-04-01

    Despite nursing's enthusiastic endorsement of the applicability of qualitative research approaches to answering relevant clinical questions, many nurse researchers have been hesitant to depart from traditional qualitative research methods. While various derivations of phenomenology, grounded theory, and ethnography have been popularized within qualitative nursing research, the methodological principles upon which these approaches are based reflect the foundations and objectives of disciplines whose aims are sometimes quite distinct from nursing's domain of inquiry. Thus, as many nurse researchers have discovered, nursing's unique knowledge mandate may not always be well served by strict adherence to traditional methods as the "gold standard" for qualitative nursing research. The authors present the point of view that a non-categorical description, drawing on principles grounded in nursing's epistemological mandate, may be an appropriate methodological alternative for credible research toward the development of nursing science. They propose a coherent set of strategies for conceptual orientation, sampling, data construction, analysis, and reporting by which nurses can use an interpretive descriptive approach to develop knowledge about human health and illness experience phenomena without sacrificing the theoretical or methodological integrity that the traditional qualitative approaches provide.

  5. Stakeholders' Perceptions Sought to Inform the Development of a Low-Cost Mobile Robot for Older Adults: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefcik, Justine S; Johnson, Michelle J; Yim, Mark; Lau, Tessa; Vivio, Nicholas; Mucchiani, Caio; Cacchione, Pamela Z

    2017-09-01

    Creative solutions are needed to support community-dwelling older adults residing in a variety of settings including their house, apartment, or Supportive Apartment Living (SAL) to promote independence and reduce the risk of nursing home replacement. The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of older adults' needs for physical, mental, and social activities to support the design and functionality of a low-cost mobile assistive robot. A qualitative descriptive study was designed which included three stakeholder focus groups (caregivers, clinicians, and older adults). We held three focus groups with a total of 19 participants: one with paid caregivers ( n = 6), one with interdisciplinary clinicians ( n = 8), and one with older adults residing in SAL ( n = 5). Conventional content analysis was the analytical technique. Four themes emerged: (a) Accomplishing Everyday Tasks: activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were important from the perspectives of all three groups for the older adults to accomplish daily, as well as the "use it or lose it" attitude of the older adults; (b) Personal Connections and Meaningful Activities: for the older adults, it was important for them to engage in socialization and leisure activities, and for the caregivers and clinicians, they work to build personal relationships with the older adults; (c) Cognitive Interventions: the clinicians provided cognitive tools (including reminders, routine and designing interventions) to older adults so they can remain as safe and independent as possible in the SAL; and (d) Safety Measures: encompassed clinicians addressing safety and injury prevention and the caregivers checking in on the older adults in their SAL apartments. This work contributed to the design and functionality specifications for an autonomous low-cost mobile robot for deployment to increase the independence of older adults.

  6. Qualitative Description of Spatial Quality in Inclusive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla; Kajita, Masashi; Sørensen, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Universal design (UD) has gained global significance and is in the process of institutionalisation in the Nordic Region. This is despite an urgent necessity for developing the theoretical basis and practical applicability of UD. Reflecting this need for furthering the comprehensive understanding...... of spatial implication of UD, this paper aims to contribute for articulating a means to assess the quality of UD in architecture. Drawing upon numerous cases from research conducted at the Danish Building Research Institute, the paper focuses on sensory aspects of spatial quality, and discusses as well...... as reflects an applied method for producing the qualitative description of selected buildings that embody UD through creative solutions. The qualitative description of collected examples appears to be effective in delineating sensory aspects of spatial experience; however the systematic development...

  7. Navigating communication with families during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in intensive care: a qualitative descriptive study in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Endacott, Ruth; Ranse, Kristen; Coombs, Maureen A

    2017-03-01

    To explore how nurses navigate communication with families during withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in intensive care. Death in the intensive care unit is seldom unexpected and often happens following the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. A family-centred approach to care relies on the development of a therapeutic relationship and understanding of what is happening to the patient. Whilst previous research has focused on the transition from cure to palliation and the nurse's role in supporting families, less is known about how nurses navigate communication with families during treatment withdrawal. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with adult critical care nurses from four intensive care units, two in Australia and two in New Zealand. Twenty-one nurses participated in the study. Inductive content analysis revealed five key themes relating to how nurses navigate family communication: (1) establishing the WHO; (2) working out HOW; (3) judging WHEN; (4) assessing the WHAT; and (5) WHERE these skills were learnt. Navigating an approach to family communication during treatment withdrawal is a complex and multifaceted nursing activity that is known to contribute to family satisfaction with care. There is need for support and ongoing education opportunities that develop the art of communication in this frequently encountered aspect of end-of-life care. How nurses navigate communication with families during treatment withdrawal is just as important as what is communicated. Nurses need access to supports and education opportunities in order to be able to perform this vital role. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Perceptions of barriers, facilitators and motivators related to use of prenatal care: A qualitative descriptive study of inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Sword, Wendy; Elliott, Lawrence; Moffatt, Michael; Helewa, Michael E; Morris, Heather; Tjaden, Lynda; Gregory, Patricia; Cook, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of women living in inner-city Winnipeg, Canada, about barriers, facilitators, and motivators related to their use of prenatal care. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person with 26 pregnant or postpartum women living in inner-city neighborhoods with high rates of inadequate prenatal care. Interviews averaged 67 min in length. Recruitment of participants continued until data saturation was achieved. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes under four broad topics of interest (barriers, facilitators, motivators, and suggestions). Sword's socio-ecological model of health services use provided the theoretical framework for the research. This model conceptualizes service use as a product of two interacting systems: the personal and situational attributes of potential users and the characteristics of health services. Half of the women in our sample were single and half self-identified as Aboriginal. Participants discussed several personal and system-related barriers affecting use of prenatal care, such as problems with transportation and child care, lack of prenatal care providers, and inaccessible services. Facilitating factors included transportation assistance, convenient location of services, positive care provider qualities, and tangible rewards. Women were motivated to attend prenatal care to gain knowledge and skills and to have a healthy baby. Consistent with the theoretical framework, women's utilization of prenatal care was a product of two interacting systems, with several barriers related to personal and situational factors affecting women's lives, while other barriers were related to problems with service delivery and the broader healthcare system. Overcoming barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate women to seek prenatal care despite difficult living circumstances may help improve use of prenatal

  9. Perceptions of barriers, facilitators and motivators related to use of prenatal care: A qualitative descriptive study of inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen I Heaman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of women living in inner-city Winnipeg, Canada, about barriers, facilitators, and motivators related to their use of prenatal care. Methods: Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person with 26 pregnant or postpartum women living in inner-city neighborhoods with high rates of inadequate prenatal care. Interviews averaged 67 min in length. Recruitment of participants continued until data saturation was achieved. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes under four broad topics of interest (barriers, facilitators, motivators, and suggestions. Sword’s socio-ecological model of health services use provided the theoretical framework for the research. This model conceptualizes service use as a product of two interacting systems: the personal and situational attributes of potential users and the characteristics of health services. Results: Half of the women in our sample were single and half self-identified as Aboriginal. Participants discussed several personal and system-related barriers affecting use of prenatal care, such as problems with transportation and child care, lack of prenatal care providers, and inaccessible services. Facilitating factors included transportation assistance, convenient location of services, positive care provider qualities, and tangible rewards. Women were motivated to attend prenatal care to gain knowledge and skills and to have a healthy baby. Conclusion: Consistent with the theoretical framework, women’s utilization of prenatal care was a product of two interacting systems, with several barriers related to personal and situational factors affecting women’s lives, while other barriers were related to problems with service delivery and the broader healthcare system. Overcoming barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate women to seek prenatal care

  10. [Qualitative case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to develop a descriptive framework (e.g. a draft table of contents) for organising the case study, whilst not pre-empting outcomes before the data...has been fully analysed. Such a framework can help the analyst with organising the data as well as with developing a story line [48]. As...Publications Repository http://dspace.dsto.defence.gov.au/dspace/ 14. RELEASE AUTHORITY Chief, Joint and Operations Analysis Division 15

  12. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  13. [Molluscum contagiosum: descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; Acevedo, A; de Las Heras, C; Pérez-Pérez, L; Suárez-Amor, O; Ginarte, M

    2010-02-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection that often requires assistance. The aim of our study is to review the cases admitted in our clinic, evaluate the epidemiological features and the treatment prescribed. We conducted a descriptive survey of the patients diagnosed of molluscum contagiosum in our clinic (Complexo Hospitalario Arquitecto Marcide-Novoa Santos, Ferrol, Spain) between June 16th 2008 and January 15th 2009. The following dates were recorded in all cases: age, sex, personal history of atopy, swimming pool attendance, number of lesions and treatment prescribed. 140 cases of molluscum contagiosum were included in the study. Average age was 10.7 years. 51.43% of patients had a personal history of atopy and 72.1% used to attendance swimming-pool. Average number of lesions was 13.3, with a higher number of them in males, atopic and swimming-pool attendants. Curettage was the treatment performed in 86.4% of cases. Atopic dermatitis and swimming-pool attendance were associated in our study with a higher frequency and number of molluscum contagiosum. Although different therapeutic options must be evaluated depending on the patient and clinical skills, curettage is the most frequent treatment performed by dermatologists.

  14. Experiences of male patients and wife-caregivers in the first year post-discharge following minor stroke: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Theresa L; King, Kathryn M

    2009-09-01

    Most patients with minor stroke are discharged directly home from acute care, under the assumption that little will be required in the way of adaptation and adjustment because informal caregivers will manage the stroke recovery process. We explored male patients with minor stroke and their wife-caregivers' perceptions of factors affecting quality of life and caregiver strain encountered during the first year post-discharge. Data were obtained from responses to two open-ended questions, part of quality of life and caregiver strain scales administered to participants in a larger descriptive study. Conventional content analysis was used to assess narrative accounts of living with minor stroke provided by 26 male patients and their wife-caregivers over a period of 1-year post-discharge. Two major themes that emerged from these data were 'being vulnerable' and 'realization'. Subthemes that arose within the vulnerability theme included changes to patients' masculine image and wife-caregivers' assumption of a hyper-vigilance role. In terms of 'realization' patients and their wife-caregivers shared 'loss' as well as 'changing self and relationships'. Patients in this study focused primarily on their physical recovery and their perceptions of necessary changes. Wife-caregivers were actively involved in managing the day-to-day demands that stroke placed on individual, family and social roles. We conclude that patients and wife-caregivers expend considerable time and energy reestablishing control of their lives following minor stroke in an attempt to incorporate changes to self and their relationship into the fabric of their lives.

  15. Qualitative Description of Global Health Nursing Competencies by Nursing Faculty in Africa and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynda; Moran, Laura; Zarate, Rosa; Warren, Nicole; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze qualitative comments from four surveys asking nursing faculty to rate the importance of 30 global health competencies for undergraduate nursing programs. Method: qualitative descriptive study that included 591 individuals who responded to the survey in English (49 from Africa and 542 from the Americas), 163 who responded to the survey in Spanish (all from Latin America), and 222 Brazilian faculty who responded to the survey in Portuguese. Qualitative comments were recorded at the end of the surveys by 175 respondents to the English survey, 75 to the Spanish survey, and 70 to the Portuguese survey. Qualitative description and a committee approach guided data analysis. Results: ten new categories of global health competencies emerged from the analysis. Faculty also demonstrated concern about how and when these competencies could be integrated into nursing curricula. Conclusion: the additional categories should be considered for addition to the previously identified global health competencies. These, in addition to the guidance about integration into existing curricula, can be used to guide refinement of the original list of global health competencies. Further research is needed to seek consensus about these competencies and to develop recommendations and standards to guide nursing curriculum development. PMID:27276020

  16. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  17. Labour: A Prospective, Descriptive Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symphysis Fundus Height Measurements during Labour: A Prospective, Descriptive Study 49. Introduction ... 800g in about 50% of cases,2 and in term preg- nancies to be as .... Discussion. Prematurity and low birthweight are major causes.

  18. Providing Daily Oral Infection Control to Persons Dependent on others for Activities of Daily Living: A Semi-Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Dinsmore, Rebecca R; Meckstroth, Richard; Marshall, William

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate caregiver assessment of the ease of use of a specially designed toothbrush for providing daily oral infection control (toothbrushing) to persons dependent upon others for activities of daily living. Method Eighty-eight caregivers accepted surveys and multi-surface toothbrushes to provide daily oral infection control to the person to whom they assisted. They were asked to evaluate the ease of use of the multi-surface toothbrush, and provide comments about it. Results There were 30 surveys returned (34.1% response rate). In terms of the ease of use, 90.0% of the caregivers agreed (63.3% strongly agreed, and 26.7% agreed) that the multi-surface toothbrush was easier to use than their previous toothbrush. Comments about the toothbrush were predominantly positive. Conclusion It is difficult to provide daily oral infection control to another individual. Having an efficient oral health aid which makes it easier to do so is important to caregivers. With the overwhelming positive response to the multi-surface toothbrush, it is important to disseminate the information about its ease of use. PMID:28191548

  19. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  20. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...... of clinical language for IT-development of clinical documents is a well-known challenge to health care authorities and to clinical users. The theoretical foundation of the method is the critical hermeneutic of Paul Ricoeur (1978, 1981, 1988, 2002), Don Ihde (1996) Inger Lytje (2000), and Joseph Dunne (1993...

  1. A Qualitative Description of Boundary Layer Wind Speed Records

    CERN Document Server

    Kavasseri, R G; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of the atmosphere endows it with the property of turbulence by virtue of which, wind speed variations in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) exhibit highly irregular fluctuations that persist over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Despite the large and significant body of work on microscale turbulence, understanding the statistics of atmospheric wind speed variations has proved to be elusive and challenging. Knowledge about the nature of wind speed at ABL has far reaching impact on several fields of research such as meteorology, hydrology, agriculture, pollutant dispersion, and more importantly wind energy generation. In the present study, temporal wind speed records from twenty eight stations distributed through out the state of North Dakota (ND, USA), ($\\sim$ 70,000 square-miles) and spanning a period of nearly eight years are analyzed. We show that these records exhibit a characteristic broad multifractal spectrum irrespective of the geographical location and topography. The rapi...

  2. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  3. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  4. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  5. Improving science teaching in multicultural settings: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Kean, Elizabeth

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study of a collaboration between the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the administration and science teachers of the Omaha (Nebraska) Public Schools to improve the learning environment in multicultural science classrooms. The study of the summer workshops and follow-up interactions is described, along with a description of the changes in teacher attitudes and beliefs toward culturally diverse students. The three major themes of the workshops (multicultural understanding, cooperative learning, and problem solving as a source of content) are presented. Qualitative data sources are used to describe and interpret the changes in teacher interactions with minority students that were observed during a three-year period.

  6. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies and "unrelated" qualitative studies contributed to complex intervention reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Margaret; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Chandler, Jackie; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-06-01

    To compare the contribution of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies in complex intervention reviews. Researchers are using qualitative "trial-sibling" studies undertaken alongside trials to provide explanations to understand complex interventions. In the absence of qualitative "trial-sibling" studies, it is not known if qualitative studies "unrelated" to trials are helpful. Trials, "trial-sibling," and "unrelated" qualitative studies looking at three health system interventions were identified. We looked for similarities and differences between the two types of qualitative studies, such as participants, intervention delivery, context, study quality and reporting, and contribution to understanding trial results. Reporting was generally poor in both qualitative study types. We detected no substantial differences in participant characteristics. Interventions in qualitative "trial-sibling" studies were delivered using standardized protocols, whereas interventions in "unrelated" qualitative studies were delivered in routine care. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies alone provided insufficient data to develop meaningful transferrable explanations beyond the trial context, and their limited focus on immediate implementation did not address all phenomena of interest. Together, "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies provided larger, richer data sets across contexts to better understand the phenomena of interest. Findings support inclusion of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies to explore complexity in complex intervention reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  8. Qualitative Description of Global Health Nursing Competencies by Nursing Faculty in Africa and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynda; Moran, Laura; Zarate, Rosa; Warren, Nicole; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2016-06-07

    to analyze qualitative comments from four surveys asking nursing faculty to rate the importance of 30 global health competencies for undergraduate nursing programs. qualitative descriptive study that included 591 individuals who responded to the survey in English (49 from Africa and 542 from the Americas), 163 who responded to the survey in Spanish (all from Latin America), and 222 Brazilian faculty who responded to the survey in Portuguese. Qualitative comments were recorded at the end of the surveys by 175 respondents to the English survey, 75 to the Spanish survey, and 70 to the Portuguese survey. Qualitative description and a committee approach guided data analysis. ten new categories of global health competencies emerged from the analysis. Faculty also demonstrated concern about how and when these competencies could be integrated into nursing curricula. the additional categories should be considered for addition to the previously identified global health competencies. These, in addition to the guidance about integration into existing curricula, can be used to guide refinement of the original list of global health competencies. Further research is needed to seek consensus about these competencies and to develop recommendations and standards to guide nursing curriculum development. analisar os dados qualitativos obtidos em quatro surveys realizados com docentes de enfermagem que avaliaram a importância de 30 competências em saúde global para cursos de graduação em enfermagem. pesquisa qualitativa-descritiva com 591 indivíduos que responderam ao survey em inglês (49 da África e 542 das Américas), 163 que responderam ao survey em espanhol (todos da América Latina), e 222 docentes brasileiros que responderam ao survey em português. Os comentários qualitativos foram registrados ao final dos surveys por 175 respondentes na língua inglesa, 75 na espanhola e 70 na portuguesa. A análise dos dados foi dirigida por uma descrição qualitativa e desenvolvido

  9. It’s not just a knee, but a whole life: A qualitative descriptive study on patients’ experiences of living with knee osteoarthritis and their expectations for knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyvang, Josefina; Hedström, Margareta; Gleissman, Sissel Andreassen

    2016-01-01

    Aim Knee arthroplasties are an increasingly common treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) and the main indication is pain. Previous research states, however, that 15–20% of the operated patients are dissatisfied and 20–30% have persistent pain after surgery. This study is aimed at describing patients’ experiences of living with knee OA when scheduled for surgery and further their expectations for future life after surgery. Methods We interviewed 12 patients with knee OA scheduled for arthroplasty, using semi-structured qualitative interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Findings Three categories were formulated with an overriding theme: “It's not just a knee, but a whole life.” The three categories were “Change from their earlier lives,” “Coping with knee problems,” and “Ultimate decision to undergo surgery.” The main finding was that knee OA affects the whole body and self, ultimately affecting the patients’ lives on many levels. Further findings were that knee OA was considered to be the central focus in the participants’ lives, which limited their level of activity, their ability to function as desired, their quality of life, and their mental well-being. Although surgery was considered to be the only solution, the expectations regarding the outcome differed. Conclusions The participants were forced to change how they previously had lived their lives resulting in a feeling of loss. Thus, the experienced loss and expectations for future life must be put into the context of the individual's own personality and be taken into account when treating individuals with knee OA. The experience of living with knee OA largely varies between individuals. This mandates that patients’ assessment should be considered on individual basis with regard to each patient. PMID:27036130

  10. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    Method Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation ... KEYWORDS: qualitative, interpretive, case study, systems theory, methodology. INTRODUCTION ..... Maidenhead: Open University Press. Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, ...

  11. Transcending chronic liver disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-01-01

    This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.

  12. Study area description: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mary M.; Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    The boundary for the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) was largely determined by the co-occurrence of some of the largest tracts of intact sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) remaining in the western United States with areas of increasing resource extraction. The WBEA area includes two ecoregions in their entirety, Wyoming Basins and Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains, and portions of two others (Southern Rocky Mountains and Middle Rockies-Blue Mountains). Over half the study area is in Wyoming; the remainder includes parts of Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Private landowners manage most (33.1%) of the land base in the WBEA, followed by the U.S. Forest Service (27.3%) and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (25.6%). Sagebrush is the dominant land cover type in the study area, totaling >130,000 km2 ; nearly half the sagebrush in the WBEA is managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Sagebrush in the WBEA faces many potential threats that also influence the broader sagebrush ecosystem. Climate change, drought, land-use practices (e.g., livestock grazing, oil and gas development), and human development have eliminated and fragmented the sagebrush ecosystem, altered fire regimes, and accelerated the invasion of exotic plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Less than 2% of sagebrush in the WBEA is permanently protected from land cover conversion.

  13. Doing Qualitative Studies, Using Statistical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative studies are associated with interviews, focus groups and observations. We introduce experiments as a way of dealing with such studies. In contrast to the common focus on how many respondents choose a particular behaviour we focus on how much a design affect the individual. This is oft...

  14. Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…

  15. Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, K.; Czabanowska, K.; Brand, H.

    2015-01-01

    [PDF] Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study K Sørensen, K Czabanowska, H Brand - Occup Med Health Aff, 2015 ... Corresponding author: Kristine Sørensen, Assistant Professor, Department of International Health/CAPHRI, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.Tel: +31433881717; Fax

  16. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the...

  17. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  18. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kohlbacher

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is ...

  19. Parental behaviour in paediatric chronic pain: a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Emma; Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Parental behaviour appears to influence the adjustment of children with chronic pain. However, research in this area has failed to produce consistent evidence. Studies have tended to rely on self-report measures derived from adult pain populations. This qualitative, observational research provides descriptive data of parental behaviour in a clinical environment. A qualitative observational study was made of parents and adolescents in a physically stressful setting. Modified grounded theory was used to analyse verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Eight parent-adolescent dyads seeking treatment for chronic pain were videoed during physical exercise sessions. Verbal and non-verbal behaviours were recorded and transcribed. Four overarching categories emerged: 'monitoring', 'protecting', 'encouraging' and 'instructing'. These often had both verbal and non-verbal aspects. Within these categories, more precise behavioural groups were also identified. This research identifies categories of parental behaviour that were derived directly from observation, rather than imposed on the basis of results from different populations. Four categories of behaviour were derived, which clarify and extend dimensions used in existing self-report instruments. Careful description of parental behaviours showed features that past research has neglected, and highlighted potential drawbacks of apparently positive parental actions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Hand-Washing Practices of Women; a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Hisar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out as a qualitative research in order to determine hand-washing practices of women living a Health Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. METHOT: The population of the research was made up of married women living in Number 2 Health Care Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. The current study is a qualitative research and carried out through purposive sampling method. Data was collected through in-depth interview method for the descriptive statistics, number, percentile frequency and mean were used for the descriptive statistics and content analysis was used for the analysis of qualitative data. RESULTS: The mean age of the women included in the research was =29.86. It was found that 40% of the women were graduates of a primary school and 86.7% had a nuclear family structure. Almost half of the families experienced frequent diarrhea, and almost all of the families often had a common cold / flu. Eighty percent of the women thought that hand washing protected them against common cold, and 66.7% reported that it protected urinary tract and genital area against diseases. On the other hand, 66.7% of the women reported that they did not know anything about the fact that using a towel commonly causes infections. Forty percent of the women expressed that they were able to make the family members wash their hands before meals, 73% did it after toilet while 40% was able to make them wash their hands when they came home. CONCLUSION: In this study it was determined that women do not pay enough attention to hand-washing. Depending on these results, it is suggested that in this first step, educational studies about the hand-washing should be made widespread. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 537-544

  1. Quantitative versus qualitative modeling: a complementary approach in ecosystem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondavalli, C; Favilla, S; Bodini, A

    2009-02-01

    Natural disturbance or human perturbation act upon ecosystems by changing some dynamical parameters of one or more species. Foreseeing these modifications is necessary before embarking on an intervention: predictions may help to assess management options and define hypothesis for interventions. Models become valuable tools for studying and making predictions only when they capture types of interactions and their magnitude. Quantitative models are more precise and specific about a system, but require a large effort in model construction. Because of this very often ecological systems remain only partially specified and one possible approach to their description and analysis comes from qualitative modelling. Qualitative models yield predictions as directions of change in species abundance but in complex systems these predictions are often ambiguous, being the result of opposite actions exerted on the same species by way of multiple pathways of interactions. Again, to avoid such ambiguities one needs to know the intensity of all links in the system. One way to make link magnitude explicit in a way that can be used in qualitative analysis is described in this paper and takes advantage of another type of ecosystem representation: ecological flow networks. These flow diagrams contain the structure, the relative position and the connections between the components of a system, and the quantity of matter flowing along every connection. In this paper it is shown how these ecological flow networks can be used to produce a quantitative model similar to the qualitative counterpart. Analyzed through the apparatus of loop analysis this quantitative model yields predictions that are by no means ambiguous, solving in an elegant way the basic problem of qualitative analysis. The approach adopted in this work is still preliminary and we must be careful in its application.

  2. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE TEACHER TALK AT EYL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liani Setiawati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners,  most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk  and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also  interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students

  3. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE TEACHER TALK AT EYL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liani Setiawati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive teacher talk (TT is very important and effective in scaffolding young learners to improve their skill in target language. Nevertheless, there is an argument that too much teacher talk can even decrease students’ motivation. The present study tries to reveal the suitable amount and the students’ perception of teacher talk. Apart from that, there is an attempt to find out the features of teacher talk, the frequency of either display and referential questions or teachers’ assessments and ways in giving feedback. This descriptive study is conducted to find out how teachers make use of their teacher talk naturally in classroom settings. To gain deeper insight and understanding, both qualitative and quantitative research design were employed. The qualitative data were obtained through direct observation and teachers – students’ interview. Moreover, the teachers – students’ questionnaire, video recording and field notes also added significant value towards the findings of this study. Quantitative data, on the other hand, were gained from the calculation of students’ questionnaire scores which are represented in percentage. Both qualitative and quantitative data were coded, categorized, interpreted, descriptively described and finally displayed in the form of tables. The research findings show that despite the teacher talk’s capability to be good model for young learners, most students found the class more motivating, interesting, and challenging when the teachers minimized their teacher talk and made use not only more constructive teacher talk but also interesting activities. In conclusion, since teacher talk serves not only as a medium to achieve young learners’s learning objectives but also as a tool to build better dynamic interaction between teacher and students in classroom settings, it is advisable for all EFL teachers to improve their effective constructive talk towards their students.

  4. The use of qualitative methods in developing the descriptive systems of preference-based measures of health-related quality of life for use in economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Katherine; Palfreyman, Simon

    2012-12-01

    To describe how qualitative methods can be used in the development of descriptive systems of preference-based measures (PBMs) of health-related quality of life. The requirements of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and other agencies together with the increasing use of patient-reported outcome measures has led to an increase in the demand for PBMs. Recently, interest has grown in developing new PBMs and while previous research on PBMs has mainly focused on the methods of valuation, research into the methods of developing descriptive systems is an emerging field. Traditionally, descriptive systems of PBMs were developed by using top-down methods, where content was derived from existing measures, the literature, or health surveys. A contrasting approach is a bottom-up methodology, which takes the views of patients or laypeople on how their life is affected by their health. This approach generally requires the use of qualitative methods. Qualitative methods lend themselves well to the development of PBMs. They also ensure that the measure has appropriate language, content validity, and responsiveness to change. While the use of qualitative methods in the development of non-PBMs is fairly standard, their use in developing PBMs was until recently nonexistent. In this article, we illustrate the use of qualitative methods by presenting two case studies of recently developed PBMs, one generic and one condition specific. We outline the stages involved, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the approach, and compare with the top-down approach used in the majority of PBMs to date. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. General practitioners learning qualitative research: A case study of postgraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Julie; Kay, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly being recognised as a vital aspect of primary healthcare research. Teaching and learning how to conduct qualitative research is especially important for general practitioners and other clinicians in the professional educational setting. This article examines a case study of postgraduate professional education in qualitative research for clinicians, for the purpose of enabling a robust discussion around teaching and learning in medicine and the health sciences. A series of three workshops was delivered for primary healthcare academics. The workshops were evaluated using a quantitative survey and qualitative free-text responses to enable descriptive analyses. Participants found qualitative philosophy and theory the most difficult areas to engage with, and learning qualitative coding and analysis was considered the easiest to learn. Key elements for successful teaching were identified, including the use of adult learning principles, the value of an experienced facilitator and an awareness of the impact of clinical subcultures on learning.

  6. Higher Education Teachers' Descriptions of Their Own Learning: A Large-Scale Study of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töytäri, Aija; Piirainen, Arja; Tynjälä, Päivi; Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Mäki, Kimmo; Ilves, Vesa

    2016-01-01

    In this large-scale study, higher education teachers' descriptions of their own learning were examined with qualitative analysis involving application of principles of phenomenographic research. This study is unique: it is unusual to use large-scale data in qualitative studies. The data were collected through an e-mail survey sent to 5960 teachers…

  7. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  8. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. Th...

  9. Qualitative longitudinal study of micro-entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rövekamp, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative longitudinal study 30 founders from small companies – small busi-nesses, liberal professions and self-employed – were examined. Types of successful and less successful founders are constructed, which are posed with factors of suc-cess. On the one hand the typology is based on material and immaterial personal goals that are pursued with the start up, on the other hand on biographical striv-ings: (1A) conventional enterpriser or persons who are (1B) double- and multio-riented, ...

