WorldWideScience

Sample records for quadrupole e2 radiation

  1. On quantum quadrupole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.; Mankoc-Borstnik, N.

    1981-02-01

    In this paper it is shown that for the electromagnetic decay of a quantum system in a coherent rotational state the total quadrupole radiation is proportional to (d 5 Q/dt 5 )(dQ/dt)sup(*)+c.c. For the radiation flux out of a sphere of large radius a different quantity, closer to the classical expression (d 3 Q/dt 3 ) 2 , is found. (author)

  2. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  3. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  4. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  5. Initial value gravitational quadrupole radiation theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicour, J.

    1987-01-01

    A rigorous version of the quadrupole radiation formula is derived using the characteristic initial value formulation of a general relativistic fluid space-time. Starting from initial data for a Newtonian fluid, an algorithm is presented that determines characteristic initial data for a one-parameter family of general relativistic fluid space-times. At the initial time, a one-parameter family of space-times with this initial data osculates the evolution of the Newtonian fluid and has leading order news function equal to the third time derivative of the transverse Newtonian quadrupole moment

  6. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  7. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions in Fe X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Energies of the 54 levels belonging to the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d and 3s3p 5 3d configurations of Fe X have been calculated using the GRASP code of Dyall and colleagues (1989). Additionally, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are calculated for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among these levels. Comparisons are made with results available in the literature, and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 3%, whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20% . Additionally, the agreement between measured and calculated lifetimes is better than 10%. (authors)

  8. The connection between cluster and collective quadrupole channels in 20 Ne and E 2-transition probabilities between the bound and continuous spectrum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrenko, A.V.; Okhrimenko, I.P.

    1993-01-01

    The E 2-transition probabilities between the discrete and continuous spectrum states in 20 Ne are investigated using the two-channel version (making allowance for the connection between cluster and quadrupole channels) of the consistent microscopic approach,an algebraic version of the resonating-group method. The correctness of the approximation of the continuous spectrum by the discrete states, which is usual in collective models, the quadrupole sum rule and the giant quadrupole resonance phenomenon are considered. (author). 2 tab., 12 figs

  9. Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Will, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones

  10. Cooperstock's counterexample to the gravitational-radiation quadrupole formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperstock has recently modified the axially symmetric gravitational two-body problem previously analyzed by himself, Lim, and Hobill by introducing a new assumption, that ''The system undergoes a smooth transition from the static state to free-fall and the motion. . .consists of the two bodies accelerating towards each other while undergoing slow tidal deformation.'' This assumption is inconsistent with his solution of the field equations. The quadrupole formula correctly describes the radiation emitted

  11. MQRAD, a computer code for synchrotron radiation from quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Teruhisa.

    1984-01-01

    The computer code, MQRAD, is developed for the calculation of the synchrotron radiation from the particles passing through quadrupole magnets at the straight section of the electron-positron colliding machine. This code computes the distributions of photon numbers and photon energies at any given points on the beam orbit. In this code, elements such as the quadrupole magnets and the drift spaces can be divided into many sub-elements in order to obtain the results with good accuracy. The synchrotron radiation produced by inserted quadrupole magnets at the interaction region of the electron-positron collider is one of the main background sources to the detector. The masking system against the synchrotron radiation at TRISTAN is very important because of the relatively high beam energy and the long straight section, which are 30 GeV and 100 meters, respectively. MQRAD has been used to design the masking system of the TOPAZ detector and the result is presented here as an example. (author)

  12. The isovector quadrupole resonance in yttrium excited by neutron radiative capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorro, R.; Bergqvist, I.

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the properties of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance (ΔT=1, ΔS=0) in the A=90 mass region, gamma-ray spectra from the reaction 89 Y(n,γ) 90 Y were recorded at several neutron energies in the energy range 12 to 27 MeV at 55 0 , 90 0 and 125 0 . The measured fore-aft asymmetry for the ground-state transition is very small in the low-energy region, but becomes appreciable above a neutron energy of 18 MeV. The observed asymmetry is attributed to interference between radiation from the isovector giant quadrupole resonance and radiation of opposite parity (from the high-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance and direct E1 capture). The data obtained in the present work, interpreted in terms of the direct-semidirect capture model, indicate that the excitation energy of the isovector E2 resonance in 90 Y is 26 ± 1 MeV. The data are consistent with a resonance width of 10 ± 2 MeV and with complete exhaustion of the energy-weighted sum rule for the lower isospin component of the resonance. (orig.)

  13. Spontaneous transition rates for electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions for He-like calcium and sulfur ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Norrington, P.H.; Boone, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous decay rates for the electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions between all of the 1s 2 , 1s2 l and 1s3 l states have been obtained for helium-like calcium and sulfur ions. To assess the accuracy of the calculations, the transition probabilities were calculated using two sets of configuration interaction wavefunctions. One set of wavefunctions was generated using the fully relativistic GRASP code and the other was obtained using CIV3, in which relativistic effects are introduced using the Breit-Pauli approximation. The transition rates, A values, oscillator strengths and line strengths from our two calculations are found to be similar and to compare very well with other recent results for Δn=1 or 2 transitions. For Δn=0 transitions the agreement is much less good; this is mainly due to differences in the calculated excitation energies. (author)

  14. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  15. Radiation response of hydrated urea evaluated using 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintenlang, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper Nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance is utilized to detect radiation-induced changes in urea over the 0- to 300-Gy dose range. The spin-spin relaxation time exhibits a consistent change as a function of delivered dose in hydrated urea under exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation. No changes to the spin-spin relaxation time are observed in urea samples that were not hydrated. The radiation-induced changes are attributed to indirect radiation interactions with the water surrounding the urea molecules and are explained by the formation of subtle changes in the electron bonding configurations surrounding the 14 N nuclei, not major structural rearrangements. These subtle changes may provide additional insight into the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems

  16. Effect of a serrated trailing edge on sound radiation from nearby quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahmoud; Croaker, Paul; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    A periodic boundary element technique is implemented to study the noise reduction capability of a plate with a serrated trailing edge under quadrupole excitation. It is assumed for this purpose that the quadrupole source tensor is independent of the trailing edge configuration and that the effect of the trailing edge shape is to modify sound radiation from prescribed boundary layer sources. The flat plate is modelled as a continuous structure with a finite repetition of small spanwise segments. The matrix equation formulated by the periodic boundary element method for this 3D acoustic scattering problem is represented as a block Toeplitz matrix. The discrete Fourier transform is employed in an iterative algorithm to solve the block Toeplitz system. The noise reduction mechanism for a serrated trailing edge in the near field is investigated by comparing contour plots obtained from each component of the quadrupole for unserrated and serrated trailing edge plate models. The noise reduction due to the serrated trailing edge is also examined as a function of the source location.

  17. Radiation and penetration matrix elements for magnetic quadrupole transitions between Nilsson states in odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feresin, A.P.; Guseva, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    Single-particle matrix elements for magnetic quadrupole gamma radiation in odd deformed nuclei, calculated with the aid of Nilsson-potential wave functions, are presented. Also given are the internal conversion penetration matrix elements, calculated in the same manner. The penetration matrix elements are needed to estimate the nuclear penetration parameter, which determines the deviation of experimental internal conversion coefficients from their standard values given in tables. Matrix elements are given for transitions between all pairs of Nilsson single-particle states with ΔN = 1 and ΔK = 0, 1, and 2 for the nuclear shells with 4< or =N< or =7 and for the two deformation values epsilon = 0.2 and 0.3

  18. A theoretical study on directivity control of multiple-loudspeaker system with a quadrupole radiation pattern in low frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwansyah, Kuse, Naoyuki; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Directivity pattern of an ordinary loudspeaker becomes more directive at higher frequencies. However, because a single loudspeaker tends to radiate uniformly in all directions at low frequencies, reverberation from surrounding building walls may affect speech intelligibility when installing a multiple-loudspeaker system at crossroads. As an alternative, a sharply directive sound source is recommended to be used, but in many cases the directivity of an ordinary loudspeaker is less sharp at lower frequencies. Therefore, in order to overcome such a limitation, this paper discusses the possibility of using four loudspeakers under active control to realize a quadrupole radiation pattern in low frequency range. In this study, the radiation pattern of a primary loudspeaker and three secondary loudspeakers has been modelled. By placing the loudspeakers close together in the direction of 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, it was theoretically demonstrated that a quadrupole radiation pattern can be shaped in the target frequency range up to 600 Hz by simply controlling the directivity in three of four directions which are 45°, 135°, 225°, and 315°. Although, the radiation pattern model is far from realistic configurations and conditions, it is possible to realize a quadrupole radiation pattern in the low frequency range.

  19. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for...

  20. The 1.5 post-Newtonian radiative quadrupole moment in the context of a nonlocal field theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkes, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We recently suggested a nonlocal modification of Einstein’s field equations in which Newton’s constant G was promoted to a covariant differential operator G_Λ(\\Box_g) . The latter contains two independent contributions which operate respectively in the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) energy regimes. In the light of the recent direct gravitational radiation measurements we aim to determine the UV-modified 1.5 post-Newtonian radiative quadrupole moment of a generic n-body system. We eventually use these preliminary results in the context of a binary system and observe that in the limit vanishing UV parameters we precisely recover the corresponding general relativistic results. Moreover we notice that the leading order deviation of the UV-modified radiative quadrupole moment numerically coincides with findings obtained in the framework of calculations performed previously in the context of the perihelion precession of Mercury.

  1. Mitigating radiation loads in Nb_{3}Sn quadrupoles for the CERN Large Hadron Collider upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mokhov

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Challenging beam-induced energy deposition issues are addressed for the next generation of the LHC high-luminosity interaction regions based on Nb_{3}Sn quadrupoles. Detailed mars15 Monte Carlo energy deposition calculations are performed for various coil diameters, thicknesses, and materials of the inner absorber at a field gradient of 200   T/m. It is shown that using the inner absorber made of tungsten-based materials can make the final focus superconducting quadrupoles compatible with a luminosity of 10^{35}   cm^{-2} s^{-1}.

  2. Radiative Decay Rates for Electric Dipole, Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Transitions in Triply Ionized Thulium (Tm IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnin Enzonga Yoca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of radiative decay parameters (oscillator strengths, transition probabilities for spectral lines in triply ionized thulium (Tm IV has been obtained within the framework of the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR approach. The effects of configuration interaction and core-polarization have been investigated in detail and the quality of the results has been assessed through a comparison between different HFR physical models. The spectroscopic data listed in the present paper cover electric dipole as well as magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in a wide range of wavelengths from extreme ultraviolet to near infrared.

  3. Adenovirus E2F1 Overexpression Sensitizes LNCaP and PC3 Prostate Tumor Cells to Radiation In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S.; Stoyanova, Radka; Hachem, Paul; Ahmed, Mansoor M.; Pollack, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that E2F1 overexpression radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells in vitro. Here, we demonstrate the radiosensitization efficacy of adenovirus (Ad)-E2F1 infection in growing (orthotopic) LNCaP and (subcutaneous) PC3 nude mice xenograft tumors. Methods and Materials: Ad-E2F1 was injected intratumorally in LNCaP (3 x 10 8 plaque-forming units [PFU]) and PC3 (5 x 10 8 PFU) tumors treated with or without radiation. LNCaP tumor volumes (TV) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, caliper were used to measure PC3 tumors, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and key proteins involved in cell death signaling were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: Intracellular overexpression of Ad-E2F1 had a significant effect on the regression of TV and reduction of PSA levels relative to that of adenoviral luciferase (Ad-Luc)-infected control. The in vivo regressing effect of Ad-E2F1 on LNCaP tumor growth was significant (PSA, 34 ng/ml; TV, 142 mm 3 ) compared to that of Ad-Luc control (PSA, 59 ng/ml; TV, 218 mm 3 ; p 3 to Ad-Luc+RT/PSA, 42 ng/ml, and TV, 174 mm 3 , respectively; p <0.05). For PC3 tumors, the greatest effect was observed with Ad-E2F1 infection alone; there was little or no effect when radiotherapy (RT) was combined. However, addition of RT enhanced the level of in situ apoptosis in PC3 tumors. Molecularly, addition of Ad-E2F1 in a combination treatment abrogated radiation-induced BCL-2 protein expression and was associated with an increase in activated BAX, and together they caused a potent radiosensitizing effect, irrespective of p53 and androgen receptor functional status. Conclusions: We show here for the first time that ectopic overexpression of E2F1 in vivo, using an adenoviral vector, significantly inhibits orthotopic p53 wild-type LNCaP tumors and subcutaneous

  4. Using nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance and electric field gradient information for the study of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, L.H.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) was used in an attempt to detect the effects of ionizing radiation on organic material. Previously reported resonances for urea were detected at 2,913.32 ± 0.01 kHz and 2,347.88 ± 0.08 kHz with associated T 2 * values 780 ± 20 micros and 523 ± 24 micros, respectively. The previously unreported ν - line for urea-d 4 was detected at 2,381 ± 0.04 Khz and used to determine accurately for the first time the values for the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant χ (3,548.74 ± 0.03 kHz) and the asymmetry parameter η (0.31571 ± 0.00007) for urea-d 4 . The inverse linewidth parameter T 2 * for ν + was measured at 928 ± 23 micros and for ν - at 721 ± 12 micros. Townes and Dailey analysis was performed and urea-d 4 exhibits a 0.004 increase in lone pair electronic density and a slight decrease in N-H bond electronic density, as compared to urea, probably due to the mass difference. A relationship is proposed, referred to as NQR linewidth analysis, between the dynamic spin relaxation times T 2 and T 2 * and the widths of the distributions of the NQR parameters. Linewidth analysis is presented as a tool for possible use in future NQR work in all area, not just radiation effects. This relationship is tested using sodium nitrite T 2 and T 2 * values for ν - and ν - as a function of temperature

  5. High energy proton induced radiation damage of rare earth permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, M.; Endres, M.; Löwe, K.; Lienig, T.; Deppert, O.; Lang, P. M.; Varentsov, D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2017-12-01

    Permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are an alternative to common electromagnetic quadrupoles especially for fixed rigidity beam transport scenarios at particle accelerators. Using those magnets for experimental setups can result in certain scenarios, in which a PMQ itself may be exposed to a large amount of primary and secondary particles with a broad energy spectrum, interacting with the magnetic material and affecting its magnetic properties. One specific scenario is proton microscopy, where a proton beam traverses an object and a collimator in which a part of the beam is scattered and deflected into PMQs used as part of a diagnostic system. During the commissioning of the PRIOR (Proton Microscope for Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) high energy proton microscope facility prototype at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in 2014, a significant reduction of the image quality was observed which was partially attributed to the demagnetization of the used PMQ lenses and the corresponding decrease of the field quality. In order to study this phenomenon, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out and spare units manufactured from the same magnetic material—single wedges and a fully assembled PMQ module—were deliberately irradiated by a 3.6 GeV intense proton beam. The performed investigations have shown that in proton radiography applications the above described scattering may result in a high irradiation dose in the PMQ magnets. This did not only decrease the overall magnetic strength of the PMQs but also caused a significant degradation of the field quality of an assembled PMQ module by increasing the parasitic multipole field harmonics which effectively makes PMQs impractical for proton radiography applications or similar scenarios.

  6. Evaluation of radiation tolerance of FETs used for Astro-E2 hard X-ray detector (HXD-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeshi; Niko, Hisako; Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Kawaharada, Madoka; Takahashi, Isao; Miyasaka, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the radiation tolerance of three types of metal-can MOS Field Effect Transistors (FETs). They are candidates for flight electronics of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD-II) experiment which is onboard the cosmic X-ray satellite Astro-E2 scheduled for launch in 2005. We irradiated FETs with a Co60γ-ray source under several different experimental conditions, and measured changes in their I-V characteristic curves. After a 10krad irradiation during which the gate voltage is set at 0V, all types showed a decrease in the switching voltage by ∼0.2-0.4V. In addition, the gate conductance increased under some irradiation conditions. These experimental results may be explained in terms of trapped charges and boundary levels in the oxide layer beneath the gate electrode. We have confirmed that at least two types of FETs can be used in our satellite-borne experiment, one as relay-driving FETs and the other in TTL-ECL conversion circuits

  7. Radiation-induced effects on the sensors of the Hydrostatic Leveling System for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dimovasili, E; Mainaud-Durand, H; Marin, A; Ossart, F; Wijnands, Thijs

    2005-01-01

    The dose rate dependence of the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) for the final focusing quadrupole magnets in the Large Hadron collider is discussed. At high dose rates, ionization of the air inside the sensors causes charge deposition and this perturbs the position measurement. A model is presented that corrects the HLS signal offset as a function of the dose rate. The model compares the HLS with condenser ionization chambers and in this note the results of the comparison are presented.

  8. An analytical method for estimating the 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters of organic compounds with complex free induction decays for radiation effects studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of 14 N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) as a radiation dosimetry tool has only recently been explored. An analytical method for analyzing 14 N NQR complex free induction decays is presented with the background necessary to conduct pulsed NQR experiments. The 14 N NQR energy levels and possible transitions are derived in step-by-step detail. The components of a pulsed NQR spectrometer are discussed along with the experimental techniques for conducting radiation effects experiments using the spectrometer. Three data analysis techniques -- the power spectral density Fourier transform, state space singular value decomposition (HSVD), and nonlinear curve fitting (using the downhill simplex method of global optimization and the Levenberg-Marquart method) -- are explained. These three techniques are integrated into an analytical method which uses these numerical techniques in this order to determine the physical NQR parameters. Sample data sets of urea and guanidine sulfate data are used to demonstrate how these methods can be employed to analyze both simple and complex free induction decays. By determining baseline values for biologically significant organics, radiation effects on the NQR parameters can be studied to provide a link between current radiation dosimetry techniques and the biological effects of radiation

  9. An analytical method for estimating the 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters of organic compounds with complex free induction decays for radiation effects studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iselin, Louis Henry [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The use of 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) as a radiation dosimetry tool has only recently been explored. An analytical method for analyzing 14N NQR complex free induction decays is presented with the background necessary to conduct pulsed NQR experiments. The 14N NQR energy levels and possible transitions are derived in step-by-step detail. The components of a pulsed NQR spectrometer are discussed along with the experimental techniques for conducting radiation effects experiments using the spectrometer. Three data analysis techniques -- the power spectral density Fourier transform, state space singular value decomposition (HSVD), and nonlinear curve fitting (using the downhill simplex method of global optimization and the Levenberg-Marquart method) -- are explained. These three techniques are integrated into an analytical method which uses these numerical techniques in this order to determine the physical NQR parameters. Sample data sets of urea and guanidine sulfate data are used to demonstrate how these methods can be employed to analyze both simple and complex free induction decays. By determining baseline values for biologically significant organics, radiation effects on the NQR parameters can be studied to provide a link between current radiation dosimetry techniques and the biological effects of radiation.

  10. 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 increases survival of murine intestinal stem cells when given before photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.R.; Thomas, C.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of prostaglandins (PG) protect the gastric and intestinal mucosa when given before damaging agents as absolute ethanol, acidified taurocholate, boiling water, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAI). A synthetic prostaglandin, 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 , shown to be cytoprotective at physiologic levels to the above agents was given to mice 1 h before or 15 min after 137 Cs gamma(γ) whole-body irradiation. The survival of intestinal stem cells measured by their ability to form in situ colonies of regenerating epithelium was increased stem cells measured by their ability to form in situ colonies of regenerating epithelium was increased when 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 was given before but not after 137 Cs γ irradiation. The maximum degree of 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 -induced radioprotection was seen when the drug was given 1 h before irradiation. No radioprotection was seen when the interval between drug and irradiation was 3 h or longer. When the time between 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 and irradiation was kept at 1 h, the degree of radioprotection was dependent on the PG drug dose. There was a steep rise in the number of surviving cells at low doses of PG. These results imply that tumors which secrete PGE 2 may in part be protected from the lethal effects of ionizing photon radiation

  11. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  12. Collective Quadrupole Excitations of Transactinide Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zajac, K; Pomorski, K; Rohozinski, S G; Srebrny, J

    2003-01-01

    The quadrupole excitations of transuranic nuclei are described in the frame of the microscopic Bohr Hamiltonian modified by adding the coupling with the collective pairing vibrations. The energies of the states from the ground-state bands in U to No even-even isotopes as well as the B(E2) transition probabilities are reproduced within the model containing no adjustable parameters.

  13. Centering of quadrupole family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinayev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for finding the individual centers for a family of quadrupoles fed with a single power supply is described. The method is generalized for using the correctors adjacent to the quadrupoles. Theoretical background is presented as well as experimental data for the NSLS rings. The method accuracy is also discussed

  14. Prediction of exotic deformations in the generalized differential equation model for B (E2)↑ and E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, R.C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-01-01

    The two physical quantities namely, the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B (E2)↑ for the transitions from the ground state to the first 2 + state and the corresponding excitation energy E2 of even-even nuclei play very decisive role in identifying occurrences of increased collectivity. The resulting quadrupole deformation parameters β 2 and the ratio of β 2 to the Weisskopf single-particle β 2 (sp) derived from them significantly help in this regard. Hence the study of these two physical quantities B (E2)↑ and E2 has been under constant investigation both by experimentalists and theorists. In this regard our recently developed differential equation model for B (E2)↑ and E2 can be exploited for possible existence of exotic deformations in the exotic regions of the nuclear chart

  15. Boson models of quadrupole collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelevinskij, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the low-lying excitations of even-even (e-e) spherical nuclei. The predominant role of the quadrupole mode, which determines the structure of spectra and transitions, is obvious on the background of shell periodicity and pair correlations. Typical E2-transitions are strengthened Ω ∼ A 2/3 times in comparison with single particle evaluations. Together with the regularity of the whole picture it gives evidence about collectivization of quadrupole motion. The collective states are combined in bands, where the transition probability are especially great; frequencies ω of the strengthened transitions are small in comparison with pair separation energies of 2 E-bar ∼ 2 MeV. Thus, the description of low-lying excitations of spherical nuclei has to be based on three principles: collectivity (Ω >> 1), adiabaticity (τ ≡ ω/2E-bar << 1) and quadrupole symmetry

  16. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  17. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. ... Bonn, investigated the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter, .... the details of which will be discussed in the subse- ... the radial plane the ion undergoes a circular motion with the.