  10. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  11. Can digital stories go where palliative care research has never gone before? A descriptive qualitative study exploring the application of an emerging public health research method in an indigenous palliative care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa; Gott, Merryn; Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Black, Stella; Kothari, Shuchi; Pearson, Sarina; Morgan, Tessa; Wharemate, Matua Rawiri; Hansen, Whaea Whio

    2017-09-04

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for global approaches to palliative care development. Yet it is questionable whether one-size-fits-all solutions can accommodate international disparities in palliative care need. More flexible research methods are called for in order to understand diverse priorities at local levels. This is especially imperative for Indigenous populations and other groups underrepresented in the palliative care evidence-base. Digital storytelling (DST) offers the potential to be one such method. Digital stories are short first-person videos that tell a story of great significance to the creator. The method has already found a place within public health research and has been described as a useful, emergent method for community-based participatory research. The aim of this study was to explore Māori participants' views on DST's usefulness, from an Indigenous perspective, as a research method within the discipline of palliative care. The digital storytelling method was adapted to include Māori cultural protocols. Data capturing participant experience of the study were collected using participant observation and anonymous questionnaires. Eight participants, seven women and one man, took part. Field notes and questionnaire data were analysed using critical thematic analysis. Two main themes were identified during analyses: 1) issues that facilitated digital storytelling's usefulness as a research method for Māori reporting on end of life caregiving; and 2) issues that hindered this process. All subthemes identified: recruitment, the pōwhiri process, (Māori formal welcome of visitors) and technology, related to both main themes and are presented in this way. Digital storytelling is an emerging method useful for exploring Indigenous palliative care issues. In line with a Health Promoting Palliative Care approach that centres research in communities, it helps meet the need for diverse approaches to involve underrepresented groups.

  12. Nursing Students' Experiences of the Empathy of Their Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Kristina; Kyngäs, Helvi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nursing students' experiences of empathy of nursing teachers with the emphasis on how experiencing empathy from their teachers influences students, their learning and professional development. This research was a qualitative descriptive study conducted through face-to-face interviews with nursing students.…

  13. Nursing Students' Experiences of the Empathy of Their Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Kristina; Kyngäs, Helvi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nursing students' experiences of empathy of nursing teachers with the emphasis on how experiencing empathy from their teachers influences students, their learning and professional development. This research was a qualitative descriptive study conducted through face-to-face interviews with nursing students.…

  14. Multiple dimensions of peer influence in adolescent romantic and sexual relationships: a descriptive, qualitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.

  15. Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs.

  16. Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, M M; Läng, M; Aujesky, D; Marschall, J

    2016-07-01

    Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is widespread and may result in antibiotic side-effects, excess costs to the healthcare system, and may potentially trigger antimicrobial resistance. According to international management guidelines, ASB is not an indication for antibiotic treatment (with few exceptions). To determine reasons for using antibiotics to treat ASB in the absence of a treatment indication. A qualitative study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland during 2011. We interviewed 21 internal medicine residents and attending physicians selected by purposive sampling, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Responses were analysed in an inductive thematic content approach using dedicated software (MAXQDA(®)). In the 21 interviews, the following thematic rationales for antibiotic overtreatment of ASB were reported (in order of reporting frequency): (i) treating laboratory findings without taking the clinical picture into account (N = 17); (ii) psychological factors such as anxiety, overcautiousness, or anticipated positive impact on patient outcomes (N = 13); (iii) external pressors such as institutional culture, peer pressure, patient expectation, and excessive workload that interferes with proper decision-making (N = 9); (iv) difficulty with interpreting clinical signs and symptoms (N = 8). In this qualitative study we identified both physician-centred factors (e.g. overcautiousness) and external pressors (e.g. excessive workload) as motivators for prescribing unnecessary antibiotics. Also, we interpreted the frequently cited practice of treating asymptomatic patients based on laboratory findings alone as lack of awareness of evidence-based best practices. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

  19. A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

  20. Teacher Perceptions and Use of the Internet in the Classroom: A Descriptive Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Steven Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative case study was to explore teacher perceptions and use of the Internet as a tool for constructivist learning. Based on a review of the literature, some researchers concluded that the Internet may be a catalyst for an instructional paradigm towards constructivism (Collins, 1991; Sheingold, 1991; Hadley &…

  1. Nurses, the Oppressed Oppressors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; ParsaYekta, Zohreh; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2015-03-18

    Healthcare equity, defined as rightful and fair care provision, is a key objective in all health systems. Nurses commonly experience cases of equity/inequity when caring for patients. The present study was the first to explain nurses' experience of equal care. A qualitative study sought to describe the experiences of 18 clinical nurses and nurse managers who were selected through purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria were the nurses' familiarity with the subject of the study and willingness to participate. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews. The sampling continued up to data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and then transcribed word by word. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The major theme extracted in this study was the equation between submissiveness and oppression in nurses. It had two subthemes, namely the oppressed nurse and the oppressive nurse. The first subtheme comprised three categories including nurses' occupational dissatisfaction, discrimination between nursing personnel, and favoring physicians over nurses. The second subtheme consisted of three categories, namely habit-oriented care provision, inappropriate care delegation, and care rationing while neglecting patient needs. When equal care provision was concerned, the participating nurses fluctuated between states of oppression and submissiveness. Hence, equal conditions for nurses are essential to equal care provision. In fact, fair behavior toward nurses would lead to equity nursing care provision and increase satisfaction with the healthcare system.

  2. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanis S. Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].

  3. The qualitative research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    H Klopper

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation c...

  4. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2009-08-03

    Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  5. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  6. A Qualitative Study on the Academic Approach to the Professionalization of Midwifery in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil GÜNER; YURDAKUL, Mine; YETİM, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed as a qualitative descriptive study to map out the challenges and suggestions in regard to the problems of professionalization of midwifery in Turkey and it was presented as a master thesis in June 2012. The study was conducted in seven universities in Turkey which provided master programs in midwifery. The study participants included twenty faculty members in midwifery departments in these universities who consented to participate. An interview guide consisting of 10 s...

  7. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  8. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  9. The concept of care complexity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Guarinoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods: Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice.

  10. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla Askov; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary....... Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care. Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see...... the immediate outcome. Some patients may require professional help to implement their newly acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life. A planned dialogue concentrating on self-care in everyday life 3 months after finishing the course may enhance patients' awareness and appraisal of their newly acquired...

  11. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla A; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary....... Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care. Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see...... disease completed an 8-week group education program in a Danish community health center. The patients were interviewed 3 months after completion of the program. Findings: Patients reported that their knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had increased, that they had acquired tools to handle...

  12. Potential value of systematic reviews of qualitative evidence in informing user-centered health and social care: findings from a descriptive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Noyes, Jane; Sowden, Amanda J

    2017-08-01

    Systematic reviews of quantitative evidence are well established in health and social care. Systematic reviews of qualitative evidence are increasingly available, but volume, topics covered, methods used, and reporting quality are largely unknown. We provide a descriptive overview of systematic reviews of qualitative evidence assessing health and social care interventions included on the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). We searched DARE for reviews published between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. We extracted data on review content and methods, summarized narratively, and explored patterns over time. We identified 145 systematic reviews conducted worldwide (64 in the UK). Interventions varied but largely covered treatment or service delivery in community and hospital settings. There were no discernible patterns over time. Critical appraisal of primary studies was conducted routinely. Most reviews were poorly reported. Potential exists to use systematic reviews of qualitative evidence when driving forward user-centered health and social care. We identify where more research is needed and propose ways to improve review methodology and reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  14. RN to FNP: a qualitative study of role transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E

    2004-09-01

    Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.

  15. Exploring School Counselors' Perceptions of Vicarious Trauma: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mashone; Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine school counselors' perceptions of vicarious trauma. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used. Six school counselors were interviewed. Three primary domains emerged from the data: (a) ambiguous vicarious trauma, (b) support system significance, and (c) importance of level of…

  16. Choosing nursing as a career: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mary; Glacken, Michele; O'Brien, Frances

    2008-04-01

    It is widely accepted that nursing as a career is viewed favourably by society in that it offers job security, mobility and career variety. The main reason for choosing nursing in the 21st century remains the desire to help and care for others, as this paper demonstrates. The findings presented here are part of an on-going longitudinal study which is exploring whether mode of selection into nursing has an impact on a number of variables, of which, career choice is one. The aim of this paper is to identify why non-mature under-graduate students choose nursing as a career and to determine what factors influence this decision. An exploratory-descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Following receipt of ethical approval, data were collected using focus group interviews and content analysis was employed. Participants were students on a general nursing programme delivered in a large Irish Higher Education Institute. Interviews took place within the first 3 months of the programme, prior to the first clinical placement. It emerged that although nursing was not everybody's first career choice, all participants had sought a career which involved caring. Family or friends in the profession played a role in influencing participants' career selection.

  17. ALCOHOL AND VIOLENCE IN MARITAL RELATIONS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY WITH COUPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Ramos Feijó; Ana Regina Noto; Eroy Aparecida da Silva; Danilo Polverini Locatelli; Mário Lázaro Camargo; Carla Ferreira de Paula Gebara

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative and descriptive study aimed to understand the relation between the alcohol consumption and the violence expansion, in the relationship of couples made up by, at least, one partner with alcohol dependence. Semi-structured interviews with 10 couples were done, which were transcribed and submitted to the content analysis. All the couples reported marital violence related to alcohol use. Violence, mainly verbal and physical ones, was committed by both partners and it became worse...

  18. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Jennifer A Pereira; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...

  19. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... of music therapy with a specific population (Gold, Voracek & Wigram, Wigram, 2002). The collection of such evidence, through surveys of the literature and documentation of music therapy studies that show effect with a specified population are becoming increasingly important in order to underpin music...

  20. Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Narges; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Wong, Li P

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses. The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia. A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach. The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction. It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover. © 2014

  1. The Job of a Performance Consultant: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Job Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Saul; Castonguay, Chantal; Sheepy, Emily; Ribeiro, Ofelia; Sabri, Hiba; Saylor, Chantal; Valle, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the competencies needed by performance consultants, a particular role identified for training and development professionals. The role was formally named and promoted nearly two decades ago. Two ongoing discussions in the field are the competencies needed by training and development professionals and the role of…

  2. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  3. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    ... seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16...

  4. Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study. ... Forming relationships based on trust and receiving feedback was also important. ... reported that meaning leads to the experience of happiness and personal satisfaction.

  5. Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthodox versus unorthodox care: A qualitative study on where rural women seek healthcare ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... as each has some unique features such as herbal concoctions for traditional, ultrasound and ...

  6. Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study. ... Despite the well-known benefits of global health experiences for expatriates, little is known ... guide individual expatriate physicians who hope to optimise their roles abroad.

  7. A qualitative study on the relationship between doctors and nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study on the relationship between doctors and nurses offering primary ... These measures increased public access to healthcare centres, leading to an ... and the effectiveness of these groups plays a major role in determining the ...

  8. Self-care 3 months after COPD patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla Askov; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    reported that their knowledge of COPD had increased, that they had acquired tools to handle their symptoms; and that the social aspect of patient education had motivated them to utilize their new habits and competencies into everyday life. As a side effect of the study it appeared that the research......Introduction: The literature indicates a conflict between the documented effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient education and the patients' own experiences of the benefit in their everyday life. Aim: To explore from the patients' perspective how group patient education...... influinces their self-care three months after attending the program. Methods: In the period 2009-2010, eleven patients diagnosed with COPD completed an 8-week group education program in a Danish community health center. The patients were interviewed 3 months after completion of the program. Results: Patients...

  9. Urut Melayu for poststroke patients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Fadzil, Fariza; Ahmad, Norlaili; Abd Ghani, Norsuria

    2012-01-01

    Urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, had been introduced into three pioneer hospitals in Malaysia, as part of the integrated hospital program. It was introduced primarily for the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. After almost 3 years since it was first implemented, there are currently plans to extend it to other hospitals in the country. Information from this study will contribute toward a better future implementation plan. This study was conducted to gain an insight into the experiences and views of poststroke patients and their urut Melayu practitioners. A qualitative study design was adopted. A total of 17 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out with poststroke patients who were undergoing urut Melayu treatment at one of the three integrated hospitals. Information was solicited from their accompanying caregivers whenever necessary. The 2 urut Melayu practitioners at the hospital were also interviewed. All the interviews were carried out in Malay by the authors, at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit of the relevant hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded into categories through a constant-comparison method of data analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative descriptions of the themes. It was found that urut Melayu was sought by patients who had experienced stroke brought about by hypertension and postdelivery complications. They reported the unique characteristics of urut Melayu and their positive experiences with it. Urut Melayu has potential as a complementary therapy for poststroke patients. It is recommended that the number of practitioners at the Traditional and Complementary Medicine unit be increased to provide the optimum care for poststroke patients.

  10. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... can be adapted to the study of policy diffusion. Second, a combination of these methods is the best practice, since they are largely complementary in terms of the twin challenge of diffusion. The discussion draws on numerous illustrations from recent qualitative policy diffusion studies. The article...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods....

  12. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  13. Burn patients' experience of pain management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.

  14. Advance Care Planning in Nursing Home Patients With Dementia: A Qualitative Interview Study Among Family and Professional Caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest-Poortvliet, M.C. van; Steen, J.T. van der; Gutschow, G.; Deliens, L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Vet, H.C. de; Hertogh, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the process of advance care planning (ACP) and to explore factors related to the timing and content of ACP in nursing home patients with dementia, as perceived by family, physicians, and nurses. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: A

  15. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  16. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  17. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challen...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.......This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... to discriminate between mechanisms of diffusion, on the other? I argue, first, that there are three distinct qualitative techniques that can be used, namely cross-case analysis (often based on systematic case selection), within-case process tracing, and counterfactual reasoning. I demonstrate how these techniques...

  18. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  19. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  20. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  1. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousing C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Askov Mousing1, Kirsten Lomborg21School of Health Sciences, Randers School of Nursing, VIA University College, Randers, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Nursing Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, DenmarkPurpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed an 8-week group education program in a Danish community health center. The patients were interviewed 3 months after completion of the program.Findings: Patients reported that their knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had increased, that they had acquired tools to handle their symptoms, and that the social aspect of patient education had motivated them to utilize their new habits after finishing the course. The data indicate that patients need a period of adjustment (a "ripening period": it took time for patients to integrate new habits and competencies into everyday life. Talking to health care professionals focused the patients' attention on their newly acquired skills and the research interview made them more aware of their enhanced self-care.Conclusion: Patients' self-care may be enhanced through group education, even though the patients are not always able to see the immediate outcome. Some patients may require professional help to implement their newly acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life. A planned dialogue concentrating on self-care in everyday life 3 months after finishing the course may enhance patients' awareness and appraisal of their newly acquired competencies.Keywords: COPD, education program, patient knowledge, patient perspective, patient skills, ripening period

  2. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  3. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This study concerns the systematic integration of qualitative research strategies in a psychoanalytic single case study of a child who had suffered early abuse and neglect. A systematic exploration of core features of the therapeutic relationship was carried out, possible links between such core...... features and breaks in psychotherapy investigated. One aim of the study was to contribute to the development of a transparent and systematic methodology for the psychoanalytic case study by application of rigorous qualitative research methodology. To this end, inductive-deductive principles in line...

  4. Positive aspects of menopause: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences.......As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences....

  5. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  6. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  7. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-06-01

    Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people's needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Analyzing participants' perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals' needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran.

  8. Teachers' Views about Educational Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan; Kivilcim, Zafer Savas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the views of teachers' about educational research. The present research is designed as a qualitative case study. The group of this study is consisted of teachers (n = 27), working in primary, middle, and high schools in the province of Nigde in Turkey. An extensive literature review was made on…

  9. Diversity in High Schools and Diversity Management: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…

  10. Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Loma

    2004-01-01

    This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.

  11. CONSUMPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF LUXURY BRANDS ONLINE – ILLUSTRATING A QUALITATIVE ONLINE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Radón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet research has grown tremendously over the last decade and we see new and elaborate ways to use the Internet for data generation with increased technological abilities as well as increased Internet usage among companies and consumers. This paper illustrates a qualitative online study within the field of marketing with focus on the consumption and communication of brands. The specific interest is in showing how a particular phenomenon is studied using different Internet research methods and how this has resulted in more thick qualitative descriptions of consumption and communication in an online environment. The paper shows how the aim and context of a study leads to an Internet research approach and how the online study was conducted, the methods that were used, the results it gave and thus also sketches the possibilities and future of Internet research.

  12. Staging mammography nonadherent women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPelle, Nancy; Costanza, Mary E; Luckmann, Roger; Rosal, Milagros C; White, Mary Jo; Stark, Jennifer Rider

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have related stages of mammography screening nonadherence with the rationale used by overdue women. We used a grounded theory approach to obtain and analyze data from focus groups, telephone interviews, and surveys. Emergent specific themes were compared with emerging decision levels of nonadherence. Each decision level was then compared with the Precaution Adoption Process Model and the Transtheoretical Model. A total of 6 key themes influencing mammogram nonadherence emerged as did 6 decision levels. Variability within themes was associated with specific decision levels. The decision levels were not adequately classified by either stage model. Stage-based educational strategies may benefit by tailoring interventions to these 6 decision levels.

  13. A descriptive study of consent documentation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, K

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the error rate in the consent process of a university hospital and to illicit the opinions of the consenting doctors on the process. A prospective observational review of theatre consent forms was performed along with an anonymous survey of non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHD\\'s). No potential risks were documented in 95.3% of the 64 scrutinized consents and late alterations were required in 9%. Respondents to the NCHD survey estimated that they were unsure of the procedure or risks involved in an average of 29% of occasions. Interns admitted to being unsure of the details of the procedure in almost a third (32%) of cases, making them less well informed than their senior colleagues (p=0.024). This study highlights the difficulties encountered by consenting doctors, an issue which may lead to patient dissatisfaction, threaten the efficient running of a surgical unit and potentially expose its staff to avoidable litigation. It also recommends the use of multimedia adjuncts to facilitate both patient and doctor education in the consent process.

  14. Fatigue in osteoarthritis: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Melissa R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is recognized as a disabling symptom in many chronic conditions including rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA and lupus. Fatigue in osteoarthritis (OA is not routinely evaluated and has only been considered in a very limited number of studies. To date, these studies have focused primarily on patients with OA under rheumatological care, which represent the minority of people living with OA. The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the fatigue experience in community dwelling people with OA. Methods In 2004, 8 focus groups were conducted with 28 men and 18 women (mean age 72.3 with symptomatic hip or knee OA recruited from a population-based cohort. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographics, measures of OA severity (WOMAC, depression (CES-D and fatigue (FACIT. Sessions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently reviewed the transcripts to identify themes. Findings were compared and consensus reached. Results Mean pain, disability, depression and fatigue scores were 8.7/20, 27.8/68, 15.4/60, and 30.9/52, respectively. Participants described their fatigue as exhaustion, being tired and "coming up against a brick wall". Participants generally perceived fatigue as different from sleepiness and distinguished physical from mental fatigue. Factors believed to increase fatigue included OA pain and pain medications, aging, various types of weather and poor sleep. Mental health was identified as both affecting fatigue and being affected by fatigue. Participants described fatigue as impacting physical function, and their ability to participate in social activities and to do household chores. Rest, exercise, and avoiding or getting assistance with activities were cited as ways of coping. Participants generally did not discuss their fatigue with anyone except their spouses. Conclusion Participants with OA described

  15. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Phillippa; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-08-01

    Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development of behavioural automaticity; and selecting effective cues to support repeated behaviour. Results showed that behaviour change was initially experienced as cognitively effortful but as automaticity increased, enactment became easier. Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts. Weekends and vacations temporarily disrupted performance due to absence of associated cues, but habits were reinstated on return to work. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  16. Resilience in eating disorders: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Padierna, Jesús A; Muñoz, Pedro; Aguirre, Maialen; Gómez Del Barrio, Andrés; Beato-Fernández, Luís; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the authors in this study were two-fold: (1) to explore the role of resilience in recovery from eating disorders (EDs), and (2) to develop a model of resilience in women with EDs. Semi-structured interviews with ten women were conducted in April 2011, along with two focus groups with women who had recovered from EDs (n  = 5 women each; conducted in April 2012 at the University of Deusto, Spain), one focus group with clinical experts (n = 8; conducted in April 2012 at the Foundation Against EDs of Biskay, Spain), and six narratives from primary caregivers of ED patients living in Biskay, Spain (conducted in November 2012). All data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. All female participants acknowledged experiencing resilience in their recovery. The analysis resulted in a conceptual model of resilience composed of the following categories: deep dissatisfaction with life, turning point, acceptance, hope, determination to change, accountability for the ED, active coping, getting social support, gaining self-knowledge, getting information about EDs, increase well-being, trait resilience, initiating new projects and living in the here and now. According to the model presented, resilience preceded the experience of recovery in women with EDs in this sample and could be a useful asset for future interventions.

  17. A descriptive study to characterize segmental vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod K Khaitan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Segmental vitiligo is a small but unique subset of vitiligo requiring due importance due to its lack of response to medical treatment but excellent response to surgical treatment. Characterization of the pattern of segmental vitiligo will also help to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim: To characterize clinically the features of segmental vitiligo, a cross-sectional clinical study at dermatology outpatient department at AIIMS was carried out. Methods: Consecutive 188 patients were evaluated to characterize the clinical features of segmental vitiligo by detailed history, clinical examination, and photography. Frequency of each clinical feature was calculated. Results: Certain features such as early onset, initial progression of disease followed by stability, blaschkoid pattern, irregular margins, leucotrichia within and beyond the vitiligo lesion, and islands of pigmented macules within the vitiligo lesion were found to be characteristic of the disease. Conclusions: A combination of various features such as early onset of disease, blaschkoid pattern, irregular margins, leucotrichia, and islands of pigmented macules within the vitiligo lesion are helpful in diagnosis of the disease.

  18. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  19. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  20. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  1. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  2. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  3. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  4. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  5. Where Do College Drinkers Draw the Line?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…

  6. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  7. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  8. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Optimising qualitative longitudinal analysis: Insights from a study of traumatic brain injury recovery and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Channon, Alexis; Theadom, Alice; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about aspects that influence recovery and adaptation in the postacute phase of disabling health events is key to understanding how best to provide appropriate rehabilitation and health services. Qualitative longitudinal research makes it possible to look for patterns, key time points and critical moments that could be vital for interventions and supports. However, strategies that support robust data management and analysis for longitudinal qualitative research in health-care are not well documented in the literature. This article reviews three challenges encountered in a large longitudinal qualitative descriptive study about experiences of recovery and adaptation after traumatic brain injury in New Zealand, and the strategies and technologies used to address them. These were (i) tracking coding and analysis decisions during an extended analysis period; (ii) navigating interpretations over time and in response to new data; and (iii) exploiting data volume and complexity. Concept mapping during coding review, a considered combination of information technologies, employing both cross-sectional and narrative analysis, and an expectation that subanalyses would be required for key topics helped us manage the study in a way that facilitated useful and novel insights. These strategies could be applied in other qualitative longitudinal studies in healthcare inquiry to optimise data analysis and stimulate important insights. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Internet recruitment and e-mail interviews in qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rebekah J; Bowers, Barbara J

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, 111 million adults accessed the Internet looking for health and medical information. Qualitative researchers can apply long-standing principles of recruitment and interviewing to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the theoretical and methodological aspects of Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing. The authors address issues of appropriateness, adequacy, representativeness, sample bias, data fraud, flexibility and consistency in interviewing, timing, elimination of the need for transcription, oral versus written communication, reliability and validity, and ethical concerns. They include some practical suggestions on a research design for a qualitative study employing both Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing.

  11. Conceptualization of children's interpersonal relatedness with the Rorschach: a qualitative multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Bridget A; Viglione, Donald J

    2010-09-01

    In this in-depth, qualitative, multiple case study, we examined Rorschach data as they relate to the interpersonal behavior, experience, and perceptions of an individual. In this study, we addressed the following question: How are the correspondences between Rorschach variables and children's interpersonal behavior revealed? We conducted an examination of the Rorschach variables and criterion data regarding the children's interpersonal functioning through a qualitative analysis of 6 nonpatient girls between the ages of 8 and 11 years old. The results reveal individualized correspondences between Rorschach variables and interpersonal functioning in which some variables proved more fruitful in describing expressed interpersonal behavior than others. Specifically, the variables utilizing human images, such as the HRV and the thematic descriptions, corresponded most highly to real life interpersonal behavior.

  12. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  13. Metaphoric Stories in Supervision of Internship: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carol A.; Ward, Janice E.; Scofield, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a qualitative study that explored how the use of stories in supervision may contribute to self-reflection in master's-level counseling interns. Interns from 2 universities participated in facilitated discussions of 3 fairy tales throughout a semester. The analysis of storied discussions revealed 3 themes related to supervisee…

  14. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive ra...

  15. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  16. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  17. Late Career Decision-Making: A Qualitative Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furunes, Trude; Mykletun, Reidar; Solem, Per Erik; Lange, Annet de; Syse, Astri; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Ilmarinen, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal qualitative interview study (3 waves of interviews) was to examine the nature of older workers’ late career decision-making processes, including the main drivers and obstacles for prolonging working life or retiring. Late career decision-making is regarded as a process o

  18. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive...

  19. Adjuncts Matter: A Qualitative Study of Adjuncts' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Telvis M.

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic factors that influence the workplace experiences of 27 adjuncts teaching online were explored. In this qualitative research study, the adjuncts' lived experiences were examined through in-depth interviews. The results indicated three emergent factors which influenced the participants' workplace experiences, and the alternative…

  20. A Qualitative Study of the Dislocated Working Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Carter, Laura; Bernfeld, Steven; Gray, India; Liu, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines factors that influence the career decisions of dislocated workers. The research focuses on individuals identified as working class, as this group has been relatively ignored in past research compared to individuals from higher socioeconomic statuses. Participants include 13 individuals (10 females and 3 males)…

  1. A Qualitative Case Study: Teacher Perceptions of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stacey L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is becoming a more widely used term to explain student behaviors, yet research on EF in education is limited. This qualitative study addressed a gap in literature by examining teacher perceptions of students with EF deficits, as well as teacher preparedness and desire to learn more about EF. Perceptions of third grade,…

  2. Influences on Preservice Teacher Socialization: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melissa J.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative two-year study traces the changes in beliefs and actions of four preservice teachers through the final two years of their university education program. Dialectical Theory of Socialization and Cognitive Dissonance Theory provide the theoretical framework. The findings show that three main factors affect the transfer of learning…

  3. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu; Karien Jooste

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretation...

  4. Learning Experiences of University Biology Faculty: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this article incorporates qualitative research through in-depth, individual, structured interviews with 12 biology faculty from two Midwestern universities to explore perceptions about how they have learned to teach and how they work to improve their skills.

  5. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  6. Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…

  7. The study of prescriptive and descriptive models of decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Divekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of decision making can be loosely divided into two parts: the study of prescriptive models and the study of descriptive models. Prescriptive decision scientists are concerned with prescribing methods for making optimal decisions. Descriptive decision researchers are concerned with the bounded way in which the decisions are actually made. The statistics courses treat risk from a prescriptive, by suggesting rational methods. This paper brings out the work done by many researchers by examining the psychological factors that explain how managers deviate from rationality in responding to uncertainty.

  8. Living With Cluster Headache: A Qualitative Study of Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Talavera, Blanca; López-Ruiz, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Viedma, Álvaro; Palacios-Ceña, María; Arias, José A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María L

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to explore the views and experiences of a group of Spanish men suffering from cluster headache (CH). CH has considerable effects on patients' quality of life, impairs everyday activities, and can modify lifestyle. This is the first time the experience of patients with CH is examined in a clinical study using a qualitative, phenomenological approach. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study exploring how 20 male patients with CH, followed at the Headache Unit of a Spanish hospital, perceived their disease. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, researchers' field notes and patients' personal letters. A systematic text condensation analysis was performed following appropriate guidelines for qualitative research. Mean age was 41.15 years (standard deviation, 11.25). Seventeen patients had episodic CH and three patients had chronic CH. Five main themes describing the significance of suffering CH emerged: (a) meaning of disease, (b) experience of attacks, (c) meaning of treatment, (d) healthcare, and (e) social and family interaction. Patients with CH often live in fear and uncertainty because of their condition. Intensity and frequency of attacks, the use of ineffective treatments, skepticism perceived from social and workplace environments and physician unawareness play a significant role. Qualitative research offers insight into the way CH patients experience their disease, and may be helpful in establishing a fruitful relationship with these patients. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  9. The chemical plant management qualitative support system

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to capture the benefits of common sense qualitative reasoning about process phenomena as displayed in the human behavior mental model. The control features of qualitative modeling and simulation were qualitative variable description and logic rules for manipulating variable values between systematic states. The additional measure of qualitative information value was introduced. This study is the first report in the literature showing the measure of qualitative inform...

  10. [Self-perception of health care team leaders in Andalusia. A quantitative and qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romera, I; Danet, A; March-Cerdà, J C

    To determine the perception and self-assessment on leadership among health care team leaders in Andalusia. Design: Exploratory descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative methodology, developed between 2013 and 2015, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Andalusia. All health managers from the Primary Care Management Units and Health Management Areas of the Departments of Paediatrics, Emergency and Internal Medicine, for the quantitative study. A purposive sample of 24 health managers was used for the qualitative study. Descriptive statistical study and bivariate analysis of comparison of means. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews: Codification, category tree, and triangulation of results. The best self-assessment dimension relates to support, and the worst to considering oneself as a 'good leader'. The definition of a 'good leader' includes: Honesty, trust, and attitudes of good communication, closeness, appreciation, and reinforcement of the health team members. Different leadership styles were perceived. Main difficulties for leadership are related to the economic crisis and the management of personal conflicts. Health managers describe an adaptive leadership style, based on personal and professional support, and using communication as the main cohesive element for the team project. More studies on leaders' perspectives are important, in order to better understand their experiences, needs and expectations. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The CCMC's national study of case manager job descriptions: an understanding of the activities, role relationships, knowledges, skills, and abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Hussein A; Huber, Diane L

    2006-01-01

    Defining the roles and functions of case managers is crucial in today's healthcare environment and necessary for the case management field. One way to address this issue is through the examination of case managers' job descriptions used in various healthcare organizations. The study reported herein used qualitative analysis procedures and the latent class cluster analysis method to examine a national sample of 1028 job descriptions of case managers. The study identified the activities, role relationships, knowledge, skills, and abilities of case managers working in varied settings. It also described the changes that occurred in the practice of case management, based on these job descriptions, over 5 years: from the mid-1990s until the early 2000s. One benefit of this study was a change in one eligibility criterion of the CCM credential. Another was the development of a taxonomy of case managers' roles and functions that can be used as a step toward standardization of case managers' job descriptions.

  12. Managing depression through needlecraft creative activities: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the personal meanings of needlecrafts and their role in the self-management of depression. Written and spoken narratives from 39 women were studied. Respondents described themselves as experiencing chronic or episodic depression (e.g. associated with stressful work situations, bereavement or caring for an ill relative). Some had received treatment for depression but most had not. When analysing the therapeutic effects of creative activity, most women describ...

  13. Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Murphy, Kathy; Shaw, David; Casey, Dympna

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Furthermore, the ability to describe in detail how the analysis was conducted ensures rigour in reporting qualitative research. The research example used is a multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by Morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. The specific strategies for analysis in these stages centred on the work of Miles and Huberman ( 1994 ), which has been successfully used in case study research. The data were managed using NVivo software. Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. By providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study analysis. This paper illustrates specific strategies that can be employed when conducting data analysis in case study research and other qualitative research designs.

  14. Exploring barriers of enterprise search implementation: a qualitative user study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Alexander; Richter, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and scope, the chosen research approach of generating qualitative findings from a single case, and the size of the involved sample of engineers. Implications address measures to increase enterprise search adoption. Practical implications – This study provides project managers with knowledge to take...... existing studies primarily focus on advancing the technical perspective of search in organizations, the author elaborate on the under-investigated social and organizational aspects. The author furthermore stress the importance of user-centered approaches for enterprise search adoption....... to explore user-centric barriers of enterprise search implementation in order to increase user satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Results are built on a qualitative user study in an R & D organization. Findings are gained from think-aloud observations introduced by semi-structured interviews...

  15. Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots.

  16. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  17. Hepatitis-related stigma in chronic patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassanpourDehkordi, Ali; Mohammadi, Nooredin; NikbakhatNasrabadi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis is one of health problems throughout the world. It has numerous consequences on patients' life. Stigma, depression, social marginalization and financial problems are some of the challenges in these patients. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine hepatitis-related stigma and discrimination in patients living with chronic hepatitis in Iranian society. This present study was designed as a qualitative method, and this article shows up the results of a qualitative research study undertaken with patients living with hepatitis in Iran. The study uses a content analysis method. A purposive sample of 18 patients was chosen. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field note that the researchers will take during participants' observation. Data analysis process was performed on the texts which were generated from verbatim transcripts of the participants interviews. Participants were between 18 and 61 years old. The main theme, Stigma, emerged from three themes during the process data analysis in this study. These themes were including fear to lose of family and social support, fear to present in public and fear of transmission. This research indicates that stigma presents major challenges not only for patients living with chronic hepatitis but also for nurses, other healthcare practitioners, family and social networks, institutions and society. The researcher suggests that interventions to reduce or eliminate stigma should require individual, structural, cultural thought, society and systemic changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient-centeredness in physiotherapy: What does it entail? A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, Amarins J; Bletterman, Anouck N; Clark, Jacqui R; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Beetsma, Anneke; Keizer, Doeke; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, C Paul

    2017-08-18

    The literature review is aimed at examining and summarizing themes related to patient-centeredness identified in qualitative research from the perspectives of patients and physiotherapists. Following the review, a secondary aim was to synthesize the themes to construct a proposed conceptual framework for utilization within physiotherapy. A systematic search of qualitative studies was conducted including all articles up to 2015 September. Methodological quality was examined with a checklist. The studies were examined for themes suggestive of the practice of patient centeredness from perspective of the therapists and/or the patients. Data were extracted using a data extraction form and analyzed following "thematic synthesis." Fourteen articles were included. Methodological quality was high in five studies. Eight major descriptive themes and four subthemes (ST) were identified. The descriptive themes were: individuality (ST "Getting to know the patient" and ST "Individualized treatment"), education, communication (ST "Non-verbal communication"), goal setting, support (ST "Empowerment"), social characteristics of a patient-centered physiotherapist, a confident physiotherapist, and knowledge and skills of a patient-centered physiotherapist. Patient-centeredness in physiotherapy entails the characteristics of offering an individualized treatment, continuous communication (verbal and non-verbal), education during all aspects of treatment, working with patient-defined goals in a treatment in which the patient is supported and empowered with a physiotherapist having social skills, being confident and showing specific knowledge.

  19. Physicians' Practice of Dispensing Medicines: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Darbyshire, Daniel; Gordon, Morris; Baker, Paul; Bates, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The physical act of giving medication to patients to administer away from a health care setting, dispensing, is normally performed by pharmacists. Dispensing of medication by physicians is a neglected patient safety issue, and having observed considerable variation in practice, the lead author sought to explore this issue further. A literature review yielded zero articles pertaining to this, so an exploratory study was commenced. The qualitative arm, relating to junior physicians'...

  20. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  1. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Negarandeh Reza; Dehghan Nayeri Nahid

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A ...

  2. Why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentations: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, Ana Mafalda Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão Hoteleira e Turismo/ JEL codes: L83; M31 This dissertation is a qualitative study about why qualified prospects decline timeshare sales presentation even though they earn a small incentive for doing so. The Hoffman and Bateson’s decision process model is used as a broad theoretical framework. On this basis and the inputs of managers and off-premise contact (OPC) representatives of a Marketing company located in Orlando, Florida, USA, five main lik...

  3. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  4. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  5. College Women's Perceptions of Dairy Foods: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weiglein, Carolyn Anderson Jr.

    1998-01-01

    College Women's Perceptions of Dairy Foods: A Qualitative Study Carolyn A. Weiglein (ABSTRACT) Research has indicated that college-age women are not consuming the recommended daily servings of dairy foods, and therefore, have inadequate calcium intakes as well. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 29 college women to explore their perceptions, opinions, thoughts, and feelings about dairy foods. Single, non-Hispanic white females, aged 19-22, enrolled in state-funded co...

  6. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  7. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Grammes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of “embryonic society” in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of “mirror” of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires indepth classroom observation, has been getting much attention among educational community. On the other hand, there have not been done many studies that represent social studies and civics in particular, in this research tradition. Naturally, this research tradition is based on qualitative research paradigm. Likewise, qualitative research tradition has been getting increasing attention among educational community. Thus, the first purpose of this article is to explain all documentation and pre-interpretation process of this lesson so that it can provide an example for qualitative researchers. The second purpose of this article is to provide an example lesson of political education from Turkey so that educators worldwide can compare one example of social studies education practice in Turkey and with their countries.

  8. Ebola virus disease: caring for patients in Sierra Leone - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andertun, Sara; Hörnsten, Åsa; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Norwegian healthcare staffs' experiences of participating in care of patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. Ebola is one of the most feared viruses known. Ebola virus disease is highly contagious with high mortality. The few qualitative studies made on experiences among healthcare professionals have highlighted problems as lack of protective resources, insufficient personnel and risk of societal stigmatization. Descriptive study with qualitative approach. Individual narrative and focus group interviews were obtained during 2015 with eight nurses and one physician who had worked in Ebola care in Sierra Leone. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the two themes: 'Experiencing security by learning to manage risks'; and 'Developing courage and growth by facing personal fears'. Subthemes were: 'Relying on safeguard actions', 'Managing risk of contagion', 'Developing strategies for care despite risks', 'Constantly reminded of death', 'Successively defeating fears' and last, 'Increasing motivation through meaningfulness'. The participants described the reliance on training, organized effort, strict guidelines and equipment. They were respectful of the risk of transmission, made risk assessments, took responsibility, handled risky situations and were reminded of suffering and death. Despite challenges, the hazardous work with Ebola virus disease patients was experienced as meaningful which was an important motivator. Safe care was central in working with Ebola patients, but the care relation was challenged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. To be involved - A qualitative study of nurses' experiences of caring for dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erika; Salickiene, Zivile; Rosengren, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses' experiences (>two years) of caring for dying patients in surgical wards. Palliative care is included in education for nurses. However, the training content varies, and nurse educators need to be committed to the curriculum regarding end-of-life situations. A lack of preparation among newly graduated nurses regarding dying and death could lead to anxiety, stress and burnout. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge regarding end-of-life situations. A qualitative descriptive study was carried out in two surgical wards in the southern part of Sweden. The study comprised six interviews with registered nurses and was analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis, a qualitative method that involves an inductive approach, to increase our understanding of nurses' perspectives and thoughts regarding dying patients. The results formed one category (caring-to be involved) and three subcategories (being supportive, being frustrated and being sensitive in the caring processes). Nurses were personally affected and felt unprepared to face dying patients due to a lack of knowledge about the field of palliative care. Their experiences could be described as processes of transition from theory to practice by trial and error. Supervision is a valuable tool for bridging the gap between theory and practice in nursing during the transition from novice to expert. Improved knowledge about palliative care during nursing education and committed nursing leadership at the ward level facilitate preparation for end-of-life situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  11. Team building in an Elementary School: A Descriptive Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Holleran, David J.

    1997-01-01

    TEAM BUILDING IN AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: A DESCRIPTIVE CASE STUDY David J. Holleran (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this study was to examine the team-building process implemented in an elementary school. Research questions were developed on what team-building activities took place, when the activities took place, what expenses were involved, what the outcomes were, and what the reactions of the staff were towards team building activities implemented at the school. Twen...

  12. Capturing the stories behind the numbers: the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study (ARCOS IV), a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandy J; Theadom, Alice; Jones, Amy; Hocking, Clare; Feigin, Valery; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Kent, Bruce; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative data can add value and understanding to more traditional epidemiological studies. This study was designed to complement the quantitative data from the incidence study the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study or ARCOS-IV by using qualitative methods to uncover the richer detail of life as a stroke survivor, thereby extending our understanding of the impact of stroke. The aims of the study were to identify how the experience of recovery and adaptation changes over time after stroke; and to elicit the strategies people with stroke and their whānau/family use and find helpful in living life after stroke. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology and also the challenges and advantages of embedding qualitative research into a large epidemiological study. Longitudinal study utilizing a Qualitative Description design in a subset of those taking part in the incidence study. Participants will be interviewed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after stroke. Semistructured interviews will explore three key areas: (1) issues of importance to people following a stroke and their whānau/family; (2) the perceived impact on people's sense of recovery, adaptation, and hopes; and (3) key strategies that people with stroke and their whānau/family use and find most helpful in living life after stroke. Thematic analysis will be conducted using iterative constant comparative methods. This methodology paper demonstrates the application of mixed methods in epidemiology. It also considers some of the practical and methodological issues that have emerged and may provide a useful framework for other qualitative projects in population-based studies. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  13. Stroke Survivors' Experiences of Physical Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Julie; Lynch, Elizabeth; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Bennett, Leanne; Bernhardt, Julie

    2015-09-01

    To report and synthesize the perspectives, experiences, and preferences of stroke survivors undertaking inpatient physical rehabilitation through a systematic review of qualitative studies. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to February 2014. Reference lists of relevant publications were searched. All languages were included. Qualitative studies reporting stroke survivors' experiences of inpatient stroke rehabilitation were selected independently by 2 reviewers. The search yielded 3039 records; 95 full-text publications were assessed for eligibility, and 32 documents (31 studies) were finally included. Comprehensiveness and explicit reporting were assessed independently by 2 reviewers using the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research framework. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data regarding characteristics of the included studies were extracted by 1 reviewer, tabled, and checked for accuracy by another reviewer. All text reported in studies' results sections were entered into qualitative data management software for analysis. Extracted texts were inductively coded and analyzed in 3 phases using thematic synthesis. Nine interrelated analytical themes, with descriptive subthemes, were identified that related to issues of importance to stroke survivors: (1) physical activity is valued; (2) bored and alone; (3) patient-centered therapy; (4) recreation is also rehabilitation; (5) dependency and lack of control; (6) fostering autonomy; (7) power of communication and information; (8) motivation needs nurturing; and (9) fatigue can overwhelm. The thematic synthesis provides new insights into stroke survivors' experiences of inpatient rehabilitation. Negative experiences were reported in all studies and include disempowerment, boredom, and frustration. Rehabilitation could be improved by increasing activity within formal therapy and in free time, fostering patients' autonomy through genuinely patient

  14. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  15. Selecting the appropriate study design for your research: Descriptive study designs

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir Omair

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the importance of selecting the appropriate epidemiological study design for a given study question. It provides an explanation to the different terms used in describing study designs with regards to observational versus interventional and descriptive versus analytical types of study designs. This article focuses on the description of the different types of descriptive study designs, that is, case report, case series, correlational, and cross-sectional study designs. Th...

  16. Academic dishonesty among nursing students: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeci, Ayla; Bulduk, Serap; Oruç, Deniz; Çelik, Serpil

    2011-09-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aims to evaluate academic dishonesty among university nursing students in Turkey. The study's sample included 196 students. Two instruments were used for gathering data. The first instrument, a questionnaire, which included some socio-demographic variables (age, class, gender, education, family structure, parents' attitude and educators' attitude) formed the first part. The second part included the Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale developed by Eminoğlu and Nartgün. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Kruskall Wallis, One-way Anova, t- test and Mann-Whitney U test. It was found that academic dishonesty was at medium-level (2.60-3.39) in nursing students.

  17. Educating Parents About Pediatric Research: Children and Clinical Studies Website Qualitative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Lisa D; Welch, Lisa C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Pearson, Gail D

    2016-07-01

    A gap in information about pediatric clinical trials exists, and parents remain uncertain about what is involved in research studies involving children. We aimed to understand parent perspectives about pediatric clinical research after viewing the online Children and Clinical Studies (CaCS) program. Using a qualitative descriptive study design, we conducted focus groups with parents and phone interviews with physicians. Three themes emerged providing approaches to improve parent's understanding of clinical research by including strategies where parents (a) hear from parents like themselves to learn about pediatric research, (b) receive general clinical research information to complement study-specific details, and (c) are provided more information about the role of healthy child volunteers. Parents found the website a valuable tool that would help them make a decision about what it means to participate in research. This tool can assist parents, providers, and researchers by connecting general information with study-specific information.

  18. A qualitative assessment of implementing a cross-cultural survey on cancer wards in Denmark--a description of barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Hassani, Amani; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Research into migration and health is often confronted with methodological challenges related to the identification of migrants in various settings. Furthermore, it is often difficult to reach an acceptable level of participation among migrant groups in quantitative research. The aim of this stud...... is to conduct a qualitative assessment of the barriers encountered during the implementation of a cross-cultural survey on cancer wards in Copenhagen, Denmark....

  19. Qualitative Description of the Particle Trajectories for the $N$-Solitons Solution of the Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gagnon, Ludovick

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative properties of the particle trajectories of the $N$-solitons solution of the KdV equation are recovered from the first order velocity field by the introduction of the stream function. Numerical simulations show an accurate depth dependance of the particles trajectories for solitary waves. Failure of the free surface kinematic boundary condition for the first order type velocity field is highlighted.

  20. Physician user satisfaction with an electronic medical records system in primary healthcare centres in Al Ain: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Alawi, Shamma; Al Dhaheri, Aysha; Al Baloushi, Durra; Al Dhaheri, Mouza; Engela A. M. Prinsloo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore physician satisfaction with an electronic medical records (EMR) system, to identify and explore the main limitations of the system and finally to submit recommendations to address these limitations. Design A descriptive qualitative study that entailed three focus group interviews was performed among physicians using open-ended questions. The interviews were audiotaped, documented and transcribed verbatim. The themes were explored and analysed in different categories. Set...

  1. Conducting a multicentre and multinational qualitative study on patient transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie K; Barach, Paul; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2012-12-01

    A multicentre, multinational research study requires careful planning and coordination to accomplish the aims of the study and to ensure systematic and rigorous examination of all project methods and data collected. The aim of this paper is to describe the approach we used during the HANDOVER Project to develop a multicentre, multinational research project for studying transitions of patient care while creating a community of practice for the researchers. We highlight the process used to assure the quality of a multicentre qualitative study and to create a codebook for data analysis as examples of attending to the community of practice while conducting rigorous qualitative research. Essential elements for the success of this multinational, multilanguage research project included recruiting a strong research team, explicit planning for decision-making processes to be used throughout the project, acknowledging the differences among the study settings and planning the protocols to capitalise upon those differences. Although not commonly discussed in reports of large research projects, there is an underlying, concurrent stream of activities to develop a cohesive team that trusts and respects one another's skills and that engage independent researchers in a group process that contributes to achieving study goals. We discuss other lessons learned and offer recommendations for other teams planning multicentre research.

  2. Empowerment needs of women with breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Bahrami, Masoud; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefi, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Due to the increasing number of women suffering from breast cancer worldwide, promoting the empowerment of these patients is an important factor affecting their survival. Few studies have investigated the empowerment needs of the breast cancer women, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study was performed to explain the empowerment needs of women with breast cancer in Iran. In this qualitative study, 19 women with breast cancer were interviewed regarding their empowerment needs using the individual open-ended and, in-depth interviews and then the qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Three main categories of empowerment needs from the participants' perspectives were as follows: 1- information: the initial empowerment plans (timely and comprehensive information, coordination and continuity of information, easy and full-time access to information), 2- beliefs: the approval of the empowerment plans for execution (actuality, trust and hope and new beliefs), and 3- skills: efficient execution of the empowerment plans (communication skills, expression the needs, emotions, questions and use of the internet). It seems that promoting the empowerment of women with breast cancer is essential. Factors found in this study and also in similar studies, in which empowerment needs are explained in-depth through the experiences of the patients, should be considered and used in the treatment, educational and counseling programs to promote the empowerment of women with breast cancer.

  3. Reproductive Health Matters among Indian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Hegde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Qualitative perspectives of the reproductive health (RH facilities and Adolescent Friendly Health Services (AFHS are still unexplored issues among the Indian adolescents. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions and awareness about the RH and its facilities among the adolescents in two districts in India. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted on 197 individuals (i.e., 102 boys and 95 girls within the age of 15-19 years, selected from two Indian districts through stratified purposeful sampling method. For the purpose of the study, 16 focus group discussions (FGD were held using pre-tested FGD guide. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and thematic analysis was performed using inductive coding. Results: As the results indicated, a set of four themes, 12 subthemes, 52 open codes, and 12 categories was developed. The boys had lower parent-child proximity for discussing puberty changes, compared to the girls. They were totally unaware of the state sponsored RH services. On the other hand, the girls had better access to health care schemes provided by the government. Conclusion: According to the findings,the utilization of the RH services was poor among the adolescents in the two districts investigated in this study. It would be advisable to carry out more studies addressing the RH-related concerns of the adolescents, especially the boys.

  4. Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2011-12-21

    Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models.In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale-with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and

  5. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  6. The public library as therapeutic landscape: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Liz

    2014-03-01

    The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Siu, Judy Yuen-Man; Fung, Timothy K F

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers. Altogether 37 participants, age 35 or older, were interviewed. Participants' perception of advantages and disadvantages of adopting acupuncture, and their criteria in selecting acupuncturists, were collected. Results found that among the user group, acupuncture was perceived as being effective, having little side effects, and generating lasting impact. Among nonusers, acupuncture was perceived as lacking a clinical base, high risk, and nonstandardized. Nonusers had less confidence in acupuncture than biomedicine. Participants relied on social communication and the practitioner's professional qualifications in choosing acupuncturists. Marketing implications are discussed.

  8. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  9. Political Participation : A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Liza

    2006-01-01

    Abstract “Political participation” - A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong Thesis in Political Science, D-level Author: Liza Bergström Tutor: Michele Micheletti On July 1, 1997 China resumed its sovereignty over Hong Kong. Ever since long before the handover until today scholars ask whether and how the changes in Hong Kong’s political status are affecting politics in Hong Kong. This paper is situated in this on-going academic debate. Its purpose is to investigate whether system changes...

  10. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women.

  11. Resident physicians' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, John B; Bundrick, John B; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through third-year internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were conducted to better understand residents' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching. A group facilitator solicited residents' reflections, based on their lived experiences, on teaching domains from previous factor analytic studies: interpersonal, clinical-teaching, and efficiency. Researchers coded focus group transcripts and identified themes within the domains. Final themes were determined by consensus. Leading themes were "kindness" and "teacher-learner relationships." Junior residents were sensitive to faculty who were brusque, harsh, and degrading. Senior residents respected faculty who were humble, collaborative, and allowed residents to co-manage teaching encounters. Seniors emphasized the importance of faculty role-modelling and preferentially staffed with experts to "gain wisdom from experience." Overall, residents expressed that effective learning requires grounded teacher-learner relationships. These findings support learning theories and previous factor analytic studies. However, this qualitative study provided insights that could not be gleaned from assessment scores alone.

  12. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  13. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  14. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-31

    In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants' context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare

  15. Psychiatric Nurses' Perceptions about Physical Restraint; A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of  nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods.

  16. Life experiences of patients before having hypertension: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Afzal; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Esmaili, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    Identification of causes of hypertension on the basis of the perspectives and experiences of patients is the key to success in health plans of these patients. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of life before becoming hypertensive patients. This qualitative study was conducted during August 2015 to April 2016. Twenty-seven hypertensive patients referred to hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected based on purposive sampling, and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with them. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Three main categories were extracted from data analysis. Patients experienced factors such as negligence and neglect, life stress, lack of healthy lifestyles and abuse awareness, spirituality abandonee in the main category of "personal experience," factors such as family conflicts, heredity, inappropriate nutritional and life style in the main category of "family life," and also factors such as job stress, economic problems, urbanization, chemical agents during the war in the main category of "social life." Based on the findings, patients before becoming hypertensive under the influence of their culture and beliefs had experienced many risk factors associated with hypertension. Comprehensive planning and appropriate to the cultural, social, and beliefs context about the prevention and correction of these factors is necessary.

  17. Obstacles to the discussion of sexual problems in menopausal women: a qualitative study of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masoumeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mehdi Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore issues that challenge menopausal women in discussions of their sexual problems with a physician. This was done from the perspective of healthcare providers. In a descriptive exploratory qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview and purposive sampling, a sample set of 12 midwives and 13 general practitioners aged 25-70 years were selected in order to elicit meaning behind their experiences about the subject under study. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. Results were used to identify a number of obstacles that hindered women from seeking help for sexual problems from GPs and midwives. These obstacles included the following: (1) traditional and cultural beliefs; (2) religious belief; (3) individuals' beliefs and (4) access to services. More research is needed to explore effective strategies to overcome these problems. Impact statement Current knowledge on the subject: In the literature, many reasons have been identified for the unwillingness of Iranian women to discuss their sexual problems with health providers. These include lack of time, feelings of shame and an expectation that a doctor cannot help. However, no qualitative study has addressed barriers held by menopausal women for seeking treatment for sexual problems. The contribution made by the results of this study: The results of this study add to the growing body of research on reasons that determine why most postmenopausal women rarely visit a doctor unless they were in tremendous physical or emotional pain. Also, menopausal women thought that an unmarried health provider would be less understanding about sexual and marital problems and they felt guilty about sharing such issues with them. Patients' opinions on the nature of menopause (a pathological vs. physiological process) affect the way in which the symptoms of menopause and sexual problems are handled by patient. The implications are of these findings for clinical

  18. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somu Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. Aims: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Settings and Design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3% had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%, followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%, omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%, and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  19. A Qualitative Study of Televideo Consultations for COPD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Fastholm, Pernille; Sandholm Larsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . In public the expectations are high that digital mediation between clients' everyday lives and the health care system can strengthen patients' abilities regarding their self-management. Nonetheless, the study shows that patients have a number of reservations concerning televideo consultations at home......This article presents results from a small qualitative study investigating COPD patients' experiences with televideo consultations at home as a supplement to conventional control and treatment. The research question is: what are the experiences and preferences of COPD patients related to discharge...... from hospital with televideo consultations? The study shows that the patients' assessments of the effectiveness and value of the televideo consultations in their everyday lives are based on tough cost-benefit calculation of the extent to which the intervention makes their lives easier or more difficult...

  20. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikhi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies.

  1. Access to Triptans for Acute Episodic Migraine: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sobia; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Knowles, Sandra; Gomes, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Our study aims to examine factors related to access of triptans among multiple stakeholder groups. Triptans are a cornerstone of pain management for the acute treatment of migraine, but actual utilization of triptans is lower than ideal. Initial and continued access to triptans may be an important clinical issue in the acute treatment of migraines, but factors affecting access at the patient, provider, and health-care system levels have not been comprehensively explored. A qualitative study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, between August 2013 and January 2014. Three participant groups were recruited to the qualitative study: (1) migraineurs who have experience accessing triptans; (2) physicians, including primary care physicians (PCPs) and neurologists, who have prescribed triptans; and (3) pharmacists who have dispensed triptans. Qualitative data were collected through one-on-one, semi-structured telephone interviews. The framework approach was used for data collection and analysis. Data collected from 19 migraineurs, 6 physicians, and 8 pharmacists were included in the analysis. Study participants discussed various factors that facilitate or hinder access to triptans, which were synthesized into four themes that emerged at the patient, provider, and health-care systems levels: (1) awareness; (2) apathy; (3) advocacy; and (4) affordability. Across all participant groups, awareness of available treatments and coverage policies for those treatments were potential factors relating to timely drug provision. Participants describe apathy in terms of patients' health-seeking behaviors and physicians' lack of concern toward migraine, which were seen as factors that could delay diagnosis and provision of appropriate treatment. Patients engaging in self-advocacy enhanced their ability to seek timely and appropriate provision of triptans at the patient level. At the health-care provider level, pharmacists were identified by patients as advocates for receiving more effective

  2. Stakeholder views on a recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation art therapy program in a rural Australian mental health service: a qualitative description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Nadia; Kenny, Amanda; Kidd, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Recovery-oriented care is a guiding principle for mental health services in Australia, and internationally. Recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation supports people experiencing mental illness to pursue a meaningful life. In Australia, people with unremitting mental illness and psychosocial disability are often detained for months or years in secure extended care facilities. Psychiatric services have struggled to provide rehabilitation options for residents of these facilities. Researchers have argued that art participation can support recovery in inpatient populations. This study addressed the research question: Is there a role for the creative arts in the delivery of recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation for people with enduring mental illness and significant psychosocial disability detained in a secure extended care unit? The study had two major aims: to explore the experiences of consumers detained in a rural Australian secure extended care unit of an art therapy project, and to examine the views of nurse managers and an art therapist on recovery-oriented rehabilitation programs with regard to the art therapy project. A qualitative descriptive design guided the study, and a thematic network approach guided data analysis. Ethics approval was granted from the local ethics committee (AU/1/9E5D07). Data were collected from three stakeholders groups. Five consumers participated in a focus group; six managers and the art therapist from the project participated in individual interviews. The findings indicate that consumer participants benefitted from art participation and wanted more access to rehabilitation-focussed programs. Consumer participants identified that art making provided a forum for sharing, self-expression, and relationships that built confidence, absent in the regular rehabilitation program. Nurse manager and the art therapist participants agreed that art participation was a recovery-oriented rehabilitation tool, however, systemic barriers

  3. The process of internationalization of the nursing and midwifery curriculum: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah H

    2016-11-01

    There is an abundance of literature on internationalization of curricula. However, research on how a curriculum is internationalized to accommodate non-mobile students studying in their home countries is limited. To describe the process undertaken by curriculum developers in internationalizing the Brunei nursing and midwifery curriculum through curriculum design. A descriptive qualitative research design. A nursing and midwifery higher education institution in Brunei. Seventeen nurse/midwife academics. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 curriculum developers. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: expectations of an internationalized curriculum; formation of a committee; benchmarking and setting standards; and designing the curriculum for internationalization. This study has implications for the development of an internationally-oriented curriculum that takes into account the cultural context of a specific country. The findings highlight the need to involve students in curriculum design, a practice that is not common in Brunei. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ALCOHOL AND VIOLENCE IN MARITAL RELATIONS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY WITH COUPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Ramos Feijó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative and descriptive study aimed to understand the relation between the alcohol consumption and the violence expansion, in the relationship of couples made up by, at least, one partner with alcohol dependence. Semi-structured interviews with 10 couples were done, which were transcribed and submitted to the content analysis. All the couples reported marital violence related to alcohol use. Violence, mainly verbal and physical ones, was committed by both partners and it became worse due to increase of amount of alcohol ingestion. Other relational and professional difficulties, associated to continuous use of alcohol, were reported, in addition to the history of substance use and violence in the origin families of the participants. This study makes evident the complexity of the marital violence associated to the alcohol dependence, which must be considered for the prevention programs, interventions and the couple guiding – as a system that requires full attention.