  18. SPS Quadrupole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A stack of SPS Quadrupole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a total of 216 laminated normal conducting lattice quadrupoles with a length of 3.13 m for the core, 3.3 m overall. The F and D quads. have identical characteristics: inscribed circle radius 44 mm, core height and width 800 mm, maximum gradient 20 Tesla/m.

  19. Quadrupole moments of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1985-01-01

    In chiral bag model an expression is obtained for the quark wave functions with account of color and pion interaction of quarks. The quadrupole moments of nonstrange hadrons are calculated. Quadrupole moment of nucleon isobar is found to be Q(Δ)=-6.3x10 -28 esub(Δ)(cm)sup(2). Fredictions of the chiral bag model are in strong disagreement with the non-relativistic quark model

  20. Quadrupole collective excitations in rapidly rotating nuclej

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrum of collective quadrupole excitations in nuclei is investigated. The average nucleus field has the axial symmetry and rotation occurs relatively to this axis. Dependences of the spectrum of quadrupole oscillations on rotation rate for classic liquid drop (CLD) and for a drop of fermi-liquid (DFL) with fissionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) are presented. The dependence of probabilities of E2-transitions between single-phonon and phonon-free states on rotation rate for CLD and DFL with fussionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) is also presented. It is shown that for CLD collective E2-transition of states of yrast-consequence is absolutely forbidden. For DFL transitions are possible that lead to decay of phonon-free state with the excitation of phonons of γ-modes and decrease of angular momentum

  1. Experimental study of the E2 strength distribution in the 12C and 16O nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; California Univ., Berkeley; Gelbke, C.K.; Hendrie, D.L.; Mahoney, J.; Olmer, C.; Scott, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of the E2 strength in 12 C and 16 O nuclei is investigated by inelastic scattering of 3 He. The giant quadrupole resonance is found to be splitted into several states in both nuclei and exhausts 31% and 37% of the quadrupole energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) in 12 C and 16 O respectively

  2. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime

  3. Torques on quadrupoles

    OpenAIRE

    Torres del Castillo, G.F; Méndez Garrido, A

    2006-01-01

    Making use of the fact that a 2l-pole can be represented by means of l vectors of the same magnitude, the torque on a quadrupole in an inhomogeneous external field is expressed in terms of the vectors that represent the quadrupole and the gradient of the external field. The conditions for rotational equilibrium are also expressed in terms of these vectors. Haciendo uso de que un multipolo de orden 2l puede representarse mediante l vectores de la misma magnitud, la torca sobre un cuadripolo...

  4. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  5. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  6. Rf quadrupole beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Stovall, J.E.; Swenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to analyze the beam dynamics of the radiofrequency quadrupole accelerating structure. Calculations show that this structure can accept a dc beam at low velocity, bunch it with high capture efficiency, and accelerate it to a velocity suitable for injection into a drift tube linac

  7. ISR "Terwilliger" Quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 48 of these Quadrupoles in the ISR. They were distributed around the rings according to the so-called Terwilliger scheme. Their aperture was 184 mm, their core length 300 mm, their gradient 5 T/m. Due to their small length as compared to the aperture, the end fringe field errors had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles.

  8. Semimicroscopic description of the giant quadrupole resonances in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurchev, G.; Malov, L.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The calculation results of the giant quadrupole isoscalar and isovector resonances performed within the random phase approximation are represented. The strength functions for E2-transitions are calculated for doubly even deformed nuclei in the regions 150 (<=) A < 190 and 228 (<=) A < 248 in the energy interval (0-40) MeV. The following integral characteristics of giant quadrupole resonances are obtained: the position, widths, the contribution to the energy weighted sum rule and the contribution to the total cross section of photoabsorption. The calculations have shown that giant quadrupole resonances are common for all the considered nuclei. The calculated characteristics of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance agree with the available experimental data. The calculations also show that the semimicroscopic theory can be successfully applied for the description of giant multipole resonances

  9. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  10. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)

  11. Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described

  12. Measurements of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, J.L.; Fourie, D.T.; Cornell, J.C.; Lloyd, G.C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements carried out on quadrupole magnets using a long asymmetric rotating coil are described. Although the method itself is fairly well-known, the introduction of microprocessors has made this once-tedious technique into a useful and simple method of evaluating quadrupole magnets. The rotating-coil device and a variety of coil sizes are now commercially available. The coil contains a large number of extremely fine wires, embedded in a carefully balanced fibre-glass rotor, resulting in a reasonable induced voltage when the coil is rotated. A digital harmonic analyser is then used to obtain the integrated multipole content of the waveform, while the coil is rotating. By integrating over time, one can average out random noise and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Because the harmonic analysis is done in real time, the method is quick, easy and accurate, and has been extended to locate the precise magnetic centre of the quadrupole magnet by adjusting its position relative to the coil axis so as to minimize the dipole content of the output waveform. Results of these measurements are compared with those obtained with an optical method using a suspension of magnetite. The observed light pattern is explained analytically. (author)

  13. Quenching of spin-flip quadrupole transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, B.; Blunden, P.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An increasing amount of experimental data indicates that spin-flip quadrupole transitions exhibit quenching effects similar to those reported earlier in (p,n) reactions involving l = 0 and l = 1 transitions. We present here two model calculations suggesting that the E2 spin-flip transitions are more affected than their M1 and M3 counterparts by the tensor and spin-orbit components of the nuclear force and should exhibit the largest quenching. We also review the experimental evidence corroborating our observations

  14. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  15. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  16. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2016-04-14

    This report presents the reference design of MQXFS1, the first 1.5 m prototype of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. The MQXF quadrupoles have 150 mm aperture, coil peak field of about 12 T, and use $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductor. The design is based on the LARP HQ quadrupoles, which had 120 mm aperture. MQXFS1 has 1st generation cable cross-section and magnetic design.

  17. (e,2e) Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-01-01

    We present a detailed treatment of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the symmetric (e,2e) reaction in atoms, molecules and solids. Two experimental arrangements are described for measuring angular correlations and separation energy spectra, the one arrangement employing coplanar and the other noncoplanar symmetric kinematics. The latter arrangement is shown to be particularly suitable for extracting structure information. The basic approximation, the factorized distorted-wave off-shell impulse approximation with fully distorted waves, is shown to correctly describe the reaction in some test cases, as does the phase distortion approximation. At energies of the order of 1200 eV the simple eikonal and plane wave approximations adequately describe the valence shell cross sections for light atoms and molecules containing first row elements. Energy independent structure information is obtained on: (a) shapes and magnitudes of the square of the momentum space wave functions for individual electron orbitals; (b) separation energies for individual ion eigenstates; (c) the characteristic orbital of each state; and (d) spectroscopic factors describing the probability that an eigenstate contains the principal configuration of a hole in the characteristic orbital for each eigenstate. Comparison is made with photoelectron spectroscopy and Compton scattering, since they separately yield some of the information obtained by the (e,2e) method. A brief summary is given of other electron-electron coincidence experiments. (author)

  18. The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civitarese, O.; Furui, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Faessler, A.

    1983-01-01

    The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited, fast rotating nuclei is studied as a function of both the nuclear temperature and the nuclear angular momentum. The photo-absorption cross sections for quadrupole radiation in 156 Dy, 160 Er and 164 Er are evaluated within the linear response theory. The strength functions of the γ-ray spectrum obtained from the decay of highly excited nuclear states by deexcitation of the isoscalar quadrupole mode show a fine structure, which depends on the temperature T, the angular momentum I and the deformation of the nucleus β. The splitting of the modes associated with the signature-conserving and signature-changing components of the quadrupole field is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.-D.

    1996-05-01

    As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole, and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors, and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model

  20. Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. CLIC Quadrupole Module final report

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.

  2. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  3. Global set of quadrupole deformation parameters for even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental results has been completed for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability [B(E2)up arrow] between the 0 + ground state and the first 2 + state in even-even nuclei. This compilation together with certain simple relationships noted by other authors can be used to make reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2)up arrow values. The quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 immediately follows, because β 2 is proportional to [B(E2)up arrow]/sup 1/2/. 8 refs., 7 figs

  4. Static quadrupole moment of the first excited state of 24Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, M.P.; Hinds, S.; Kean, D.C.; Zabel, T.H.

    1979-01-01

    The static quadrupole moment Qsub(2+) and the B(E2;0 + → 2 + ) value for the first excited state of 24 Mg have been determined using the reorientation effect in Coulomb excitation. Surface barrier detectors at 90 0 and 172 0 were used to detect 24 Mg ions scattered from 208 Pb. It is found that Qsub(2+) = -18.1 +- 1.3 e.fm 2 , suggesting that, contrary to most previous experimental evidence, the quadrupole moment is in agreement with theoretical predictions. For B(E2;0 + → 2 + ) the value 443 +- 24 e 2 . fm 4 was obtained

  5. Quadrupole magnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following connection of windings of electromagnet is suggested for simplification of the design of qUadrupole magnetic lens intended for use in radiotechnical and electron-optical devices. The mentioned windings are connected with each other by a bridge scheme and the variable resistors are switched in its diagonals in the lens containing four electromagnet with windings connected with two variable resistors the mobile contacts of which are connected with a direct current source. Current redistribution between left windings and right windings takes place at shift of mobile contact of variable resistor, and current redistribution between upper and low coils of electromagnets takes place at shifting mobile contact of the other variable resistor. In this case smooth and independent electron-optical misalignment of lens by two mutually perpendicular directions proceeds. Use of the given design of the lens in the oscillograph permits to use printing assembly for alignment plate and to reduce the number of connections at the expense of decreasing the number of resistors

  6. Experimental investigation of quadrupole virtual photon spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, P.

    1986-01-01

    To test experimentally the quadrupole virtual photon spectrum calculation, the (e,α) excitation function of an isolated 2 + level at 20.14 MeV in 24 Mg was measured. The most recent calculations in DWBA, including nuclear size effects, are compared to this experimental curve. The differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩdE was measured 48 0 , 90 0 , 132 0 in the laboratory system, for total electron energies of 20.0, 20.8, 21.5, 24.0, 26.0, 28.0, 30.0, 32.0, 36.0, and 40.0 MeV. The reduced matrix element B(E2) of the 20,14 MeV level is extracted as a secondary product of this work. (author) [pt

  7. Gauge invariant perturbation theory prediction of the sensitivity required for experimental measurement of quadrupole and higher moments of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature variation of the cosmic microwave background radiation is computed in a spherical harmonic expansion for a 4 million term sum of perturbations. Each term has a different direction and a randomly chosen phase. The spherical harmonics are evaluated for values of the index l from 1 through 9. The computation was done by starting with the model for gauge invariant cosmological perturbations composed by James M. Bardeen (1980). This model does linear perturbation theory against a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker general relativistic cosmological model. The Bardeen model was recomputed for a cosmological-time metric then solved for zero curvature and zero cosmological constant in the background for radiation and dust equations of state. Instantaneous decoupling was assumed. The model was solved for zero curvature, cosmological constant, and pressure in perturbation order. These solutions were used to compute the redshift equation, and then the temperature variation equation. The integral over the null geodesic (photon) path can be evaluated analytically under the zero curvature cosmological constant, and pressure assumption. Analytic equations are obtained for the temperature variation caused by an isothermal or adiabatic perturbation of a single mode (amplitude, wavelength, phase, and direction)

  8. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in the Br-like ions Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, Francis P.

    2015-01-01

    Energies and lifetimes are reported for the lowest 375 levels of five Br-like ions, namely Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII, mostly belonging to the 4s 2 4p 5 , 4s 2 4p 4 4ℓ, 4s4p 6 , 4s 2 4p 4 5ℓ, 4s 2 4p 3 4d 2 , 4s4p 5 4ℓ, and 4s4p 5 5ℓ configurations. Extensive configuration interaction has been included and the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP) has been adopted for the calculations. Additionally, radiative rates are listed among these levels for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions. From a comparison with the measurements, the majority of our energy levels are assessed to be accurate to better than 2%, although discrepancies between theory and experiment for a few are up to 6%. An accuracy assessment of the calculated radiative rates (and lifetimes) is more difficult, because no prior results exist for these ions

  9. Development of LHC-IR model quadrupoles in the US

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G

    2007-01-01

    Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to achieve the luminosity upgrade goal of 1035 cm-2 s-1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2004, the US Department of Energy established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to develop a technology base for the upgrade. The focus of the magnet program, which is a collaboration of three US laboratories, BNL, FNAL and LBNL, is on development of high gradient quadrupoles using Nb$_{3}$Sn in order to operate at high field and with sufficient temperature margin. Other program components address issues regarding magnet design, radiation-hard materials, long magnet scale-up, quench protection, fabrication techniques and conductor and cable R&D. This paper reports on the development od model quadrupoles and outlines the long-term goals of the program.

  10. Dipole and electric quadrupole excitations in 40,48Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, T.; Enders, J.; Mohr, P.; Vogt, K.; Volz, S.; Zilges, A.

    2001-11-01

    Photon scattering experiments have been performed to investigate the structure of the two doubly magic nuclei 40,48 Ca. The method is highly selective to induce low-order multipole transitions i.e., E1, M1, and E2 from the ground state. We determined the energies and spins of excited states and the absolute strengths of the γ-decays in a model independent way. We find the summed electric dipole strengths below 10 MeV to exhaust the energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) by 0.023% and 0.27%, respectively. The summed electric quadrupole strengths are Σ B(E2) ↑ = 332 e 2 fm 4 and 407 e 2 fm 4 for 40 Ca and 48 Ca, respectively. In order to explain the difference in the E1 strengths of the two isotopes several theoretical models are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Electromagnetic design of superconducting quadrupoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rossi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We study how the critical gradient depends on the coil layout in a superconducting quadrupole for particle accelerators. We show that the results relative to a simple sector coil are well representative of the coil layouts that have been used to build several quadrupoles in the past 30 years. Using a semianalytical approach, we derive a formula that gives the critical gradient as a function of the coil cross-sectional area, of the magnet aperture, and of the superconducting cable parameters. This formula is used to evaluate the efficiency of several types of coil layouts (shell, racetrack, block, open midplane.

  12. LHC interaction region quadrupole cryostat design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.; Darve, Ch.; Huang, Y.; Page, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    The cryostat of a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Region (IR) quadrupole magnet consists of all components of the inner triplet except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, to house all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be able to be manufactured at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course of their expected operating lifetime. This paper describes the current LHC IR inner triplet quadrupole magnet cryostats being designed and manufactured at Fermilab as part of the US-LHC collaboration, and includes discussions on the structural and thermal considerations involved in the development of each of the major systems

  13. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions (Kr XXXII XXVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Lawson, K. D.

    2008-05-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions, Kr XXXIII-XXVIII. For the calculations, the fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Kr XXXII, Kr XXXI, Kr XXX, Kr XXIX, and Kr XXVIII, respectively, belonging to the n ⩽ 3 configurations. Comparisons are made with earlier available theoretical and experimental results, and some discrepancies have been noted and explained.

  14. Quadrupole formula for Kaluza-Klein modes in the braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Kudoh, Hideaki; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The quadrupole formula in four-dimensional Einstein gravity is a useful tool to describe gravitational wave radiation. We derive the quadrupole formula for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model. The quadrupole formula provides a transparent representation of the exterior weak gravitational field induced by localized sources. We find that a general isolated dynamical source gives rise to the 1/r 2 correction to the leading 1/r gravitational field. We apply the formula to an evaluation of the effective energy carried by the KK modes from the viewpoint of an observer on the brane. Contrary to the ordinary gravitational waves (zero mode), the flux of the induced KK modes by the non-spherical part of the quadrupole moment vanishes at infinity and only the spherical part contributes to the flux. Since the effect of the KK modes appears in the linear order of the metric perturbations, the effective energy flux observed on the brane is not always positive, but can become negative depending on the motion of the localized sources

  15. Nuclear quadrupole resonance of arsenolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarazo, R.

    1988-01-01

    A pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) spectrometer was constructed using imported Matec units. Peripherical components were specially assembled and tested for the implantation of the spin-echo technique in the Laboratorio de Centros de Cor of IFUSP. The R.F. operation range is from 50 to 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times were carried out at room temperature in arsenolite. The 75 As NQR frequency measured at room temperature is 116.223 MHz. (author) [pt

  16. Measurement of isovector giant quadrupole resonance in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, D.A.; Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.; Adler, J.O.; Andersson, B.E.; Hansen, K.; Issaksson, L.; Nilsson, B.; Ruijter, H.; Schroeder, B.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Crawford, G.I.; Miller, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The 40 Ca(γ,n) reaction was measured using tagged photons in the energy range 25-50 MeV. Neutrons were detected using two 9-element, liquid scintillator, neutron detectors placed at angles of 55 deg and 125 deg at flight path of 3.2 m. The absolute cross section was determined relative to that for D (γ,n)p, which was measured using a heavy water target. The forward/backward asymmetry in the 40 Ca (γ, n) cross section, resulting from E1/E2 interference has been used to locate and parametrize the isovector giant quadrupole resonance (IVQR). 6 refs., 2 figs

  17. Quadrupole collectivity in {sup 128}Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenig, Esther Sabine

    2014-07-07

    The regions around shell closures, especially around doubly magic nuclei, are of major interest in nuclear structure physics, as they provide a perfect test for nuclear structure theory. The neutron-rich Cd isotopes in the region of {sup 132}Sn are only two protons away from the shell closure at Z=50 and in close proximity to the N=82 magic number. Nevertheless they show an irregular behaviour regarding the excitation energy of the first excited 2{sup +} state. This is not reproduced by shell model calculations, which is astonishing due to the proximity of the shell closures. In order to shed light on the much discussed region around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn, a Coulomb excitation experiment of {sup 128}Cd has been performed at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The reduced transition strength B(E2;0{sup +}{sub gs} → 2{sup +}{sub 1}), which is a measure of collectivity, and the spectroscopic quadrupole moment Q{sub s}(2{sup +}{sub 1}) as a measure of deformation could be determined for the first time. The results are shown as the continuation of already measured neutron-rich Cd isotopes and are compared to both beyond mean field and shell model calculations, which give different predictions for these observables.

  18. Design of an electrostatic magnetic quadrupole accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of electrostatic acceleration system, electrostatic magnetic quadrupole (ESMQ) acceleration system, is proposed for efficient acceleration of negative ion beams. In this system, permanent magnets are buried in the acceleration electrodes so as to produce a quadrupole magnetic field in the electrode aperture region. Envelope simulation indicates that the quadrupole field can deflect electrons stripped from the negative ions. Beam envelope simulations for deuterium ions and electrons have been carried out using the beam envelope code TRACE. Electrons are largely divergent and most appear likely to hit downstream electrodes. Furthermore, maximum beam divergence of the deuterium ions is reduced to the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnetic field

  19. Nuclear quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in the inelastic scattering of aligned deuterons from deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, H.; Frick, R.; Graw, G.; Schiemenz, P.; Seichert, N.

    1983-01-01

    The 2 1 + -excitation of deformed nuclei by tensor polarized deuterons provides an alignment of both nuclei and thus a means to study specifically the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between both nuclei. The tensor analyzing power Asub(xz)(theta) has been measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering on 24 Mg and 28 Si. The coupled channel analysis including a deformed tensor potential reveals a clear signature of the quadrupole-quadrupole part of the nuclear projectile-target interaction. (orig.)

  20. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Chlachidize, G; Cooley, L D; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hafalia, R; Holik, E F; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Juchno, M; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Muratore, J; Nobrega, F; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G L; Santini, C; Schmalzle, J; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Vallone, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  1. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Anerella, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bossert, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cavanna, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cheng, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chlachidize, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Cooley, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dietderich, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Felice, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ferracin, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ghosh, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hafalia, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holik, E. F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bermudez, S. Izquierdo [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Juchno, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Krave, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchevsky, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muratore, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nobrega, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perez, J. C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pong, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prestemon, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ravaioli, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sabbi, G. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Santini, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schmalzle, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stoynev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Strauss, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vallone, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-07-16

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  2. Simulation of a quadrupole resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleindienst, Raphael [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Modern particle accelerators often rely on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology for accelerating cavities. In particular in CW operation, very high quality factors up into the high range are desirable, since one of the main cost drivers of such an accelerator, the cryogenic refrigeration plant, is inversely proportional to Q{sub 0}. Present day superconducting cavities are generally made of solid Niobium. A possibility to increase the quality factor as well as accelerating fields is to use thin film coated cavities. Apart from Niobium thin films, other superconducting materials, such as MgB{sub 2}, NbN and Nb{sub 3}Sn are promising candidates. Measuring and understanding the RF-properties of superconducting thin films, specifically the surface resistance, is needed to drive forward this development. Currently only few facilities exist capable of measuring the surface resistance of thin films samples with a resolution in the nano-ohm range at the operating frequency of typical cavities(e.g. L-band). A dedicated test stand consisting of a quadrupole resonator is therefore being constructed at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin. This system is based on the 400 MHz quadrupole resonator at CERN, with the design adapted to 433 MHz (making available the higher harmonic mode at 1.3 GHz) and optimized with respect to resolution and maximum achievable fields using simulation data obtained with CST Microwave Studio as well as ANSYS. The simulated design is being manufactured. An outlook for future physics runs is given.

  3. Experimental study of muonic x-ray transitions in mercury isotopes. [Fermi distribution, B(E2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A.A.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Zehnder, A.; Rushton, A.M.; Welsh, R.E.; Kunselman, A.R.; Roberson, P.; Walter, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Muonic x-ray spectra were measured for /sup 198/ /sup 199/ /sup 200/ /sup 201/ /sup 202/ and /sup 204/Hg. These data were interpreted in terms of a two parameter Fermi distribution for the charge density. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments (Q/sub s/) of some of the 2/sup +/ nuclear states were inferred. For /sup 199/Hg the spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the first two excited states and the B(E2)'s connecting these states to the ground state were determined. For /sup 201/Hg the ground state quadrupole moment was obtained as well as several other E2 moments but the interpretation of the data was hampered by a possible incomplete knowledge of the nuclear scheme of this nucleus. The muonic isotope shifts were measured and interpreted in terms of deltaR/sub k/ and are compared to electronic x-ray and optical isotope shift measurements. 41 references

  4. Electrostatic quadrupoles for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.; Faltens, A.

    1993-05-01

    Voltage-holding data for three quadrupole electrode sizes and inter-electrode spacings are reported. The dependence of the breakdown voltage on system size and its influence on the optimum quadrupole size for beam transport in a multiple beam array are discussed

  5. A strong focussing cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yaochang

    1986-01-01

    The construction and performance of small cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole, which is installed in JM-400 pulse electrostatic accelerator, are described. This electrostatic quadrupole is not only used in neutron generator, but also suitable for ion injector as well as for low energy electron accelerator

  6. Probing the E2 properties of the scissors mode with real photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1+ sc → 2+ 1 γ-ray transition of 156Gd and 164Dy has been measured using the linearly polarized photon beams of the HIγS facility. The employed method of photonscattering experiments in combination with polarized, quasi-monochromatic beams and a dedicated detector setup is highly sensitive to the electric quadrupole-decay properties of the scissors mode.

  7. Probing the E2 properties of the scissors mode with real photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tobias; Pietralla, Norbert; Beller, Jacob; Derya, Vera; Löher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz; Tornow, Werner; Werner, Volker; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1+ sc → 2+ 1 γ-ray transition of 156Gd and 164Dy has been measured using the linearly polarized photon beams of the HIγS facility. The employed method of photonscattering experiments in combination with polarized, quasi-monochromatic beams and a dedicated detector setup is highly sensitive to the electric quadrupole-decay properties of the scissors mode.

  8. M1-E2 mixing ratios and B(E2) values for transitions in 131Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Sai, K.; Deepa, S.; Ashish, T.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Madhusudan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracies of M1-E2 mixing ratios calculated from the experimental conversion coefficients α i depend upon the accuracy with which the conversion coefficients are determined and also on the accuracy of the theoretical values. Recently a new calculation of ICCs by Band et al, BRICC has been published. The calculations are based on the relativistic DF method in which the exchange interactions between bound electrons and free electrons receding to infinity during the conversion process are treated exactly. Gerl et al showed that BRICC values are more closer to experimental values when compared to earlier theoretical values of Hager and Seltzer and Rosel. The availability of the BRICC values is expected to increase the accuracy with which the estimated quadrupole contents can be obtained

  9. Prostaglandin E2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yingying; Zhou Daohong; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a bioactive lipid molecule produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays an important role on hematopoiesis. While it can block differentiation of myeloid progenitors but enhance proliferation of erythroid progenitors. Recent research found that PGE2 have the effects on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and these effects were independent from effects on progenitor cells. Exposure of HSC cells to PGE2 in vitro can increase homing efficiency of HSC to the murine bone marrow compartment and decrease HSC apoptosis, meanwhile increase long-term stem cell engraftment. In-vivo treatment with PGE2 expands short-term HSC and engraftment in murine bone marrow but not long-term HSC.In addition, PGE2 increases HSC survival after radiation injury and enhance hematopoietic recovery, resulting maintains hematopoietic homeostasis. PGE2 regulates HSC homeostasis by reactive oxygen species and Wnt pathway. Clinical beneficial of 16, 16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 treatment to enhance engraftment of umbilical cord blood suggest important improvements to therapeutic strategies. (authors)

  10. Quadrupole interaction in zinc metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterling, W.T.; Pound, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    To allow measurement of the quadrupole interaction in zinc metal, the enriched ZnO was reduced to zinc metal powder and compressed into a pill of thickness 1.4 gm/cm 2 . Sources were made by diffusing 20 mCi of 67 Ga into sintered copper pills. The transducer was based on a cylinder of PZT-4 with 1 / 2 -inch length and could cover linearly a velocity range of +-100 μ/s at 200 Hz. The multiscalar was a modified Northern model NS600, with a minimum dwell time of 20 μs, and with a 10-count buffer at the input to eliminate deadtime from memory cycling

  11. Remote alignment of Low beta quadrupoles with micrometric resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, M; Herty, A; Mainaud-Durand, H; Marin, A; Quesnel, J P

    2008-01-01

    Considering their location in a high radiation environment and the alignment tolerancesrequested, the low beta quadrupoles of LHC will be positioned remotely (controlling 5 degrees of freedom), with a displacement resolution of few microns in horizontal and vertical. Stepping motor gearbox assemblies are plugged into the jacks which support the cryomagnets in order to move them to the desired position regarding the quality of the beam collisions in the detectors. This displacement will be monitored in real time by the sensors located on the magnets. This paper describes the positioning strategy implemented as well as the software tools used to manage it.

  12. Eight piece quadrupole magnet, method for aligning quadrupole magent pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaski, Mark S.; Liu, Jie; Donnelly, Aric T.; Downey, Joshua S.; Nudell, Jeremy J.; Jain, Animesh

    2018-01-30

    The invention provides an alternative to the standard 2-piece or 4-piece quadrupole. For example, an 8-piece and a 10-piece quadrupole are provided whereby the tips of each pole may be adjustable. Also provided is a method for producing a quadrupole using standard machining techniques but which results in a final tolerance accuracy of the resulting construct which is better than that obtained using standard machining techniques.

  13. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  14. Nuclei quadrupole coupling constants in diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.; Rebane, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    An approximate relationship between the constants of quadrupole interaction of nuclei in a two-atom molecule is found. It enabled to establish proportionality of oscillatory-rotation corrections to these constants for both nuclei in the molecule. Similar results were obtained for the factors of electrical dipole-quadrupole screening of nuclei. Applicability of these relationships is proven by the example of lithium deuteride molecule. 4 refs., 1 tab

  15. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 first. Shims and washers on the wide quadrupoles (QFW, QDW; located in the lattice where dispersion was large) served mostly for corrections of those lattice parameters which were a function of momentum. After mounting shims and washers, the quadrupoles were measured to determine their magnetic centre and to catalogue the effect of washer constellations. Raymond Brown is busy measuring a wide quad.

  16. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs

  17. Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ramalho, M.T. Pena

    2011-03-01

    The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our prediction is Q_Omega= (0.96 +/- 0.02)*10^(-2) efm2 [GE2(0)=0.680 +/- 0.012].

  18. The quadrupole moment of the first 3- state in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joye, A.M.R.; Baxter, A.M.; Fewell, M.P.; Kean, D.C.; Spear, R.H.

    1977-04-01

    The B(E3; 0 + →3 - ) and quadrupole moment, Qsub(3 - ), of the first excited state of 208 Pb have been measured by the reorientation effect in Coulomb excitation, giving B(E3; 0 + →3 - ) = 0.665 +- E 2 B 3 and Qsub(3 - ) = -0.42 +- 0.32 EB. This value for Qsub(3 - ) is much smaller in magnitude than those obtained by Barnett et al., and is consistent with most theoretical predictions. (Author)

  19. Quadrupole deformed and octupole collective bands in 228Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulda, K.; Aas, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Spins and parities for collective states in 228 Ra have been determined from conversion electron measurements with a mini-orange β spectrometer. The fast-timing βγγ(t) method has been used to measure lifetimes of T 1/2 =550(20) ps and 181(3) ps for the 2 + 1 and 4 + 1 members of the K=0 + band, and T 1/2 ≤7 ps and ≤6 ps for the 1 - 1 and 3 - 1 members of the K=0 - band, respectively. The quadrupole moments, Q 0 , deduced from the B(E2; 2 + 1 →0 + 1 ) and B(E2; 4 + 1 →2 + 1 ) rates are in good agreement with the previously measured value and the systematics of the region. However, the B(E1) rates of ≥4 x 10 -4 e 2 fm 2 , which represent the first B(E1) measurements for this nucleus, are at least 25 times larger than the value previously suggested for 228 Ra. The new results are consistent with the B(E1) rates recently measured for the neighbouring 227 Ra and reveal octupole correlations in 228 Ra. (orig.)

  20. A map of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), showing the large-scale fluctuations (the quadrupole and octopole) isolated by an analysis done partly by theorists at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A recent analysis, in part by theorists working at CERN, suggests a new view of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It seems the solar system, rather than the universe, causes the radiation's large-scale fluctuations, similar to the bass in a song.

  1. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Meinke Carl Goodzeit Penny Ball Roger Bangerter

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of loW--cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet RandD construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  2. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Meinke

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  3. Quadrupole moments measured by nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchta, H.

    1985-01-01

    Quadrupole interactions between the nuclei and solids have been studied with the low temperature nuclear orientation technique. The first series of measurements have been effected on the orientation of 195H g m and 197 Hg m , long lived daughter states in the 195 Au and 197 Au decay. The lifetimes of these states are of the same order as the spin-lattice relaxation time. The reorientation of the intermediate states has been taken into account extending the dipole relaxation mechanism to non-equidistant relaxing substates. The experimental nuclear quadrupole moments, thus deduced are slightly different from theoretical estimations. A new high precision method accessible to levels with 100 ns to 1 m lifetimes, the level mixing resonance on oriented nuclei (LMR/ON) has been elaborated in collaboration with LEUVEN university (Belgium). In this technique the nucleus is subject to a non colinear electric plus magnetic combined interaction. The quadrupole interaction of Ag[7/2, = 40 s] isomer with the electric field gradient in zinc has been established to better than 1% observing its level mixing resonances; and also the ratio of electric field gradients of silver in zinc to cadmium. The electric quadrupole moments of 106 Ag m , 107 Ag m and 109 Ag m have been established combining the level mixing resonances with classical low temperature quadrupole alignment measurements. The experimental values are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on a semi-microscopical model using Yukawa potential [fr

  4. Magnetic Measurement Results of the LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott; Caban, Keith; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reese, Ed; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    This note details the magnetic measurements and the magnetic center fiducializations that were performed on all of the thirty-six LCLS undulator quadrupoles. Temperature rise, standardization reproducibility, vacuum chamber effects and magnetic center reproducibility measurements are also presented. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator beam line has 33 girders, each with a LCLS undulator quadrupole which focuses and steers the beam through the beam line. Each quadrupole has main quadrupole coils, as well as separate horizontal and vertical trim coils. Thirty-six quadrupoles, thirty-three installed and three spares were, manufactured for the LCLS undulator system and all were measured to confirm that they met requirement specifications for integrated gradient, harmonics and for magnetic center shifts after current changes. The horizontal and vertical dipole trims of each quadrupole were similarly characterized. Each quadrupole was also fiducialized to its magnetic center. All characterizing measurements on the undulator quads were performed with their mirror plates on and after a standardization of three cycles from -6 to +6 to -6 amps. Since the undulator quadrupoles could be used as a focusing or defocusing magnet depending on their location, all quadrupoles were characterized as focusing and as defocusing quadrupoles. A subset of the undulator quadrupoles were used to verify that the undulator quadrupole design met specifications for temperature rise, standardization reproducibility and magnetic center reproducibility after splitting. The effects of the mirror plates on the undulator quadrupoles were also measured.

  5. Antiproton-nucleus interaction and nuclear E2 resonance effect in molybdenum and neodymium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanert, W.

    1986-01-01

    Antiprotonix X-radiation from 92 Mo, 94 Mo, 95 Mo, 98 Mo, 100 Mo and 146 Nd, 148 Nd was measured with Ge detectors at the LEAR (CERN). The nuclear E2 resonance effect (configuration mixing by dynamic electric quadrupole interaction) was for the first time observed in antiprotonic atoms. It effects in 94 Mo, 95 Mo, and 98 Mo a mixing of the atomic levels (7,6) and (5,4). From the resulting weakening of the antiprotonic X-ray line (7→6) in comparison with the nonresonant isotope 92 Mo information on the effects of the strong interaction in the (5,4) level was obtained which is in Mo not directly observable. The absorption widths by strong interactions in the level (6,5) resulted for 92 Mo, 94 Mo, 95 Mo, and 98 Mo to 1.4±0.3 keV, 2.3±0.9 keV, 1.9±0.4 keV, and 2.3±0.7 keV, the energy shifts by strong interactions to 0.46±0.08 keV, 0.64±0.22 keV, 0.74±0.12 keV, and 0.55±0.16 keV. In the nonresonant isotope 92 Mo the absorption width of the level (7,6) to 19.5±1.2 eV. A fit of the effective scattering length to the data for 92 Mo resulted anti a = (0.25+3.05i) fm. In 100 Mo the predicted case of strong coupling could be experimentally established by the nearly complete extinction of the line (8→7) and the broadening of the line (9→8). In 148 Nd the nuclear E2 resonance effect effects a mixing of the levels (9,8) and (8,6) and by this a reduction of the line (9→8) in comparison to 146 Nd. For this isotope information on the effects of the strong interaction could be extracted separately for the fine structure components. (orig.) [de

  6. Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.

  7. SKEW QUADRUPOLE FOCUSING LATTICES AND APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we revisit using skew quadrupole fields in place of traditional normal upright quadrupole fields to make beam focusing structures. We illustrate by example skew lattice decoupling, dispersion suppression and chromatic correction using the neutrino factory Study-II muon storage ring design. Ongoing BNL investigation of flat coil magnet structures that allow building a very compact muon storage ring arc and other flat coil configurations that might bring significant magnet cost reduction to a VLHC motivate our study of skew focusing

  8. Ion-storage in radiofrequency electric quadrupole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, V.

    1976-01-01

    The confinement of charged particles in a quadrupole radiofrequency electric field are presented. The stability diagrams and phase space trajectories for the quadrupole mass spectrometer and for the ion trap are represented and their main characteristics are discussed. (author)

  9. Loop 7 of E2 enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaleo, Elena; Casiraghi, Nicola; Arrigoni, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin (Ub) system controls almost every aspect of eukaryotic cell biology. Protein ubiquitination depends on the sequential action of three classes of enzymes (E1, E2 and E3). E2 Ub-conjugating enzymes have a central role in the ubiquitination pathway, interacting with both E1 and E3...

  10. Irradiation And Papillomavirus E2 Proteins On Hela Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrafi, B.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to relatively high doses ionizing radiation activates cellular responses that impair cell survival. These responses, for which the p53 protein plays a central role, form the basis for cancer radiotherapy. However, the efficacy of radiation treatments on cell killing is often reduced as a consequence of the frequent inactivation of the p53 protein in cancer cells. Loss of p53 protein is associated with later stages of most human tumors and resistance to anticancer agents. Carcinomas are frequent malignant tumors in humans. The majority of cervical carcinomas are etiologically linked to the presence of HPV virus (Human Papillomavirus). In carcinoma tumor cells, as well as in their derived-cell lines such as HeLa cells, the p53 protein is generally not detected due to its degradation by the product of the HPV-associated oncogenic E6 gene. Another characteristic of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells is the loss of the regulatory viral E2 gene expression as a consequence of viral DNA integration into the cellular genome. Reintroduction of E2 expression in HeLa cells reactivates p53, due to a negative effect on the expression of E6 protein, with a concomitant arrest of cell proliferation at the phase G1 of the cell cycle and delay in cell division via the repression of E2F-target genes. To elucidate whether reactivation of p53 would improve the cell killing effect of ionizing radiation in cancer cells, we studied the combined effects of radiation and E2 expression on the cell cycle distribution in HeLa cells

  11. All systems go for LHC quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The series fabrication of the Main Quadrupole cold masses for the LHC has begun with the delivery of the first unit on February 12th. The superconducting dipole magnets required to bend the proton beams around the LHC are often in the news. Less famous, perhaps, but equally important are the 360 main quadrupole (MQ) magnets, which will perform the principal focusing around the 27 km ring. CERN and CEA-Saclay began collaborating on the development and prototyping of these magnets in 1989. This resulted in five highly successful quadrupole units - also known as short straight sections - one of which was integrated for testing in String 1, and two others of the final design in String 2. Once the tests had confirmed the validity of the design and realization, the fabrication of the 360 cold masses had to be transferred to industry. After highly competitive tendering, the German firm ACCEL Instruments was entrusted both with the construction of the quadrupole magnets themselves, and with their assembly into the co...

  12. Model of an LHC superconducting quadrupole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Model of a superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC project. These magnets are used to focus the beam by squeezing it into a smaller cross-section, a similar effect to a lens focusing light. However, each magnet only focuses the beam in one direction so alternating magnet arrangements are required to produce a fully focused beam.

  13. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.

  14. The g-factor and the electric quadrupole moment of the 7/2+ isomer in 125Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, D.; Bertschat, H.H.; Grawe, H.; Haas, H.; Mahnke, H.E.; Menningen, M.; Semmler, W.; Sielemann, R.; Zeitz, W.D.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1983-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular distribution method (PAD) was used to measure the g-factor and the electric quadrupole interaction in a Cd single crystal for the tsub(1/2)=140 ns, Isup(π)=7/2 + isomer in 125 Xe. The g-factor is g=+0.264(10) and the quadrupole coupling constant e 2 Qq/h=122.1(6) MHz at 552 K. The lifetime of the Isup(π)=11/2 + state was measured to be tau=11.3(1.1) ps by the recoil distance method (RDM). From an analysis of the spectroscopic data using the triaxial-rotor-pulse-particle (TRPP) model the quadrupole moment of the 7/2 + isomer is deduced to be Q=1.40(15) b yielding an electric field gradient (efg) eq=3.6(4)x10 17 V/cm 2 for Xe Cd. (orig.)

  15. The g-factor and the electric quadrupole moment of the 7/2+ isomer in 125Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, D.; Bertschat, H.H.; Grawe, H.; Haas, H.; Mahnke, H.E.; Menningen, M.; Semmler, W.; Sielemann, R.; Zeitz, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular distribution method (PAD) was used to measure the g-factor and the electric quadrupole interaction in a Cd single crystal for the tsub(1/2) = 140 ns, Isup(π) = 7/2 + isomer in 125 Xe. The g-factor is g = +0.264(10) and the quadrupole coupling constant e 2 Qq/h = 122.1(6) MHz at 552 K. The lifetime of the Isup(π) = 11/2 + state was measured to be tau = 11.3(1.1) ps by the recoil distance method (RDM). From an analysis of the spectroscopic data using the triaxial-rotor-plus-particle (TRPP) model the quadrupole moment of the 7/2 + isomer is deduced to be Q = 1.40(15) b yielding an electric field gradient (efg) eq = 3.6(4)x10 17 V/cm 2 for Xe Cd. (orig.)

  16. E2 and M1 transition strengths in heavy deformed nuclei revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.; Popa, G.; Hirsch, J.G.; Vargas, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    An update on the status of pseudo-SU(3) shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei in the rare earth region is presented. Representative results for energy levels as well as E2 (quadrupole) and M1 (scissors) transitions strengths in 162 Dy (even-even) and 163 Dy (odd-mass) are given. The calculations use realistic single-particle energies and quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing interaction strengths fixed from systematics. The strengths of rotor-like terms included in the Hamiltonian- all small relative to the other terms in the interaction were adjusted to give an overall best fit to the energy spectra. The results present a paradox: for even-even nuclei (integer angular momentum) non-zero pseudo-spin configurations seems to be unimportant while for the odd-mass systems (half-integer angular momentum) pseudo-spin mixing is essential as spin-flip couplings appear to dominate the M1 transition strengths. (Author)

  17. E2eUberIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wac, Katarzyna; Cummings, Mark; Dey, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    , high-quality services, we propose an innovative end-to-end service management framework called e2eUberIM. This framework contains a scalable, flexible, and volatile information model (UberIM) and a real-time, "organic" communication and storage process (e2eUber). It leverages the proprietary interfaces...... of different vendors, enabling the resulting enhanced operations system environment to automatically and in real-time optimize operational overhead while maximizing the user experience, and quickly field new innovative, composed "any-services" (XaaS). We document the e2eUberIM requirements and its design...

  18. Measurement of the ground state spectroscopic quadrupole moments of 191Os and 193Os

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, H.; Hagn, E.; Zech, E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive 191 Os and 193 Os nuclei have been aligned in an Os single crystal at temperatures down to 4 mK. From the temperature dependence of the γ-anisotropy the quadrupole frequencies vsub(Q) = e 2 qQ/h have been determined as vsub(Q)( 191 OsOs) = -278+-9 MHz and vsub(Q)( 193 OsOs) = -96+-15 MHz. With the known electric field gradient for OsOs of eq = (-4.54+-0.24) x 10 17 V/cm 2 the ground state spectroscopic quadrupole moments are deduced to be Q( 191 Os) = +2.53+-0.16 b and Q( 193 Os) = +0.87+-0.15 b. (orig.)

  19. Quadrupole collectivity beyond N = 50 in neutron- rich Se and Kr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Brandon; Gade, A.; Barofsky, D.; Bender, P. C.; Bowry, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Kemper, K. W.; Lipschutz, S.; Lunderberg, E.; Sachmpazidi, N.; Terpstra, N.; Walters, W. B.; Weisshaar, D.; Westerberg, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wimmer, K.