  5. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  6. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

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    Greco Margherita

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ, a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81% completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease. Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness. Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which

  7. Danish women's experiences of the rebozo technique during labour: A qualitative explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Midtgaard, Julie; Ekelin, Maria; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to explore women's experiences of the rebozo technique during labour. This was a qualitative study based on individual telephone interviews, analysed by means of qualitative content analysis and inspired by interpretive description. 17 participants were recruited from two different-sized Danish hospitals and identified by applying a purposeful sample strategy. The main theme expressed the women's overall experience with the rebozo: "Joined movements in a harmless effort towards a natural birth". The women experienced that the technique created bodily sensations, which reduced their pain, and furthermore they expressed that it interrelated the labour process and produced mutual involvement and psychological support from the midwife and the women's partner. The rebozo technique was in most situations carried out because the midwife suspected a foetus malposition. The experiences of the rebozo technique were overall positive and both of a physical and psychological nature. The results indicate that health professionals should view rebozo as an easy accessible clinical tool with high user acceptance and possible positive psychological and clinical implications. The study contributes with a deeper and more nuanced understanding of a topic where only limited knowledge exists, however, efficacy studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spiritual concerns in Hindu cancer patients undergoing palliative care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinagesh Simha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Spiritual concerns are being identified as important components of palliative care. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of spiritual concerns in cancer patients undergoing palliative care in a hospice in India. Materials and Methods: The methodology used was a qualitative method: Interpretive phenomenological analysis. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data, based on Indian and western literature reports. Certain aspects like karma and pooja, relevant to Hindus, were included. Theme saturation was achieved on interviewing 10 participants. Results: The seven most common spiritual concerns reported were benefit of pooja, faith in God, concern about the future, concept of rebirth, acceptance of one′s situation, belief in karma, and the question "Why me?" No participant expressed four of the concerns studied: Loneliness, need of seeking forgiveness from others, not being remembered later, and religious struggle. Conclusions: This study confirms that there are spiritual concerns reported by patients receiving palliative care. The qualitative descriptions give a good idea about these experiences, and how patients deal with them. The study indicates the need for adequate attention to spiritual aspects during palliative care.

  9. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study of social ... a total of 20 participants aged 10-19 years, and selected using convenience sampling. Three themes were extracted using the consensual qualitative method and ...

  10. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Jun, Soo-Koung; Park, Ie Byung

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited research on physicians' perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students.

  11.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

      Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...... using a semi-structured interview guide and includes 26 pregnant women each interviewed shortly after having received information at their general practitioner, and again after having completed prenatal screenings tests.   Results:Only very few of the pregnant women in this study remember having...

  12. Spirituality and clinical care in eating disorders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Patricia; Karagianni, Efthalia; Morgan, John F

    2007-01-01

    Historical and contemporary research has posited links between eating disorders and religious asceticism. This study aimed to examine relationships between eating disorders, religion, and treatment. Qualitative study using purposeful sampling, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview, subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants were 10 adult Christian women receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Five dominant categories emerged: locus of control, sacrifice, self-image, salvation, maturation. Appetitive control held moral connotations. Negative self-image was common, based more on sin than body-image. Medical treatment could be seen as salvation, with religious conversion manifesting a quest for healing, but treatment failure threatened faith. Beliefs matured during treatment, with prayer, providing a healing relationship. Religious beliefs impact on attitudes and motivation in eating disorders. Clinicians' sensitivity determines how beliefs influence clinical outcome. Treatment modifies beliefs such that theological constructs of illness cannot be ignored. (c) 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Physical therapy rehabilitation strategies for dancers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Megin

    2013-01-01

    This was a qualitative study utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo.

  14. Weaner production with low antimicrobial usage: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee;

    2015-01-01

    source, as well as active participation in management by a committed farm owner. Most farmers had a specific point of focus in their management, and were convinced that this was the reason for their success. This included; feeding, treatment strategy, refurbishment of facilities and presence in the shed.......Conclusion: According to register data, participating farms were alike; in the good league regarding use of antimicrobials, mortality and daily growth. However, on-farm interviews elucidated more heterogeneity among farmers than expected. Most of the farmers had a specific point of focus, which they considered...... to be crucial for their good results. These results indicate the importance of non-registerable factors, highlighting the value of qualitative study techniques in the understanding of human actions. Further studies on the effect of various farmer types are recommended....

  15. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...

  16. Cutting down: insights from qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hilary; Flemming, Kate; Fox, David; Heirs, Morag; Sowden, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effects of smoking in pregnancy are minimised if the mother quits completely in early pregnancy. Smokers are therefore advised to quit abruptly; cutting down is not recommended either as a method of, or alternative to, quitting. However, most pregnant smokers do not quit and cutting down is widely reported. Evidence comes primarily from quantitative studies; qualitative research has contributed little to understandings of cigarette consumption in pregnancy. In consequence, little is known about the place and meaning of cutting down for pregnant smokers. The paper investigates this important dimension of maternal smoking. It explores perceptions and experiences of cutting down among pregnant smokers by examining data from a systematic review of qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy. The studies were located in high-income countries and published between 1970 and 2012. Twenty-six studies, reported in 29 papers, were included, representing over 640 women. Meta-ethnography guided the analysis and synthesis. Data (participants' accounts and authors' interpretations) were extracted and coded; codes were progressively combined to identify overarching themes ('lines of argument'). Running through the lines of argument was evidence on cutting down; the paper presents and analyses this evidence. The analysis indicates that cutting down figured centrally as both a method of quitting and, for persistent smokers, a method of harm reduction. While pregnant women were aware that official advice was to quit abruptly, cutting down was seen as a positive behaviour change in often-difficult domestic circumstances, and one that health professionals condoned. Our findings suggest that cutting down in pregnancy, as an aid and an alternative to quitting, requires greater recognition if healthcare and tobacco control policies are to be sensitive to the perspectives and circumstances of pregnant smokers.

  17. Locating air samplers inside a room using qualitative airflow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Haim, M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2000-05-01

    The concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are reactively close. Inappropriately placed air samplers can give misleading results and, therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers is not always obvious and cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling-for estimating worker intakes, warning of abnormally high concentrations, defining airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials, etc. Qualitative smoke tests were conducted inside rooms using a 'KUPO Inc.' smoke tube (D5050 fog machine). Smoke was released at elevation of 1-2 meters and its path was recorded on worksheet drawings of the room. The tests revealed three types of airflow patterns inside the rooms: a) flow path with a definite stable direction, b) flow path which changes direction arbitrarily as a result of airflow vortices, and c) static/stagnant air. In some cases the airflow path direction was different from the expected one. This emphasizes the significance of conducting airflow studies for location of air samplers and not only relying on intuition. An airflow patterns comparison study between the qualitative smoke tests and computer simulation using a commercial finite element CFD code, FIDAP 8.01, was also conducted. The measured and the computed paths of the airflow were mostly in good agreement. The computer simulation indicated additional details which could not be observed when performing the smoke tests because of physical and visibility limitations. (author)

  18. Efficiency assessment of Flash Profiling and Ranking Descriptive Analysis: a comparative study with star fruit-powdered flavored drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira MAMEDE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of Flash Profiling (FP and Ranking Descriptive Analysis (RDA methods regarding sensory characterization using star fruit-flavored drink as matrix. Sample A was used as a standard. Other three samples were prepared based on sample A, by adding sugar, citric acid, carboxymethylcellulose or dye. The same panel (twelve assessors was used to carry out FP and, subsequently, RDA analysis. The qualitative training stage used in RDA method showed no difference regarding the assessors’ performance and panel consensus compared to FP. Both methods were efficient and discriminated samples in a similar way and in agreement with the physicochemical characterization. However, astringent and bitter aftertaste attributes were additionally used in sample description by RDA. The latter attribute was also relevant for samples discrimination in RDA. FP application was simpler and faster, mainly regarding time spent by the assessors; however, RDA provided more comprehensive description of samples.

  19. Battling illness with wellness: a qualitative case study of a young rapper's experiences with music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Petter

    2015-07-03

    Mental health difficulties are connected with major interpersonal and social challenges. Recent qualitative research indicates that music therapy can facilitate many of the core elements found to promote social recovery and social inclusion, findings also reflected in results from a growing body of effect studies. The objective of this study was to explore how music therapy might afford possibilities for social recovery to one man with psychosis admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit. This was achieved by means of a qualitative case study featuring a description of the music therapeutic process alongside first-hand accounts of the participant's subjective experiences. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings are presented in a narrative form reflecting processes and activities considered particularly important for the process of social recovery. Theoretical perspectives from the recovery literature and current perspectives in music therapy are discussed with a view to the possible use of music therapy for strengthening agency, (re)building identity, developing positive relationships, and expanding social networks.

  20. Perception of social support among family caregivers of vegetative patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Esmat; Peyrovi, Hamid; Imani Goghary, Zahra; Kazemi, Majid

    2016-04-01

    A vegetative state (VS) is the probable result after brain damage. After VS patients are discharged from the hospital, the responsibility of caring of them is transferred to their families, which impacts a caregiver's physical and psychological health. Social support as a valuable resource reduces the negative effects of stressful events. This study aimed to explore the perception of social support among family caregivers of VS patients. This study is a part of a larger qualitative study which used the descriptive and qualitative method. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was done, and data was gathered through face-to-face, in-depth interviews. The four categories of "Family, a supporter in all aspects," "Beautiful emanation of the nurse's role," "Revitalization via empathy and companionship," and "Defects in support," were extracted. The primary concern of participants was receiving social support which can facilitate caregiving and coping with difficulties, but there are many shortcomings in supporting these caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF HONORIFIC USE IN KOREAN EMAIL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegu Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a relatively new field that examines how Korean culture affects Korean language use in terms of age difference in a corpus of computer mediated email discourse. The purpose of this descriptive study and experiment is to prove the close relationship between Korean language and culture. This paper shows the descriptive study of Korean culture in relation to language use. Korean culture acknowledges an inherent hierarchy with regard to age, and considers [+age] as relating socially to [+power]. When younger Koreans converse with older ones, they express different morpho-syntactic patterns, which is an age complex. The main task of the experiment was to examine the way through which the age complex is reflected by Korean honorific linguistic system in email discourse. I asked 15 Korean native speakers between the ages of 20 to 25 to write emails expressing an impositive request to [+age (46-50 years old], [-age (below 25 years old] and [=age] recipients. The results show significant differences in the use of grammatical features in emails written to [+age] recipients, as compared to emails written to [-age] and [=age] recipients. The implication of the findings is that the cultural values that are attached to age and aging in the Korean society affects Koreans’ language use, which means Korean language and culture are closely intermingled.

  2. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  3. Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few qualitative studies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.

  4. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  5. Partners' experiences of the postdischarge period after day surgery - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, Birgitte; Esbensen, Bente A; Thomsen, Thordis;

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives.  Day surgery shifts the responsibility of care from the hospital to patients and their families. This study explored how partners of day surgery patients experienced their role after patient discharge. Background.  Many surgical procedures formerly requiring inpatient care...... are now carried out on a day surgery basis, shifting responsibility of care to patients and their partners/relatives. Little is known about how partners of day surgery patients manage this responsibility. Design.  Qualitative descriptive. Methods.  Individual semi-structured interviews with 11 partners...... of day surgery patients who had undergone shoulder surgery. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse data. Results.  The following aspects were identified: the first is 'It's all about being there for the patient by taking care of the patient's needs and by mobilising one's network,' referring...

  6. Spiritual support for people living with HIV/AIDS: a Brazilian explorative, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, Camila Roberto da Costa Borges; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Pedro, Iara Cristina da Silva; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo

    2012-12-01

    In this exploratory and descriptive research, we identified the meaning of religion and spirituality in the experience of patients at a public health service for treatment of HIV/AIDS in a Brazilian upcountry town. Eight participants were selected through theoretical sampling. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The emerging themes were religion: a path to support, and God is everything. Religion, as a path that leads patients to different sources of support, included exploration of different churches, acknowledgment of guilt, and finding strength to cope with the disease, rationalization of the disease process, meeting other churchgoers, and finding God and faith. God, an important source of support, was present in prayers, in the belief in healing through faith, and in the feeling of comfort and relief. Because spirituality and religion were seen as important sources of support, in this study we that health professionals include these aspects in care planning.

  7. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  8. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  9. Adolescents' Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, Ezihe Loretta; Jooste, Karien

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents' interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional); having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents' understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  10. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly.

  11. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  12. The qualitative research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopper, H

    2008-12-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  13. Anorexia nervosa: treatment expectations – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulson-Karlsson G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gunilla Paulson-Karlsson,1 Lauri Nevonen21Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro and Anorexia-Bulimia Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Centre, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, SwedenBackground: Anorexia nervosa is a serious illness with a high mortality rate, a poor outcome, and no empirically supported treatment of choice for adults. Patients with anorexia nervosa strive for thinness in order to obtain self-control and are ambivalent toward change and toward treatment. In order to achieve a greater understanding of patients' own understanding of their situation, the aim of this study was to examine the expectations of potential anorexic patients seeking treatment at a specialized eating-disorder unit.Methods: A qualitative study design was used. It comprised 15 women between 18 and 25 years of age waiting to be assessed before treatment. The initial question was, "What do you expect, now that you are on the waiting list for a specialized eating-disorder unit?" A content analysis was used, and the text was coded, categorized according to its content, and further interpreted into a theme.Results: From the results emerged three main categories of what participants expected: "treatment content," "treatment professionals," and "treatment focus." The overall theme, "receiving adequate therapy in a collaborative therapeutic relationship and recovering," described how the participants perceived that their expectations could be fulfilled.Discussion: Patients' expectations concerning distorted thoughts, eating behaviors, a normal, healthy life, and meeting with a professional with knowledge and experience of eating disorders should be discussed before treatment starts. In the process of the therapeutic relationship, it is essential to continually address patients' motivations, in order to understand their personal motives behind

  14. Public perceptions of dental implants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M

    2015-07-01

    Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute

  15. Patients' perspectives on taking warfarin: qualitative study in family practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy C Shawn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the well-documented benefits of using warfarin to prevent stroke, physicians remain reluctant to initiate therapy, and especially so with the elderly owing to the higher risk of hemorrhage. Prior research suggests that patients are more accepting of the risk of bleeding than are physicians, although there have been few qualitative studies. The aim of this study was to employ qualitative methods to investigate the experience and perspective of individuals taking warfarin. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 21 older patients (12 male, 9 female who had been taking warfarin for a minimum of six months. Participants were patients at a family practice clinic situated in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. We used a semistructured interview guide with four main thematic areas: decision-making, knowledge/education, impact, and satisfaction. Data were analysed according to the principles of content analysis. Results and Discussion Participants tended to have minimal input into the decision to initiate warfarin therapy, instead relying in great part on physicians' expertise. There appeared to be low retention of information received regarding the therapy; half the patients in our sample possessed only a superficial level of understanding of the risks and benefits. This notwithstanding, participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the care provided and a low level of impact on their day-to-day lives. Conclusions Minimal patient involvement in the initial decision and modest knowledge did not appear to diminish satisfaction with warfarin management. At the same time, care providers exert a tremendous influence on the initiation of warfarin therapy and should strive to incorporate patient preferences and expectations into the decision-making process.

  16. A phenomenological study on resilience of the elderly suffering from chronic disease: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkhide Hassani,1 Fatemeh-Sadat Izadi-Avanji,2 Mahnaz Rakhshan,3 Hamid Alavi Majd4 1Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 4Department of Biostatistics, Facility of Paramedical, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Resilience is a key factor in improving health and attenuating problems caused by chronic diseases in the elderly. Having a clear understanding of its meaning in a specific population can be of great help in taking efficient steps toward better health services. Given the lack of information in this regard, the aim of this study was to understand the meaning of resilience for hospitalized older people who experience chronic conditions.Methods: The study was carried out as a qualitative work based on a descriptive phenomenological approach. The participants were selected purposefully, so that 22 elderly with chronic disease were interviewed in 24 sessions. The collected data were recorded and analyzed through Colaizzi’s method.Results: Four themes were extracted from the interviews as follows: 1 “meaning of resilience in the participants’ experiences” with subthemes of “the art of overcoming pain and suffering”, “adapt to health problem of senescence”, “accepting life with the chronic disease”, and “patience and trust in God”; 2 “growth context as a prologue of resilience” with subthemes of “growth background”; 3 “external factors contributing to resilience” with subthemes of “welfare”, “received support”, “deprivation and shortage”, and “attitudes toward an elderly with health problem”; and 4

  17. PERCEPTIONS OF INDONESIAN PRACTICAL NURSES TOWARDS UPDATING CAPABILITY TO PROVIDE CARE: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Arofiati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Capability to provide care can be recognized as the combination of nursing knowledge, skills, and attitude of care which is dynamic. Objective: This study aims to explore the perceptions of practical nurses towards updating capability to provide care. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the deep understanding of practical nurses towards updating capability to provide care. Data were gathered using in-depth interview with 25 practical nurses from different areas of practices, three times focus group discussion (FGD and participant-observation. Qualitative content analysis model was applied to anaylze the data. Result: There were two themes emerged from data: 1 Internal perceptions of updating capacity to provide care, with three subthemes: Having great expectation, Being confidence as a professional nurse, and Developing Self-Initiation, 2 External contexts driving perception of practicing nurses, with two subthemes: Giving best care and Acquiring requirement. Conclusions: The findings indicated that updating capacity to provide care supports practical nurses to provide better nursing services to patients and meet the regulation of nursing professionalism.

  18. Transcription and Analysis of Qualitative Data in a Study of Women Who Sexually Offended against Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Elizabeth Anne

    2012-01-01

    Research on sexual violence is often conducted within the qualitative paradigm. However, many writers have described the lack of specific detail provided with regard to decisions and processes involved in transcribing and analyzing this type of data. In this article, I will provide a description and discussion of the organization, categorization,…

  19. Beyond descriptive research: advancing the study of spirituality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarin, David H; Wachholtz, Amy; Ai, Amy

    2011-12-01

    The past three decades have witnessed a surge in research on spirituality and health. This growing body of literature has linked many aspects of spirituality as well as religion to both positive and negative indices of human functioning. However, studies have primarily been descriptive, focusing on identifying associations between spirituality and health, rather than explanatory, focusing on identifying mechanisms underlying observed relationships. Earlier research is also limited by failure to control for salient covariates, apply prospective design, and use sophisticated measurements with well defined and empirically-validated factors. Recent research, however, is advancing the study of spirituality and health by examining not only whether religious factors are relevant to human health, but also how spirituality may functionally impact medical and psychological wellbeing and illness. This article introduces a special issue on Spirituality and Health containing 12 full-length research reports to further this welcomed, emerging trend.

  20. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients’ health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588

  1. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.

  2. The GP's perception of poverty: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Sara J; Swinnen, Wilfried; De Maeseneer, Jan M

    2005-04-01

    Health differences between people from lower and higher social classes increase. The accessibility of the health care system is one of the multiple and complex causes. The Physician's perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards the patient are in this context important determinants. To explore the general practitioners' definition of poverty and their perception of the deprived patients' attitude towards health and health care, to get insight into the ways general practitioners deal with the problem of poverty and to present the proposals general practitioners make to improve health care for the deprived. The study involved qualitative methodology using 21 semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded using Framework Analysis techniques. Interviews were undertaken with general practitioners in primary care, working in a deprived area in the city of Ghent. In the definition of poverty, three concepts can be identified: socioeconomic aspects, psychological and individual characteristics, and socio-cultural concepts. General practitioners adopt different types of approaches to deal with deprived patients in practice: adaptation of the doctor-patient communication, lowering of the financial threshold, referral to specialists and other health care professionals. Including the issue of poverty and poverty in the curriculum of the medical students and in the in-service training for practicing doctors could have a positive impact on their attitude towards this patient group. Further research is needed into the barriers in the accessibility of the health care system for the deprived, exploring qualitatively and quantitatively the experiences and the living conditions of deprived patients and the perceptions of health care providers.

  3. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O Shiyanbola

    Full Text Available The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4% with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3. The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability.

  4. Going home after infant cardiac surgery: a UK qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregay, Jenifer; Wray, Jo; Crowe, Sonya; Knowles, Rachel; Daubeney, Piers; Franklin, Rodney; Barron, David; Hull, Sally; Barnes, Nick; Bull, Catherine; Brown, Katherine L

    2016-04-01

    To qualitatively assess the discharge processes and postdischarge care in the community for infants discharged after congenital heart interventions in the first year of life. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and Framework Analysis. UK specialist cardiac centres and the services their patients are discharged to. Twenty-five cardiologists and nurses from tertiary centres, 11 primary and secondary health professionals and 20 parents of children who had either died after discharge or had needed emergency readmission. Participants indicated that going home with an infant after cardiac intervention represents a major challenge for parents and professionals. Although there were reported examples of good care, difficulties are exacerbated by inconsistent pathways and potential loss of information between the multiple teams involved. Written documentation from tertiary centres frequently lacks crucial contact information and contains too many specialist terms. Non-tertiary professionals and parents may not hold the information required to respond appropriately when an infant deteriorates, this contributing to the stressful experience of managing these infants at home. Where they exist, the content of formal 'home monitoring pathways' varies nationally, and families can find this onerous. Service improvements are needed for infants going home after cardiac intervention in the UK, focusing especially on enhancing mechanisms for effective transfer of information outside the tertiary centre and processes to assist with monitoring and triage of vulnerable infants in the community by primary and secondary care professionals. At present there is no routine audit for this stage of the patient journey. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  6. Educators' and Applicants' Views of the Postdoctoral Pediatric Dentistry Admission Process: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Kevin; Mihas, Paul; Lee, Jessica Y; Guthmiller, Janet M; Roberts, Michael W; Divaris, Kimon

    2015-11-01

    The postdoctoral application and matching process in dental education is a high-stakes and resource-intensive process for all involved. While programs seek the most qualified candidates, applicants strive to be competitive to increase their likelihood of being accepted to a desirable program. There are limited data regarding either subjective or objective factors underlying the complex interplay between programs and applicants. This qualitative study sought to provide insight into the stakeholders' experiences and views on the matching process. Telephone and in-person interviews were conducted with ten pediatric dentistry program directors and ten recent applicants to pediatric dentistry programs in the United States in 2013-14. Participants were selected to represent the geographic (five districts of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry) and institutional (hospital- or university-based) diversity of pediatric dentistry programs. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Veracity and need for more information were the themes most often articulated by both groups. The program directors most valued teachability and self-motivation as desirable applicant characteristics. The applicants relied primarily on subjective sources to gather information about programs and prioritized location and financial factors as pivotal for their rankings. Both groups appreciated the uniformity of the current application process and highlighted several weaknesses and areas for improvement. These results shed light on the postdoctoral matching process in pediatric dentistry via a qualitative description of stakeholders' experiences and viewpoints. These insights can serve as a basis for improving and refining the matching process.

  7. Delivering Mental Health Services to OEF/OIF Veterans: A VHA Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoracci, Gina M; Bahraini, Nazanin H; Matarazzo, Bridget B; Olson-Madden, Jennifer H; Brenner, Lisa A

    2014-09-01

    Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health (MH) professionals are providing care to increasing numbers of veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). This study aimed to describe MH clinicians' views of OEF/OIF veteran needs and how providers meet those needs within a large system of care. Qualitative research methodology, specifically qualitative description, was used to explore VHA MH clinicians' experiences providing MH services to OEF/OIF veterans. Thirteen VA MH providers participated in semistructured interviews, which included questions regarding the following areas: psychiatric needs of OEF/OIF veterans; collaboration and referral; needs and resources; and the personal/professional impact of providing services to this cohort. Themes emerged which highlighted complex challenges faced by OEF/OIF veterans, barriers associated with matching the unique needs of these veterans with existing treatments, and the challenges and rewards associated with providing care to members of this population. Capturing provider perspectives within MH services suggest potential areas for innovation aimed at providing patient-centered care to this cohort of veterans. Results may also inform future work aimed at meeting the needs of both OEF/OIF veterans and MH providers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. A qualitative study of attachment relationships in ASD during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2017-02-01

    Although research has indicated that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display normative attachment behaviours, to date there has been limited qualitative research exploring these relationships. This study aimed to describe qualitative features of the child-caregiver attachment relationship in children with ASD. Primary caregivers to 26 children with ASD (aged 7-14 years) and 23 typically developing children (aged 7-13 years) were administered the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (Smyke & Zeanah, 1999) to elicit descriptions of children's attachment behaviours. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts indicated that while children with ASD demonstrated a range of normative attachment behaviours, they displayed impairments in the use of the caregiver as a secure base and co-regulating agent. ASD-associated impairments in emotion processing, sharing/reciprocity, and emotion co-regulation, as well as the caregiver's experience, were important in understanding attachment relationships in ASD. Findings highlight the need to consider the bidirectional nature of the attachment relationship in ASD.

  9. Nursing instructors' perception of students' uncivil behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumpoor, Anahita; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rassouli, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Uncivil behavior is a serious issue in nursing education around the world, and is frequently faced by instructors and students. There is no study in relation to explain the concept and dimensions of uncivil behavior in nursing education of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of nursing educators about student incivility behavior. This was a qualitative study. Data from 11 semi-structured interviews were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants and research context: In all, 11 nursing educators of 5 various nursing schools in Tehran, capital of Iran, participated. Ethical considerations: Organizational approval by the Universities, and informed consent were ensured before conducting the research. The principles of voluntariness, confidentiality, and anonymity were respected during the research process. Three themes were found: disruptive behavior affecting communication climate, disruptive behavior affecting ethical climate, and disruptive behavior affecting learning climate. Discussion and final considerations: The results of this study demonstrated that uncivil behavior affects every ethical, communicational, and learning climate and threaten peace of the instructors, students, and the academic community. With the consideration of mutuality in incivility behaviors, the authors propose to examine students' perceptions and identify dimensions of uncivil behavior of instructors for formulating strategies to minimize such behaviors in nursing educational society.

  10. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  11. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

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    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of descriptive varieties of philosophy of religion primarily concerned with understanding and the clarification of meaning rather than with the stereotypical tasks of propositional justification or critical evaluation. Three examples are discussed in the article: analytic traditions (Wittgensteinianism and ordinarylanguage philosophy, phenomenological perspectives involving reduction (bracketing and comparative philosophy of religion that works in tandem with the history of religion and comparative religion.

  12. A phenomenological study on resilience of the elderly suffering from chronic disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Parkhide; Izadi-Avanji, Fatemeh-Sadat; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is a key factor in improving health and attenuating problems caused by chronic diseases in the elderly. Having a clear understanding of its meaning in a specific population can be of great help in taking efficient steps toward better health services. Given the lack of information in this regard, the aim of this study was to understand the meaning of resilience for hospitalized older people who experience chronic conditions. The study was carried out as a qualitative work based on a descriptive phenomenological approach. The participants were selected purposefully, so that 22 elderly with chronic disease were interviewed in 24 sessions. The collected data were recorded and analyzed through Colaizzi's method. Four themes were extracted from the interviews as follows: 1) "meaning of resilience in the participants' experiences" with subthemes of "the art of overcoming pain and suffering", "adapt to health problem of senescence", "accepting life with the chronic disease", and "patience and trust in God"; 2) "growth context as a prologue of resilience" with subthemes of "growth background"; 3) "external factors contributing to resilience" with subthemes of "welfare", "received support", "deprivation and shortage", and "attitudes toward an elderly with health problem"; and 4) "personal factors to overcome illness" with subthemes of "enthusiasm for following up the treatment program", "aversion to physical dependence", "hope for improvement", "motivation and purpose", and "being content with one's belongings and blessings". Improvement in resilience is associated with a patient-oriented approach. Providers of health services might make proper interventions based on unique needs of patients to improve their resilience and ability to overcome health problems. This can be performed by family members, health team, and related organizations and bodies.

  13. A phenomenological study on resilience of the elderly suffering from chronic disease: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Parkhide; Izadi-Avanji, Fatemeh-Sadat; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Background Resilience is a key factor in improving health and attenuating problems caused by chronic diseases in the elderly. Having a clear understanding of its meaning in a specific population can be of great help in taking efficient steps toward better health services. Given the lack of information in this regard, the aim of this study was to understand the meaning of resilience for hospitalized older people who experience chronic conditions. Methods The study was carried out as a qualitative work based on a descriptive phenomenological approach. The participants were selected purposefully, so that 22 elderly with chronic disease were interviewed in 24 sessions. The collected data were recorded and analyzed through Colaizzi’s method. Results Four themes were extracted from the interviews as follows: 1) “meaning of resilience in the participants’ experiences” with subthemes of “the art of overcoming pain and suffering”, “adapt to health problem of senescence”, “accepting life with the chronic disease”, and “patience and trust in God”; 2) “growth context as a prologue of resilience” with subthemes of “growth background”; 3) “external factors contributing to resilience” with subthemes of “welfare”, “received support”, “deprivation and shortage”, and “attitudes toward an elderly with health problem”; and 4) “personal factors to overcome illness” with subthemes of “enthusiasm for following up the treatment program”, “aversion to physical dependence”, “hope for improvement”, “motivation and purpose”, and “being content with one’s belongings and blessings”. Conclusion Improvement in resilience is associated with a patient-oriented approach. Providers of health services might make proper interventions based on unique needs of patients to improve their resilience and ability to overcome health problems. This can be performed by family members, health team, and related organizations and bodies

  14. Qualitative case study in pedagogical research: Cognitive possibilities and limitations

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    Ševkušić Slavica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the cognitive possibilities and limitations of case study, as a qualitative research approach, and the fields of its application in studying pedagogical problems. Special attention is paid to different ways of defining and usual criticism pointed at this strategy in methodological literature of recent date: (1 general, theoretical (context independent knowledge is much more valuable from actual, practical (context dependent knowledge; (2 one cannot perform generalizations based on an individual case and therefore case study cannot contribute to the development of science; (3 case study is the most useful in generating hypotheses, that is, for the first phase of research process, while other methods are more suitable for testing hypotheses and building a theory; (4 case study tends to be partial towards verification, that is, the tendency of a researcher to confirm his/her previously established concepts; (5 it is often very difficult to present in brief the specific case study, and especially difficult to deduce general suggestions and theories on the basis of a specific case study. The objections, therefore, regard the possibility of theory development, reliability and validity of the approach, or doubt in its scientific status. The author of this paper discusses the justifiability of these objections and points out to different methodological procedures of arranging and analyzing the data collected for studying the case, which contribute to the reliability of this research approach. As a general conclusion, it is stated that the case method contains all the features relevant for studying pedagogical phenomena: preservation of the integrality of the phenomenon, appreciation of its context, developmental dimension and complementariness of different data sources.