    2017-09-01

    We will present results on measuring the B (E 2 ;01+ ->2n+) strength for the neutron-rich 88,90Kr and 86Se isotopes from intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. The electric quadrupole transition strengths to the first 2+ state complete, with considerably improved uncertainties, the evolution of quadrupole collectivity in the Kr and Se isotopes approaching N = 60 , for which 90Kr and 86Se had previously been the most uncertain. We also report significant excitation strength to several higher lying 2+ states in the krypton isotopes. The results confirm shell model calculations in the π (fpg) - ν (sdg) shell with only a minimally tuned shell model setup that is based on a nucleon-nucleon interaction derived from effective field theory with effective charges adjusted to 86Kr.

  20. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  1. Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the LHC IR

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G L; Chiesa, L; Coccoli, M; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Gourlay, S A; Hafalia, R R; Lietzke, A F; McInturff, A D; Scanlan, R M

    2003-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 * 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb/sub 3/Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb/sub 3/Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented. (25 refs).

  2. Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbi, G.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Coccoli, M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb 3 Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb 3 Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented.

  3. Does the small CMB quadrupole moment suggest new physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, J M; Lesgourgues, Julien; Cline, James M.; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by WMAP's confirmation of an anomalously low value of the quadrupole moment of the CMB temperature fluctuations, we investigate the effects on the CMB of cutting off the primordial power spectrum P(k) at low wave numbers. This could arise, for example, from a break in the inflaton potential, a prior period of matter or radiation domination, or an oscillating scalar field which couples to the inflaton. We reanalyze the full WMAP parameter space supplemented by a low-k cutoff for P(k). The temperature correlations by themselves are better fit by a cutoff spectrum, but including the TE temperature-polarization spectrum reduces this preference to a 1.4 sigma effect. Inclusion of large scale structure data does not change the conclusion. If taken seriously, the low-k cutoff is correlated with optical depth so that reionization occurs even earlier than indicated by the WMAP analysis.

  4. Differential calculus on deformed E(2) group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, S.; Gonera, C.; Kosinski, P.; Maslanka, P.

    1997-01-01

    Four dimensional bi-covariant differential *-calculus on quantum E(2) group is constructed. The relevant Lie algebra is obtained and covariant differential calculus on quantum plane is found. (author)

  5. Quadrupole to BPM offset determination in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Saroj; Ghodke, A.D.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility of finding the quadrupole to BPM offset using beam based alignment (BBA) technique in Indus-2 has been studied. The measurements of the offsets between BPM and quadrupoles could be performed by using quadratic fitting for the minima of the orbit response w. r. t. changes in the quadrupole strengths. These offsets will be integrated to the orbit data during closed orbit correction. There are 72 quadrupoles and 56 BPMs in Indus-2. However the assessment of Quad-BPM offsets is not feasible in some cases due to non-availability of BPM adjacent to quadrupole and also in some cases because of a large phase advance between quadrupole and nearby BPM. Here single corrector method is used to obtain these offsets and assumed the current of each quadrupole can be varied independently. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in MATLAB for the use of BBA in Indus-2. (author)

  6. Global study of quadrupole correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Bertsch, G.F.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the systematics of ground-state quadrupole correlations of binding energies and mean-square charge radii for all even-even nuclei, from 16 O up to the superheavies, for which data are available. To that aim we calculate their correlated J=0 ground state by means of the angular-momentum and particle-number projected generator coordinate method, using the axial mass quadrupole moment as the generator coordinate and self-consistent mean-field states restricted only by axial, parity, and time-reversal symmetries. The calculation is performed within the framework of a nonrelativistic self-consistent mean-field model by use of the same Skyrme interaction SLy4 and to a density-dependent pairing force to generate the mean-field configurations and to mix them. These are the main conclusions of our study: (i) The quadrupole correlation energy varies between a few 100 keV and about 5.5 MeV. It is affected by shell closures, but varies only slightly with mass and asymmetry. (ii) Projection on angular momentum J=0 provides the major part of the energy gain of up to about 4 MeV; all nuclei in the study, including doubly magic ones, gain energy by deformation. (iii) The mixing of projected states with different intrinsic axial deformations adds a few 100 keV up to 1.5 MeV to the correlation energy. (iv) Typically nuclei below mass A≤60 have a larger correlation energy than static deformation energy whereas the heavier deformed nuclei have larger static deformation energy than correlation energy. (v) Inclusion of the quadrupole correlation energy improves the description of mass systematics, particularly around shell closures, and of differential quantities, namely two-nucleon separation energies and two-nucleon gaps. The correlation energy provides an explanation of 'mutually enhanced magicity'. (vi) The correlation energy tends to decrease the shell effect on binding energies around magic numbers, but the magnitude of the suppression is not large enough to explain

  7. Low-lying collective quadrupole and octupole strengths in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Kahane, S.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    The B(E2)↑ values for the first 2 + state of even-even nuclei in the Z≥50 region are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models. Comparative estimates of the overall agreement with the data are provided. Gaps and discrepancies in the data and examples that show interesting features such as shape changes are discussed. The B(E2)↑ values are examined critically to search for the dynamical Pauli effects predicted by the fermion dynamic symmetry model. The empirical B(E2)↑ and B(E3)↑ systematics are employed to obtain a measure of the harmonicity of the quadrupole and octupole vibrations. The fraction of the energy-weighted sum-rule strength exhausted by the sum of all known low-lying 2 + states below 2.3 MeV is found to be surprisingly constant in the 60< A<250 region except near closed shells

  8. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  9. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Fermilab; Brookhaven; LBL, Berkeley; Texas A-M

    2007-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb3Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb3Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  10. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  11. The LHC Main Quadrupoles during Series Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Tortschanoff, Theodor; Durante, M; Hagen, P; Klein, U; Krischel, D; Payn, A; Rossi, L; Schellong, B; Schmidt, P; Simon, F; Schirm, K-M; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    By the end of August 2005 about 320 of the 400 main LHC quadrupole magnets have been fabricated and about 220 of them assembled into their cold masses, together with corrector magnets. About 130 of them have been cold tested in their cryostats and most of the quadrupoles exceeded their nominal excitation, i.e. 12,000 A, after no more than two training quenches. During this series fabrication, the quality of the magnets and cold masses was thoroughly monitored by means of warm magnetic field measurements, of strict geometrical checking, and of various electrical verifications. A number of modifications were introduced in order to improve the magnet fabrication, mainly correction of the coil geometry for achieving the specified field quality and measures for avoiding coil insulation problems. Further changes concern the electrical connectivity and insulation of instrumentation, and of the corrector magnets inside the cold masses. The contact resistances for the bus-bar connections to the quench protection diode...

  12. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  13. Isovector giant quadrupole resonance in 63Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolynec, E.; Pastura, V.F.S.; Martins, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    The decay of the isovector E2 giant resonance in 63 Cu has been studied by measuring the (e,2n) cross section, in the incident electron energy range 22-45 MeV. The photodisintegration induced by bremsstrahlung was also measured. The electrodisintegration results have been analyzed using the distorted wave Born approximation E1 and E2 virtual photon spectra to obtain these multipole components in the corresponding (γ,2n) cross section. It is found that the isovector E2 giant resonance decays dominantly by two-neutron emission in 63 Cu. This decay channel exhausts 65 percent of the energy weighted E2 sum. (author0 [pt

  14. Contamination measurements with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohatka, S.; Berecz, I.; Langer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive quadrupole mass spectrometer of our own construction was used for different purity measurements. The analysis of gases in operating rooms showed a 1 ppm-10 5 ppm concentration of narcotics and helped to develop an effective and cheap method for regenerating narcotic filters. We regularly control the gases used in radioactive pollution measurements by internal GM counters and in radiocarbon dating technique. Combustion products and the gases of a fermenter are investigated for industrial application. (orig.) [de

  15. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  16. On the theory of nuclear quadrupole oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, V.I.; Strutinskij, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Presented is a deduction and a convinient writing form of the secular equation for nuclear quadrupole oscillations. The deduction is consistent with usual random phase approximation. It is regarded that the oscillations of the nuclear average potential are adiabatic with respect to formation of the Cooper pairs and the collective motion arises as a result of the coherent distortion of the quasiparticle wave functions. The energy gap changes are also taken into account

  17. 15 T And Beyond - Dipoles and Quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbi, GianLuca

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the invention of the cyclotron by Lawrence, accelerator-based experiments have been the primary source of new discoveries in particle physics. In order to progress toward higher energy and luminosity, higher field magnets are required. R and D programs are underway to take advantage of new developments in superconducting materials, achieve better efficiency and simplify magnet fabrication while preserving accelerator-class field quality. A review of recent progress on high field dipole and quadrupole magnets is presented.

  18. Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, R.E.; Moddeman, W.E.; Dylla, H.F.

    1981-03-01

    The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H, D, T) and helium ( 3 He, 4 He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m/Δm 3 He, and 4 He in HT/D 2

  19. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient supperconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  20. Emittance measurements by variable quadrupole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, D.

    2005-01-01

    The beam emittance is a measure of both the beam size and beam divergence, we cannot directly measure its value. If the beam size is measured at different locations or under different focusing conditions such that different parts of the phase space ellipse will be probed by the beam size monitor, the beam emittance can be determined. An emittance measurement can be performed by different methods. Here we will consider the varying quadrupole setting method.

  1. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  2. Excitation of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M. [and others; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies on the giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in /sup 144/Sm and /sup 208/Pb using the ..cap alpha..-scattering performed at RCNP are summarized. The observed angular range covered 1.6/sup 0/ -- 7/sup 0/ with a coupled system of a dipole and a triplet quadrupole magnet. The incident energy was changed from 84 to 119 MeV. The resonance shapes and energy-weighted sum-rule strengths of the GMR and the GQR were reliably deduced as a function of incident energy. The quadrupole strength of --20% was found in the GMR region. The observed excitation function of the GMR was compared with the DWBA calculation, in which the Satchler's Version I was used as a form factor representing the compressional motion of the nucleus. It was found that the experimental excitation function of the GMR shows steeper decrease as lowering the incident energy than the DWBA prediction whereas that of the GQR is successfully described by the DWBA. This suggests that examination of the model describing the GMR is necessary.

  3. Observation of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Peri, Valerio; Süsstrunk, Roman; Bilal, Osama R.; Larsen, Tom; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2018-03-01

    The modern theory of charge polarization in solids is based on a generalization of Berry’s phase. The possibility of the quantization of this phase arising from parallel transport in momentum space is essential to our understanding of systems with topological band structures. Although based on the concept of charge polarization, this same theory can also be used to characterize the Bloch bands of neutral bosonic systems such as photonic or phononic crystals. The theory of this quantized polarization has recently been extended from the dipole moment to higher multipole moments. In particular, a two-dimensional quantized quadrupole insulator is predicted to have gapped yet topological one-dimensional edge modes, which stabilize zero-dimensional in-gap corner states. However, such a state of matter has not previously been observed experimentally. Here we report measurements of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator. We experimentally characterize the bulk, edge and corner physics of a mechanical metamaterial (a material with tailored mechanical properties) and find the predicted gapped edge and in-gap corner states. We corroborate our findings by comparing the mechanical properties of a topologically non-trivial system to samples in other phases that are predicted by the quadrupole theory. These topological corner states are an important stepping stone to the experimental realization of topologically protected wave guides in higher dimensions, and thereby open up a new path for the design of metamaterials.

  4. Table of Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    2013-12-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended value of the moment is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary reference EFG/moment references are required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2013. (author)

  5. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  6. The (e,2e) reaction in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.; Dixon, A.; Teubner, P.J.O.; Weigold, E.

    1975-01-01

    The aplication of the (e,2e) technique is discussed in the framework of (e,2e) on molecular hydrogen. It is shown that the technique is sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between simple wavefunctions and those containing configuration interactions. By comparing the data on H 2 and D 2 is shown that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is confirmed to an accuracy of about 3 per cent. The data is also used to contrast other methods of determining electron momentum distributions in molecules. Data on methane, carbon monoxide and molecular nitrogen is also presented. (author)

  7. An algebraic description of identical bands and of high-spin quadrupole collectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM) has been used to describe electric quadrupole transition rates and static moments at high angular momentum in deformed nuclei. A quantitative description of these phenomena appears possible by these means. The formalism accounts naturally for those cases where significant reductions in B(E2) values are accompanied by relatively constant moments of inertia. A discussion of identical bands as being due to a dynamical symmetry will be given. The empirical properties of these bands and general principles of group theory will be used to place constraints on an acceptable symmetry. A model that represents a minimal implementation of these criteria will be presented

  8. Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.

    1981-01-01

    Application is made of two different generalised fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler (Gravitation (San Francisco: Freeman) ch 36,37 (1973)) and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalisations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance. (author)

  9. The B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) / B(E2;2^+1->0^+1) Ratio in Even-Even Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loelius, C.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.; G"Urdal, G.

    2009-10-01

    We considered 207 even-even nuclei throughout the chart of nuclides for which the NNDC Tables had data on the energies and lifetimes of the 2^+1 and 4^+1 states. Using these data we calculated for each nucleus the electric quadrupole transition strengths B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) and B(E2;2^+1->0^+1), as well as their ratio. The internal conversion coefficients were obtained by using the NNDC HSICC calculator. For each nucleus we plotted the B(E2) ratio against A, N, and Z. We found that for close to 90% of the nuclei considered the ratio had values between 0.5 and 2.5. Most of the outliers had magic numbers of protons or neutrons. Our ratio results were compared with the theoretical predictions for this ratio by different models--10/7 in the rotational model and 2 in the simplest vibrational model. In the rotational regions (for 150 220) the ratios were indeed close to 10/7. For the few nuclei thought to be vibrational the ratios were usually less than 2. Otherwise, we got a wide scatter of ratio values. Hence other models, including the NpNn scheme, must be considered in interpreting these results.

  10. Systematics of B(E2;01+→21+) values for even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have completed a compilation of experimental results for the electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)up-arrow between the 0 + ground state and the first 2 + state in even-even nuclei. The adopted B(E2)up-arrow values have been employed to test the various systematic, empirical, and theoretical relationships proposed by several authors (Grodzins, Bohr and Mottelson, Wang et al., Ross and Bhaduri, Patnaik et al., Hamamoto, Casten, Moeller and Nix, and Kumar) on a global, local, or regional basis. These systematics offer methods for making reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2) values. For nuclei away from closed shells, the SU(3) limit of the intermediate boson approximation implies that the B(E2)up-arrow values are proportional to (e/sub p/N/sub p/+e/sub n/N/sub n/) 2 , where e/sub p /(e/sub n/) is the proton (neutron) effective charge and N/sub p/ (N/sub n/) refers to the number of valence protons (neutrons). This proportionality is consistent with the observed behavior of B(E2)up-arrow vs N/sub p/N/sub n/. For deformed nuclei and the actinides, the B(E2)up-arrow values calculated in a schematic single-particle ''SU(3)'' simulation or large single-j simulation of major shells successfully reproduce not only the empirical variation of the B(E2)up-arrow values but also the observed saturation of these values when plotted against N/sub p/N/sub n/. .AE

  11. Pygmy quadrupole resonance as a manifestation of the nuclear skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoneva, Nadia [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Lenske, Horst [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a new mode of nuclear excitation called pygmy quadrupole resonance (PQR) was theoretically predicted in the framework of energy-density functional (EDF) theory plus three-phonon quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) in Sn isotopic chain. It is closely connected with higher order multipole vibrations of nuclear skin induced by the action of the electromagnetic and hadronic external fields. The predictions initiated new experiments using ({sup 17}O,{sup 17}O{sup '}γ), (α,α{sup '}γ) and (γ,γ{sup '}) reactions which were carried out in {sup 124}Sn nucleus. The aim was to probe for the first time experimentally, the possibility of existence of PQR. The detailed analysis of the obtained experimental results in comparison with the EDF+QPM theory indicates clearly the presence of a multitude of discrete low-energy 2{sup +} excitations of neutron type which can be addressed to PQR mode. The independent measurements of B(E2) values with different probes and the theory allow to identify the dominant isoscalar character of these states. Furthermore, newly determined γ-decay branching ratios exclude a statistical origin of the PQR strength. The latter are important to discriminate between PQR and multiphonon excitations.

  12. Nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in liquids entrapped in cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, Gregory B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Physics Department (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    Liquids entrapped in cavities and containing quadrupole nuclei are considered. The interaction of the quadrupole moment of a nucleus with the electric field gradient is studied. In such a system, molecules are in both rotational and translational Brownian motions which are described by the diffusion equation. Solving this equation, we show that the intra- and intermolecular nuclear quadrupole interactions are averaged to zero in cavities with the size larger than several angstroms.

  13. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  14. Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric analysis of geochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Johnson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric-analysis techniques can be used to study a wide variety of problems involving decomposition processes and identification of released volatile components. A recording vacuum thermoanalyzer has been coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rapid scan capabilities of the quadrupole mass spectrometer are used to identify the gaseous components released. The capability of the thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass spectrometer to provide analytical data for identification of the released volatile components, for determination of their sequence of release and for correlation of thermal-decomposition studies is illustrated by an analysis of the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

  15. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  16. E2F1 is crucial for E2F-dependent apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Helin, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Loss of the retinoblastoma protein, pRB, leads to apoptosis, and several results have suggested that this is dependent on the E2F transcription factors. However, so far, the ability of the different E2F family members to contribute to apoptosis is controversial. Here, we show that ectopic...

  17. Quadrupole interaction studies of Hg in Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.C.; Krien, K.; Herzog, P.; Folle, H.R.; Freitag, K.; Reuschenbach, F.; Reuschenbach, M.; Trzcinski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation and nuclear orientation studies of the electric quadrupole interaction for Hg in Sb have been performed. The effective field gradients at room temperature and below 0.05K have been derived. These two values are no indication for an anomalous temperature dependence of the effective field gradient for Hg in Sb. The value of the electric field gradient fits well into the systematics for Hg in other hosts. It is shown that the electronic enhancements of the field gradients are correlated to the valence of the impurities and are rather insensitive to the host properties. (orig./HPOE) [de

  18. Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.

  19. Quadrupole Transfer Function for Emittance Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter; Jansson, Andreas; Tan, Cheng-Yang

    2008-01-01

    Historically the use of the quadrupole moment measurement has been impeded by the requirement for large dynamic range, as well as measurement sensitivity to beam position. We investigate the use of the transfer function technique [1-3] in combination with the sensitivity and 160dB revolution line rejection of the direct diode detection analog front end [4] to open the possibility of an emittance diagnostic that may be implemented without operational complication, quasi- parasitic to the operation of existing tune measurement systems. Such a diagnostic would be particularly useful as an emittance monitor during acceleration ramp development in machines like RHIC and the LHC.

  20. Fast storage of nuclear quadrupole resonance signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.P.; Molchanov, S.V.; Levchun, O.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fast multichannel storage of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals is described. Analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic-logical unit, internal memory device (IMD) selection-storage unit and control unit are the storage main units. The storage is based on 43 microcircuits and provides for record and storage of NQR-signals at the contributed operation with Mera-60 microcomputer. Time of analog-to-digital conversion and signal recording into IMD is ∼ 1 mks. Capacity of analog-to-digital converter constitutes 8-10 bits. IMD capacity is 4 K bitsx16. Number of storage channels is 4

  1. A united phenomenological description of quadrupole excitations in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipas, P.O.; Haapakoski, P.; Honkaranta, T.

    1975-05-01

    A phenomenological model is developed for the collective quadrupole properties of all even-even nuclei. Rotational, vibrational, and transitional nuclei are included in the model on an equal footing. A Bohr-type intrinsic Hamiltonian for harmonic quadrupole vibrations about an axially deformed shape is solved exactly. States of good angular momentum are projected out of the intrinsic states, and they are made orthogonal by a Schmidt scheme. The angular-momentum and phonon-number composition of the states is analyzed at various stages; states with K=1 are found spurious. Excitation energies for the ground, β and γ bands are calculated as expectation values of a radically simplified nuclear Hamiltonian in our projected and orthogonalized states. With increasing deformation the calculated energies evolve smoothly from the evenly spaced phonon spectrum to the Bohr-Mottelson rotational-vibrational spectrum according to the scheme of Sheline and Sakai. The basic model contains only two parameters (deformation d and energy scale) to fix the entire quadrupole spectrum of a nucleus. The results are given in the form of graphs suitable for immediate application; numerical results are readily produced by our computer code. The ground bands are fitted comparably to the VMI model, while the β and γ bands are reproduced qualitatively. The nuclei 152 Sm, 152 Gd, and 114 Cd are used as test cases. Quadrupole moments and E2 transition rates are also calculated. Intra-ground-band transition ratios and branching ratios from the β and γ bands are given in terms of the single parameter d. The results are applied to 152 Sm, with fair success. Finally the model to include two more parameters (anisotropy) is extended. The improvement over the basic model is modest in view of added parameters and computational effort. (author)

  2. Implementation of $ab$ $initio$ perturbed angular correlation observables for analysis of fluctuating quadrupole interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Marcelo

    A review about the nuclear properties, namely the nuclear moments (magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment) and their interaction with electromagnetic fields external to the nucleus (hyperfine interactions), as well as the angular distribution of radiation produced by $\\gamma$-decay, is presented. A detailed description about the theory of Perturbed Angular Correlations was done, including the comparison between $\\gamma-\\gamma$- correlations and $e^{-}- \\gamma$ correlations. For dynamic nuclear interactions, an introduction to the theory of stochastic states in PAC was performed. We focused on ab-initio implementation of observables for analyzing fluctuating quadrupole hyperfine interactions on time dependent perturbed angular correlations experiments. The development of computacional codes solving the full problem, adapted to fit data obtained on single crystals or polycrystals for two-state transient fields with any axial symmetry and orientation was the main purpose of this work. The final pa...

  3. Effective Lagrangians, Watson's theorem and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the Delta resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The author investigates theoretical uncertainties and model dependence in the extraction of the nucleon-delta(1232) electromagnetic transition amplitudes from the multipole data base. The starting point is an effective Lagrangian incorporating chiral symmetry, which includes at the tree level the pseudovector Born terms, leading t-channel vector meson exchanges, and s and u channel delta exchanges. The nucleon-delta magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition amplitudes are expressed in terms of two independent gauge couplings at the γNΔ vertex. After unitarizing the tree level amplitude, the gauge couplings are fitted to various multipole data sets, thus determining E2 and M1. Although there is much sensitivity to the method used to unitarize the amplitude, the author extracts the E2/M1 ratio to be negative, with a magnitude around 1.5%. 11 refs., 3 figs

  4. Ground-state and pairing-vibrational bands with equal quadrupole collectivity in 124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radich, A. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G. A.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear structure of 124Xe has been investigated via measurements of the β+/EC decay of 124Cs with the 8 π γ -ray spectrometer at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The data collected have enabled branching ratio measurements of weak, low-energy transitions from highly excited states, and the 2+→0+ in-band transitions have been observed. Combining these results with those from a previous Coulomb excitation study, B (E 2 ;23+→02+) =78 (13 ) W.u. and B (E 2 ;24+→03+) =53 (12 ) W.u. were determined. The 03+ state, in particular, is interpreted as the main fragment of the proton-pairing vibrational band identified in a previous 122Te (3He,n )124Xe measurement, and has quadrupole collectivity equal to, within uncertainty, that of the ground-state band.

  5. The quadrupole moment of the first excited state of 18O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewel, M.P.; Baxter, A.M.; Kean, D.C.; Spear, R.H.

    1976-11-01

    Using the re-orientation effect in Coulomb excitation, the quadrupole moment, Qsub(2 + ), of the first excited state of 18 O is found to be -0.100 +- 0.030 eb. The analysis assumes, on the basis of previous measurements, that B(E2; 0 + → 2 + ) = 0.0044 +- 0.0004 e 2 b 2 . A correction (+0.032 eb) for the effect of the giant dipole resonance, based on the hydrodynamic model, has been applied. Evidence is presented that some other determinations of Qsub(2 + ) were performed at too high a bombarding energy. The present value of Qsub(2 + ) is smaller in magnitude than that reported by Kleinfeld et al. (1975), but remains larger than the value of -0.034 eb predicted by a recent shell-model calculation. (Author)

  6. Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.

  7. Novel functions for atypical E2Fs, E2F7 and E2F8, in polyploidization and liver cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, Shusil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Atypical E2F transcription factors, E2F7 and E2F8, function as transcriptional repressors of E2F target genes and are crucial for controlling the cell proliferation. In this thesis, we reveal that these two factors are crucial for liver cell polyploidization, embryonic development and prevention of

  8. The pygmy quadrupole resonance and neutron-skin modes in 124Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spieker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an extensive experimental study of the recently predicted pygmy quadrupole resonance (PQR in Sn isotopes, where complementary probes were used. In this study, (α,α′γ and (γ,γ′ experiments were performed on 124Sn. In both reactions, Jπ=2+ states below an excitation energy of 5 MeV were populated. The E2 strength integrated over the full transition densities could be extracted from the (γ,γ′ experiment, while the (α,α′γ experiment at the chosen kinematics strongly favors the excitation of surface modes because of the strong α-particle absorption in the nuclear interior. The excitation of such modes is in accordance with the quadrupole-type oscillation of the neutron skin predicted by a microscopic approach based on self-consistent density functional theory and the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM. The newly determined γ-decay branching ratios hint at a non-statistical character of the E2 strength, as it has also been recently pointed out for the case of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR. This allows us to distinguish between PQR-type and multiphonon excitations and, consequently, supports the recent first experimental indications of a PQR in 124Sn.

  9. Fe/sup 57/ polarimetry based on quadrupole interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonser, U; Sakai, H; Keune, W [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (F.R. Germany). Fachbereich Angewandte Physik

    1976-01-01

    A quadrupole Fe/sup 57/ polarimeter consisting of single crystals of LiNbO/sub 3/:Co/sup 57/ as source (polarizer) and of FeCO/sub 3/ (siderite) as absorber (analyzer) is described. The quadrupole interactions of the two materials are nearly equal in magnitude but opposite in sign and in addition the asymmetry parameter eta equal approximately 0.

  10. Large permanent magnet quadrupoles for an electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    We have built large high quality permanent magnet quadrupoles for use as interaction region quadrupoles in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring where they must operate in the 10 kG axial field of the CLEO experimental detector. We describe the construction and the magnetic measurement and tuning procedures used to achieve the required field quality and stability. (orig.)

  11. Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Computation of a quadrupole magnet for the APS storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, L.R.; Kim, S.H.; Thompson, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    The storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source will include 400 quadrupole magnets for focusing the beam. A prototype quadrupole has been designed, constructed, and measured. This paper describes the two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) field computations performed for this design. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly

  14. CDH1 regulates E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randeep K; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-01-17

    The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation. Analysis of the structural determinants that govern these processes revealed a central role for S403 and T433. In particular, substitution of these two amino acid residues with non-phosphorylatable alanine (E2F1 ST/A) interferes with E2F1 nuclear export, K11- and K48-linked polyubiquitylation and degradation in differentiated keratinocytes. In contrast, replacement of S403 and T433 with phosphomimetic aspartic acid to generate a pseudophosphorylated E2F1 mutant protein (E2F1 ST/D) generates a protein that is regulated in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type E2F1. Cdh1 is an activating cofactor that interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting proteasomal degradation of various substrates. We found that Cdh1 associates with E2F1 in keratinocytes. Inhibition or RNAi-mediated silencing of Cdh1 prevents E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals. Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that jointly modulate post-translational modifications and downregulation of E2F1, which are necessary for proper epidermal keratinocyte differentiation.

  15. The quadrupole moments of some even–even nuclei around the mass of A ~ 80: {sup 68−80}Ge on the neighborhood of {sup 76−84}Kr and {sup 76−84}Se isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoruk, Abdulkadir, E-mail: yorukabdulkadir@hotmail.com [Süleyman Demirel University, Nursery Medical School (Turkey); Turkan, Nureddin, E-mail: nureddin.turkan@medeniyet.edu.tr [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Faculty of Science (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    We have carried out the calculation of the quadrupole moments Q(2{sub 1}{sup +}) and electromagnetic transition rates B(E2) of some levels within the framework of the interacting boson model for even-mass Ge nuclei. The presented predictions of the quadrupole moments and B(E2) ratios for Ge nuclei are compared with the results of some previous experimental and theoretical ones along with those of the neighboring Kr and Se isotopes and then it was seen that they agree well with the previous experimental and theoretical ones.

  16. Rescuing the nonjet (NJ azimuth quadrupole from the flow narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trainor Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a cylindrical-quadrupole component of 1D azimuth angular correlations is conventionally denoted by quantity υ2 and interpreted to represent elliptic flow. Jet angular correlations may also contribute to υ2 data “nonflow” depending on the method used to calculate υ2, but 2D graphical methods are available to insure accurate separation. The nonjet (NJ quadrupole has various properties inconsistent with a flow interpretation, including the observation that NJ quadrupole centrality variation in A-A collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modication (“jet quenching” in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a flowing dense medium. In this presentation I describe isolation of quadrupole spectra from pt-differential υ2(pt data from the RHIC and LHC. I demonstrate that quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole spectra indicate a common boosted hadron source for a small minority of hadrons that “carry” the NJ quadrupole structure, that the narrow source-boost distribution is characteristic of an expanding thin cylindrical shell (strongly contradicting hydro descriptions, and that in the boost frame a single universal quadrupole spectrum (Lévy distribution on transverse mass mt accurately describes data for several hadron species scaled according to their statistical-model abundances. The quadrupole spectrum shape changes very little from RHIC to LHC energies. Taken in combination those characteristics strongly suggest a unique nonflow (and nonjet QCD mechanism for the NJ quadrupole conventionally represented by υ2.

  17. Rescuing the nonjet (NJ) azimuth quadrupole from the flow narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Thomas A.

    2017-04-01

    According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a cylindrical-quadrupole component of 1D azimuth angular correlations is conventionally denoted by quantity υ2 and interpreted to represent elliptic flow. Jet angular correlations may also contribute to υ2 data "nonflow" depending on the method used to calculate υ2, but 2D graphical methods are available to insure accurate separation. The nonjet (NJ) quadrupole has various properties inconsistent with a flow interpretation, including the observation that NJ quadrupole centrality variation in A-A collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modication ("jet quenching") in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a flowing dense medium. In this presentation I describe isolation of quadrupole spectra from pt-differential υ2(pt) data from the RHIC and LHC. I demonstrate that quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole spectra indicate a common boosted hadron source for a small minority of hadrons that "carry" the NJ quadrupole structure, that the narrow source-boost distribution is characteristic of an expanding thin cylindrical shell (strongly contradicting hydro descriptions), and that in the boost frame a single universal quadrupole spectrum (Lévy distribution) on transverse mass mt accurately describes data for several hadron species scaled according to their statistical-model abundances. The quadrupole spectrum shape changes very little from RHIC to LHC energies. Taken in combination those characteristics strongly suggest a unique nonflow (and nonjet) QCD mechanism for the NJ quadrupole conventionally represented by υ2.

  18. E2F-5, a new E2F family member that interacts with p130 in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, E.M.; Voorhoeve, P.M.; Beijersbergen, R.L.; Veer, L.J. van 't; Bernards, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    E2F DNA binding sites are found in a number of genes whose expression is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. The activity of E2F transcription factors is regulated by association with specific repressor molecules that can bind and inhibit the E2F transactivation domain. For E2F-1, E2F-2, and

  19. Systematic behavior of B(E2) values in the yrast bands of doubly even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejtscheff, W.; Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ; Nadjakov, E.; Venkova, T.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental information on B(E2) transition rates in the yrast bands of doubly even nuclei (126 2 (J: moment of inertia) are plotted versus the rotational frequency squared h/2π 2 ω 2 for each nucleus. In strongly deformed nuclei (N >= 90), the Ssub(exp) curves smoothly increase for low rotational frequencies suggesting that up to spin values I approx. 8 the ratio Q 2 0 /J is nearly constant (Q 0 : quadrupole moment). This is not the case in nuclei with a soft core (N <= 88). In the relevant discussion, the hydrodynamical model as well as the CAP effect are considered. The results in the backbending region are qualitatively discussed in terms of the two-band crossing model. Evidence is found supporting the prediction of an oscillating behavior of the yrast-yrare interaction. (orig.)

  20. Quench Protection of SC Quadrupole Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.; Dimarco, J.; Mitchell, D.; Lamm, M. J.; Limon, P. J.; Mazur, P.; Nobrega, F.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J. P.; Strait, J. B.; Tompkins, J. C.; Zlobin, A. V.; McInturff, A. D.

    1997-05-01

    The energy stored in a superconducting accelerator magnet is dissipated after a quench in the coil normal zones, heating the coil and generating a turn to turn and coil to ground voltage drop. Quench heaters are used to protect the superconducting magnet by greatly increasing the coil normal zone thus allowing the energy to be dissipated over a larger conductor volume. Such heaters will be required for the Fermilab/LBNL design of the high gradient quads (HGQ) designed for the LHC interaction regions. As a first step, heaters were installed and tested in several Tevatron low-β superconducting quadrupoles. Experimental studies in normal and superfluid helium are presented which show the heater-induced quench response as a function of magnet excitation current, magnet temperature and peak heater energy density.

  1. Isabelle dipole and quadrupole coil configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.; Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    The coil configurations of the ISABELLE dipole and quadrupole magnets have been reviewed and a number of improvements were suggested for incorporation into the final design. The coil designs are basically single layer multiple block approximations to cosine current distributions, wound from a high aspect ratio non-keystoned braided conductor. The blocks are separated by knife-edge wedges to maximize the quench propagation velocity. The current density variation is obtained by an appropriate distribution of the spacer turns and, to a lesser degree, by the wedge locations. The use of inert turns is necessary to minimize the peak field enhancement both in the ends and in the two dimensional section. Schemes for deriving turns distributions yielding harmonic coefficients satisfying the stringent ISABELLE tolerances on field uniformity, while allowing for simplicity in winding and taking into account quench propagation considerations, will be discussed, as well as our approach to the coil end configuration

  2. An improved integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S.R.

    1987-10-05

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole is provided having an elongate housing with an elongate central axis and top, bottom and two side walls symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes formed integrally with the walls, the vanes each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls, and the vanes integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane passing through the tip of the vane, the walls having flat mounting surfaces at right angles to and parallel to the control plane, respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other. 4 figs.

  3. Radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.; Stokes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a new linear accelerator concept in which rf electric fields are used to focus, bunch, and accelerate the beam. Because the RFQ can provide strong focusing at low velocities, it can capture a high-current dc ion beam from a low-voltage source and accelerate it to an energy of 1 MeV/nucleon within a distance of a few meters. A recent experimental test at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has confirmed the expected performance of this structure and has stimulated interest in a wide variety of applications. The general properties of the RFQ are reviewed and examples of applications of this new accelerator are presented

  4. RF quadrupole beam dynamics design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.; Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator structure is expected to permit considerable flexibility in achieving linac design objectives at low velocities. Calculational studies show that the RFQ can accept a high-current, low-velocity, dc beam, bunch it with high efficiency, and accelerate it to a velocity suitable for injection into a drift-tube linac. Although it is relatively easy to generate a satisfactory design for an RFQ linac for low beam currents, the space-charge effects produced by high currents dominate the design criteria. Methods have been developed to generate solutions that make suitable compromises between the effects of emittance growth, transmission efficiency, and overall structure length. Results are given for a test RFQ linac operating at 425 MHz

  5. Commissioning results of the HZB quadrupole resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Kleindienst, Raphael; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Recent cavity results with niobium have demonstrated the necessity of a good understanding of both the BCS and residual resistance. For a complete picture and comparison with theory, it is essential that one can measure the RF properties as a function of field, temperature, frequency and ambient magnetic field. Standard cavity measurements are limited in their ability to change all parameters freely and in a controlled manner. On the other hand, most sample measurement setups operate at fairly high frequency, where the surface resistance is always BCS dominated. The quadrupole resonator, originally developed at CERN, is ideally suited for characterization of samples at typical cavity RF frequencies. We report on a modified version of the QPR with improved RF figures of merit for high-field operation. Experimental challenges in the commissioning run and alternate designs for simpler sample changes are shown alongside measurement results of a large grain niobium sample.

  6. TOUTATIS: A radio frequency quadrupole code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Duperrier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A cw high power linear accelerator can only work with very low particle losses and structure activation. At low energy, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ is an accelerator element that is very sensitive to losses. To design this structure, a good understanding of the beam dynamics is required. Generally, the reference code PARMTEQM is enough to design the accelerator. TOUTATIS has been written with the goals of cross-checking results and obtaining more reliable dynamics. This paper relates the different numerical methods used in the code. It is time based, using multigrids methods and adaptive mesh for a fine description of the forces without being time consuming. The field is calculated through a Poisson solver and the vanes are fully described, allowing it to properly simulate the coupling gaps and the RFQs extremities. Theoretical and experimental tests are also described and show a good agreement between simulations and reference cases.

  7. Matter-wave solitons supported by quadrupole-quadrupole interactions and anisotropic discrete lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rong-Xuan; Huang, Nan; Li, Huang-Wu; He, He-Xiang; Lü, Jian-Tao; Huang, Chun-Qing; Chen, Zhao-Pin

    2018-04-01

    We numerically and analytically investigate the formations and features of two-dimensional discrete Bose-Einstein condensate solitons, which are constructed by quadrupole-quadrupole interactional particles trapped in the tunable anisotropic discrete optical lattices. The square optical lattices in the model can be formed by two pairs of interfering plane waves with different intensities. Two hopping rates of the particles in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linear anisotropic system. We find that if all of the pairs of dipole and anti-dipole are perpendicular to the lattice panel and the line connecting the dipole and anti-dipole which compose the quadrupole is parallel to horizontal direction, both the linear anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear one can strongly influence the formations of the solitons. There exist three patterns of stable solitons, namely horizontal elongation quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons, disk-shape isotropic pattern solitons and vertical elongation quasi-continuous solitons. We systematically demonstrate the relationships of chemical potential, size and shape of the soliton with its total norm and vertical hopping rate and analytically reveal the linear dispersion relation for quasi-one-dimensional discrete solitons.

  8. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z

    2013-01-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)

  9. The (e,2e) spectrum of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; Amos, K.; Morrison, I.

    1983-01-01

    The Plane Wave Impulse Approximation is used to analyse the experimental cross-section for the Argon (e,2e) reaction (using the non-coplanar symmetric geometry). A series of Configuration Interaction calculations for the structure of Ar I and Ar II are reported demonstrating that correlation effects have only a minor effect on the momentum distributions (which are well described by the Target Hartree-Fock Approximation). Fair agreement between the theoretical and experimental spectroscopic factors for the separation energy spectrum is obtained, and in particular the distribution of strength amongst the 3s 2 3p 4 nd 2 S/sup e/ satellite states specified by the largest calculations is in better agreement with data than that obtained with simple structure models

  10. (e,2e) spectroscopy of ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.; Dixon, A.J.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-04-01

    The 400eV and 1200eV noncoplanar symmetric (e,2e) reaction has been used to measure the momentum distributions of electrons in the individual valence orbitals of ethane as well as to measure the complete separation energy spectra in the valence region. The shapes and relative magnitudes of the momentum distributions agree well with those calculated using the plane wave off-shell impulse approximation and double zeta basis molecular orbital wave functions. The ground state of C 2 H 6 + is shown to be lesub(g) -1 with the vertical ionization potential being 12.25 +- 0.1 eV. Considerable structure due to configuration interaction is observed in the separation energy region 29eV to 55eV. Much of this structure can be assigned to the 2a 1 sub(g) orbital. (author)

  11. Simple relations for the excitation energies E2 and the transition probabilities B (E2) of neighboring doubly even nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, R.; Patra, R.; Satpathy, L.

    1975-01-01

    For even-even nuclei, the excitation energy E2 and the reduced transition probability B (E2) between the ground state and the first excited 2 + state have been considered. On the basis of different models, it is shown that for a nucleus N, Z the relations E2N, Z + E2N + 2,Z + 2 - E2N + 2, Z - E2N, Z + 2 approx. = 0 and B (E2)N, Z + B (E2)N + 2,Z + 2 - B (E2)N + 2,Z - B (E2)N, Z + 2 approx. = 0 hold good, except in certain specified regions. The goodness of these difference equations is tested with the available experimental data. The difference equation of Ross and Bhaduri is shown to follow from our approach. Some predictions of unmeasured E2 and B (E2) values have been made

  12. Design of the LINAC4 Transfer Line Quadrupole Electromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Vanherpe, L

    2013-01-01

    Beam focusing in the various segments of the Linac4 Transfer Line is provided by quadrupole electromagnets. In total seventeen pulsed, air-cooled quadrupole electromagnets are required. They are made of laminated electrical steel yokes and coils wound from solid copper wire. All magnets have an aperture radius of 50 mm and are required to provide an integrated field gradient of 1.8 T over a magnetic length of 300 mm. This design report summarizes the main magnetic, electrical and mechanical design parameters of the Linac4 Transfer Line Quadrupole Magnets. The effect of the vacuum chamber on the magnetic field quality and the field delay is studied.

  13. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  14. Characterization of E2F8, a novel E2F-like cell-cycle regulated repressor of E2F-activated transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper; Cloos, Paul; Toftegaard, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    The E2F family of transcription factors are downstream effectors of the retinoblastoma protein, pRB, pathway and are essential for the timely regulation of genes necessary for cell-cycle progression. Here we describe the characterization of human and murine E2F8, a new member of the E2F family...

  15. E2F-6: a novel member of the E2F family is an inhibitor of E2F-dependent transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Müller, H; Wagener, C

    1998-01-01

    with E2Fs 1-5, especially within the DNA binding, heterodimerization and marked box domains. Unlike E2Fs 1-5, E2F-6 lacks a transactivation and a pocket protein binding domain, hence, forms a unique third group within the E2F family. E2F-6 is a nuclear protein that can form heterodimers with the DP......The E2F family of transcription factors are essential for the regulation of genes required for appropriate progression through the cell cycle. Five members of the E2F family have been previously reported, namely E2F1-5. All five are key elements in transcriptional regulation of essential genes......, and they can be divided into two functional groups, those that induce S-phase progression when overexpressed in quiescent cells (E2Fs 1-3), and those that do not (E2Fs 4-5). Here, we describe the identification of a novel member of this family, which we refer to as E2F-6. E2F-6 shares significant homology...