  15. A descriptive study of research published in scientific nursing journals from 1985 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Numerous analyses of research published in scientific nursing journals have been examined over the past decades. However, a comprehensive analysis of trends in research has not been reported since 1980. The aim of this analysis was to review randomly selected research articles published in four scientific nursing journals for the years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 to identify changes in selected aspects of research and to compare the findings with those from an earlier similar study. This descriptive study used percentages to present trends in published studies in four scientific nursing journals for twenty-five years. A total of 976 studies were identified; 50% were randomly selected for each year analyzed. The foci of the research problem, care orientation, conceptual bases, research designs, data analysis procedures, discussion of findings, and recommendations and implications were analyzed. Most studies from 1985 (66%) through 2010 (73%) focused on nursing practice issues; in 2010 they focused on primary health (46%) and chronicity (41%). A decrease in theory-testing research from 1985 (32%) to 2010 (21%), and in theory-based studies from 1985 (31%) to 2010 (22%) was noted. Qualitative studies increased from 1985 (3%) to 2010 (21%). Psychological variables and adult populations continue to be studied mainly over 25 years. For quantitative studies, there were increases in correlational designs from 1985 (35%) to 2010 (38%), experimental designs from 1985 (16%) to 2010 (18%), and methodological studies from 1985 (5%) to 2010 (24%). There were decreases in descriptive studies from 1985 (20%) to 2010 (5%), and comparative studies from 1985 (19%) to 2010 (10%). The use of multivariate statistics increased over time. In 1985, 61% of researchers did not link their findings to theory guiding the study; 52% did not in 2010. For qualitative research, approximately 50% fell in the "other category" over the 25 years; in 2010, grounded theory (15

  16. Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.

  17. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  18. Citizens' perspectives on personalized medicine: a qualitative public deliberation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Abelson, Julia; Simeonov, Dorina; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Our objective was to explore citizens' informed and reasoned values and expectations of personalized medicine, a timely yet novel genomics policy issue. A qualitative, public deliberation study was undertaken using a citizens' reference panel on health technologies, established to provide input to the health technology assessment process in Ontario, Canada. The citizens' panel consisted of five women and nine men, aged 18-71 years, with one member selected from each health authority region. There were shared expectations among the citizens' panel members for the potential of personalized medicine technologies to improve care, provided they are deemed clinically valid and effective. These expectations were tempered by concerns about value for money and the possibility that access to treatment may be limited by personalized medicine tests used to stratify patients. Although they questioned the presumed technological imperative presented by personalized medicine technologies, they called for increased efforts to prepare the health-care system to effectively integrate these technologies. This study represents an early but important effort to explore public values toward personalized medicine. This study also provides evidence of the public's ability to form coherent judgments about a new policy issue. Concerned that personalized tests might be used to ration care, they suggested that treatment should be made available if patients wanted it, irrespective of tests that indicate little benefit. This issue raises clinical and policy challenges that may undermine the value of personalized medicine. Further efforts to deliberate with the public are warranted to inform effective, efficient and equitable translation of personalized medicine.

  19. Relapse experience in Iranian opiate users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid; Jalali, Amir

    2014-04-01

    To understand the relapse process, it is required to notice the clients learned behaviors and environmental contexts. We aimed to explore and describe relapse experiences of Iranian drug users. This is a grounded theory study and twenty two participants were selected using purposive sampling, snowball and theoretical sampling. After obtaining written informed consent, data gathering was done by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. According to Strauss and Corbin three phases of open coding, axial coding and selection coding were done for qualitative analysis and continuous comparison. During the research period Guba and Lincoln criteria were used to be reassured of the accuracy and rigor of the study findings. The main categories of this study were craving and conflict, family stress and psychological indicators of relapse that emerged in three phases including recovery, tension and pre-relapse. High anxiety, withdrawal, rationalization and lying were the most common symptoms. Family reactions and social conditions play a key role in relapse. Relapse process is an active and multidimensional event in which the clients experience a psychosocial status continuum from recovery to relapse. Most psychological problems are seen in the tension phase.

  20. Iranian Women's Experiences with Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. "Neglect or covert violence" and "overt violence" were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women.

  1. Lived experiences of elderly home residents: a qualitative study

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    Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing elderly population has been lead to increased number of hospices and their customers. However, the lived experiences of elderly home residents have been less noticed. This study aimed to investigate the lived experiences of elderly residents of Kashan's Golabchi elderly hospice.Methods: In this qualitative study based on phenomenological approach data collected using purposive sampling and deep open interview, narrative collection method until data saturation was obtained. Data were analyzed using Van Manen’s six step method.Results: Fifteen elderly with age range 65-73 years and average length of stay of 2.5 years participated in the study. Five items were extracted from data, including of "rejection and isolation", "feel failure and disgrace", "adaptation", "satisfaction" and "being monotonous and waiting". Most of the participants felt that were rejected by their families and the community. Their life was tedious and this had reduced their life passion and they were waiting for the end of life. Conclusion: Most of the elderly had not positive experiences of living in the hospice. Inattention of the family and the condition of the hospice environment made them a feel of “isolation and being rejected” along with a “feel of failure and disgrace”. Improving the validity of elderly home residents, may be achieved by improving communication culture of this population, elderly hospices condition and appropriate training of geriatric nurses.

  2. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

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    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  3. Older adults' perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Sclinda L; Stube, Jan E

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore older adults' perceptions of participation in physical activity (PA) as it impacts productive ageing and informs occupational therapy (OT) practice. In this phenomenological study, 15 community-dwelling older adults were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling at community locations. Data collection methods included two interviews and an observation. The primary finding was that older adults continue individual patterns of meaningful PA across their lifespan when they have support to adapt to age-associated limitations, with a gradual decline in intensity during older years. Although this study's qualitative methodology limits broad generalizability, the findings provide applicability when situated in the context of community-living older adults interested in health maintenance through PA participation. OT practitioners have an important role with community-dwelling older adults to impact productive ageing by designing and promoting meaningful PA with adaptations that address unique, age-associated concerns. There is a need for further experimental research taking an occupational performance and health perspective to enhance the contribution of OT for this population's health-related quality of life through meaningful PA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Emergency Nurses as Second Victims of Error: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajri-Khameslou, Mehdi; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba

    There are many nurses who are victims of errors in the hospital environment. It is quite essential to perceive the outcome of mistakes in nurses' profession. The aim of this scientific study was to interpret the causes that place nurses in danger of errors in emergency departments and also the consequences resulting from confronting the errors in the job environment. This research was designed to pursue a qualitative approach following content analysis. Through the purposeful sampling, 18 emergency nurses were selected to participate in this study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. The results of data analysis were presented in three different categories: the psychological reactions to error, learning from errors, and avoiding reactions. The current study revealed that errors could create positive and negative impacts on the emergency nurses' attitude. Confronting the errors through learning from the mistakes can result in the improvement of patients' safety whereas the negative outcomes can provoke destructive effects on nurses' career. Nurses are considered as victims of errors; therefore, they need support and protection to enhance their career.

  5. The good doctor: a qualitative study of German homeopathic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliems, Harald; Witt, Claudia M

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors that make a good doctor, both from a patient and a physician perspective. Is there a connection between practicing homeopathy and being a good doctor? This was a qualitative study of homeopathically trained physicians and their patients, using observation of patient-physician interactions (n = 29) and interviews with patients (n = 20) and with physicians (n = 4). Patients identified the availability of time, both in itself and as a prerequisite for other physician characteristics, as the single most important factor. Other factors include scope of diagnosis/holistic approach, patient-centeredness/empathy, and perceived competence/therapeutic success. Patients did not link these factors to the homeopathic orientation of their physician, while physicians clearly made this connection. The findings confirm other studies of patient satisfaction and physician characteristics. The availability of time, a holistic approach, and high physician empathy lead to high patient satisfaction. Homeopathic physicians probably are more likely to exhibit these characteristics. Health care policy should create conditions that enable individual physicians to be "good doctors." For medical education, a stronger emphasis on interpersonal skills and practitioner empathy could lead to higher patient satisfaction and potentially better treatment outcomes. Homeopathy might provide a good role model for this type of education.

  6. Distrust and patients in intercultural healthcare: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Lise-Merete

    2016-06-09

    The importance of trust between patients and healthcare personnel is emphasised in nurses' and physicians' ethical codes. Trust is crucial for an effective healthcare personnel-patient relationship and thus for treatment and treatment outcomes. Cultural and linguistic differences may make building a trusting and positive relationship with ethnic minority patients particularly challenging. Although there is a great deal of research on cultural competence, there is a conspicuous lack of focus on the concepts of trust and distrust concerning ethnic minority patients, particularly in relation to the concept of 'othering'. To study which factors help build trust or create distrust in encounters between healthcare professionals and hospitalised ethnic minority patients, as well as study the dynamic complexities inherent within the process of 'othering'. Qualitative design, in-depth interviews and hermeneutic analysis. The interviewees were 10 immigrant patients (six women and four men - eight Asians, two Africans - ages 32-85 years) recruited from a south-eastern Norwegian hospital. Study approval was obtained from the hospital's Privacy Ombudsman for Research and the hospital's leadership. Participation was voluntary and participants signed an informed consent form. Distrust and othering may be caused by differences in belief systems, values, perceptions, expectations, and style of expression and behaviour. Othering is a reciprocal phenomenon in minority ethnic patient-healthcare personnel encounters, and it influences trust building negatively. Besides demonstrating general professional skill and competence, healthcare personnel require cultural competence to create trust. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. "Library Trends" Past and Present: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Lawrence W. S.

    1988-01-01

    This analysis of "Library Trends" from 1952-86 provides an overall description of authorship and subject content, general comparison of early and late volumes, and more detailed descriptions--including citation analysis--of the three pairs of issues bearing identical titles. Tables present data on authorship, subjects, and citations. (1 reference)…

  8. Original Research A qualitative study of health education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes health education experiences and self-management practices 118 ... had a positive regard for the diabetes education classes and had satisfactory health literacy. .... with this qualitative assessment will serve as a foundation for future ...

  9. Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this article, I want to promote theoretical awareness and commitment among qualitative researchers in general practice and suggest adequate and feasible theoretical approaches.  Approach: I discuss different theoretical aspects of qualitative research and present the basic foundations...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...... in qualitative analysis are presented, emphasizing substantive theories to sharpen the interpretative focus. Such approaches are clearly within reach for a general practice researcher contributing to clinical practice by doing more than summarizing what the participants talked about, without trying to become...

  10. Community pharmacists, medication monitoring, and the routine nature of refills: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J; Doucette, William R

    2014-01-01

    To describe the attitudes, contextual factors, and behaviors associated with medication monitoring in the dispensing process by community pharmacists. Descriptive qualitative research with semistructured interviews. Midwestern community pharmacies or telephone. 12 licensed community pharmacists from chain, independent, and grocery pharmacies. 45-minute, semistructured interviews were conducted to gather detailed live experiences and perspectives pertinent to the study objective. Transcripts were coded descriptively and interpretively, originating with the input and monitoring process domains of the Health Collaboration Model. A thematic dichotomy was interpreted in the analysis. All participants discussed both (1) the technical and routine nature of their work, and (2) the problem-solving and relational aspects of practice. More specifically, medication monitoring was constrained by busyness, lack of patient interest, and the routine nature of refills, although to varying extents. Some predominantly responded to unique circumstances such as patient question-asking, prior memory of a patient interaction or service utilization, or technical issues such as medication cost. Others added unprompted questions of varying specificity when handing off the prescription to understand patient medication experiences. Pharmacists felt challenged by nonadherence monitoring because workflows made this information difficult to access and late refills were prevalent. Community pharmacies seeking to increase medication monitoring in the dispensing process may target the routine nature of refills and the availability of monitoring information.

  11. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  12. Newsmaking on drugs: a qualitative study with journalism professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina

    2008-09-01

    Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil.

  13. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  14. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  16. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  17. Good death for children with cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinori; Okuyama, Toru; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kamei, Michi; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Koji; Kubota, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Shinji; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the characteristics of a good death for children with cancer. A total of 10 pediatric cancer survivors, 10 bereaved family members and 20 medical professionals participated in in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was performed on the transcribed data obtained from semi-structured interviews. Thirteen characteristics including unique and specific for children of a good death were identified: (i) sufficient opportunities to play freely, (ii) peer supporters, (iii) continued access to the patient's usual activities and relationships, (iv) assurance of privacy, (v) respect for the patient's decisions and preferences, (vi) a sense that others acknowledge and respect the patient's childhood, (vii) comfort care to minimize distressing symptoms, (viii) hope, (ix) not aware of the patient's own impending death, (x) constant dignity, (xi) strong family relationships, (xii) no sense of being a burden to family members and (xiii) good relationships with medical staffs. This study identifies important characteristics of a good death for children with cancer. These findings may help medical staffs provide optimal care for children with cancer and their families, enabling them to achieve a good death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Using lecture capture: a qualitative study of nursing faculty's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia E; Bertram, Julie E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2014-04-01

    As lecture capture technology becomes widely available in schools of nursing, faculty will need to master new technological skills and make decisions about recording their classroom lectures or other activities. This study sought to understand faculty's experience of using a new lecture capture system. This qualitative study used Kruger's systematic approach to explore undergraduate nursing faculty's first-time experience using a lecture capture system purchased by the university. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of fourteen undergraduate faculty using lecture capture for the first-time. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed by the researchers. Four themes were identified from the faculty interviews. Two of the themes expressed faculty's concerns about the teaching role, and two themes expressed the faculty's concerns about student learning. Participants experienced stress when learning to use the new lecture capture technology and struggled to resolve it with their own beliefs and teaching values. The impact of lecture capture on student learning, impact on class attendance, and the promotion of a culture of lecturing were revealed as important issues to consider when lecture capture becomes available. © 2013.

  19. Oral health promotion in Gauteng: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molete, Mpho Primrose; Daly, Blanaid; Hlungwani, Tintswalo Mercy

    2013-03-01

    One of the aims of the South African Oral Health Promotion Framework is to integrate oral health promotion activities into general health promotion using the Common Risk Factor Approach (CRFA). Though policies have directed that oral health should be integrated into general health promotion in South Africa, little is known about the implementation of the CRFA in daily oral health promotion practice. This study aimed to assess how health promoters in Gauteng integrate oral health into their general health promotion activities. The objectives were (i) to describe how health promoters undertake health promotion in Gauteng; (ii) to describe how health promoters incorporate oral health promotion into health promotion activities; and (iii) to describe the opportunities and challenges for health promoters in applying the CRFA. This was a qualitative study and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. A purposive sample of 10 formally trained health promoters agreed to be interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants' work was centred mostly on healthy lifestyle campaigns and there was little integration of oral health into health promotion activities. While most health promoters had an understanding of the CRFA, this understanding was not common amongst other levels of management. Oral health literacy was low and health promoters perceived few opportunities for using a CRFA when weighed against other priorities such as poverty and HIV/AIDS. Currently there is little evidence of integration of oral health into general health promotion activities.

  20. Spiritual needs of cancer patients: A qualitative study

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    Khadijeh Hatamipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of cancer can cause huge spiritual crisis in a person and affect different aspects of life. At this stage, patients have certain spiritual needs. Aim: This study was conducted to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 18 cancer patients, referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. Results: From 1850 initial codes, 4 themes (connection, peace, meaning and purpose, and transcendence were identified that contained categories of social support, normal behavior, inner peace, seeking forgiveness, hope, acceptance of reality, seeking meaning, ending well, change of life meaning, strengthening spiritual belief, communication with God, and prayer. Conclusions: Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be recognized, realized, and considered in care of patients by the medical team. An all-out support of health system policy makers to meet patients′ spiritual needs is particularly important.

  1. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

  2. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel-Weiss Joy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

  3. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  4. Communication Needs of Patients with Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnazar, Tahereh Alsadat Khoubbin; Rassouli, Mrayam; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Momenzadeh, Syrus; Rejeh, Nahid; Mohseny, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since communication is considered to be one of the central concepts in caregiving practices, this study aims to examine the perception of women with breast cancer in terms of their communication needs. Methods: In this qualitative study, 20 participants (9 women with breast cancer, 10 of health-care professionals, and one family caregiver) were selected through purposive sampling, and a face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted with each of them. After data collection, all interviews were transcribed and reviewed, and categories were extracted. The data were analyzed with Conventional Content Analysis of Landman and Graneheim using MAXQDA10 software. Results: The analysis resulted in two extracted categories: “therapeutic communication” and “facilitating empathy”, and five subcategories: “trust-building therapist”, “crying out to be heard,” “seeking a soothing presence,” “sharing knowledge,” and “supportive peers”. Conclusion: Identifying and promoting the communicative needs of patients could lead to a considerably better care of patients under treatment. Therefore, therapeutic communication, as an integral part, should be incorporated into the care plan for patients with breast cancer and their families in the Oncology and Palliative Care wards.

  5. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  6. Multiproject interdependencies in health systems management: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Gamm, Larry; Kim, Jungyeon; Menser, Terri

    2014-01-01

    A health care organization often engages in the simultaneous implementation of multiple organization change initiatives. However, the degree to which these initiatives are implemented and can be enhanced based on their interdependencies is an open question. How organizations and the change initiatives they pursue might benefit from more careful examination of potential interdependencies among projects was explored in this article. The aim of this study was to introduce a multiproject management conceptualization that stresses project interdependencies and suggests synergies can be found to enhance overall project and organizational performance. It examines this conceptualization in the context of a health system pursuing several major initiatives to capture insights into the nature of such interdependencies. Longitudinal qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with hospital leaders attempting to manage multiple initiatives being implemented by the system's leadership team was used in this study. The implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) is empirically identified as the most central among multiple projects based on other projects dependencies on the EMR. Furthermore, concerns for data are identified most frequently as success factors across all projects. This reinforces the depiction of the EMR as a central organizational focus. A unique perspective on multiproject management in hospitals and on EMR projects is presented. In addition, the interdependency conceptualization and its application and results provide insights into multiproject management that can help ensure that benefits of individual projects are more fully optimized or exploited in leveraging the effectiveness of other project initiatives.

  7. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  8. Organizational Failure in an NHS Hospital Trust: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Mannion, Russell; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore the key factors associated with organizational failure in an NHS Hospital Trust. This case study adopted a qualitative design. Fifty-seven semistructured interviews and document analyses were conducted as well. Data were analyzed using a framework analysis method. A range of symptoms of organizational performance failure was identified. These relate to a financial deficit, lack of good external relationships, inability to meet core targets, a lack of clear management systems, and low staff morale. These markers had not been taken seriously by the previous senior management team. Symptoms of failure were the reflection of presence of secondary and primary causes of failure. Poor managerial leadership, poor financial control and performance management, lack of open culture, distraction by 2 large projects, and the lack of clinician engagement were perceived as internal causes of failure and the high level of policy changes within the NHS as the key external cause. The level of deprivation in the area was also thought to have had a negative impact on performance. The findings reinforce and expand on those of recent studies across the public sector. Tracking an organization's performance and early diagnosis of performance problems, focusing on performance management systems, and taking into account contextual factors are issues that should be considered.

  9. Psychological impact after mastectomy among Nepalese women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women. Cancer epidemiologists have stated that breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, Nepal is not an exception. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women of Nepal after cervical cancer. A Qualitative phenomenological study was done to explore the psychological impact of women with mastectomy after diagnosis of breast cancer. In-depth study was done with ten women age ranging from 36 to 50 years. Ten women were interviewed which was recorded, and verbatim were transcribed before taking next interview. The interviews were analyzed in three stages as stated by Miles and Hubermans. Findings revealed that respondents expressed the fear of death, emotional impact of the loss of breast disfigurement, loss of femininity, fear of recurrence of disease, and concern about their family. Breast cancer and mastectomy have impact on women psychosocial state. They develop stress due to loss of body part, loss of femininity, fear of recurrence of disease, fear of cost and prolong treatment protocol.

  10. Exploring anesthesiologists' understanding of situational awareness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Julia A; Ellaway, Rachel H; Chun, Rosaleen; Lockyer, Jocelyn M

    2017-08-01

    This study explored how anesthesiologists understand situational awareness (SA) and how they think SA is learned, taught, and assessed. Semi-structured interviews were performed with practicing anesthesiologists involved in teaching. This qualitative study was conducted using constructivist grounded theory techniques (i.e., line-by-line coding, memoing, and constant comparison) in a thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Group meetings were held to develop and review themes emerging from the data. Eighteen anesthesiologists were interviewed. Respondents displayed an understanding of SA using a mixture of examples from clinical experience and everyday life. Despite agreeing on the importance of SA, formal definitions of SA were lacking, and the participants did not explicate the topic of SA in either their practice or their teaching activities. Situational awareness had been learned informally through increasing independence in the clinical context, role modelling, reflection on errors, and formally through simulation. Respondents taught SA through modelling and discussing scanning behaviour, checklists, verbalization of thought processes, and debriefings. Although trainees' understanding of SA was assessed as part of the decision-making process for granting clinical independence, respondents found it difficult to give meaningful feedback on SA to their trainees. Although SA is an essential concept in anesthesiology, its use remains rather tacit, primarily due to the lack of a common operational definition of the term. Faculty development is required to help anesthesiologists teach and assess SA more explicitly in the clinical environment.

  11. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  12. Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-03-24

    method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. ISRCTN77108101807.

  13. Clinical trial participants’ experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446

  14. Librarians in Evidence-Based Medicine Curricula: A Qualitative Study of Librarian Roles, Training, and Desires for Future Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Durieux, Nancy; Tannery, Nancy H

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe librarians' roles in evidence-based medicine (EBM) from the librarian perspective, identify how librarians are trained to teach, and highlight preferences for professional development. A multiinstitution qualitative study was conducted. Nine medical librarians identified by their faculty as integrated into EBM training were interviewed. Participants' descriptions indicated that they were active in curriculum development, deployment (including teaching activities), and assessment to support EBM. Participants identified direct experience and workshop participation as primary methods of learning to teach. Participants desired continuing development as teachers and requested opportunities for in-person workshops, shadowing physicians, and online training.

  15. Financial and employment impacts of serious injury: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Sleney, Jude S; Gosling, Cameron M; Wilson, Krystle; Sutherland, Ann; Hart, Melissa; Watterson, Dina; Christie, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    To explore the financial and employment impacts following serious injury. Semi-structured telephone administered qualitative interviews with purposive sampling and thematic qualitative analysis. 118 patients (18-81 years) registered by the Victorian State Trauma Registry or Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry 12-24 months post-injury. Key findings of the study were that although out-of-pocket treatment costs were generally low, financial hardship was prevalent after hospitalisation for serious injury, and was predominantly experienced by working age patients due to prolonged absences from paid employment. Where participants were financially pressured prior to injury, injury further exacerbated these financial concerns. Reliance on savings and loans and the need to budget carefully to limit financial burden were discussed. Financial implications of loss of income were generally less for those covered by compensation schemes, with non-compensable participants requiring welfare payments due to an inability to earn an income. Most participants reported that the injury had a negative impact on work. Loss of earnings payments from injury compensation schemes and income protection policies, supportive employers, and return to work programs were perceived as key factors in reducing the financial burden of injured participants. Employer-related barriers to return to work included the employer not listening to the needs of the injured participant, not understanding their physical limitations, and placing unrealistic expectations on the injured person. While the financial benefits of compensation schemes were acknowledged, issues accessing entitlements and delays in receiving benefits were commonly reported by participants, suggesting that improvements in scheme processes could have substantial benefits for injured patients. Seriously injured patients commonly experienced substantial financial and work-related impacts of injury. Participants of working age who were

  16. Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

    2007-07-01

    The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products.

  17. Men's experiences of living with ankylosing spondylitis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mette; Jensen, Kim Vilbek; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2015-03-01

    The majority of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are male, although potential gender differences have not been investigated in relation to disease management. Moreover, men's perceptions of experiencing AS have not been reported in the literature. This study sought to develop an understanding of how men experience AS and the challenges related to living with AS as a chronic disease. A purposive sample of 13 men diagnosed with AS, with a median age of 44 years (range 32-58) was recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic. The median duration of disease was 12 years (range 0.3-28 years), and the median time from the first symptom to final diagnosis was seven years (range 2-20 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and the interviews were analysed using content analysis inspired by Graneheim qualitative methodology. The analysis revealed four categories: (1) 'Approaching a diagnosis'; (2) 'Ill in a social context'; (3) 'Challenged as a man'; and (4) 'The importance of remaining physically well'. Based on these categories, the overall category of 'An invisible companion for life' emerged, which captures the experience of living with an invisible, life-long disease. These findings demonstrate that AS impacts men's perceptions of themselves as men, relationships as a partner and father, social lives, and masculine identity. Physical activity was highlighted as an important part of being a man, and not being able to exercise challenged the men's masculine identity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Doctors on Values and Advocacy: A Qualitative and Evaluative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Siun; Little, Miles

    2016-05-11

    Doctors are increasingly enjoined by their professional organisations to involve themselves in supraclinical advocacy, which embraces activities focused on changing practice and the system in order to address the social determinants of health. The moral basis for doctors' decisions on whether or not to do so has been the subject of little empirical research. This opportunistic qualitative study of the values of medical graduates associated with the Sydney Medical School explores the processes that contribute to doctors' decisions about taking up the advocate role. Our findings show that personal ideals were more important than professional commitments in shaping doctors' decisions on engagement in advocacy. Experiences in early life and during training, including exposure to power and powerlessness, significantly influenced their role choices. Doctors included supraclinical advocacy in their mature practices if it satisfied their desire to achieve excellence. These findings suggest that common approaches to promoting and facilitating advocacy as an individual professional obligation are not fully congruent with the experiences and values of doctors that are significant in creating the advocate. It would seem important to understand better the moral commitments inherent in advocacy to inform future developments in codes of medical ethics and medical education programs.

  20. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  1. GPs' perceptions of resilience training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Anna; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Panagioti, Maria; Peters, David; Simon, Chantal; Ridge, Damien

    2017-10-01

    GPs are reporting increasing levels of burnout, stress, and job dissatisfaction, and there is a looming GP shortage. Promoting resilience is a key strategy for enhancing the sustainability of the healthcare workforce and improving patient care. To explore GPs' perspectives on the content, context, and acceptability of resilience training programmes in general practice, in order to build more effective GP resilience programmes. This was a qualitative study of the perspectives of GPs currently practising in England. GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, and data were collected from two focus groups (n = 15) and one-to-one telephone interviews (n = 7). A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants perceived resilience training to be potentially of value in ameliorating workplace stresses. Nevertheless, uncertainty was expressed regarding how best to provide training for stressed GPs who have limited time. Participants suspected that GPs most likely to benefit from resilience training were the least likely to engage, as stress and being busy worked against engagement. Conflicting views were expressed about the most suitable training delivery method for promoting better engagement. Participants also emphasised that training should not only place the focus on the individual, but also focus on organisation issues. A multimodal, flexible approach based on individual needs and learning aims, including resilience workshops within undergraduate training and in individual practices, is likely to be the optimal way to promote resilience. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Acceptability of community pharmaceutical care in Portugal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Mara; Cantrill, Judith; Martins, Paula

    2010-10-01

    In developed countries, community pharmacists are increasingly involved in clinical care. This study aimed to explore the acceptability to users of pharmaceutical care (drug therapy monitoring and management) provided in Portuguese community pharmacies, thereby informing future practice, policy and research. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews with a maximum variability sample of 21 service users. Interviews were audio-taped with permission of interviewees, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the 'framework approach' with the help of NVIVO(®) software. A perception of convenient access is one of the key themes associated with acceptability to users. Four factors are central in understanding this perception: shorter waiting time; flexibility of appointments; service organization; and proximity to home. Data analysis suggests that these factors have different weights. Another key theme underpinning user acceptability is the formation of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' accounts provide evidence of a trusting and collaborative relationship where the pharmacist is seen as a health care provider. Recognition of interpersonal and technical skills were associated with the formation of this relationship. Although patients generally trusted the pharmacist's ability to help, patients were unable to voice clear expectations about the service, either in terms of the pharmacist's role or expected outcomes. Acceptability to patients is mainly determined by perceptions of convenient access and the development of a therapeutic relationship with the pharmacist. Patients' expectations concerning the service are not well developed, but not necessarily low.

  3. Interdisciplinary hospice team processes and multidimensional pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan Day, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain.

  4. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

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    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional; having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents’ understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  5. Qualitative study on college student’s perceptions on lunch

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    Carolina Zuñiga B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A healthy diet leads to optimal growth and development of the individual. A healthy diet is the result of the right combination of macro and micronutrients, which should be sufficient, moderate, balanced and varied. Diet can be modified through the course of life, while the university period is a crucial time to strengthen proper food habits. Methods. The purpose of this investigation is to interpret the perception that college students have about lunchtime. A qualitative design with a phenomenological approach was used. Data collection was conducted through a structured survey. We interviewed 15 students who met the selection criteria. The results were analyzed by the principal investigators using content analysis. Results. Respondents pointed out that lunch is one of the main meals and that a regular lunchtime helps to improve eating habits. Respondents report that one of the main causes for not complying with this feeding schedule is the lack of time due to academic burden. Conclusion. This study concludes that students perceive daily lunchtime to be important and yet claim that during much of the academic week they skip this meal.

  6. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

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    María del Mar Alfaya Góngora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants.Methods:A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed.Results:The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources.Conclusion:Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  7. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  8. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

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    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  9. The unique experience of adults with multimorbidity: a qualitative study

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    Cynthia Duguay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Findings from several countries indicate that the prevalence of multimorbidity is very high among clients of primary healthcare. A deeper understanding of patients’ experiences from their own perspective can greatly enrich any intervention to help them live as well as possible with multimorbidity. Objective: To describe the fundamental structure of adults’ experience with multimorbidity. Design: A phenomenological study was undertaken to describe the experiences of 11 adults with multimorbidity. These adults participated in two semi-structured interviews, the content of which was rigorously analyzed. Results: At the core of the study participants’ multimorbidity experience are the impression of aging prematurely, difficulties with self-care management, and issues with access to the healthcare system, which contribute to the problem’s complexity. Despite these issues, participants with multimorbidity report attempting to take control of their situation and adjusting to daily living. Conclusions: The description of this experience, through the systemic vision of participants, provides a better understanding of the realities experienced by people with multimorbidity.

  10. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

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    Eduardo Rodríguez Sánchez M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population.MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation.RESULTS: Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95 min 95% CI (3.25-6.64, p= .53.CONCLUSIONS: The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data.

  11. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sánchez M, Eduardo; Martínez Torres, Concepción; Herrera Calo, Pablo; Jiménez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population. It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation. Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95min 95% CI (3.25-6.64, p=.53). The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

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    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their

  13. Malawian impressions of expatriate physicians: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Sawatsky, Adam P; Mbata, Ihunanya; Muula, Adamson S; Bui, Thuy

    2016-06-01

    In many low-income countries, including Malawi, expatriate physicians serve diverse roles in clinical care, education, mentorship, and research. A significant proportion of physicians from high-income countries have global health experience. Despite the well-known benefits of global health experiences for expatriates, little is known about local physician and trainee impressions of their expatriate counterparts. The objective of this study was to explore University of Malawi College of Medicine (COM) physicians' and trainees' impressions of expatriate physicians. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with COM medical students, interns, registrars, and faculty. Through open coding, we developed a codebook that we applied to interview transcripts and used thematic analysis to identify major themes. We interviewed 46 participants from across the continuum of medical education at two teaching hospitals in Malawi. Participants discussed themes within the following domains: perceived benefits of expatriate physicians in Malawi, perceived challenges, past contributions, and perceived roles that expatriate physicians should play going forward. Malawian faculty and trainees appreciated the approachability, perspectives, and contribution to education that expatriates have provided, though at times some have been perceived as aggressive, unable to relate to patients and trainees, deficient at adapting to the setting, and self-serving. Potential roles that Malawian physicians and trainees feel expatriates should serve include education, training, capacity building, and facilitating exchange opportunities for local physicians and trainees. This study highlights the perceived benefits and challenges that physicians and trainees at the COM have experienced with their expatriate counterparts, and suggests roles that expatriates should play while abroad. These findings can be used to help inform existing global health guidelines, assist

  14. Parental views on otitis media: systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chando, Shingisai; Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Tong, Allison

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience). The additional medical responsibilities and anxieties of parents caring for a child with otitis media, often discounted by clinicians, can be disempowering and disruptive. Chronicity can raise doubt about treatment efficacy and parental competency, and fears regarding their child's development. Care that fosters parental confidence and addresses their concerns about the child's development may improve treatment outcomes for children with otitis media. • Otitis media is a leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. • Parental perception of the treatment burden of otitis media can potentially affect their confidence and ability to care for their child. What is New: • We identified five themes to reflect parental perspectives: diminishing competency, disrupting life schedules, social isolation, threatening normal development, taking ownership, valuing support, and cherishing health.

  15. Vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in Europe: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafillakis, Emilie; Dinca, Irina; Apfel, Franklin; Cecconi, Sabrina; Wűrz, Andrea; Takacs, Judit; Suk, Jonathan; Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Kramarz, Piotr; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-09-22

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often referred to as the most trusted source of vaccine-related information for their patients. However, the evidence suggests that a number of HCWs are vaccine-hesitant. This study consists of 65 semi-structured interviews with vaccine providers in Croatia, France, Greece, and Romania to investigate concerns HCWs might have about vaccination. The results revealed that vaccine hesitancy is present in all four countries among vaccine providers. The most important concern across all countries was the fear of vaccine side effects. New vaccines were singled out due to perceived lack of testing for vaccine safety and efficacy. Furthermore, while high trust in health authorities was expressed by HCWs, there was also strong mistrust of pharmaceutical companies due to perceived financial interests and lack of communication about side effects. The notion that it is a doctor's responsibility to respond to hesitant patients was reported in all countries. Concerns were also seen to be country- and context-specific. Strategies to improve confidence in vaccines should be adapted to the specific political, social, cultural and economic context of countries. Furthermore, while most interventions focus on education and improving information about vaccine safety, effectiveness, or the need for vaccines, concerns raised in this study identify other determinants of hesitancy that need addressing. The representativeness of the views of the interviewed HCWs must be interpreted with caution. This a qualitative study with a small sample size that included geographical areas where vaccination uptake was lower or where hesitancy was more prevalent and it reflects individual participants' beliefs and attitudes toward the topic. As HCWs have the potential of influencing patient vaccination uptake, it is crucial to improve their confidence in vaccination and engage them in activities targeting vaccine hesitancy among their patients.

  16. Causes of Incivility in Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study

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    Mostafa Rad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incivility among nursing students is a common academic problem. Knowing the causes of students’ incivility will enable the faculty members and academic institutions to select correct strategies to deal with this problem. This study was conducted to explore the causes of incivility among nursing students from both educators’ and students’ points of view. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was applied in order to explore experiences and insights of 17 nursing lecturers and 9 nursing students who were selected through purposeful sampling and interviewed on the causes of incivility. Participants were selected among students and lecturers of nursing schools in KhorasanRazavi. The inclusion criteria for the students were having passed one educational term and for the lecturers having one year experience of teaching respectively. Data gathering was done using deep semi-structured interviews starting from March 2014 to March 2015. Results: Three main categories extracted from the data were student related factors, teacher related factors, and organizational factors. Non-educational engagement, attracting attentions, lack of motivation, students’ personality, and lack of experience were the subcategories of student related factors. Subcategories of teacher related factors included lack of skills, teachers’ personal qualities, lack of experience, and incivility of teachers. Finally, the subcategories of organizational factors included no evaluation system for teachers and lack of understanding the organizational rules and regulations. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that factors related to students, teachers, and organization may lead to nursing students’ incivility and clarified its dimensions. In order to develop a civil environment in nursing college, managers and educators’ awareness should be promoted via various ways such as workshops.

  17. Study on the Product Description Method for Networked Customization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Networked customization had gradually become one of t he import manufacturing and marketing patterns in the information age. Product d escription had an important effect on realizing networked customization. From th is point of view, this paper firstly analyzed four requirements of adaptability, stability, conciseness and definitude that product description methods for netw orked customization must satisfy. According to these requirements, the paper com mented on current methods of product description, po...

  18. A Qualitative Study on the Academic Approach to the Professionalization of Midwifery in Turkey

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    Sevil GÜNER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed as a qualitative descriptive study to map out the challenges and suggestions in regard to the problems of professionalization of midwifery in Turkey and it was presented as a master thesis in June 2012. The study was conducted in seven universities in Turkey which provided master programs in midwifery. The study participants included twenty faculty members in midwifery departments in these universities who consented to participate. An interview guide consisting of 10 semistructured open-ended questions was used as an instrument of data collection and interviews were recorded. The process of data collections was conducted as face-to-face interviews by a researcher between 28th June 2011-7th December 2011. The recordings were transformed into text. Written audio recording outputs were analyzed by the content analysis which is one of the qualitative data analysis method. Major problems of professionalization of midwifery in Turkey were found as incompetent legislative regulations in midwifery, insufficient professional organizations, problems of autonomy, and insufficient scientific researches in the field. The participants suggested updating the legislative regulations, opening doctoral programs in midwifery departments, strenghtening professional organizations, supporting clinical midwifes to conduct scientific researches. In light of the results, it was concluded that professionalization of midwifery has still certain structural problems. It is maintained that regulations to be made in line with the suggestions in this study will certainly enhance professionalization of midwifery. It was pointed out that it is required to support graduate programs in midwifery, to open new doctoral programs, to support midwifery departments in terms of equipment and human resources, to clarify job definitions, to decrease the number of students in these faculties and to enact legislative regulations in regard to midwifery profession.

  19. Vaccination persuasion online: a qualitative study of two provaccine and two vaccine-skeptical websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lenny; Hausman, Bernice L; Cashion, Margaret; Lucchesi, Nicholas; Patel, Kelsey; Roberts, Jonathan

    2015-05-29

    Current concerns about vaccination resistance often cite the Internet as a source of vaccine controversy. Most academic studies of vaccine resistance online use quantitative methods to describe misinformation on vaccine-skeptical websites. Findings from these studies are useful for categorizing the generic features of these websites, but they do not provide insights into why these websites successfully persuade their viewers. To date, there have been few attempts to understand, qualitatively, the persuasive features of provaccine or vaccine-skeptical websites. The purpose of this research was to examine the persuasive features of provaccine and vaccine-skeptical websites. The qualitative analysis was conducted to generate hypotheses concerning what features of these websites are persuasive to people seeking information about vaccination and vaccine-related practices. This study employed a fully qualitative case study methodology that used the anthropological method of thick description to detail and carefully review the rhetorical features of 1 provaccine government website, 1 provaccine hospital website, 1 vaccine-skeptical information website focused on general vaccine safety, and 1 vaccine-skeptical website focused on a specific vaccine. The data gathered were organized into 5 domains: website ownership, visual and textual content, user experience, hyperlinking, and social interactivity. The study found that the 2 provaccine websites analyzed functioned as encyclopedias of vaccine information. Both of the websites had relatively small digital ecologies because they only linked to government websites or websites that endorsed vaccination and evidence-based medicine. Neither of these websites offered visitors interactive features or made extensive use of the affordances of Web 2.0. The study also found that the 2 vaccine-skeptical websites had larger digital ecologies because they linked to a variety of vaccine-related websites, including government websites. They

  20. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    .... The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while...

  1. Qualitative Study on the Identity of the Manager in Romania

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    FLORENTINA SCÂRNECI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a qualitative research project carried out in 2008, which aimed at identifying the identity condition of managers in Romania. The article presents part of the grounded theory on the identity of managers: the day to day circumstances in which they live - issues related to childhood and maturity (material situation, relationships, family, etc.. Also, it describes in brief the methodology applied: qualitative collection of data, theoretical sampling, theoretical saturation and the analysis of qualitative data obtained.The article presents, also in brief, the larger research framework wherefrom the presented part was extracted. The conclusion is that there are life-related issues specific to managers (and, more precisely, specific reactions to the environment and that their identification can form the basis for designing methods of managerial diagnosis and prognosis.

  2. Moral and Ethical Dilemmas in Canadian Forces Military Operation: Qualitative and Descriptive Analyses of Commanders’ Operational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    retraite et huit en service actif), soit 13 de la Force terrestre et deux de la Force maritime. Pour recruter les participants, nous avons fait appel à...original interview study potential participants were approached via telephone call and a subsequent introductory letter that outlined the aims of the...applied to the full set of operational accounts. Average inter-rater reliability for the complete set of transcripts, calculated via the Cohen’s kappa

  3. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  4. An evaluation of rheumatology practitioner outreach clinics: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Services for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) have evolved with the development of independently led outreach Rheumatology Practitioner (RP) clinics in Primary Care (PC). Their clinical and cost effectiveness, compared with Secondary Care (SC) services, has not been assessed. The RECIPROCATE study aims to evaluate their clinical and cost effectiveness. This part of the study aimed to explore health professionals’ opinions of rheumatology outreach service. Methods Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs, practice nurses, hospital doctors and RPs, from one hospital and seven PC practices in Norfolk, to elicit their opinions of the service. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All participants agreed the service was supportive and valuable providing high quality personalised care, disease management, social, and educational support. Advantages identified included convenience, continuity of care and proximity of services to home. RPs helped bridge the communication gap between PC and SC. Some participants suggested having a doctor alongside RPs. The service was considered to be cost effective for patients but there was uncertainty about cost effectiveness for service providers. Few disadvantages were identified the most recurring being the lack of other onsite services when needed. It was noted that more services could be provided by RPs such as prescribing and joint injections as well as playing a more active role in knowledge transfer to PC. Conclusions Professionals involved in the care of RA patients recognised the valuable role of the RP outreach clinics. This service can be further developed in rheumatology and the example can be replicated for other chronic conditions. PMID:22607063

  5. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

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    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  6. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  7. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spehar Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers

  8. Surgeons' Emotional Experience of Their Everyday Practice - A Qualitative Study.

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    Massimiliano Orri

    Full Text Available Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice.27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon. 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues, the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon, as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability.Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.

  9. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

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    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  10. Symptoms in patients with takotsubo syndrome: a qualitative interview study

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    Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the meaning of narrated symptoms in connection to takotsubo syndrome. Design, method, participants and setting Qualitative study consisting of 25 interviews, 23 women and 2 men aged 39–84 and living in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. The transcribed text was analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Results The interviewees reported a large number of symptoms before, during and after the acute onset of takotsubo syndrome, including pain, affected breathing, lassitude, malaise and nausea. Several of these have not been reported previously. Symptoms before the acute onset were, even if they had been prominent, ignored by the interviewees for various reasons. During the acute phase, the symptoms could no longer be ignored and the interviewees sought healthcare. The remaining residual symptom after discharge from hospital caused a great deal of worry because the interviewees feared that they would be permanent and they felt they could not live this way. On the whole, becoming ill and having a large number of symptoms greatly impacted the lives of the interviewees and made them re-evaluate how they had been living. Furthermore, they reported feeling alone and lost regarding their symptom burden, especially in relation to their residual symptoms, which affected their health and ability to return to daily life. Conclusions Acute symptoms, and symptoms before and after the acute ones, are a major part of the illness experience for patients with takotsubo syndrome and affect their health and well-being. Assessment of symptoms should be an integrated part of care to promote health. One way of achieving this is through the patients’ own narratives of their experiences, which are an important component in person-centred care. PMID:27707826

  11. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

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    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  12. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

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    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  13. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health S

  14. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

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    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  15. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

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    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  16. SOME PROBLEMS IN MAINTAINING SUSTAINABILITY OF INDONESIA'S FORESTS: DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

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    Cecep Handoko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's forests have economic, social, and environmental benefits. Some national efforts, as well as support from the global community for sustaining forest development in Indonesia have been done. However, some problems were still reported during the implementation of the forest development. Thorough analysis was needed to formulate the root of the problems, and to identify solutions/supports to the current forest development to achieve its sustainability. Descriptive analysis was used in this study. The results indicated that sustainable forest development in Indonesia was still faced with the problems of uncertainty of management, insufficient management capacity, and lack of law enforcement. These conditions were indicated by high conflict of interests as well as lack of support from stakeholders, not enough forest management actions at site-level, and high forest degradation. Aiming at overcoming problems of sustainable forest development and maintaining sustainability of Indonesia's forest, national forest management needs to embrace more space for communication, openness, mutual learning, collaboration in addressing forest conflicts, and determining the future direction of its sustainability goal of management.

  17. Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.

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    Boland, Laura; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Saarimaki, Anton; Lawson, Margaret L

    2017-06-13

    Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. We explored parents' perceived decision making involvement and its association with parents' decisional conflict. We conducted a descriptive survey study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital. Our survey was guided by validated decisional conflict screening items (i.e., the SURE test). We administered the survey to eligible parents after an ambulatory care or emergency department consultation for their child. Four hundred twenty-nine respondents were included in the analysis. Forty-eight percent of parents reported not being offered treatment options and 23% screened positive for decisional conflict. Parents who reported being offered options experienced less decisional conflict than parents who reported not being offered options (5% vs. 42%, p make a choice (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11). Many parents in our sample experienced decisional conflict after their clinical consultation. Involving parents in the decision making process might reduce their risk of decisional conflict. Evidence based interventions that support parent decision making involvement, such as shared decision making, should be evaluated and implemented in pediatrics as a strategy to reduce parents' decisional conflict.

  18. A Descriptive Study of School Discipline Referrals in First Grade.

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    Rusby, Julie C; Taylor, Ted K; Foster, E Michael

    2007-03-16

    School discipline referrals (SDRs) may be useful in the early detection and monitoring of disruptive behavior problems to inform prevention efforts in the school setting, yet little is known about the nature and validity of SDRs in the early grades. For this descriptive study, SDR data were collected on a sample of first grade students who were at risk for developing disruptive behavior problems (n = 186) and a universal sample (n = 531) from 20 schools. Most SDRs were given for physical aggression and the predominant consequence was time out. As expected, boys and at-risk students were more likely to receive an SDR and to have more SDRs than were girls and the universal sample. A large difference between schools regarding the delivery of SDRs was found. A zero-inflated Poisson model clustered by school tested the prediction of school-level variables. Students in schools that had a systematic way of tracking SDRs were more likely to receive one. Also, schools with more low-income students and larger class sizes gave fewer SDRs. SDRs predicted teacher ratings, and to a lesser extent, parent ratings of disruptive behavior at the end of first grade. Practitioners and researchers must examine school-level influences whenever first grade discipline referrals are used to measure problem behavior for the purpose of planning and evaluating interventions.

  19. [Descriptive study of alcohol consumption in adolescents of Gandia].

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    Martínez-Sabater, A; Llorca-Tauste, J; Blasco-Roque, M; Escrivá-Aznar, G; Martínez-Puig, C; Marzá Gascó, A

    2014-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality in developed countries is related to habits acquired in adolescence. Alcohol is the drug most consumed by Spanish adolescents, making its abuse a concern for public health. To evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption of 4th year secondary school pupils in the city of Gandia, the defining characteristics of this population and the environment in which this takes place. This is a descriptive study of alcohol use in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years of Gandia, which was carried out through a survey of different issues related to health habits, nine of which relate to consumption alcohol. Of the 346 adolescents surveyed, 98% were minors, 93.3% had tried an alcoholic drink. Just under half (48.5%) took part in street binge-drinking, and 45.5% had got drunk at least once. Consumption was mainly during the weekend. More than three-quarters (76.6%) had their first contact with alcohol in the family. Alcohol use among adolescents is high, with consumption is mostly at weekends and with a high prevalence of alcohol intoxication, drinking in public places, and with friends. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV POSITIVE MOTHERS; ISSUES AND CONCERNS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

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    Manjunatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To get an insight into: 1. Perceived health needs and demands of positive mothers. 2. Constraints and barriers in accessing health services. 3. Impact of positive status on social and economic entitlements.4. Role of positive network in educating and empowering mothers. METHODOLOGY: Type of study; Qualitative research using focus group discussions (FGD. Study Setting; “AnandaJoythi Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS®”- A positive network at Mysore. Period of study; September- October, 2008. Study participants: positive mothers from in and around Mysore city attending AnandaJoythi Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS. Inclusion Criteria; Mother of at least one child irrespective of: Her age. Duration of the positive status/ stage of disease. Age of the child-live/dead. On ART or not. And were willing to participate in the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Those not willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: Health Needs and Demands: The positive women felt the need for regular screening tests for side effects of ART free of cost, nutrition supplementation programmes, more health centres and health education. Barriers to treatment: Poverty is the main barrier to accessing treatment. This is the amount of money required by clients for the government health services before being put on the ART programme and individuals have to pay for a CD4 count, a full hemogram and a liver function test. Poverty also means that people experience difficulty in paying for transport to get to services, especially when travelling from rural areas where distances to the nearest clinic or hospital are further and infrastructure poorer. Social and economic impact of positive status: It becomes difficult to look after their children when they are thrown out of their house. Even though they are mentally harassed by their family members they find it difficult to come out of their house because of their children are too young and need a family support

  1. The lived experiences of aboriginal adolescent survivors of childhood cancer during the recovering process in Taiwan: A descriptive qualitative research.

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    Cheng, Ya-Chun; Huang, Chu-Yu; Wu, Wei-Wen; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Cheng, Su-Fen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal adolescent survivors of childhood cancer during the process of recovery. A snowball sampling strategy was used to recruit participants from the pediatrics unit of a medical center in the eastern region of Taiwan. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 aboriginal adolescent childhood cancer survivors. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed three major themes with subthemes within each theme. The three major themes are: roots of resilience, transformation and growth, and meaning of traditional rituals for resilience. The three subthemes within "roots of resilience" include: "feeling secure through company of family, care and financial support", "receiving support from the important others and religion" and "learning to self-adjust". The three subthemes revealed within "transformation and growth" are: restructuring the relationship with peers, "appreciating parents' hard work", and "learning to seize the moment". The two subthemes within "meaning of traditional rituals to resilience" include: "feeling blessed with the power of ancestral spirits" and "strengthening ethnic identity". This study provided insight into the experiences of aboriginal adolescents as they recovered from childhood cancer. The experiences made positive impacts by inspiring growth in maturity and consolidating aboriginal ethnic identity. The adolescents were empowered by support from family, friends and clansmen, and by their participation in aboriginal rituals. As healthcare professionals care for the aboriginal adolescents, it is critical to consider this culturally and ethnically specific knowledge/experience of surviving cancer to improve quality of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inclusion of Qualitative Research: Content Analysis of ACA Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    This paper provides descriptive statistics related to published articles which utilized qualitative methodologies in research studies, as well as conceptual articles pertaining to qualitative research methodologies. The articles examined covered the years 1967-1999. During the 32-year time period, 15 qualitative research articles were published.…

  3. A descriptive case-register study of delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Portugal, Enrique; González, Nieves; Haro, Josep M; Autonell, Jaume; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2008-03-01

    A few empirically based studies' data on delusional disorder (DD) exist. We aim to describe sociodemographic and clinical correlates of DD and to identify clinical profiles associated to DD and its subtypes. This is a case-register study based on all those subjects attending community mental health services within a geographically well-defined area. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients had been diagnosed as DD cases at psychiatric services serving a catchment area of some 607,494 inhabitants living in South Barcelona (Spain) during a three-year period (2001-2003). A thorough systematic review of computerised medical records was used to establish DSM-IV diagnosis, rendering a valid sample of 370 patients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for DD. Independent variables gathered include sociodemographic data, family and personal psychiatric history, and comorbid diagnoses on all DSM-IV axes (including GAF). We used descriptive and univariate statistical methods to explore sample frequencies and correlates across DD types. The mean age of the patients was 55 years and the sample had a mean GAF score of 51 suggesting a poor functionality; 56.5% of the patients were female. The most frequent DD types were persecutory (48%), jealous (11%), mixed (11%) and somatic (5%), whilst 23% qualified for the NOS type. Most frequent symptoms identified were self-reference (40%), irritability (30%), depressive mood (20%) and aggressiveness (15%). Hallucinations were present in 16% of the patients (6% tactile; 4% olfactory). Nearly 9% had a family history of schizophrenia (higher among those with the jealous subtype) and 42% had a comorbid axis II diagnosis (mostly paranoid personality disorder). Depression was significantly more frequent among the persecutory and jealous types. Finally, global functioning was significantly better among jealous and mixed types and worse amongst erotomanic and grandiose cases (p=0.008). In the absence of other similar empirical data, this modest study

  4. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

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    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  5. GPs' approaches to documenting stigmatising information: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Almas; Welch, Lisa C

    2015-06-01

    Complete medical documentation is essential for continuity of care, but the competing need to protect patient confidentiality presents an ethical dilemma. This is particularly poignant for GPs because of their central role in facilitating continuity. To examine how GPs manage medical documentation of stigmatising mental health (MH) and non-MH information. A qualitative sub-study of a factorial experiment with GPs practising in Massachusetts, US. Semi-structured interviews (n = 128) were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. GPs expressed difficulties with and inconsistent strategies for documenting stigmatising information. Without being asked directly about stigmatising information, 44 GPs (34%) expressed difficulties documenting it: whether to include clinically relevant but sensitive information, how to word it, and explaining to patients the importance of including it. Additionally, 75 GPs (59%) discussed strategies for managing documentation of stigmatising information. GPs reported four strategies that varied by type of information: to exclude stigmatising information to respect patient confidentiality (MH: 26%, non-MH: 43%); to include but restrict access to information (MH: 13%, non-MH: 25%); to include but neutralise information to minimise potential stigma (MH: 26%, non-MH: 29%); and to include stigmatising information given the potential impact on care (MH: 68%, non-MH: 32%). Lack of consistency undermines the potential of medical documentation to efficiently facilitate continuous, coordinated health care because providers cannot be certain how to interpret what is or is not in the chart. A proactive consensus process within the field of primary care would provide much needed guidance for GPs and, ultimately, could enhance quality of care. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  6. Patients' views on outcome following head injury: a qualitative study

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    Mayle Wendy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injuries are a common occurrence, with continuing care in the years following injury being provided by primary care teams and a variety of speciality services. The literature on outcome currently reflects areas considered important by health-care professionals, though these may differ in some respects from the views of head injured individuals themselves. Our study aimed to identify aspects of outcome considered important by survivors of traumatic head injury. Methods Thirty-two individuals were interviewed, each of whom had suffered head injury between one and ten years previously from which they still had residual difficulties. Purposive sampling was used in order to ensure that views were represented from individuals of differing age, gender and level of disability. These interviews were fully transcribed and analysed qualitatively by a psychologist, a sociologist and a psychiatrist with regular meetings to discuss the coding. Results Aspects of outcome mentioned by head injury survivors which have received less attention previously included: specific difficulties with group conversations; changes in physical appearance due to scarring or weight change; a sense of loss for the life and sense of self that they had before the injury; and negative reactions of others, often due to lack of understanding of the consequences of injury amongst both family and general public. Conclusion Some aspects of outcome viewed as important by survivors of head injury may be overlooked by health professionals. Consideration of these areas of outcome and the development of suitable interventions should help to improve functional outcome for patients.

  7. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

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    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system (HIS should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  8. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Moghadam, Mohammad Ali; Fayaz Bakhsh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hospital information system (HIS) should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs), it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  9. The construction of professional identity by physiotherapists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ralph; Cross, Vinette; Moore, Ann

    2016-03-01

    The U.K. Frances Report and increasing societal expectations of healthcare have challenged physiotherapists to reconsider professionalism. Physiotherapy has viewed identity as a fixed entity emphasising coherence, continuity and distinctiveness. Socialisation has required the acquisition of a professional identity as one necessary 'asset' for novices. Yet how do physiotherapists come to be the physiotherapists they are? Qualitative study using Collective Memory Work. Eight physiotherapists in South West England met for two hours, once a fortnight, for six months. Seventeen hours of group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Data were managed via the creation of crafted dialogues and analysed using narrative analysis. Participants shared ethical dilemmas: successes and unresolved anxiety about the limits of personal actions in social situations. These included matters of authenticity, role strain, morality, diversity. Participants made claims about their identity; claims made to support an attitude, belief, motivation or value. Professional identity in physiotherapy is more complex than traditionally thought; fluid across time and place, co-constructed within changing communities of practice. An ongoing and dynamic process, physiotherapists make sense and (re)interpret their professional self-concept based on evolving attributes, beliefs, values, and motives. Participants co-constructed the meaning of being a physiotherapist within intra-professional and inter-professional communities of practice. Patients informed this, and it was mediated by workplace and institutional discourses, boundaries and hierarchies, through an unfolding career and the contingencies of a life story. More empirical data are required to understand how physiotherapists negotiate the dilemmas they face and enact the values the profession espouses. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

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    Negarandeh Reza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A purposive sample of 30 hospital nurses and nurse managers was selected to obtain data by means of in-depth semi structured interviews. Data were analysed by means of the content analysis method. Results The emerging themes were: (1 the nurses' perceptions and reactions to conflict; (2 organizational structure; (3 hospital management style; (4 the nature and conditions of job assignment; (5 individual characteristics; (6 mutual understanding and interaction; and (7 the consequences of conflict. The first six themes describe the sources of the conflict as well as strategies to manage them. Conclusion How nurses perceive conflict influences how they react to it. Sources of conflict are embedded in the characteristics of nurses and the nursing system, but at the same time these characteristics can be seen as strategies to resolve conflict. We found mutual understanding and interaction to be the main factor able to prevent and resolve conflict effectively. We therefore recommend that nurses and nurse managers encourage any virtues and activities that increase such understanding and interaction. Finally, as conflict can destroy individual nurses as well as the nursing system, we must act to control it effectively.