  16. Design of a High Gradient Quadrupole for the LHC Interaction Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Heger, T.; Huang, Y.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.J.; Limon, P.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Nobrega, F.; Ozelis, J.P.; Sabbi, G.; Strait, J.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dell'orco, D.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.; Van Oort, J.M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    A collaboration of Fermilab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently engaged in the design of a high gradient quadrupole suitable for use in the LHC interaction regions. The cold iron design incorporates a two-shell, cos2θ coil geometry with a 70 mm aperture. This paper summarizes the progress on a magnetic and mechanical design that meets the requirements of maximum gradient ≥250 T/m, operation at 1.8K, high field quality and provision for adequate cooling in a high radiation environment

  17. Study of the intrinsic background noise of a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysoev, A.A.; Islamov, I.M.; Khafizov, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    A proper background noise of a quadrupole mass-spectrometer is studied. The main sources of the noise have been analysed as well as their contributions to the overall noise of the device. It is shown that the main contribution is made by the photocurrent of the first dynode of the secondary-electron multiplier from ultraviolet radiation. The construction of the detecting system of the mass-spectrometer is given allowing one to increase the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of > 500

  18. Development of a high gradient quadrupole for the LHC Interaction Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    A collaboration of Fermilab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory is engaged in the design of a high gradient quadrupole suitable for use in the LHC interaction regions. The cold iron design incorporates a two-layer, cos(2θ) coil geometry with a 70 mm aperture operating in superfluid helium. This paper summarizes the progress on a magnetic, mechanical and thermal design that meets the requirements of maximum gradient above 250 T/m, high field quality and provision for adequate cooling in a high radiation environment

  19. Pulsed radiofrequency microwave fields around a quadrupole particle accelerator: measurement and safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.N.; Swarup, G.; Rajan, K.K.; Joseph, L.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed radiofrequency microwave radiation (RFMR) fields occur during the use of high power microwaves in plasma heating in fusion research, plasma and solid state diagnostics, particle accelerators and colliders, pump sources in lasers, material processing as well as in high power radars. This paper describes the experimental work done at Trombay for measurement of pulsed RFMR fields in the working area of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator with the use of a meter calibrated in continuous field and interprets the observed fields in the light of existing protection criteria for pulsed RFMR fields. (author)

  20. The Features of Moessbauer Spectra of Hemoglobins: Approximation by Superposition of Quadrupole Doublets or by Quadrupole Splitting Distribution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2004-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of hemoglobins have some features in the range of liquid nitrogen temperature: a non-Lorentzian asymmetric line shape for oxyhemoglobins and symmetric Lorentzian line shape for deoxyhemoglobins. A comparison of the approximation of the hemoglobin Moessbauer spectra by a superposition of two quadrupole doublets and by a distribution of the quadrupole splitting demonstrates that a superposition of two quadrupole doublets is more reliable and may reflect the non-equivalent iron electronic structure and the stereochemistry in the α- and β-subunits of hemoglobin tetramers.

  1. Identification of highly deformed even–even nuclei in the neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear chart from the B(E2)↑ and E2 predictions in the generalized differential equation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, R.C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-01-01

    We identify here the possible occurrence of large deformations in the neutron- and proton-rich (n-rich and p-rich) regions of the nuclear chart from extensive predictions of the values of the reduced quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ for the transition from the ground state to the first 2 + state and the corresponding excitation energy E2 of even–even nuclei in the recently developed generalized differential equation (GDE) model exclusively meant for these physical quantities. This is made possible from our analysis of the predicted values of these two physical quantities and the corresponding deformation parameters derived from them such as the quadrupole deformation β 2 , the ratio of β- 2 to the Weisskopf single-particle β 2(sp) and the intrinsic electric quadrupole moment Q 0 , calculated for a large number of both known as well as hitherto unknown even–even isotopes of oxygen to fermium (0 to FM; Z = 8 – 100). Our critical analysis of the resulting data convincingly support possible existence of large collectivity for the nuclides 30,32 Ne, 34 Mg, 60 Ti, 42,62,64 Cr, 50,68 Fe, 52,72 Ni, 72,70,96 Kr, 74,76 Sr, 78,80,106,108 Zr, 82,84,110,112 Mo, 140 Te, 144 Xe, 148 Ba, 122 Ce, 128,156 Nd, 130,132,158,160 Sm and 138,162,164,166 Gd, whose values of β 2 are found to exceed 0.3 and even 0.4 in some cases. Our findings of large deformations in the exotic n-rich regions support the existence of another “island of inversion” in the heavy-mass region possibly caused by breaking of the N = 70 subshell closure. (author)

  2. PRINCIPLE OF SKEW QUADRUPOLE MODULATION TO MEASURE BETATRON COUPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.; ROSER, T.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the residual betatron coupling via skew quadrupole modulation is a new diagnostics technique that has been developed and tested at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a very promising method for the linear decoupling on the ramp. By modulating the strengths of different skew quadrupole families the two eigentunes are precisely measured with the phase lock loop system. The projections of the residual coupling coefficient onto the skew quadrupole coupling modulation directions are determined. The residual linear coupling could be corrected according to the measurement. An analytical solution for skew quadrupole modulation based on Hamiltonian perturbation approximation is given, and simulation code using smooth accelerator model is also developed. Some issues concerning the practical applications of this technique are discussed

  3. Beam-based alignment of C-shaped quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.; Robin, D.

    1998-06-01

    Many storage rings have implemented a method of finding the positional offset between the electrical center of the beam position monitors (BPM) and the magnetic center of the adjacent quadrupole magnets. The algorithm for accomplishing this is usually based on modulating the current in the quadrupole magnet and finding the beam position that minimizes the orbit perturbation. When the quadrupole magnet is C-shaped, as it is for many light sources, the modulation method can produce an erroneous measurement of the magnetic center in the horizontal plane. When the current in a C-shaped quadrupole is changed, there is an additional dipole component in the vertical field. Due to nonlinearities in the hysteresis cycle of the C-magnet geometry, the beam-based alignment technique at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) deviated horizontally by .5 mm from the actual magnetic center. By modifying the technique, the offsets were measured to an accuracy of better than 50 microm

  4. Regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis after brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Amy H.; Olschowka, John A.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Okunieff, Paul; O'Banion, M. Kerry

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A local tissue reaction, termed neuroinflammation, occurs after irradiation of brain tissue. Previous work suggested that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity was important for changes in gene expression associated with neuroinflammation as well as increased prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels seen after radiation treatment. Methods and materials: To begin to determine the contributions of other enzymes involved in PGE 2 production, we examined protein levels of COX-1 and COX-2 as well as 2 PGE synthases (membrane and cytosolic PGES) 4 h after 35 Gy single dose irradiation to the brains of C3HeN mice. We also evaluated the effects of specific COX inhibitors on PGE 2 production and PGES expression. Results: As expected, COX-2 expression increased after radiation exposure. Brain irradiation also increased tissue protein levels for both PGES isoforms. Specific COX-2 inhibition with NS398 lowered brain PGE 2 levels by about 60%. Surprisingly, COX-1 inhibition with SC560 completely prevented the elevation of PGE 2 seen after irradiation. Interestingly, NS398 reduced the membrane-associated PGES isoform, whereas SC560 treatment lowered cytosolic isoform levels below those seen in unirradiated controls. Conclusions: Taken together, these data indicate that both cyclooxygenases contribute to PGE 2 production in irradiated brain and reveal dependence of PGES isoforms expression on specific cyclooxygenase activities

  5. E 2 decay strength of the M 1 scissors mode of 156Gd and its first excited rotational state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Pietralla, N.; Bhike, M.; Birkhan, J.; Derya, V.; Gayer, U.; Hennig, A.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.; Zweidinger, M.

    2017-05-01

    The E 2 /M 1 multipole mixing ratio δ1 →2 of the 1sc+→21+ γ -ray decay in 156Gd and hence the isovector E 2 transition rate of the scissors mode of a well-deformed rotational nucleus has been measured for the first time. It has been obtained from the angular distribution of an artificial quasimonochromatic linearly polarized γ -ray beam of energy 3.07(6) MeV scattered inelastically off an isotopically highly enriched 156Gd target. The data yield first direct support for the deformation dependence of effective proton and neutron quadrupole boson charges in the framework of algebraic nuclear models. First evidence for a low-lying Jπ=2+ member of the rotational band of states on top of the 1+ band head is obtained, too, indicating a significant signature splitting in the K =1 scissors mode rotational band.

  6. E2 decay strength of the M1 scissors mode of ^{156}Gd and its first excited rotational state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T; Beller, J; Pietralla, N; Bhike, M; Birkhan, J; Derya, V; Gayer, U; Hennig, A; Isaak, J; Löher, B; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Romig, C; Savran, D; Scheck, M; Tornow, W; Werner, V; Zilges, A; Zweidinger, M

    2017-05-26

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ_{1→2} of the 1_{sc}^{+}→2_{1}^{+} γ-ray decay in ^{156}Gd and hence the isovector E2 transition rate of the scissors mode of a well-deformed rotational nucleus has been measured for the first time. It has been obtained from the angular distribution of an artificial quasimonochromatic linearly polarized γ-ray beam of energy 3.07(6) MeV scattered inelastically off an isotopically highly enriched ^{156}Gd target. The data yield first direct support for the deformation dependence of effective proton and neutron quadrupole boson charges in the framework of algebraic nuclear models. First evidence for a low-lying J^{π}=2^{+} member of the rotational band of states on top of the 1^{+} band head is obtained, too, indicating a significant signature splitting in the K=1 scissors mode rotational band.

  7. Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzler, J.V.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO 3 , SnhfO 3 , CaHfO 3 e SrHfO 3 have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians persecond was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory

  8. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  9. Quadrupole moment of the superdeformed band in 131Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Godfrey, M.J.; Jenkins, I.; Kirwan, A.J.; Nolan, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A mean lifetime measurement has been carried out on the states in the superdeformed band found in 131 Ce using the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The measured intrinsic nuclear quadrupole moment is Q o approx= 6 eb, assuming constant deformation, which corresponds to a quadrupole deformation β 2 approx= 0.35. This is considerably smaller than the value deduced for 132 Ce. (author)

  10. Waferscale Electrostatic Quadrupole Array for Multiple Ion Beam Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayakumar, K. B.; Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Lal, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first through-wafer silicon-based Electrostatic Quadrupole Array (ESQA) to focus high energy ion beams. This device is a key enabler for a wafer based accelerator architecture that lends itself to orders-of-magnitude reduction in cost, volume and weight of charged particle accelerators. ESQs are a key building block in developing compact Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) [1]. In a MEQALAC electrostatic forces are used to focus ions, and elec...

  11. Ellipsoidal universe can solve the cosmic microwave background quadrupole problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, L; Cea, P; Tedesco, L

    2006-09-29

    The recent 3 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data have confirmed the anomaly concerning the low quadrupole amplitude compared to the best-fit Lambda-cold dark matter prediction. We show that by allowing the large-scale spatial geometry of our universe to be plane symmetric with eccentricity at decoupling or order 10(-2), the quadrupole amplitude can be drastically reduced without affecting higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum of the temperature anisotropy.

  12. Two qubits in pure nuclear quadrupole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G.B.; Goren, S.D.; Meerovich, V.M.; Sokolovsky, V.L.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that by the use of two radio-frequency fields of the same resonance frequency but with the different phases and directions the degeneracy of the energy spectrum of a spin system with I=3/2 is removed. This leads to four non-degenerate spin states which can be used as a platform for quantum computing. The feasibility of quantum computing based on a pure (without DC magnetic fields) nuclear quadrupole resonance technique is investigated in detail. Various quantum logic gates can be constructed by using different excitation techniques allowing different manipulations with the spin system states. Three realizations of quantum logic gates are considered: the application of an additional magnetic field with the resonance frequency, the amplitude modulation of one of the applied RF fields by the resonance frequency field, and the level-crossing method. It is shown that the probabilities of the resonance transitions depend on the method of excitation and on the direction of the excitation field. Feasibility of quantum computing is demonstrated with the examples of constructing a controlled-NOT logic gate using the resonance excitation technique and SWAP and NOT2 logic gates using the level-crossing method. (author)

  13. Interrelation between the isoscalar octupole phonon and the proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole phonon in near-spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.A.; Van Isacker, P.; Smirnova, N.A; Pietralla, N.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Mizusaki, T.

    2000-01-01

    The interrelation between the octupole phonon and the low-lying proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole in near-spherical nuclei is investigated. The one-phonon states decay by collective E3 and E2 transitions to the ground state and by relatively strong E1 and M1 transitions to the isoscalar 2 + 1 state. We apply the proton-neutron version of the Interacting Boson Model including quadrupole and octupole bosons (sdf-IBM-2). Two F-spin symmetric dynamical symmetry limits of the model, namely the vibrational and the γ-unstable ones, are considered. We derived analytical formulae for excitation energies as well as B(E1), B(M1), B(E2), and B(E3) values for a number of transitions between low-lying states. The model well reproduces many known transition strengths in the near spherical nuclei 142 Ce and 94 Mo. (authors)

  14. Interrelation between the isoscalar octupole phonon and the proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole phonon in near-spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, N.A.; Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Smirnova, N.A [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse]|[Institute for Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Pietralla, N. [Institut fur Kernphysik, Universitat zu Koln (Germany)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab; Mizusaki, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2000-07-01

    The interrelation between the octupole phonon and the low-lying proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole in near-spherical nuclei is investigated. The one-phonon states decay by collective E3 and E2 transitions to the ground state and by relatively strong E1 and M1 transitions to the isoscalar 2{sup +}{sub 1} state. We apply the proton-neutron version of the Interacting Boson Model including quadrupole and octupole bosons (sdf-IBM-2). Two F-spin symmetric dynamical symmetry limits of the model, namely the vibrational and the {gamma}-unstable ones, are considered. We derived analytical formulae for excitation energies as well as B(E1), B(M1), B(E2), and B(E3) values for a number of transitions between low-lying states. The model well reproduces many known transition strengths in the near spherical nuclei {sup 142}Ce and {sup 94}Mo. (authors)

  15. Observation/confirmation of hindered E2 strength in {sup 18}C/{sup 16}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, H.J. [Osaka University, RCNP, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Imai, N. [KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, D.; Iwasaki, H.; Onishi, T.K.; Suzuki, M.K.; Nakao, T.; Ichikawa, Y. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Bunkyo,Tokyo (Japan); Sakurai, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Kondo, Y.; Aoi, N.; Baba, H.; Bishop, S.; Ishihara, M.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, Y. [RIKEN, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Ota, S. [University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, CNS, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Togano, Y.; Kurita, K. [Rikkyo University, Department of Physics, Toshima, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Okumura, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We have measured the lifetime of the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 18}C using an upgraded recoil shadow method to determine the electric quadrupole transition. The measured mean lifetime is 18.9{+-}0.9 (stat){+-}4.4 (syst) ps, corresponding to B(E2;2{sub 1} {sup +}{yields} 0{sup +} {sub gs}) = 4.3{+-}0.2{+-}1.0 e{sup 2}fm{sup 4}, or about 1.5 Weisskopf units. The mean lifetime of the first 2{sup +} state in {sup 16}C was remeasured to be 18.3{+-}1.4{+-}4.8 ps, about four times shorter than the value reported previously. The discrepancy is explained by incorporating the {gamma} -ray angular distribution obtained in this work into the previous measurement. The observed transition strengths in {sup 16,18}C are hindered compared to the empirical values, indicating that the anomalous E2 strength observed in {sup 16}C persists in {sup 18}C. (orig.)

  16. E2F6: a member of the E2F family that does not modulate squamous differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.F.; Barnes, Liam M.; Smith, Louise; Popa, Claudia; Serewko-Auret, Magdalena M.; Saunders, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    The inhibition of E2F has been demonstrated to be important in the initiation of squamous differentiation by two independent manners: promotion of growth arrest and the relief of the differentiation-suppressive properties of E2Fs. E2F6 is reported to behave as a transcriptional repressor of the E2F family. In this study, we examined the ability of E2F6 to act as the molecular switch required for E2F inhibition in order for keratinocytes to enter a terminal differentiation programme. Results demonstrated that whilst E2F6 was able to suppress E2F activity in proliferating keratinocytes, it did not modulate squamous differentiation in a differentiated keratinocyte. Furthermore, inhibition of E2F, by overexpressing E2F6, was not sufficient to sensitise either proliferating keratinocytes or the squamous cell carcinoma cell line, KJD-1/SV40, to differentiation-inducing agents. Significantly, although E2F6 could suppress E2F activity in proliferating cells, it could not inhibit proliferation of KJD-1/SV40 cells. These results demonstrate that E2F6 does not contain the domains required for modulation of squamous differentiation and imply isoform-specific functions for individual E2F family members

  17. Giant quadrupole resonance in 24Mg, 27Al, and 28Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, D.H.; Rozsa, C.M.; Moss, J.M.; Brown, D.R.; Bronson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The giant-resonance region of 24 Mg, 27 Al, and 28 Si was studied by inelastic scattering of 126-MeV α particles. In contrast to results at 96 MeV, considerable clustering of E2 strength was observed for 27 Al at E/sub x/ approx. 20.1 MeV with GAMMA approx. 7.6 MeV exhausting about 35% of the E2 energy weighted sum rule. E2 strength was also located in 24 Mg in two clusters of states at E-bar/sub x/ approx. 18.2, 24.4 MeV; however, contributions from other multipoles cannot be neglected. In 28 Si a multipeaked group was observed at E/sub x/ approx. 19.4 MeV with GAMMA approx. 4 MeV but no L assignment was made. The energy dependence of the cross section for the giant quadrupole resonance was found to be consistent with distorted-wave Born approximation predictions

  18. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode of {sup 156}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Gayer, U.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, V. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D. [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheck, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); School of Engineering, UWS, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The isovector low-lying J{sup π}{sub K}=1{sup +}{sub 1} scissors mode of deformed nuclei has been studied extensively in (e,e{sup '}) and (γ,γ{sup '}) experiments over the last 30 years with the main focus on strong M1 transitions to the ground state band. In the framework of the semiclassical two-rotor-model it has its origin in quadrupole deformation. A considerable E2 matrix element between the rotational band of the scissors mode and the ground band is predicted which has not been addressed experimentally. A photon-scattering experiment with linearly-polarized quasi monoenergetic vector (γ)-rays has been performed at the High Intensity vector (γ)-ray Source (HIvector (γ)S) at Duke University, Durham, NC, exploiting the γ{sup 3} setup. We have measured an E2/M1-multipole mixing ratio for the 1{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition for the first time. The Alaga rule is applicable and delivers a first estimate of the transition strength B(E2:2{sup +}{sub sc}→0{sup +}{sub 1}). A candidate for a 2{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition is discussed.

  19. Asymptotical approximation of interconnection of nucleons' quadrupole and cluster motion in atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabulov, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic nuclei display different kinds of collective motion. The well known example - is the collective model arising from valent nucleons motion. The other a special kind of collective motion is cluster mode. If a collective model has quadrupole character, then cluster one has dipole character. In the boson formalism this model is describing by dynamic symmetry U(6) direct X U(4). The common Hamiltonian symmetrical to U(6) direct X U(4) group has a form H=H d +H p +V pd . In the paper the asymptotical wave function for dipole states connected with (N-1) bosons of s- and d-types is presented. In this case the problem for Hamiltonian eigenvalues is solving by analytical way. With use Elliot method and wave functions asymptotical form the operators for matrix elements of E2-, E1-, M1-transitions are cited

  20. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  1. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  2. Point-particle limit and the far-zone quadrupole formula in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamase, T.

    1985-01-01

    Strong internal gravity is incorporated in a divergent-free post-Newtonian approximation scheme by introducing a body-zone limit. When incorporated into the notion of sequences of solutions, this provides the first rigorous point-particle limit in general relativity. The scheme is applied to construct an asymptotic approximation to a binary system composed of two rotating neutron stars. The lowest-order calculation is carried out in the near and far zones, giving Newton's equations of motion and the far-zone quadrupole formula. The quadrupole moment of the system is expressed in terms of a mass integral over each compact star. The same mass appears in Newton's equations of motion. The mass is indeed the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass the compact star would have if it were isolated. Thus the equivalence principle for strong gravity is confirmed, even for gravitational radiation: gravitational potential energy radiates the same amount of gravitational waves as any other form of energy does

  3. The evolution of B(E2) values around the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Thomas

    2009-08-24

    In this work the evolution of B(E2) values in nuclei around the N=82 shell closure has been studied. The reduced transition strength between ground state and rst excited 2{sup +} state is a good indicator for the collectivity in even-even nuclei. Former experimental and theoretical investigations of the region above N=82 indicated that the B(E2) values might be systematically lower than expected and questioned the current understanding of collective excitations. Since the experimental data concerning the proposed N=82 shell quenching for nuclei below {sup 132}Sn is not yet conclusive, a systematic investigation of neutron-rich nuclei both below and above this shell closure has been performed at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility REX-ISOLDE at CERN. The B(E2) values of {sup 122-126}Cd (N<82) and {sup 138-144}Xe (N>82) have been measured by Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics, applying the MINIBALL {gamma}-detector array. The values of {sup 124,126}Cd and {sup 138,142,144}Xe have been determined for the first time, whereas for {sup 140}Xe the ambiguity of the two contradicting published B(E2) values has been solved. The relative uncertainty of the B(E2) value of {sup 122}Cd could be reduced significantly. For {sup 140,142}Xe the Coulomb excitation cross section for the 2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}4{sub 1}{sup +} transition has also been determined. Further, the deorientation e ect and the influence of the quadrupole deformation on the Coulomb excitation cross section have been taken into account for {sup 138-142}Xe. It could be shown that the latter plays an important role for the determination of the B(E2) values. Assuming only a small or even vanishing quadrupole moment, all measured B(E2) values agree with the expectations and no sign for a quenching of the N=82 gap could be seen. (orig.)