  11. A Qualitative Study of Faculty Members' Views of Women Chairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Results Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine. PMID:20156081

  12. Creative art and medical student development: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth K; Kittendorf, Anne L; Kumagai, Arno K

    2017-02-01

    Although many medical schools include arts-based activities in their curricula, empirical evidence is lacking regarding how the creation of art might impact medical students and their professional development. We used a qualitative research design in order to understand this process. We conducted and analysed interviews with 16 medical students who had created and presented original artwork in the context of a required narrative-based undergraduate medical education programme. Teams of students collaborated to create interpretive projects based on common themes arising from conversations with individuals with chronic illness and their families. Open-ended questions were utilised to explore the conceptualisation and presentation of the projects, the dynamics of teamwork and the meaning(s) they might have for the students' professional development. We identified themes using repeated contextual reading of the transcripts, which also enhanced accuracy of the interpretations and ensured saturation of themes. Several major themes and sub-themes were identified. The creation of art led to a sense of personal growth and development, including reflection on past life experiences, self-discovery and an awareness of art as a creative outlet. Students also reported an enhanced sense of community and the development of skills in collaboration. Lastly, students reflected on the human dimensions of illness and medical care and identified an enhanced awareness of the experience of those with illness. A programme involving the creation of art based on stories of illness encouraged students' explorations of conceptions of the self, family and society, as well as illness and medical care, while enhancing the development of a collaborative and patient-centred worldview. Creative art can be a novel educational tool to promote a reflective, humanistic medical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  13. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

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    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  14. Qualitative description of dental hygiene practices within oral health and dental care perspectives of Mexican-American adults and teenagers.

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    Maupome, Gerardo; Aguirre-Zero, Odette; Westerhold, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dental hygiene themes voiced by adults and teenagers of Mexican origin [or Mexican Americans (MAs)] and place these themes within the larger landscape of oral health and dental care perceptions. Interviews with urban-based MAs were analyzed to identify barriers, beliefs, and behaviors influencing engagement in dental hygiene practices. Adult (n = 16, ages 33-52) and teenage (n = 17, ages 14-19) MAs reported themes pertaining to structural factors (financial and economic-related barriers, the dual challenges of reduced access to care vis-à-vis successfully navigating the dental care system, and the effects of reduced social support derived from migration) and to individual factors (different agendas between MAs and health systems for dental care utilization and indications for oral self-care, including limited dental hygiene instruction from professionals and larger impacts from school-based and mass media). Also, prior experiences with dental hygiene, prevention, and associated themes were characterized by a range of attitudes from fatalistic to highly determined agency. Good family upbringing was instrumental for appropriate dental hygiene, anteceding good oral health; and outlining a loose structure of factors affecting oral health such as diet, having "weak" teeth, or personal habits. Themes from adults and teenagers in the Midwest United States were generally similar to other groups of MA parents and younger children. Dental hygiene was not salient relative to other oral health and dental care matters. Several opportunities for improvement of knowledge and enhancing motivation for dental hygiene practices were identified, both within and outside professional resources. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

  16. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of e...

  17. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  18. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  19. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  20. Use of qualitative methods alongside randomised controlled trials of complex healthcare interventions: methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Oxman, Andrew D

    2009-09-10

    To examine the use of qualitative approaches alongside randomised trials of complex healthcare interventions. Review of randomised controlled trials of interventions to change professional practice or the organisation of care. Systematic sample of 100 trials published in English from the register of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group. Published and unpublished qualitative studies linked to the randomised controlled trials were identified through database searches and contact with authors. Data were extracted from each study by two reviewers using a standard form. We extracted data describing the randomised controlled trials and qualitative studies, the quality of these studies, and how, if at all, the qualitative and quantitative findings were combined. A narrative synthesis of the findings was done. 30 of the 100 trials had associated qualitative work and 19 of these were published studies. 14 qualitative studies were done before the trial, nine during the trial, and four after the trial. 13 studies reported an explicit theoretical basis and 11 specified their methodological approach. Approaches to sampling and data analysis were poorly described. For most cases (n=20) we found no indication of integration of qualitative and quantitative findings at the level of either analysis or interpretation. The quality of the qualitative studies was highly variable. Qualitative studies alongside randomised controlled trials remain uncommon, even where relatively complex interventions are being evaluated. Most of the qualitative studies were carried out before or during the trials with few studies used to explain trial results. The findings of the qualitative studies seemed to be poorly integrated with those of the trials and often had major methodological shortcomings.

  1. Solicited Diary Studies of Psychotherapy in Qualitative Research - Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  2. Breathlessness in everyday life from a patient perspective: a qualitative study using diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Nasser S; Månsson, Jörgen; Lindblad, Ulf; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2014-06-01

    Breathlessness is a subjective symptom, which makes it difficult to define and understand. The aim of the present study was to illuminate how patients suffering from breathlessness experience their everyday life. The study was a qualitative study, and the focus of the analysis was the patients' descriptions of their experiences of breathlessness using a diary with two unstructured questions for a period of 7 consecutive days. Sixteen participants: 7 men, mean age 65 ± 7 (range 55-73 years old), and 9 women, mean age 65 ± 9 (range 50-72 years old) participated in the study. Two themes emerged from the analysis: 1) Impaired quality of life and 2) symptom tolerance and adaptation. The theme "impaired quality of life" included the categories limited physical ability, psychological burdens, and social life barriers. The theme "symptom tolerance and adaptation" included importance of health care, social support, hobbies and leisure activities, and coping strategies. The findings in our study showed that patients, in spite of considerable difficulties with shortness of breath, found relief in several types of activities, in addition to drug therapy. The result indicates that the "biopsychosocial model" is an appealing approach that should be discussed further to gain a better understanding of breathlessness.

  3. Exergaming Through the Eyes of Patients with Heart Failure: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompstra, Leonie; Jaarsma, Tiny; Mårtensson, Jan; Strömberg, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Exergaming appears to be a promising tool to increase exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Therefore, it is important to obtain more in-depth knowledge about preferences, attitudes, use, and abilities in regard to exergaming. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of patients with HF when using an exergame platform at home. A qualitative descriptive study using content analysis was conducted on interviews with 14 patients with HF (6 women, ages ranging between 56 and 81 years). The patients were recruited from three centers in Sweden included in a randomized controlled study. These patients had access to an exergame platform at home and were advised to exergame for 30 minutes per day. The analysis resulted in three categories describing patients' experience of exergaming: (1) making exergaming work, (2) added value of exergaming, and (3) low appeal of exergaming. This is the first study that explores how patients with HF experience using an exergame platform at home. The study provided important information on what aspects to discuss when initiating an exergame platform at home and following patients who may want to use an exergame platform at home. The results also revealed that this technology may be suitable for some patients, while others prefer other kinds of physical activity.

  4. CAUSES OF DIVORCE : A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY FROM CENTRAL KERALA

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    Bindhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Divorce cases are increasing at an alarming rate in Kerala. Various reasons like Physical, psychological, &sexual abuse, addictions, adjustment problems can lead to divorce. OBJECTIVES: To find out the causes of divorce among the couples attending the family court, Kottayam, Kerala METHODS: A Descriptive study was conducted among 60 couples who have filed for divorce & were attending the counseling section in the Ettumanoor family court o f Kottayam district, Kerala. Data was collected using a semi - structured questionnaire & analysis was done using SPSS 16.0 version. RESULTS: Mean age of males & females was [36.18+/ - 5.3years Vs 28.6+/ - 5.3 years]. Mean duration of marriage was found to be [ 2.44+/ - 1.8 years]. 79.1% were living in extended families. Majority belonged to middle & upper socioeconomic status. 11.6% of couples had love marriages. In 68.2% of cases wife initiated the divorce process. Issues of Adjustment of spouse with him (22.5% and his parents (45.2% were the reasons quoted by males while for females it was issues related with Alcoholism among husbands (48% & Physical abuse (63.3%. Other major reasons quoted by both males & females was desertion and Neglect by spouse (21% Vs7 3.3%, Psychiatric disorders of spouse (20% vs10%, suspicious behavior of spouse (15% vs33% & adultery (28.3% Vs 28.3%. CONCLUSION: Present study revealed that adjustment problems within the extended family, alcoholism & resulting physical abuse were th e leading cause of divorce among the couples in Kerala. More Females were found to be initiating proceedings for divorce than males.

  5. Syndromic surveillance in Vanuatu since Cyclone Pam: a descriptive study

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    George Worwor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, Vanuatu designed and implemented a syndromic surveillance system based on the guidelines developed by the Pacific Community and the World Health Organization to provide early warning of outbreaks and other important public health events. Four core syndromes were endorsed for surveillance: acute fever and rash, prolonged fever, influenza-like illness and acute watery diarrhoea. In March 2015, Vanuatu was struck by Cyclone Pam, after which several important changes and improvements to the country's syndromic surveillance were made. To date, there has been no formal evaluation of whether regular reports are occurring or that core syndromes are being documented. We therefore carried out a descriptive study in the 11 sentinel sites in Vanuatu conducting syndromic surveillance between July and December 2015. There was a total of 53 822 consultations which were higher in the first 13 weeks (n = 29 622 compared with the last 13 weeks (n = 24 200. During the six months, there were no cases of acute fever and rash or prolonged fever. There were cases with influenza-like illness from week 27 to 35, but no case was reported after week 35. Acute watery diarrhoea occurred in one or two cases per week during the whole study period. For these two core syndromes, there were generally more females than males, and about one third were children aged under 5 years. In conclusion, Vanuatu implemented changes to its new syndromic surveillance system from July to December 2015, although laboratory components had not yet been incorporated. The laboratory components are working in 2016 and will be the subject of a further report.

  6. Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study

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    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928 representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 % had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 % were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 % received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %. The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 % or behavioural-cognitive (26 % nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %. Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %. Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention did (p Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should

  7. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Pamela; Jack, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…

  8. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

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    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  9. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  10. Malawian fathers’ views and experiences of attending the birth of their children: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exploring the experiences and views of men who had attended the birth of their children is very vital, especially in a setting where traditionally only women accord women support during labour and childbirth. The insights drawn from the male partners’ views and experiences could enhance the current woman-centred midwifery model that encompasses the needs of the baby, the woman’s family and other people important to the woman, as defined and negotiated by the woman herself. This paper explored the views and experiences of men who attended the birth of their children from two private hospitals in an urban setting in southern Malawi. Methods This study used an exploratory descriptive qualitative approach. The data were collected through in-depth interviews from 20 men from Blantyre, a city in the southern part of Malawi, who consented to participate in the study. These men attended the birth of their children at Blantyre Adventist and Mlambe Mission Hospitals within the past two years prior to data collection in August 2010. A semi-structure interview guide was used to collect data. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data set. Results Four themes were identified to explain the experiences and views of men about attending childbirth. The themes were motivation; positive experiences; negative experiences; reflection and resolutions. The negative experiences had four sub-themes namely shame and embarrassment, helplessness and unprepared, health care provider – male partner tension, and exclusion from decision-making process. Conclusions The findings showed that with proper motivational information, enabling environment, positive midwives’ attitude and spouse willingness, it is possible to involve male partners during childbirth in Malawi. Midwives, women and male peers are vital in the promotion of male involvement during childbirth. In addition, midwives have a duty to ensure that men are well prepared for the labour and childbirth

  11. Stakeholder perceptions of communication about vaccination in two regions of Cameroon: A qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njang, Diangha Mabel; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Oku, Afiong; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Kum, Awah Paschal; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding stakeholders’ (parents’, communities’ and health workers’) perspectives of communication about childhood vaccination, including their preferences for its format, delivery and content, is an important step towards designing better communication strategies and ensuring more informed parents. Our objectives were to explore stakeholders’ views, experiences and preferences for childhood vaccination communication in Cameroon. Methods In 2014, in the Central and North West Regions of Cameron, we gathered qualitative data for our case study using the following methods: semi structured interviews; observations and informal conversations during routine immunization clinics and three rounds of the National Polio Immunization Campaign; document analysis of reports and mass media communications about vaccination; and a survey of parents. We conducted a thematic analysis of the qualitative data to identify themes relating to views, experiences and perceptions of vaccination information and its delivery. Survey data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. Results All of the parents interviewed felt that vaccinating their child was important, and trusted the information provided by health workers. However, many parents wanted more information. Parents did not always feel that they could ask questions during vaccination appointments. All participants felt that health workers and vaccination clinics were important sources of information. Social mobilisation activities such as door-to-door visits and announcements during religious services were important and accepted ways of communicating information, especially during vaccination campaigns. Information communicated through mass media and text messages was also seen as important. In general, stakeholders believed that more consistent messaging about routine vaccination through community channels would be helpful to remind parents of the importance of routine vaccination during ongoing

  12. A Study of Qualitative and Geometric Knowledge in Reasoning about Motion. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    other always outside the) cannot. The knowledge we use in this situation appcars simpler than formal mechanics, and is based on our experience with... experience with a program caled 1I [Su%.man & Stalman] this program contained a number of scminal ideas. including a "fact gabage collcttor" diat led...Qualitative knowledge must also identify those situations where the equations of motion are no longer applicable. Fr the purpose of description dese

  13. Type of Mental of Successful Entrepreneur: A Qualitative Study of Bob Sadinos Experience

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    Agus Masrukhin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper was to determine the type of mental of successful businessman Bob Sadino. So he became a major employer in the field of retail and supermarket. The theories used were personality theory and Cash flow Quadrant theory. The theories used were later associated with the analysis results obtained from the field. Research used descriptive qualitative analysis using mental of success. Results show that Bob Sadino had Business owner mental and Investor mental based on Cash flow Quadrant theory.

  14. Parental values and ethnic identity in indigenous Sami families: a qualitative study.

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    Javo, Cecilie; Alapack, Richard; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rønning, John A

    2003-01-01

    The qualitative study reported in this article is part of a larger multimethod investigation of child-rearing practices and child-behavior problems in indigenous Sami and majority Norwegian populations in the Sami core area in Northern Norway. In the primary quantitative study we found significant ethnic differences between Sami and Norwegian parents in various areas of child rearing and family structure. Seeking the deeper cultural meaning underlying the parental practices and attitudes that had emerged in the indigenous Sami group, we performed additional indepth interviews. Four parents, selected from the sample of 134 Sami parents, served as subjects. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method was used. Data analysis of the interviews identified seven key consitituents of Sami child rearing, which in their interrelationships formed a common structure that constitutes the results of this study. These constituents were: (1) Independence, (2) Hardiness, (3) Autonomy, (4) Closeness/Love, (5) Sami Language, (6) Sami Traditions, and (7) Extended Family. The first four constituents are constituents pertaining to child-rearing values, while the latter three are contextual constituents, related to the promotion of ethnic identity. The study discusses the contemporary dilemmas and challenges that face Sami families in raising their children. It highlights the phenomenon of cultural transition in minority families as an important topic in family research.

  15. What Does Depression Mean for Korean American Elderly?: A Qualitative Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Han, Haera; Lee, Hochang B.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Joo, Jin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Korean American Elderly (KAE) have high rates of depression but underuse mental health services. The purpose of this study was to assess the meaning of depression and help seeking among KAE residing in the United States who have clinically significant depressive symptoms. Methods As a follow up to the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK; n=1,118), a descriptive epidemiological study which showed that only one in four of KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) used mental health services, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the meaning of depression and beliefs about help seeking. Ten participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms were approached and 8 were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Results KAE did not identify themselves as depressed though experiencing clinically significant depressive symptoms. They associated depression with social discrimination, social isolation, and suicide in the extreme circumstance. They attributed depression to not achieving social and material success in America and strained relationships with their children. Participants attempted to self-manage distress without telling others in their social network. However, KAE were willing to consult with mental health professionals if the services were bilingual, affordable, and confidential. Conclusion KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms are a vulnerable group with need and desire for linguistically and culturally relevant mental health services who are isolated due to a complex array of psychological and social factors.

  16. A qualitative study on communication between nursing students and the family members of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2017-09-12

    When caring for a family as a unit, it is as crucial to communicate with the family members of a patient as it is with the patient. However, there is a lack of research on the views of nursing students on communicating with the family members of patients, and little has been mentioned in the nursing curriculum on this topic. The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' experiences of communicating with the family members of patients. A qualitative descriptive study. A total of 42 nursing students (21 undergraduate year-two students and 21 were master's year-one students) from one school of nursing in Hong Kong participated in in-depth individual interviews. Content analysis was adopted. The trustworthiness of this study was ensured by enhancing its credibility, confirmability, and dependability. Two main themes were discerned. The first, "inspirations gained from nursing student-family communication", included the following sub-themes: (a) responding to enquiries clearly, (b) avoiding sensitive topics, (c) listening to the patient's family, and (d) sharing one's own experiences. The second, "emotions aroused from nursing student-family communication", had the following sub-themes: (a) happiness, (b) anger, (c) sadness, and (d) anxiety. More studies on the perspectives of nursing students on communicating with family members should be conducted, to strengthen the contents and learning outcomes of nursing student-family communication in the existing nursing curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation Use in Paramedic Education Research (SUPER): A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kim D; Carhart, Elliot; Bercher, Daniel; Spain, Andrew; Todaro, John; Freel, Joann

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the use of simulation in initial paramedic education programs in order assist stakeholders' efforts to target educational initiatives and resources. This group sought to provide a snapshot of what simulation resources programs have or have access to and how they are used; faculty perceptions about simulation; whether program characteristics, resources, or faculty training influence simulation use; and if simulation resources are uniform for patients of all ages. This was a cross-sectional census survey of paramedic programs that were accredited or had a Letter of Review from the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the EMS Professions at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses. Of the 638 surveys sent, 389 valid responses (61%) were analyzed. Paramedic programs reported they have or have access to a wide range of simulation resources (task trainers [100%], simple manikins [100%], intermediate manikins [99%], advanced/fully programmable manikins [91%], live simulated patients [83%], computer-based [71%], and virtual reality [19%]); however, they do not consistently use them, particularly advanced (71%), live simulated patients (66%), computer-based (games, scenarios) (31%), and virtual reality (4%). Simulation equipment (of any type) reportedly sits idle and unused in (31%) of programs. Lack of training was cited as the most common reason. Personnel support specific to simulation was available in 44% of programs. Programs reported using simulation to replace skills more frequently than to replace field or clinical hours. Simulation goals included assessment, critical thinking, and problem-solving most frequently, and patient and crew safety least often. Programs using advanced manikins report manufacturers as their primary means of training (87%) and that 19% of faculty had no training specific to those manikins. Many (78%) respondents felt

  18. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos; Sola, Iván; Rotaeche, Rafael; Marzo-Castillejo, Mèrce; Louro-González, Arturo; Carrillo, Ricard; González, Ana-Isabel; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2011-08-09

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts.The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients' needs. The questioning of experts

  19. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine (EBM has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1 The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2 The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3 The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not

  20. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  1. Perceptions of problem-drinker patients’ family members about their own hazardous-drinking behaviours in Chinese general hospitals: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chen-Chun; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Kao, Jung-Ta; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use has been associated with health, social and legal problems. Alcohol-related problems have been studied primarily in problem-drinker patients, with few studies on their family members, particularly about their own hazardous or harmful alcohol-drinking behaviours. Method In this qualitative descriptive study, participants were recruited from three hospitals randomly selected from northern and central Taiwan (2:1). Hazardous-drinker patients and their family memb...

  2. Palliative care services in The Netherlands: a descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Kerkstra, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper several types of specialized palliative care services in The Netherlands are presented. These include palliative care units in homes for the elderly, in nursing homes, in a general hospital and in an oncology clinic. In addition, a description is given of private hospices and of a home

  3. Developing optimal search strategies for retrieving clinically relevant qualitative studies in EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leslie A; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative researchers address many issues relevant to patient health care. Their studies appear in an array of journals, making literature searching difficult. Large databases such as EMBASE provide a means of retrieving qualitative research, but these studies represent only a minuscule fraction of published articles, making electronic retrieval problematic. Little work has been done on developing search strategies for the detection of qualitative studies. The objective of this study was to develop optimal search strategies to retrieve qualitative studies in EMBASE for the 2000 publishing year. The authors conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. Search strategies reached peak sensitivities at 94.2% and peak specificities of 99.7%. Combining search terms to optimize the combination of sensitivity and specificity resulted in values over 89% for both. The authors identified search strategies with high performance for retrieving qualitative studies in EMBASE.

  4. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  5. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  6. Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

  7. A Study of Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    New methods and tools have been developed and the landscape of research has changed in TESOL, second language acquisition and applied linguistics. As research methodologies have become complex, the principles of undertaking and reporting research have become obscure. In this article, the assumptions and definitions underlying both qualitative and quantitative research, which have been major research methods in TESOL and the related fields for a long time, are reconsidered.

  8. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam; Ahmad Fayaz Bakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Hospital information system (HIS) should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, ...

  9. What Do Children with Chronic Diseases and Their Parents Think About Pediatricians? A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Abramowicz, Paweł; Abramowicz, Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine how pediatric patients and their parents perceive health care during hospital stays, what are their expectations of doctor behaviors, and which components of care do they consider to be the most important. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was carried out using the open interview technique. Twenty-six parents and 22 children undergoing hospital treatment participated. Results Our analysis identified two major themes: (1) doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors, which included informing and explaining, conversations on topics other than the illness, tone of voice and other behaviors; and (2) perceived strategies used by doctors. This category included claims of doctors' intentional use of medical jargon to avoid addressing parental questions directly. Parents admitted that they did not understand medical vocabulary, but they also thought they might understand more of the medical issues if the doctor spoke using terms comprehensible to them. Conlcusions Our study shows the importance of interpersonal relationship affecting patient perception of quality of pediatric care. Parents of pediatric patients perceive that doctors behave in ways that deflect parents' questions and avoid providing them with medical information. Such behaviors include doctors excusing themselves by saying they are busy and using medical jargon. Medical students and doctors should be trained to communicate effectively with patients and their parents and develop skills to convey information in a simple and comprehensible way.

  10. Nursing pain management--a qualitative interview study of patients with pain, hospitalized for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustøen, Tone; Gaardsrud, Torill; Leegaard, Marit; Wahl, Astrid K

    2009-03-01

    Pain is a significant symptom in cancer patients. Understanding of patients' experiences in relation to pain management is important in evidence-based nursing in the field of pain. The aim of this study was to explore cancer patients' experiences of nursing pain management during hospitalization for cancer treatment. Eighteen cancer patients participated in the study, all with advanced cancer, including skeleton metastases. The female participants all had breast cancer, and the male participants all had prostate cancer. Data were collected by in-depth interviews, and qualitative description was used to entail low-inference interpretation to reach an understanding of the essence of pain and nursing pain management. Patients found it somewhat difficult to express their expectations of nursing pain management and competencies. However, 1) being present and supportive; 2) giving information and sharing knowledge; 3) taking care of medication; and 4) recognizing the pain emerged as themes in nursing pain management. Although patients believed that nurses were caring persons, they perceived differences between nurses in the ways they handled pain management. Furthermore, some patients experienced a lack of information from nurses in relation to pain management. Although cancer patients' experiences showed the importance of nurses in pain management, it seems that nurses should have a clearer role in cancer pain management in relation to counseling and patient education. The results from this study can increase nurses' awareness of their role in pain management as a first step in improving pain management for patients.

  11. Adolescents' Experiences When Living With a Parent With Cancer: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Mehrdad; Malekian, Azadeh; Taleghani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Cancer affects not only the patient but also their entire family, especially adolescents. Adolescents whose parents are ill may manifest their distress through changes in school performance, physical complaints of pain and discomfort, as well as changes in social and interpersonal relations. There has been very little research about the effects of cancer on adolescents in Iran. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the Iranian adolescents' experiences when living with a parent with cancer. In this research, the descriptive-explorative approach was used. There were a total of 27 participants. Purposeful sampling was used and data collection methods were semi-structured deep interviews. Constant comparative analysis was used to study the data. The findings of this study showed that the main experiences of these adolescents were categorized into seven themes: 1- psychological problems of adolescents; 2- supportive-educative needs; 3- cancer as a two edged sword in family relationships; 4- stages of confrontation with the parent's cancer; 5- effect of cancer on social dimensions; 6- affective and helpful supportive agents; 7- Need of support for education under special conditions. This research showed that Iranian adolescents had the same experiences as other adolescents in other countries in many aspects yet in some issues, such as religious strategy, they had strong religious beliefs that would help them cope with their parents' cancer. Also it was shown that we must plan a program in which education and support should be provided to enable adolescents to cope with this detrimental situation with minimal disruption.

  12. Addiction-Related Stigma and Discrimination: A Qualitative Study in Treatment Centers in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ríos, Jazmín; Ortega-Ortega, Miriam; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-04-16

    Social rejection of drug use is greater than that directed at other psychiatric conditions, like depression and anxiety, which may lead to social exclusion of substance users and prevent them from seeking and receiving treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the stigma and discrimination related to addiction in treatment centers in Mexico City. Data are from a broad mixed methods study. The present study is a qualitative analysis of 35 in-depth interviews of drug users, family members, and providers, using guidelines for the exploration of experiences of stigma and discrimination related to substance abuse. A thematic analysis was carried out using specialized software (Atlas.ti 6.2.23). The common practices of stigma and discrimination (e.g., judging, mockery, inappropriate comments, overprotection, and hostile looks), were identified in participant testimonies. The narratives provide evidence of varied conditions of social and gender inequality, as well as experience of violence and abuse, that refer to a structural context of discrimination surrounding addiction, and that constitute obstacles to treatment. The findings allow for a description of the stigmatization process surrounding addiction as a shared problem that requires the implementation of coordinated treatment strategies. They also suggest the need for more comprehensive policies of inclusion, based on human rights, which favor prevention and treatment.

  13. The need to know: The information needs of parents of infants with an intellectual disability-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this study was to explore the information needs of parents of infants with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents whose infant has an intellectual disability need access to information if they are to facilitate optimal care for their child. A lack of timely, accurate information provision by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, can increase parental stress and hinder access to the supports they and their infant require. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used for the study. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents of 11 children with intellectual disabilities in Victoria, Australia in 2014. Data were analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Parents experienced challenges accessing quality information during the first year of their child's life. Parents required incremental information provision to build a strong knowledge base to facilitate optimal care for their infants. Three types of knowledge were identified as crucial for parents: knowledge about (1) the infant's condition; (2) the infant's specific needs and (3) available supports and services. Health professionals were the key resource to access this information. Health professionals' responsibilities include providing relevant, timely information to parents of infants with intellectual disabilities. This study conceptualises three types of information parents need to develop a strong knowledge base to guide their infant's care and provides guidance concerning the optimal timing for the delivery of information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  15. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Monique

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games. A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1 the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week and non-regularly ( Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven percent of the adolescents with an active game in their household never used the game. There were no significant differences in gender, education level (of adolescent and

  16. An exploratory qualitative study of brand associations as a means for brand extensions: Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H Kasper; Y Strepp; NS Terblanche

    2014-01-01

    .... The focus of this study is on brand associations as means to extend the original brand. A qualitative study, in contrast with the quantitative nature of most earlier studies, was used to elicit an unbiased picture of consumers...

  17. A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families.

  18. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Connolly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases’ experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and working full-time. Three themes were identified: “Impact of fatigue on work performance” with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme “Disclosure at Work” participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme “work-based fatigue management strategies” included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases.

  19. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Deirdre

    2015-10-28

    Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases\\' experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: "Impact of fatigue on work performance" with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme "Disclosure at Work" participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme "work-based fatigue management strategies" included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases.

  20. A qualitative study of the transition to adulthood for youth with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D A; Law, M C; Rosenbaum, P; Willms, D G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences, perceptions, and needs of youth with physical disabilities in transition from adolescence to adulthood. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to select 34 study participants who lived in three regions of south-central Ontario, Canada. Data collection methods were individual and focus group interviews, and were guided by a set of open-ended questions. An editing style of analysis sorted the text into codes for description and interpretation. Themes emerged about context, the transition process, needs, and services. Participants identified a poor fit between young persons with disabilities and the adult world they were entering. They recommended that services be focused on environmental supports to enable them to "build their own bridges" to the adult world. Community-based transition services need to be planned in collaboration with youth with disabilities and their parents. Concepts of person-environment fit and health promotion can be incorporated into services to enable young persons with disabilities to experience a smooth transition from adolescence to adulthood.