  4. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  5. E2 transitions in deformed nuclei and the IBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Casten, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism which determines the relative E2 strengths in the Interacting Boson Approximation is studied, and the structure of the E2 operator necessary to reproduce the empirical B(E2) values in deformed even-even nuclei in the rate earth region is investigated

  6. Dosage-dependent copy number gains in E2f1 and E2f3 drive hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey N; Bae, Sooin; Tsai, Shih-Yin; Tang, Xing; Srivastava, Arunima; Koivisto, Christopher; Martin, Chelsea K; Ridolfi, Elisa; Miller, Grace C; Zorko, Sarah M; Plevris, Emilia; Hadjiyannis, Yannis; Perez, Miguel; Nolan, Eric; Kladney, Raleigh; Westendorp, Bart; de Bruin, Alain; Fernandez, Soledad; Rosol, Thomas J; Pohar, Kamal S; Pipas, James M; Leone, Gustavo

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway, either through genetic mutation of upstream regulatory components or mutation of RB1 itself, is believed to be a required event in cancer. However, genetic alterations in the RB-regulated E2F family of transcription factors are infrequent, casting doubt on a direct role for E2Fs in driving cancer. In this work, a mutation analysis of human cancer revealed subtle but impactful copy number gains in E2F1 and E2F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using a series of loss- and gain-of-function alleles to dial E2F transcriptional output, we have shown that copy number gains in E2f1 or E2f3b resulted in dosage-dependent spontaneous HCC in mice without the involvement of additional organs. Conversely, germ-line loss of E2f1 or E2f3b, but not E2f3a, protected mice against HCC. Combinatorial mapping of chromatin occupancy and transcriptome profiling identified an E2F1- and E2F3B-driven transcriptional program that was associated with development and progression of HCC. These findings demonstrate a direct and cell-autonomous role for E2F activators in human cancer.

  7. Theoretical investigation of flute modes in a magnetic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    This research developed theories and conducted numerical investigations of electrostatic flute modes in a plasma confined in a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter I presents the discussion of relevant background. Chapter II contains a brief discussion of the basic flute-mode operator L 0 for intermediate- and low-frequency regimes. Chapter III develops a simple theory for a flute mode with frequency between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in the uniform density and temperature regions of a magnetic quadrupole. The frequency is predicted to be inversely proportional to the wave number. Chapter IV describes the kinetic approach. Chapter V contains the derivation of an eigenvalue equation for electrostatic waves with frequencies below the ion frequency in the private flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VI develops a theory for electrostatic waves with frequency below the ion bounce frequency in the shared flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VII contains the derivation of a dispersion equation for flute modes with frequencies between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in a plasma confined to a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VIII presents a summary of the research described

  8. B(E2) ↑ (01+ -> 21+) predictions for even–even nuclei in the differential equation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, R.C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-01-01

    We use the recently developed differential equation model (DEM) for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ for the transition from the ground to the first 2 + state for predicting its values for a wide range of even–even nuclides almost throughout the nuclear landscape from Neon to Californium. This is made possible as the principal equation in the model, namely, the differential equation connecting the B(E2)↑ value of a given even–even nucleus with its derivatives with respect to the neutron and proton numbers, provides two different recursion relations, each connecting three different neighboring even–even nuclei from lower- to higher-mass numbers and vice versa. These relations are primarily responsible in extrapolating from known to unknown terrain of the B(E2)↑-landscape and thereby facilitate the predictions throughout. As a result, we have succeeded in predicting its hitherto unknown value for the adjacent 251 isotopes lying on either side of the known B(E2)↑ database. (author)

  9. MEQALAC: (multiple electrostatic quadrupole linac): a new approach to low beta rf acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Brodowski, J.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Keane, J.T.; Maschka, A.W.; Sanders, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    MEQALAC is an acronym for a multiple-beam electrostatic-quadrupole array linear accelerator. The principle of operation is very simple. It makes use of the fact that electrostatic quadrupoles focus more effectively at low velocities than conventional magnetic quadrupoles. Moreover, the pole-tip field of an electrostatic quadrupole is limited by field emission of electrons, and is not a function of the size of the quadrupole. Conventional magnetic quadrupoles, on the other hand, require increasingly high current densities if one attempts to scale to smaller size

  10. Analysis list: E2f4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2f4 Blood,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Muscle,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dba...rchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f4.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f4....5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f4.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f4.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f4....Embryonic_fibroblast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f4.Liver.tsv,htt

  11. Development of a quality assurance programme for radiation therapy dosimetry in development countries. Report of the second research co-ordination meeting - RCM-650.2 on the CRP E2 40 07, 4-8 December 2000, IAEA DMRP Section, Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme ''Development of a Quality Assurance Programme for Radiation Therapy Dosimetry in Developing Countries'' (E2-40-07) is to establish national Quality Assurance (QA) networks for external quality audits for radiotherapy hospitals in developing countries. This is done by setting-up national External Audit Groups (EAG) with laboratory backup for operating TLD audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. The CRP offers a standardized methodology, the same for all participating countries, provides guidelines and gives technical support to the national EAG activities. In 1995-1998, the national EAGs were established in Algeria, Argentina, China, Czech Republic, India, Israel and Malaysia. At present five countries have joined the project: Colombia, Cuba, Philippines, Poland and Viet Nam. The current status of the development of methodology and procedures for QA audits in the participating countries was presented and discussed at length. Each participant has submitted the status report regarding the TLD system, measuring procedures, structure of the national EAG and relations with other relevant national organizations or bodies. The new participants are in the process of adapting the procedures developed by the IAEA and revised by the previous group in this CRP. The participants have received information on state of the art of the quality audit networks in Europe presented by Prof. Dutreix. Further discussions followed the presentations of the results of testing of the EAG measuring systems and operational procedures for audits. Special emphasis was given to issues related to legislation and national regulations in the different countries and confidentiality in reporting the audit results. Procedural problems related to endorsement of the EAGs by the relevant national bodies were noted. The composition of the national EAGs was discussed and optimal structures for the individual countries recommended. The contents of the QA manuals for

  12. Vibrationally induced nuclear quadrupole coupling in the v3 = 1 state of 189OsO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scappini, F.; Kreiner, W.A.; Frye, J.M.; Oka, T.

    1987-01-01

    Electric nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure arising from a quadrupolar nucleus at the center of tetrahedral molecules, such as 189 OsO 4 , is symmetry forbidden. However, through vibration--rotation distortion a small nuclear quadrupole coupling is induced. The hyperfine structure due to the vibrationally induced eqQ has been measured for a number of P- and R-branch transitions in the ν 3 fundamental of 189 OsO 4 , by using inverse Lamb dip spectroscopy. Microwave modulation sidebands of CO 2 laser lines have been used as the tunable infrared radiation. From the analysis of the observed hyperfine structure patterns, the values of the scalar and tensor coupling constants have been determined to be chi/sup V//sub s/ = -4.103 +- 0.048 MHz and chi/sup V//sub t/ = -3.090 +- 0.059 MHz

  13. Variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupole for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum of 4.3 T by a 90 degree rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material

  14. Collisional damping of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, S.; Gokalp, A.; Yilmaz, O.; Ayik, S.

    2001-01-01

    Collisional damping widths of giant monopole and quadrupole excitations for 120 Sn and 208 Pb at zero and finite temperatures are calculated within Thomas-Fermi approximation by employing the microscopic in-medium cross-sections of Li and Machleidt and the phenomenological Skyrme and Gogny forces, and are compared with each other. The results for the collisional widths of giant monopole and quadrupole vibrations at zero temperature as a function of the mass number show that the collisional damping of giant monopole vibrations accounts for about 30 - 40% of the observed widths at zero temperature, while for giant quadrupole vibrations it accounts for only 20 - 30% of the observed widths at zero temperature. (orig.)

  15. Mechanical Design of a Second Generation LHC IR Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    One of the proposed options to increase the LHC luminosity is the replacement of the existing inner triplets at the Interaction Regions with new low-beta larger aperture quadrupoles operating at the same gradient. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is carrying out preliminary studies of a large-bore Nb 3 Sn quadrupole. The mechanical design presents a support structure based on the use of keys and bladders without self-supporting collars. This technology has been proven effective in several successful common coil Nb 3 Sn dipoles built at LBNL, and it is for the first time applied to a cos(2(var t heta)) design. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the quadrupole mechanical behavior, demonstrating the possibility of delivering, through this method, well-controlled coil precompression during assembly, cool-down and excitation. The study has been performed with the finite element program ANSYS

  16. Variable-field permanent magnet quadrupole for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use In the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum, of 4.3 T by a 90 degrees rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material

  17. Quadrupole interactions in pionic and muonic tantalum and rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Doesburg, W. van; Ewan, G.T; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.

    1981-01-01

    The hyperfine splitting of pionic and muonic X-rays in natural Re has been studied using the known ratio (accurate to 1.6 parts in 10 5 ) of the quadrupole moments of the two naturally occurring 185 Re and 187 Re isotopes. From the hyperfine splitting of the 5g → 4f and 4f → 3d pionic X-rays the effective quadrupole hyperfine constants were determined to be 187 A 2 sup(e)sup(f)sup(f) (4f) = 1.163 +- 0.010 keV and 187 A 2 sup(e)sup(f)sup(f) (3d) = 5.39 +- 0.63 keV, giving strong interaction quadrupole shifts epsilon 2 (4f) = 46 +- 10 eV and epsilon 2 (3d) = 1.3 +- 0.6 keV. The strong interaction monopole shifts epsilon 0 and widths GAMMA 0 of the 5g, 4f and 3d levels have also been measured. For the two higher orbits, standard optical-potential calculations fit the measured shifts and widths quite well. The observed deeper-lying 3d state, however, has shifts and widths that differ by a factor of 2 or more from the predictions. From the measured quadrupole hyperfine constants of the 4f level we calculate the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be 187 Qsup(μ) = 2.09 +- 0.04 b, 187 Qsup(π) = 2.07 +- 0.02 b, 185 Qsup(μ) = 2.21 +- 0.04 b, and 185 Qsup(π) = 2.18 +- 0.02 b. In addition, muonic X-rays from 181 Ta were observed; using the same methods for determining the quadrupole moments as above, a value of 181 Qsup(μ) = 3.28 +- 0.06 b was obtained, in good agreement with earlier published data. (orig.)

  18. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; Murga, Matilde; Laresgoiti, Usua; Skoudy, Anouchka; Bernales, Irantzu; Fullaondo, Asier; Moreno, Bernardino; Lloreta, José; Field, Seth J; Real, Francisco X; Zubiaga, Ana M

    2004-05-01

    E2F transcription factors are thought to be key regulators of cell growth control. Here we use mutant mouse strains to investigate the function of E2F1 and E2F2 in vivo. E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant mice develop nonautoimmune insulin-deficient diabetes and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction characterized by endocrine and exocrine cell dysplasia, a reduction in the number and size of acini and islets, and their replacement by ductal structures and adipose tissue. Mutant pancreatic cells exhibit increased rates of DNA replication but also of apoptosis, resulting in severe pancreatic atrophy. The expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle control was upregulated in the E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant pancreas, suggesting that their expression is repressed by E2F1/E2F2 activities and that the inappropriate cell cycle found in the mutant pancreas is likely the result of the deregulated expression of these genes. Interestingly, the expression of ductal cell and adipocyte differentiation marker genes was also upregulated, whereas expression of pancreatic cell marker genes were downregulated. These results suggest that E2F1/E2F2 activity negatively controls growth of mature pancreatic cells and is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated pancreatic phenotypes in the adult.

  19. Polarization of very cold neutron using a permanent magnet quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Tamaki, E-mail: tyosioka@post.kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mishima, Kenji; Ino, Takashi; Taketani, Kaoru; Muto, Suguru; Morishima, Takahiro; Shimizu, Hirohiko M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Junichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Sakai, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sato, Hiromi; Hirota, Katsuya; Otake, Yoshie [RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Hino, Masahiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Seki, Yoshichika [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Masako [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ichikawa, Masahiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    For the future fundamental physics experiments by using cold neutrons, we are developing a device which can measure the neutron polarization degree by accuracy significantly below 10{sup -3}. A quadrupole magnet is one of the promising candidate to measure the neutron polarization degree by such extremely high precision. We have performed a polarization experiment by using the quadrupole magnets at the Very Cold Neutron (VCN) port of the PF-2 in the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL). As a result, we obtained the polarization degree P with very high accuracy P=0.9994{+-}0.0001(stat.){+-}0.0003(syst.), which meet our requirement significantly.

  20. Nuclear quadrupole relaxation and viscosity in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmacher, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the nuclear quadrupole relaxation rate due to the molecular motions in liquid metals is related to the shear and bulk viscosity and hence to the absorption coefficient of ultrasound. Application of the 'extended liquid phonon' model of Ortoleva and Nelkin - which is the third of a series of continued-fraction-approximations for the van Hove neutron scattering function - gives a relation to the self diffusion constant. The predictions of the theory concerning the temperature dependence are compared with quadrupole relaxation measurements of Riegel et al. and Kerlin et al. in liquid gallium. Agreement is found only with the data of Riegel et al. (orig.) [de

  1. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e + /e - super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%

  2. Characterization and tuning of ultrahigh gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Becker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of quadrupole devices with high field gradients and small apertures requires precise control over higher order multipole field components. We present a new scheme for performance control and tuning, which allows the illumination of most of the quadrupole device aperture because of the reduction of higher order field components. Consequently, the size of the aperture can be minimized to match the beam size achieving field gradients of up to 500  T m^{-1} at good imaging quality. The characterization method based on a Hall probe measurement and a Fourier analysis was confirmed using the high quality electron beam at the Mainz Microtron MAMI.

  3. Conceptual design of a quadrupole magnet for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    eRHIC is a proposed upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which would allow collisions of up to 21 GeV polarized electrons with a variety of species from the existing RHIC accelerator. eRHIC employs an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and an FFAG lattice for the arcs. The arcs require open-midplane quadrupole magnets of up to 30 T/m gradient of good field quality. In this paper we explore initial quadrupole magnet design concepts based on permanent magnetic material which allow to modify the gradient during operation.

  4. Dynamical quadrupole structure factor of frustrated ferromagnetic chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the dynamical quadrupole structure factor of a spin-1/2 J1-J2 Heisenberg chain with competing ferromagnetic J1 and antiferromagnetic J2 in a magnetic field by exploiting density-matrix renormalization group techniques. In a field-induced spin nematic regime, we observe gapless excitations at q = π according to quasi-long-range antiferro-quadrupole correlations. The gapless excitation mode has a quadratic form at the saturation, while it changes into a linear dispersion as the magnetization decreases.

  5. Quadrupole photoionization of endohedral Xe-C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, Karan; Deshmukh, P C

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an endohedral confinement on the quadrupole photoionization of atomic Xe is studied using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). The atom's confinement is modelled by placing atomic Xe at the centre of a C 60 cage represented by an annular potential around it. A new confinement resonance is reported in the 4p quadrupole cross-section along with 'correlation confinement resonances' in 4d, 5s and 5p photoionizations at about 185 eV. The effect of the confinement on the non-dipole photoelectron angular distribution parameter γ is also reported.

  6. Calculation of the quadrupole-lense fringing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    With the aim of decreasing the scattering field effect at electrode edge or quadrupole lens poles with conformal transformations the scattering fields of electric quadrupole lens, two-electrode lens with the electrodes in a hyperbola form, as well as magnetic lens with hyperbolic poles are calculated. For the two-electrode system with kappa=0.1 (kappa - is coefficient, characterizing the rate of field intensity change in the lens) field distortion equals 1.8%. The comparison of experimental data with the calculation data has shown that with a rather high accuracy the scattering field effect in electric and magnetic lenses with hyperbolic poles may be taken into account

  7. Nb3Sn Quadrupoles Designs For The LHC Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, Helene

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the LHC luminosity upgrades, high field and large aperture Nb 3 Sn quadrupoles are being studied. This development has to incorporate all the relevant features for an accelerator magnet like alignment and cooling channels. The LARP HQ model is a high field and large bore quadrupole that will meet these requirements. The 2-layer coils are surrounded by a structure based on key and bladder technology with supporting iron yoke and aluminum shell. This structure is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality. We present here the magnetic and mechanical design of HQ, along with recent progress on the development of the first 1-meter model.

  8. The quadrupole moment and strong interaction parameters from muonic and pionic X-ray studies of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laat, C.T.A.M. de; Taal, A.; Duinker, W.; Konijn, J.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Mueller, W.; Commission of the European Communities, Geel

    1987-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of muonic and pionic 237 Np has been investigated with muons and pions stopped in a NpO 2 target. The nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moment was determined to be Q=3.886±0.006 b from the splittings of the muonic 5g→4f hyperfine complexes. The B(E2)↓-values for the first and second excited states were evaluated as 3.17±0.08 and 2.77±0.10 e 2 b 2 , respectively. A comparison between the muonic and pionic 5g→4f hyperfine complexes yields the strong interaction parameter for the pionic 4f state. For the first time a change of sign as function of Z for the strong interaction quadrupole shift ε 2 (4f) has been observed. The standard optical model predictions agree reasonably well with the measured strong interaction monopole shift, ε 0 (4f), and width, Γ 0 (4f), while they disagree with the experimental value for ε 2 . A stronger s-wave repulsion in the optical potential could explain this effect. (orig.)

  9. Analysis list: Gtf2e2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gtf2e2 Blood,Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2e2.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2e2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j...p/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2e2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2e2.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2e2.Liver.tsv http://dbarchiv...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  10. Analysis list: E2f1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E2f1 Blood,Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/mm9/target/E2f1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/E2f1.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  11. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan B Matondo

    Full Text Available The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  12. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  13. Electric quadrupole moments of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ states in $^{100,102,104}$Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Ekström, A; DiJulio, D D; Fahlander, C; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Fransen, C; Geibel, K; Hess, H; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Kester, O; Kownacki, J; Köster, U; Marsh, B A; Reiter, P; Scheck, M; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Stefanescu, I; Toft, H K; Tveten, G M; van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Wrzosek, K; Zielińska, M

    2009-01-01

    Using the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN the Coulomb excitation cross sections for the 0gs+→21+ transition in the β-unstable isotopes 100,102,104Cd have been measured for the first time. Two different targets were used, which allows for the first extraction of the static electric quadrupole moments Q(21+) in 102,104Cd. In addition to the B(E2) values in 102,104Cd, a first experimental limit for the B(E2) value in 100Cd is presented. The data was analyzed using the maximum likelihood method. The provided probability distributions impose a test for theoretical predictions of the static and dynamic moments. The data are interpreted within the shell-model using realistic matrix elements obtained from a G-matrix renormalized CD-Bonn interaction. In view of recent results for the light Sn isotopes the data are discussed in the context of a renormalization of the neutron effective charge. This study is the first to use the reorientation effect for post-accelerated short-lived radioactive isotopes to simultaneously d...

  14. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  15. ISR Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype:preparing the first test

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows the first prototype quadrupole (still with an adjustable stainless steel shrinking cylinder) being lifted to be inserted in a vertical cryostat for testing. It attained the design field gradient without any quench.The persons are Pierre Rey and Michel Bouvier. See also 7702690X.

  16. Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR low-beta insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows the cold mass of the Quadrupole with its outer aluminium alloy rings pre-compressing the superconducting coils via the magnetic yoke split in 4 parts.The end of the inner vacuum chamber,supporting the 6-pole correction windings, can also be seen as well as the electrical connections. See also photos 7702690X, 7702307.

  17. Quadrupole interactions of Au in Be and lattice location studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perscheid, B.; Gayer, H.W.; Krien, K.; Freitag, K.

    1978-01-01

    The Moessbauer nucleus 197 Au is used as probe for quadrupole interaction (QI) studies in Be metal. The 77 keV Moessbauer level is populated by the β - decay of 197 Pt and the EC decay of 197 Hg. This fact enabled samples prepared in different ways to be studied. (Auth.)

  18. Quadrupole transport experiment with space charge dominated cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Warwick, A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the beam current transport limit in a long quadrupole-focussed transport channel in the space charge dominated region where the space charge defocussing force is almost as large as the average focussing force of the channel

  19. Detection of quadrupole relaxation in an optically pumped cesium vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J

    1985-10-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation induced by means of optical pumping in a cesium vapour is experimentally studied, and the results are compared to the theoretical predictions. The optical detection process of this type of orientation is also discussed as a function of the polarization and spectral profile of the detection light.

  20. Correction of chromatic abberation in electrostatic lense systems containing quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of chromatic abberation correction in immersion systems consisting of axysimmetric and quadrupole lenses is shown. Concrete examples are presented. A number of new directions in science and technique, using ion beams are intensively developed presently. When using them accute necessity arises in chromatic abberation correction, while large-scale energy scattering is observed as a rule in such cases

  1. Optimization of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet focusing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Oday A., E-mail: oah@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq); Sise, Omer [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The imaging properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens were analyzed with the aid of computer simulation. • The optimal electrode voltages which lead to stigmatic image in both planes of the quadrupole doublet lens with minimum spot size at position sensitive detector (PSD) were found for two operation modes: point-to-point focusing and parallel-to-point focusing. • The imaging properties of are very sensitive to the lunching angle of the electron-beam. - Abstract: The imaging properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens were analyzed with the aid of computer simulation. The optimal electrode voltages which lead to stigmatic image in both planes of the quadrupole doublet lens with minimum spot size at position sensitive detector (PSD) were found for two operation modes: point-to-point focusing and parallel-to-point focusing. The optical properties as: Magnifications, spot sizes in the image plane and aberration figures were discussed. The results showed that the focusing of the lens was strong in the xy-plane in comparison with the focusing in the xz-plane. The distortion of the image was greater when the image position will be close to the lens in comparison with object position. Also, the imaging properties were very sensitive to the lunching angle of the electron-beam.

  2. Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chiral constituent quark model ( CQM) with general parametrization (GP) method has been formulated to calculate the quadrupole moments of the spin − 3 2 + decuplet baryons and spin − 3 2 + → 1 2 + transitions. The implications of such a model have been investigated in detail for the effects of symmetry breaking ...