  1. [The right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Morales-Gil, Isabel María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Crespillo-García, Eva; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perceptions and beliefs of doctors and nurses, and the barriers and facilitators they must address as regards the right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital, and to consider the applicability of the provisions of Law 2/2010 of 8 April in this respect. A qualitative descriptive study, based on the focus group technique, using discourse analysis of the views of doctors and nurses responsible for the health care of terminal cancer and non-cancer patients in an acute-care hospital. The results obtained show that there are diverse obstacles to assure the rights of terminal patients, and to ensure the proper performance of their duties by healthcare professionals and institutions. The nature and impact of these difficulties depend on the characteristics of the patients and their families, the health workers involved, the organisation of health care, and cultural factors. The study highlights the need to improve the process of communication with patients and their families, to facilitate shared decision making and to establish measures to clarify issues such as palliative sedation and treatment limitation. It is necessary to improve the applicability of the law on living wills and dignified death in non-cancer specialist areas. Further training is needed regarding ethical, spiritual and anthropological aspects of care in these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Being young': a qualitative study of younger nurses' experiences in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendon, J; Walker, L

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the experiences of nurses aged under 30 in the New Zealand workforce with a view to developing age-appropriate retention strategies. Nurses aged under 30 constitute around 10% of the world's nursing workforce yet little is known about their experiences in the workplace. Poor retention of younger nurses is a cause for concern. The implications of the perceptions and needs of this generation of nurses must be considered in order to ensure effective succession planning. An explorative descriptive design framed within a broad qualitative methodology was utilized to explore experiences of younger nurses in the New Zealand workforce. Data were analysed thematically. Findings are reported under five themes: challenges of nursing, rewards of nursing, being young, coping and addressing generational differences. The study provides new knowledge about the experiences of younger nurses in the workforce and in particular the challenges facing younger Asian nurses. Managers and nurse leaders must address broader workforce issues as well as improving support for younger nurses to help improve younger nurse retention. Strategies designed to extend and challenge younger nurses in the workplace such as professional development and project work will also help, but will only be effective if nurses are given sufficient paid time to undertake this work. Being Asian provides added challenges for younger nurses in New Zealand and further research into the experiences of this subgroup is highly recommended. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Cardio-thoracic surgical patients' experience on bedside nursing handovers: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupieri, Giulia; Creatti, Chiara; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of postoperative cardio-thoracic surgical patients experiencing nursing bedside handover. A descriptive qualitative approach was undertaken. A purposeful sampling technique was adopted, including 14 patients who went through cardio-thoracic surgery and witnessed at least two bedside handovers. The study was performed in a Cardio-thoracic ICU localised in a Joint Commission International accredited Academic Hospital in north-eastern Italy from August to November 2014. The experience of patients participating at the bedside handover is based on four main themes: (1) 'discovering a new nursing identity', (2) 'being apparently engaged in a bedside handover', (3) 'experiencing the paradox of confidentiality' and (4) 'having the situation under control'. With the handover performed at the bedside in a postoperative setting, two interconnected potential effects may be achieved with regard to patients, nurses and the nursing profession. Nurses have a great opportunity to express their closeness to patients and to promote awareness of the important growth that nursing has achieved over the years as a profession and discipline. Therefore, patients may better perceive nursing competence and feel safer during the postoperative care pathway. They can appreciate nurses' humanity in caring and trust their competence and professionalism.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Family Caregiver Experiences of Managing Incontinence in Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Ning; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Yu, Po-Jui; Lou, Meei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Incontinence is a common problem faced by family caregivers that is recognized as a major burden and predictor of institutionalization. However, few studies have evaluated the experiences of family caregivers caring for stroke survivors with incontinence. Purpose To describe experiences of caregivers managing incontinence in stroke survivors. Design This qualitative descriptive study employed a grounded-theory approach. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews with ten family caregivers of stroke survivors with incontinence were conducted during 2011. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Findings Data analysis identified four themes: chaos, hypervigilance, exhaustion, and creating a new life. There were nine related subcategories: fluster, dirtiness, urgency, fear of potential health-hazard, physically demanding and time-consuming, mentally draining, financial burden, learning by doing, and attitude adjustment. Together, these described a process of struggling to cope with the care of stroke survivors with urinary/fecal incontinence. Of the four categories, “creating a new life” developed gradually over time to orient caregivers to their new life, while the other three categories occurred in a chronological order. Conclusion The research highlighted unique caring experiences of family caregivers of stroke patients, which focused solely on the ‘incontinence issue’. Understanding these experiences may help nurses provide better support and resources for family caregivers when caring for stroke survivors with incontinence. PMID:26066345

  5. A Qualitative Study of Family Caregiver Experiences of Managing Incontinence in Stroke Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ning Tseng

    Full Text Available Incontinence is a common problem faced by family caregivers that is recognized as a major burden and predictor of institutionalization. However, few studies have evaluated the experiences of family caregivers caring for stroke survivors with incontinence.To describe experiences of caregivers managing incontinence in stroke survivors.This qualitative descriptive study employed a grounded-theory approach.Semi-structured in-depth interviews with ten family caregivers of stroke survivors with incontinence were conducted during 2011. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis.Data analysis identified four themes: chaos, hypervigilance, exhaustion, and creating a new life. There were nine related subcategories: fluster, dirtiness, urgency, fear of potential health-hazard, physically demanding and time-consuming, mentally draining, financial burden, learning by doing, and attitude adjustment. Together, these described a process of struggling to cope with the care of stroke survivors with urinary/fecal incontinence. Of the four categories, "creating a new life" developed gradually over time to orient caregivers to their new life, while the other three categories occurred in a chronological order.The research highlighted unique caring experiences of family caregivers of stroke patients, which focused solely on the 'incontinence issue'. Understanding these experiences may help nurses provide better support and resources for family caregivers when caring for stroke survivors with incontinence.

  6. A descriptive study of baccalaureate nursing students' responses to suicide prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Julie M; Gilje, Fredricka; Tesar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, little is known regarding the amount of educational content on suicide in undergraduate nursing curriculum. The literature conducted found few published research studies on implementation of suicide prevention instruction in baccalaureate nursing curriculum, even though various international healthcare and nursing initiatives address suicide prevention. The aim was to describe senior baccalaureate students' responses to an evidence-based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program entitled Question-Persuade-Refer implemented in a required course. This is a multi-method descriptive study. Data were collected utilizing a pre-post-survey questionnaire administered to 150 students in four classes of a psychiatric nursing course over a two-year period. The quantitative data were statistically significant (p < 0.000) indicating an overall positive rating of the training. From the qualitative data, the main theme was 'becoming capable intervening with persons at risk for suicide'. Students responded very positively to the evidence based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program. The instruction addresses various national initiatives and strategies filling a void in nursing curriculum, as well as empowering students to engage in suicide prevention interventions.

  7. Perspectives on weight gain and lifestyle practices during pregnancy among women with a history of macrosomia: a qualitative study in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Heery, Emily; McConnon, Áine; Kelleher, Cecily C; Wall, Patrick G.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major risk factor for macrosomia (high birth weight delivery). This study aimed to explore views about weight gain and lifestyle practices during pregnancy among women with a history of macrosomia. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Twenty-one second-time mothers whose first infant was macrosomic (>4 kg) were recruited from a randomised trial in a large maternity hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured int...

  8. Priority setting and cardiac surgery: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nancy A; Martin, Douglas K; Peter, Elizabeth H; Pringle, Dorothy M; Singer, Peter A

    2007-03-01

    . Enforcement: Participants cite little departmental or institutional support to engage in fairer priority setting. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe actual priority setting practices for cardiac surgery practices and evaluate them using an ethical framework, in this case, "accountability for reasonableness". Priority setting decision making in cardiac surgery has been described and evaluated with lessons learned include specific findings regarding the contextual and dynamic nature of decision making in cardiac surgery. The approach of combining a descriptive case study with the ethical framework of "accountability for reasonableness" is a useful tool for identifying good practices and highlighting areas for improvement. The good practices (including surgeons strongly facilitating patients seeking second opinions and approaching patients from a holistic perspective in consideration for surgery) and areas for improvement (including lack of transparency and lack of institutional support for "fair" decision making) that we have identified in this case study can be used to reflect upon the present tool used in priority setting and improve the fairness and legitimacy of priority setting decision making in cardiac surgery.

  9. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  10. Barriers and Facilitators of Breastfeeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-11

    BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED...BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY” beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and...breastfeeding for primiparous active duty military mothers, from their perspective, using a Husserlian phenomenological approach. A semi-structured

  11. Teachers as Researchers of New Literacies: Reflections on Qualitative Self-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Bryan; Given, Kim; Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a beginning teacher, experienced teacher, and teacher educator reflect upon their experiences with qualitative self-studies of language and literacy in teacher education courses. The goal of these course projects was to introduce teachers to sociocultural theories, qualitative research, and "new" literacies. Sharing…

  12. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  13. The Reflective Model of Intercultural Competency: A Multidimensional, Qualitative Approach to Study Abroad Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy Rundstrom

    2009-01-01

    Judging from the recent surge in research on outcomes assessment, many study abroad offices rely on quantitative surveys and measures to collect student outcomes data. This paper presents a multidimensional, qualitative approach to data collection. This approach makes qualitative data easy to collect and encourages students to reflect and…

  14. THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON HEALTHCARE SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF KALDERASH ROMA. A QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ROMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some ethnic groups, as the Roma, are thought to have different healthcare seeking behaviour. This paper aims to provide findings on the attitudes, preferences, expectations and concerns of a Roma ethnic group (Kalderash regarding inpatient hospitalization. The findings focus on a series of data analysed from semi-structured interviews with 23 Kalderash patients and caregivers from Zanea community (county of Iasi, north-eastern part of Romania. Kalderash people have negative attitudes towards hospitalization and report significant anxieties. The findings reveal specificities related to patients’ ethnic background, cultural views and communication barriers. For their part, Roma are often suspicious of non-Roma people and institutions. Roma ideas about hospital are closely related to notions of purity and impurity. These basic concepts affect everyday life during inpatient hospitalization, including the way Roma deal with eating and washing, physicians and treatments, or coping with illness and death. When they seek medical care, Roma often come into conflict with medical personnel who find their behaviour confusing and demanding. Roma’s cultural beliefs and attitudes underlie their behaviour when they are being confronted with a serious illness and are seeking inpatient medical care. Attention to cultural diversity does matter, as this should lead to different medical behavioural patterns.

  15. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    abuse and internet dating to be triggers of unsafe sex. Conclusion According to Danish adolescents there were four important key topics which could lead to unsafe sex and these points differed slightly from our expectations. Those points of interest will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire...

  16. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede

    . Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one...

  17. Scoring clinical competencies of learners: A quantitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Müller

    2011-02-01

    prestasie uit te skakel. ʼn Universiteit in Gauteng, Suid-Afrika bied ʼn leerprogram aan wat leerders toerus met kliniese kennis, vaardighede en waardes in die beraming, diagnose, behandeling en sorg van pasiënte in primêre gesondheidsorgfasiliteite (PGS. Die navorser het waargeneem dat, ten spyte van addisionele kliniese onderrig en begeleiding, leerders steeds teen die einde van die program lae punte in kliniese evaluasies behaal het. Die studie het die moontlik rede(s vir hierdie waarneming ondersoek. Die doel van die studie was om die demografiese profiel van leerders, sowel as die korrelasie van die puntetoekenning deur verskillende kliniese assesseerders, te verken en te beskryf. ʼn Doelbewuste gerieflikheidsteekproef het uit leerders (n = 34 en kliniese beoordelaars (n = 6 bestaan. Data is versamel deur leerders individueel ʼn vraelys te laat voltooi. Hierdie data is met behulp van ʼn nominale en rangorde-skaal geanaliseer. Kliniese assesseerders het ʼn kontrolelys voltooi en data is met behulp van ʼn statistiese sagtewarepakket geanaliseer. Die veranderlikes is vergelyk om die aard van die verhouding tussen die verskillende kliniese assesseerders se tellings op die kontrolelys te bepaal. Dit is gedoen om interbeoordeelaarbetroubaarheid te verseker. Resultate het getoon dat daar geen statisties beduidende verskille tussen die gemiddelde puntetoekenning van verskillende kliniese assesseerders bestaan het na korrelasie nie (p < 0.05. Die puntetoekenning het dus nie tot die swak kliniese vaardighede van die leerders bygedra nie.

    How to cite this article: Magobe, N.B.D., Beukes, S.& Müller, A., 2011, ‘Scoring clinical competencies of learners: A quantitative descriptive study’, Health SA Gesondheid 16(1, Art. #524, 7 pages. doi:10.4102/hsag. v16i1.524

  18. Meta-Study as Diagnostic: Toward Content Over Form in Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky

    2016-02-01

    Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to early mobilisation in Intensive Care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Elizabeth A; Everard, Tori; Holland, Anne E; Tipping, Claire; Bradley, Scott J; Hodgson, Carol L

    2015-11-01

    To determine the barriers and facilitators of early mobilisation in the Intensive Care Unit. It is well established that mobilising critically ill patients has many benefits, however it is not occurring as frequently as expected. The causes and ways to change this are not clearly understood. A qualitative descriptive study involving focus groups with medical, nursing and physiotherapy clinicians, from an Australian quaternary hospital Intensive Care Unit. The major themes related to barriers included the culture of the Intensive Care Unit; communication; and a lack of resources. Major themes associated with facilitating early mobilisation included organisational change; improved communication between medical units; and improved resources. Early mobilisation was considered an important aspect of critically ill patient's care by all clinicians. Several major barriers to mobilisation were identified, which included unit culture, lack of resources, prioritisation and leadership. A dedicated mobility team led by physiotherapists in the ICU setting could be a viable option to address the identified barriers related to mobility. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vioulac, Christel; Aubree, Colette; Massy, Ziad A; Untas, Aurélie

    2016-05-01

    To explore the concepts of empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis units in France and their possible interactions. Nurses' work in haemodialysis is rather complex. It requires technical expertise, because of the peculiarity of the treatment, and emotional skills, to care for patients throughout a long-lasting therapy. Empathy is considered as a key in the concept of caring, which allows nurses to give appropriate answers to their patients' needs. In addition, nurses' work environment can generate stress. A qualitative descriptive design. Nurses (N = 23) working in haemodialysis units were interviewed in three different sites in 2014. The analysis of nurses' speech emphasized a predominance of the cognitive attributes of empathy: understanding, communication, adjusted response (43%), and a special feature of the relationship due to the chronicity of the care (23%). The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The results showed the special features of nurses' work in haemodialysis and the need for further studies to investigate these concepts. The influence of stress on empathy needs to be explored more precisely, especially regarding nurses' experience and its impact on patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Addressing the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodvin, Brita; Aase, Karina; Brekken, Anita Løvås; Charani, Esmita; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer; Smith, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied, identifying emergent themes, subthemes and corresponding descriptions. The main barrier to communication is disruption involving specimen logistics, information on request forms, verbal reporting of test results and information transfer between poorly integrated IT systems. Furthermore, communication is challenged by lack of insight into each other's area of expertise and limited provision of laboratory services, leading to prolonged turnaround time, limited advisory services and restricted opening hours. Communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units can be improved by a review of testing processes, educational programmes to increase insights into the other's area of expertise, an evaluation of work tasks and expansion of rapid and point-of-care test services. Antibiotic stewardship programmes may serve as a valuable framework to establish these measures.

  2. Employers' views on the promotion of workplace health and wellbeing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescud, Melanie; Teal, Renee; Shilton, Trevor; Slevin, Terry; Ledger, Melissa; Waterworth, Pippa; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-07-11

    The evidence surrounding the value of workplace health promotion in positively influencing employees' health and wellbeing via changes to their health behaviours is growing. The aim of the study was to explore employers' views on the promotion of workplace health and wellbeing and the factors affecting these views. Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, 10 focus groups were conducted with employers selected from a range of industries and geographical locations within Western Australia. The total sample size was 79. Three factors were identified: employers' conceptualization of workplace health and wellbeing; employers' descriptions of (un)healthy workers and perceptions surrounding the importance of healthy workers; and employers' beliefs around the role the workplace should play in influencing health. Progress may be viable in promoting health and wellbeing if a multifaceted approach is employed taking into account the complex factors influencing employers' views. This could include an education campaign providing information about what constitutes health and wellbeing beyond the scope of occupational health and safety paradigms along with information on the benefits of workplace health and wellbeing aligned with perceptions relating to healthy and unhealthy workers.

  3. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.

  4. Ambiguous absence, ambiguous presence: a qualitative study of military reserve families in wartime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Anthony J; Willerton, Elaine; Clymer, Shelley R; MacDermid, Shelley M; Weiss, Howard M

    2008-04-01

    The "Global War on Terrorism" has resulted in reservists being deployed at an ever-increasing rate. However, because reservists and their families are unaccustomed to deployments, many families may experience boundary ambiguity, a state in which family members are uncertain in their perception about who is in or out of the family and who is performing which roles and tasks within the family. This qualitative description study examined boundary ambiguity in military reserve families over time. A sample of 34 reservists, spouses, and parents was interviewed 7 times within the 1st year of the reservists' return from Iraq. During deployment, all family members experienced boundary ambiguity. Gathering information and attending a family support group provided some relief for families. After the reservists returned, couples as well as those who had experienced additional life events or losses experienced the highest levels of boundary ambiguity. However, this boundary ambiguity dissipated over time, as families tended to restabilize once the reservists had returned to work and a routine had been established.

  5. Robotic Seals as Therapeutic Tools in an Aged Care Facility: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Birks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots, including robotic seals, have been used as an alternative to therapies such as animal assisted therapy in the promotion of health and social wellbeing of older people in aged care facilities. There is limited research available that evaluates the effectiveness of robot therapies in these settings. The aim of this study was to identify, explore, and describe the impact of the use of Paro robotic seals in an aged care facility in a regional Australian city. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory design was employed. Data were gathered through interviews with the three recreational therapists employed at the facility who were also asked to maintain logs of their interactions with the Paro and residents. Data were transcribed and thematically analysed. Three major themes were identified from the analyses of these data: “a therapeutic tool that’s not for everybody,” “every interaction is powerful,” and “keeping the momentum.” Findings support the use of Paro as a therapeutic tool, revealing improvement in emotional state, reduction of challenging behaviours, and improvement in social interactions of residents. The potential benefits justify the investment in Paro, with clear evidence that these tools can have a positive impact that warrants further exploration.

  6. Experiences of older adults in a group physiotherapy program at a rehabilitation hospital: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Melissa J; Burge, Angela T; Soh, Sze-Ee; Jeffs, Kimberley J; Winter, Adele; Holland, Anne E

    2016-05-01

    Physiotherapy delivered in a group setting has been shown to be effective in a variety of populations. However, little is known about the attitudes of older adults toward participating in group physiotherapy. The objectives of this study were to explore older inpatients' perceptions and experiences of group physiotherapy using qualitative methods. Twelve hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years who were involved in a larger randomized controlled trial undertook individual semistructured interviews regarding their experiences in group physiotherapy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and line by line, iterative thematic analysis was undertaken. Descriptive codes were developed, compared, and grouped together to create themes. Analysis revealed 6 major themes and 10 subthemes. All participants reported feeling happy to attend group sessions, a satisfactory alternative to individual physiotherapy. Participants described physical benefits that increased their motivation, and comparisons with their peers either motivated them or made them feel gratitude for their own health. Perceived attentiveness of group instructors contributed to participants reporting that treatment was individualized and similar to individual physiotherapy. Motivation and camaraderie with peers contributed to their enjoyment of group physiotherapy. Hospitalized older adults enjoyed exercising with their peers and valued the physical and social benefits of group physiotherapy. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:358-362. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  7. A descriptive study of chiropractors' opinions and practices regarding office-based health product sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Stacey A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sale of non-prescription health products is ubiquitous, the views of health professionals, such as chiropractors, regarding the sale of such products are not well known. Practitioner opinion is important to understand and inform professional practice. The purpose of this study was to describe chiropractors' perspectives and practices on the sale of health care products from practitioners' offices. Methods Chiropractors were invited to provide written comments about health product sales at the end of a fixed choice, mailed survey. Respondents' comments were analyzed using qualitative description. Ethics approval was received from the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary. Results One hundred seven of the 265 respondents (response rate of 51% provided written comments. Approximately 30 pages of double-spaced, typed text were gathered. Respondents did not consistently endorse or condemn health product sales, and engaged in the practice to greater and lesser extents. While some were opposed to health products sales, some accepted the practice with a degree of ambivalence whereas others clearly embraced it. Some respondents acknowledged a professional conflict of interest in such sales and marketing, and described strategies used to mitigate it. Others provided a range of justifications for the practice. Personal integrity and professional standards were discussed and a need for monitoring identified. Conclusions A wide range of opinions and practices were described and this is consistent with resulting variation in practice. In light of this, standards that facilitate consistency in practice may benefit professionals and the public alike.

  8. Nurse practitioner graduates "Speak Out" about the adequacy of their educational preparation to care for older adults: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline; Kotthoff-Burrell, Ernestine; Kass-Wolff, Jane; Brownrigg, Vicki

    2015-12-01

    With a shortage of primary care providers prepared to care for an aging U.S. population, nurse practitioner (NP) programs are integrating gerontological content. This qualitative descriptive study explored NP graduate perceptions on the adequacy of their education to prepare them to care for seniors. Twenty-three graduates of NP program options at two universities in the western U.S. participated in focus group discussions or interviews. Participants shared their perceptions of their NP educational preparation and suggestions for enhancing gerontologic curriculum. Four main domains emerged from analysis of qualitative data: (a) "Getting your boots on and getting into the role"; (b) "Older people are more complex than we were prepared to care for"; (c) "It is very different as a provider, but I am so glad I was a nurse with experience first"; (d) "NPs have a scope of practice, physician assistants (PAs) have a job description-but I wish we had their [procedural] preparation." Graduates identified a need for more educational content and clinical experiences specific to the care of older adults. Some suggested a postgraduate residency or mentoring option to assist NP role transition and progression and limit role confusion. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. Problems in the Descriptions of the Psychiatric Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in Publications of Antidepressant Efficacy Trials: A Qualitative Review and Recommendations for Improved Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Multach, Matthew; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia K; Gazarian, Douglas; Clark, Heather L

    2016-03-01

    We recently conducted a comprehensive review of the psychiatric inclusion and exclusion criteria used in 170 placebo-controlled antidepressant efficacy trials (AETs) that were published between 1995 and 2014. In conducting this literature review, we identified a number of instances in which the descriptions of the inclusion/exclusion criteria were vague, redundant, or difficult to interpret. In the present article, we describe nine problems we encountered in our literature review. We recommend that future publications follow the examples found in a few studies in which the inclusion/exclusion criteria are clearly defined and listed in a table.

  10. Unrealistic optimism, fatalism, and risk-taking in New Zealand farmers' descriptions of quad-bike incidents: a directed qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Lynne; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Treharne, Gareth J; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Quad-bike incidents are a major cause of occupational injury and fatality on farms warranting health and safety attention. As part of a larger study, we carried out a face-to-face survey with 216 farmers in New Zealand. We quantitatively identified farmers' propensity for risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism as risk factors in quad-bike loss-of-control events (LCEs). The purpose of the analysis presented in this article was to use these same farmers' recollections of LCEs to explore the a priori constructs in more detail using qualitative methods. Participants reporting one or more LCEs described their first LCE and any experienced in the previous 12 months. Participants provided open-text responses about what occurred at each LCE, their reflections, and general thoughts on LCE risk factors. Directed qualitative content analysis (QCA) was used to "unpack" risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism whilst also delineating any additional concepts that farmers associate with LCEs. Risk-taking elements were more evident than unrealistic optimism or fatalism and more suggestive of farmers finding themselves in risky situations rather than engaging in risk-seeking behavior per se. Additional inductively derived categories of fatigue/stress, multitasking, inexperience, and quad-bike faults highlight the complex nature of LCEs and the importance of risk assessment covering these concepts as well as risky situations.

  11. Effects of three types of retirement preparation program: A qualitative study of civil servants in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leandro-França, C.; van Solinge, H.; Henkens, K.; Giardini Murta, S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of retirement planning programs are relatively scarce. Retirement preparation and planning programs may assist individuals to smooth the transition to retirement and subsequent adjustment. This qualitative study examines the effects of three retirement preparation progra

  12. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  13. Safer@home-Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

    2014-07-29

    While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed written consent. Informants can withdraw at any point in

  14. Perceived urban neighborhood environment for physical activity of older adults in Seoul, Korea: A multimethod qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-24

    This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrett Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS. Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months. Key themes were: 1 the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback, 2 difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support, and 3 meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy. Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in

  16. The explanatory models of depression and anxiety in primary care: a qualitative study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gracy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biggest barrier to treatment of common mental disorders in primary care settings is low recognition among health care providers. This study attempts to explore the explanatory models of common mental disorders (CMD with the goal of identifying how they could help in improving the recognition, leading to effective treatment in primary care. Results The paper describes findings of a cross sectional qualitative study nested within a large randomized controlled trial (the Manas trial. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 117 primary health care attendees (30 males and 87 females suffering from CMD. Main findings of the study are that somatic phenomena were by far the most frequent presenting problems; however, psychological phenomena were relatively easily elicited on probing. Somatic phenomena were located within a biopsychosocial framework, and a substantial proportion of informants used the psychological construct of ‘tension’ or ‘worry’ to label their illness, but did not consider themselves as suffering from a ‘mental disorder’. Very few gender differences were observed in the descriptions of symptoms but at the same time the pattern of adverse life events and social difficulties varied across gender. Conclusion Our study demonstrates how people present their illness through somatic complaints but clearly link their illness to their psychosocial world. However they do not associate their illness to a ‘mental disorder’ and this is an important phenomenon that needs to be recognized in management of CMD in primary settings. Our study also elicits important gender differences in the experience of CMD.

  17. Patient expectations of functional outcomes after rectal cancer surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason; Neuman, Heather B; Bennett, Antonia V; Polskin, Lily; Phang, P Terry; Wong, W Douglas; Temple, Larissa K

    2014-02-01

    Rectal cancer patients' expectations of health and function may affect their disease- and treatment-related experience, but how patients form expectations of postsurgery function has received little study. We used a qualitative approach to explore patient expectations of outcomes related to bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. This was a cohort study of patients who were about to undergo sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. The study was conducted through individual telephone interviews with participants. Twenty-six patients (14 men and 12 women) with clinical TNM stage I to III disease were enrolled. The semistructured interview script contained open-ended questions on patient expectations of postoperative bowel function and its perceived impact on daily function and life. Two researchers analyzed the interview transcripts for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Participant expectations of bowel function reflected 3 major themes: 1) information sources, 2) personal attitudes, and 3) expected outcomes. The expected outcomes theme contained references to specific symptoms and participants' descriptions of the certainty, importance, and imminence of expected outcomes. Despite multiple information sources and attempts at maintaining a positive personal attitude, participants expressed much uncertainty about their long-term bowel function. They were more focused on what they considered more important and imminent concerns about being cancer free and getting through surgery. This study was limited by context in terms of the timing of interviews (relative to the treatment course). The transferability to other contexts requires further study. Patient expectations of long-term functional outcomes cannot be considered outside of the overall context of the cancer experience and the relative importance and imminence of cancer- and treatment-related events. Recognizing the complexities of the expectation formation

  18. Ethical issues of prison nursing: A qualitative study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Loredana; Delogu, Barbara; Carrozzino, Roberto; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria

    2016-04-12

    Prisons are contexts where nurses are required to have specific skills to ensure that, in a setting designed for the expiation of crime, prisoners receive the same type of care as anyone else. But this is not always the case, giving rise to ethical issues. 'How do correctional nurses describe their working experience in prisons? What issues emerged?' This is a qualitative descriptive study. Following purposive sampling, we conducted five focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Our sample included 31 correctional nurses in seven prisons in Northern Italy. The scientific merit of this study was recognized by the Academic Board of the University of Genoa. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Liguria Regional Government that funded this study and from the Local Health Authority that was the prison nurses' employer. Formal consent was obtained from all the nurses who volunteered to participate in this study. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) prisoners' healthcare needs, (2) negotiation between custody and care, (3) satisfaction of working in prisons, (4) obstacles to quality care and (5) safety. 'Manipulation' was a transversal theme that emerged from all the focus groups. The problems generated by the clash between prison security and nursing care priorities did not enable nurses to practice autonomously and provide the best possible to care prisoners, giving rise to ethical issues and moral distress. This in turn causes high nursing turnover rates that negatively impact continuum of care. In Italy, correctional nurses urgently require specific education interventions with the participation of all those who work in prisons. Interventions based on the post-modern concept of restorative nursing could offer prison nurses the opportunity to both resolve ethical issues and reduce moral distress. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. According to Handball Coaches, What Are The Psychological Factors That Affect The Performance of Athletes? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat ERDOĞAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the factors that affect psychogical aspects of athletes’ performance accordi ng to the handball coaches. In this study, the case study design within qualitative research methods was used. As a sampling method, the convenient sampling method from the purposive sampling methods was used. As a data collection tool, semi - structured interview form which is developed by the researcher himself was used. The descriptive analysis and the content analysis were used in the analysis of the findings. In this study, the performance of athletes by handball coaches as factors affecting the psych ological aspect determined as, training place, coaches, training methods and equipment, socio - economic status, body language, arousal level, competitors, spectators, family, friends, education, referees, concentration, personality, communication, motivatio n, time - out, psychological training.

  20. Comparison of Two Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Study of C - Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiaei, MR. (BSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: C - reactive protein (CRP is an acute phase protein produced in liver. It is less than 5 mg per deciliter in the serum and body fluids of normal individuals, but it is increased suddenly within a few hours following inflammatory reaction. In bacterial and viral infections, active rheumatic fever, acute myocardial infarction and rheumatoid arthritis are also increased. The aim of this study was to investigate CRP level by Qualitative and Quantitative methods. Material and Methods: The CRP of 200 patients was investigated by quantitative and qualitative methods. Qualitative CRP testing was conducted three times by different people, using two kit of bionic and Omega, and then the mean of the results was reported. For quantitative CRP testing, Immunoturbidimetry was used. Results: In qualitative CRP test by Bionic kit: 1