  3. BPM Offset Determination by Sinusoidal Quadrupole K-modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    To ensure an adequate orbit steering that maximizes the machine aperture, a good knowledge of the BPM measurement offsets is crucial. During this MD, a sinusoidal k-modulation of individually powered quadrupoles was performed to determine the offsets of the nearby BPMs. An accuracy of 10µm for the determination of the absolute beam position is reached.

  4. HCV E2 glycoprotein: mutagenesis of N-linked glycosylation sites and its effects on E2 expression and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater-Handshy, Tiffany; Droll, Deborah A.; Fan Xiaofeng; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Chambers, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    An expression system for analysis of the synthesis and processing of the E2 glycoprotein of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1a strain was developed in transiently transfected cells. E2 proteins representing the entire length of the protein, including the transmembrane segment (E2) as well as two truncated versions (E2 660 and E2 715 ), were characterized for acquisition of N-linked glycans and transport to the media of transfected cells. To investigate the utilization of the 10 potential N-linked glycosylation sites on this E2 protein, a series of mutations consisting of single or multiple (two, three, four or eight) ablations of asparagine residues in the background of the E2 660 construct were analyzed. E2 660 proteins harboring single or multiple site mutations were produced at levels similar to that of wild-type protein, but secretion of the single mutants was mildly diminished, and elimination of two or more sites dramatically reduced delivery of the protein to the media. Similar results were obtained in Huh-7 cells with respect to intracellular synthesis and secretion of the mutant proteins. Analysis of oligosaccharide composition using endoglycosidase digestion revealed that all of the glycan residues on the intracellular forms of E2 660 , E2 715 , and E2 contained N-linked glycans modified into high-mannose carbohydrates, in contrast to the secreted forms, which were endo H resistant. The parental E2 660 protein could be readily detected in Huh-7 cells using anti-polyhistidine or antibody to recombinant E2. In contrast, E2 660 lacking the eight N-linked glycans was expressed but not detectable with anti-E2 antibody, and proteins lacking four glycans exhibited reduced reactivity. These experiments provide direct evidence that the presence of multiple N-linked glycans is required for the proper folding of the E2 protein in the ER and secretory pathway as well as for formation of its antigenic structure

  5. (e,2e) spectroscopy: from atoms to solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes briefly the theory of (e,2e) of atoms and molecules. Subsequently, introduces a simple model for a one-dimensional crystal. The (e,2e) spectra is calculated as would be measured for this hypothetical case, and use this model to make a link between (e,2e) spectroscopy as applied to atoms and molecules and this technique as applied to solids. Slight modifications of the model allow for the simulation of the effects of different band-structures on the (e,2e) spectra. Special attention is paid to the difference in the type of information obtained from (e,2e) spectroscopy and that obtained from angular resolved photo emission. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Analysis of E2F factors during epidermal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-01-01

    The multigene E2F family of transcription factors is central in the control of cell cycle progression. The expression and activity of E2F proteins is tightly regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally as a function of the proliferation and differentiation status of the cell. In this chapter, we review protocols designed to determine E2F mRNA abundance in tissues by in situ hybridization techniques. The ability to culture primary epidermal keratinocytes and maintain them as either undifferentiated or terminally differentiated cells allows the biochemical and molecular characterization of changes in E2F expression and activity. Thus, we also discuss in detail methods to analyze E2F protein abundance by immunoblot and their ability to bind DNA in cultured cells using electrophoretic mobility shift assays.

  7. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Binds to E2F1 and Inhibits E2F1-induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Fan, Yunxia; Chang, Xiaoqing; Peng, Li; Knudsen, Erik S.; Xia, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Cellular stress by DNA damage induces checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2)-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of the E2F1 transcription factor, leading to induction of apoptosis by activation of a subset of proapoptotic E2F1 target genes, including Apaf1 and p73. This report characterizes an interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, and E2F1 that results in the attenuation of E2F1-mediated apoptosis. In Ahr−/− fibroblasts stably transfected with a doxycycline-regulated AHR expression vector, inhibition of AHR expression causes a significant elevation of oxidative stress, γH2A.X histone phosphorylation, and E2F1-dependent apoptosis, which can be blocked by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of E2F1 expression. In contrast, ligand-dependent AHR activation protects these cells from etoposide-induced cell death. In cells expressing both proteins, AHR and E2F1 interact independently of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), because AHR and E2F1 coimmunoprecipitate from extracts of RB-negative cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that AHR and E2F1 bind to the Apaf1 promoter at a region containing a consensus E2F1 binding site but no AHR binding sites. AHR activation represses Apaf1 and TAp73 mRNA induction by a constitutively active CHK2 expression vector. Furthermore, AHR overexpression blocks the transcriptional induction of Apaf1 and p73 and the accumulation of sub-G0/G1 cells resulting from ectopic overexpression of E2F1. These results point to a proproliferative, antiapoptotic function of the Ah receptor that likely plays a role in tumor progression. PMID:18524851

  8. Report of the second research co-ordination meeting (RCM) for the co-ordinated research project (CRP E2 40 06) on characterization and evaluation of high-dose dosimetry techniques for quality assurance in radiation processing. IAEA, Vienna, 6-10 October 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.

    1998-01-01

    In many Member States the use of large Cobalt-60 gamma ray facilities and electron beam accelerators with beam energies from about 0.1 to 10 MeV for industrial processing continues to grow. For these processes, quality assurance relies on the application of well-established dosimetry systems and procedures. This is especially the case for health-regulated processes, such as the radiation sterilization of health care products, and the irradiation of food to eliminate pathogenic organisms or to control insect pests. For radiation sterilization, the publication of the international standard ISO 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization and the European Standard EN 552 - Sterilization of medical devices - Validation and routine control of sterilization by irradiation has resulted in the standardization of requirements to ensure global harmonization. Standardized dosimetry is also valuable in the radiation processing of many widely used commodities, such as polymers, automotive and airborne components, battery parts, computers, audio and video hardware, coatings, lubricants, adhesives, and composites. The major goal of this CRP is to investigate the factors that influence the response of dosimeters and establish procedures to improve dosimetry for quality assurance of the different types of radiation processes. This will help to unify the radiation measurements performed by different radiation processing facilities and other high-dose dosimetry users in Member States and encourage efforts to obtain traceability to primary and secondary standards laboratories. It will also aim to strengthen and expand the present International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) provided by the Agency

  9. Feynman graph derivation of Einstein quadrupole formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, N.D.H.; Soni, V.

    1980-11-01

    The one graviton transition operator, and consequently, the classical energy loss formula for gravitational radiation are derived from the Feynman graphs of helicity +- 2 theories of gravitation. The calculations are done both for the case of electromagnetic and gravitational scattering. The departure of the in and out states from plane waves owing to the long range nature of gravitation is taken into account to improve the Born approximation calculations. This also includes a long range modification of the graviton wave function which is shown to be equivalent to the classical problem of the true light cones deviating logarithmically at large distances from the flat space light cones. The transition from the S-matrix elements calculated graphically to the graviton transition operator is done by using complimentarity of space-time and momentum descriptions. The energy loss formula derived originally by Einstein is shown to be correct. (Auth.)

  10. Stability considerations of permanent magnet quadrupoles for CESR phase-III upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lou

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cornell electron storage ring (CESR phase-III upgrade plan includes very strong permanent magnet quadrupoles in front of the cryostat for the superconducting quadrupoles and physically as close as possible to the interaction point. Together with the superconducting quadrupoles, they provide tighter vertical focusing at the interaction point. The quadrupoles are built with neodymium iron boron (NdFeB material and operate inside the 15 kG solenoid field. Requirements on the field quality and stability of these quadrupoles are discussed and test results are presented.

  11. Corrector/quadrupole/sextupole power leads for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.; Hornik, K.; Rehak, M.

    1993-01-01

    In RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), there are 492 CQS (Corrector/Quadrupole/Sextupole) assemblies which require leads to carry the current from the power supply to the magnet. The lead assemblies will contain these leads along with instrumentation voltage taps and current carrying wires that are used only for magnet warm-up. These lead assemblies are analyzed for two cooling schemes: (1) gas flow through the lead tube and (2) heat sinking the lead tube along a 40--70 K heat shield (without gas flow). The analysis was extended to include the modeling of the cold and warm ends and effects of superinsulation shielding the lead assembly against radiation (including heat conduction due to residual gas pressure in the surrounding vacuum). Extensive parametric studies of heat exchange areas, specific copper properties, length of the lead, etc. are also included in the analysis

  12. Molecular and functional characterisation of E2F-5, a new member of the E2F family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, V.; Allen, K.E.; Sørensen, T.; Bybee, A.; Hijmans, E.M.; Voorhoeve, P.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Thangue, N.B. La

    1995-01-01

    The transcription factor DRTF1/E2F is implicated in the control of cellular proliferation due to its interaction with key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product and related pocket proteins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. DRTF1/E2F DNA

  13. E2F1 interactions with hHR23A inhibit its degradation and promote DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randeep K; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-05-03

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major mechanism for removal of DNA lesions induced by exposure to UV radiation in the epidermis. Recognition of damaged DNA sites is the initial step in their repair, and requires multiprotein complexes that contain XPC and hHR23 proteins, or their orthologues. A variety of transcription factors are also involved in NER, including E2F1. In epidermal keratinocytes, UV exposure induces E2F1 phosphorylation, which allows it to recruit various NER factors to sites of DNA damage. However, the relationship between E2F1 and hHR23 proteins vis-à-vis NER has remained unexplored. We now show that E2F1 and hHR23 proteins can interact, and this interaction stabilizes E2F1, inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. Reciprocally, E2F1 regulates hHR23A subcellular localization, recruiting it to sites of DNA photodamage. As a result, E2F1 and hHR23A enhance DNA repair following exposure to UV radiation, contributing to genomic stability in the epidermis.

  14. Radiation Load Optimization in the Final Focus System of FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Roman; Cerutti, Francesco; Tomás, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    With a center-of-mass energy of up to 100 TeV, FCC-hh will produce highly energetic collision debris at the Interaction Point (IP). Protecting the final focus quadrupoles from this radiation is challenging, since the required amount of shielding placed inside the magnets will reduce the free aperture, thereby limiting the β^{*} reach and luminosity. Hence, radiation mitigation strategies that make best use of the available aperture are required. In this paper, we study the possibility to split the first quadrupole Q1 into two quadrupoles with individual apertures, in order to distribute the radiation load more evenly and reduce the peak dose.

  15. Design of the 70 mm twin aperture superconducting quadrupole for the LHC dump insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Taylor, T M; Trinquart, G

    1996-01-01

    The LHC dump insertion features a pair of superconducting quadrupoles located on either side of a 340 m long straight section. Two horizontally deflecting kickers, located in between the quadrupole pairs, and a septum in the centre of the insertion, vertically deflect the two counter-rotating beams past the quadrupoles on the downstream sides, and into the dump areas. Due to the layout, the optical ß function in the quadrupoles is around 640 m, the largest around the LHC at injection. The quadrupoles must therefore have enlarged aperture and specially designed cryostats to allow for the safe passage of both the circulating and ejected beams. In this paper we present the design of the twin aperture dump quadrupole based on the 70 mm four layer coil proposed for the LHC low-ß quadrupoles. In preparation for model construction, we report on improvements of the coil design and a study of the retaining structures.

  16. Study of the hybrid controller electronics for the nano-stabilization of mechanical vibrations of CLIC quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, P Fernandez; Artoos, K; Esposito, M; Guinchard, M; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Ballester, R Moron; Collette, C

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the required levels of luminosity in the CLIC linear collider, mechanical stabilization of quadrupoles to the nanometre level is required. The paper describes a design of hybrid electronics combining an analogue controller and digital communication with the main machine controller. The choice of local analogue control ensures the required low latency while still keeping sufficiently low noise level. Furthermore, it reduces the power consumption, rack space and cost. Sensitivity to radiation single events upsets is reduced compared to a digital controller. The digital part is required for fine tuning and real time monitoring via digitization of critical parameters.

  17. On the gravitational radiation formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.; Dehnen, H.

    1980-01-01

    For electromagnetically as well as gravitationally bound quantum mechanical many-body systems the coefficients of absorption and induced emission of gravitational radiation are calculated in the first-order approximation. The results are extended subsequently to systems with arbitrary non-Coulomb-like two-particle interaction potentials;it is shown explicitly that in all cases the perturbation of the binding potentials of the bound systems by the incident gravitational wave field itself must be taken into account. With the help of the thermodynamic equilibrium of gravitational radiation and quantised matter, the coefficients for spontaneous emission of gravitational radiation are derived and the gravitational radiation formula for emission of gravitational quadrupole radiation by bound quantum mechanical many-body systems is given. According to the correspondence principle the present result is completely identical with the well known classical radiation formula, by which recent criticism against this formula is refuted. Finally the quantum mechanical absorption cross section for gravitational quadrupole radiation is deduced and compared with the corresponding classical expressions. As a special example the vibrating two-mass quadrupole is treated explicitly. (author)

  18. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by Methanol Extract of Polyopes affinis in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells through Suppression of Akt-dependent NF-kB Activity and MAPK Pathway.

  19. Decay of giant resonance E2 isoscalar in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdade, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    In this work, it is made a study of the giant resonance E2 isoscalar, in heavy nuclei. Fission probabilities for this resonance were determined by various authors, in different experiments, for 238 U. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Performance of an Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C; Kangas, Kenneth; Spencer, Cherrill M; Volk, James T

    2005-01-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic centerline and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic centerline stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic centerline. Calibration procedures as well as centerline measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  1. ELECTRON TRAPPING IN WIGGLER AND QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS OF CESRTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lanfa

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R and D (1). One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in the wiggler and quadrupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped with long lifetime in a quadrupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism and photoelectrons produced in the wiggler zero field zone have long lifetime due to their complicated trajectory.

  2. Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQC) Magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Whitson, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hannaford, R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2007-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90 mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5 K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current. Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented.

  3. Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQC) Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Whitson, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hannaford, R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90 mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5 K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current. Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented

  4. Development and test of LARP technological quadrupole (TQC) magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-08-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90-mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current . Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented.

  5. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence.

  6. Development and test of LARP technological quadrupole (TQC) magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.

    2006-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90-mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current . Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented

  7. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence

  8. Engineering Design of Electrostatic Quadrupole for ISOL Beam Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the ISOL system, the RI beam should be transported from the target ion source to post accelerator through various analyzing and charge-breeding systems such as PS (pre-seperator), HRMS (High Resolution Mass Seperator), RF cooler and A/q separator. A reference particle for the beam dynamics calculation is 132 Sn 1+ . After charge breeder system, the charge state is boosted from +1 to +19 with ECR charge breeder and to +33 with EBIS charge breeder. Because the beam energy is as low as 50 keV, the electrostatic optics was adopted rather than the magnetic optics. The electrostatic quadrupole triplets were used for the beam focusing and the electrostatic bender is used for 90-degree bending. In this paper, the design procedure and engineering design of the electrostatic quadrupole are presented

  9. Quadrupole deflector of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartzke, Eva; Kolhinen, Veli; Habs, Dietrich; Neumayr, Juergen; Schuermann, Christian; Szerypo, Jerzy; Thirolf, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A cylindrical double Penning trap has been installed and successfully commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching. This trap system has been designed to isobarically purify low energy ion beams and perform highly accurate mass measurements. An electrostatic quadrupole deflector has been designed and installed at the injection line of the Penning trap system enabling a simultaneous use of an online ion beam with reference ions from an offline ion source. Alternatively two offline sources can be used concurrently e.g. an {alpha} recoil sources providing heavy radioactive species (e.g {sup 240}U) together with reference mass ions (which in the future will be e.g. a carbon cluster ion source). The bender has been designed for beam energies up to 1 keV with q/A ratios 1/1-1/250. This presentation shows the technical design and the operating parameters of the quadrupole beam bender and its implementation at the MLLTRAP system.

  10. Optimization on the end-shaping of a quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sasaki, H.; Someya, H.; Sakai, I.

    1983-01-01

    In order to achieve the widest possible aperture of accelerator magnets, end-shaping is a well known method. To do this one has to deal with the three-dimensional fringe field inherent to each geometry. This may be done experimentally by a cut-and-try method or theoretically by a three-dimensional computer code. In any case, considerable time has to be consumed if one wants to get a conclusion which is as general as possible and which is useful in designing magnets. Fringe field optimization on the end-shaping of the conventional quadrupole magnet was done by a cut-and-try method, where a very simple geometry of the end pole was chosen to get a general conclusion. The 'cut-out ratio diagram' given as a conclusion is useful to designers of the conventional quadrupole magnet. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear quadrupole moment of the 99Tc ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2 + ground state of 99 Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc 2 and ZrTc 2 . If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the 99 Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced

  12. The development of compact magnetic quadrupoles for ILSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Brady, V.

    1990-08-01

    Magnetic focussing is selected for the 4 MeV to 10 MeV section of the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE) to study the transport of magnetically focussed spacecharge-dominated beams and to explore the engineering problems in accurate positioning of the magnetic fields in an array of quadrupoles. A prototype development program for such magnets is currently under way. A compact design was selected to decrease the overall accelerator diameter and its cost. The design evolved from a cosine 2θ current distribution, corrected for end effects. Current-dominated magnets are used in a pulsed mode to allow higher current densities compared to standard dc water-cooled conductors. The POISSON and MAFCO codes were used in the design of the magnets. The construction of the quadrupoles is aimed at achieving location accuracy of the magnetic center to within 1 mil (2.54 x 10 -5 m) of the mechanical center

  13. Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blednykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ_{r}. In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ_{r}→∞, and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μ_{r}=1.

  14. Quadrupole moments of wobbling excitations in 163Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, A.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Hagemann, G.B.; Sletten, G.; Huebel, H.; Bengtsson, R.

    2004-01-01

    Lifetimes of states in the triaxial strongly deformed bands of 163 Lu have been measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The bands have been interpreted as wobbling-phonon excitations from the characteristic electromagnetic properties of the transitions connecting the bands. Quadrupole moments are extracted for the zero-phonon yrast band and, for the first time, for the one-phonon wobbling band. The very similar results found for the two bands suggest a similar intrinsic structure and support the wobbling interpretation. While the in-band quadrupole moments for the bands show a decreasing trend towards higher spin, the ratio of the interband to the in-band transition strengths remains constant. Both features can be understood by a small increase in triaxiality towards higher spin. Such a change in triaxiality is also found in cranking calculations, to which the experimental results are compared

  15. A high gradient quadrupole magnet for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    1987-01-01

    A quadrupole magnet for the SSC has been designed with a gradient of 234 T/m at 6500 A. Coil I.D. is 40 mm. The two-layer windings have 9 inner turns and 13 outer turns per pole with a wedge-shaped space in each layer. The 30-strand cable is identical to that used in the outer layer of the SSC dipole magnet. Interlocking aluminum alloy collars are compressed around the coil using a four-way press and are locked with four keys. The collared coil is supported and centered in a cold split iron yoke. A one-meter model was constructed and tested. Design details including quench behavior are presented. The quadrupole magnets proposed for the main SSC rings have a design gradient of 230 T/m. For one proposed 60 degree lattice cell, each 3-m long quad is separated by five 17-m long dipole magnets

  16. Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.

  17. An E2-Substituted Chimeric Pestivirus With DIVA Vaccine Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    An advantage of the use of chimeric pestiviruses as modified live vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) resides in their capacity to be manipulated to achieve the characteristics desired for safe and efficacious DIVA vaccines. We have recently generated a new chimeric virus, Riems26_E2gif...... vaccinated pigs were protected. This new chimeric pestivirus represents a C-strain based DIVA vaccine candidate that can be differentiated based on CSFV E2 specific antibodies....

  18. Sibling rivalry in the E2F family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2002-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor family determines whether or not a cell will divide by controlling the expression of key cell-cycle regulators. The individual E2Fs can be divided into distinct subgroups that act in direct opposition to one another to promote either cellular proliferation or cell-cycle exit and terminal differentiation. What is the underlying molecular basis of this 'push-me-pull-you' regulation, and what are its biological consequences?

  19. Permanent magnet quadrupoles for the CLIC Drive Beam decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, Ben; Collomb, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    STFC in collaboration with CERN has developed a new type of adjustable permanent magnet based quadrupole for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator. It uses vertical movement of the permanent magnets to achieve an integrated gradient range of 3.6-14.6T, which will allow it to be used for the first 60% of the decelerator line. Construction of a prototype of this magnet has begun; following this, it will be measured magnetically at CERN and Daresbury Laboratory.

  20. The monopole and quadrupole vibrations of a hot nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okolowicz, J.; Drozdz, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.

    1989-03-01

    An extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach has been applied to a description of the isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole vibration modes in the excited nuclear system at finite temperature. The temperature dependence of the resonance characteristics is established for both modes. In anticipation of some anharmonic effects the principle of regularity and single-valuedness has been used to extract the energies of the collective modes. (orig.)

  1. Reorientation precession measurements of quadrupole moments in 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelberg, A.; Herskind, B.; Kalish, R.; Neiman, M.

    1976-01-01

    The quadrupole moments of the 3/2 - and 5/2 - states in 103 Rh have been determined by measuring the precession of the gamma-ray angular distribution following Coulomb excitation; 16 O and 32 S beams have been used. The structure of the negative-parity states in 103 Rh is found to be in agreement with the model of Arima and Iachello. (orig.) [de

  2. Emittance growth from rotated quadrupoles in heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We derive a set of moment equations which incorporates linear quadrupolar focusing and space-charge defocusing, in the presence of rotational misalignments of the quadrupoles about the direction of beam propagation. Although the usual beam emittance measured relative to fixed transverse x and y coordinate axes is not constant, a conserved emittance-like quantity has been found. Implications for alignment tolerances in accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion are discussed

  3. Behaviour of quadrupole mass spectrometer towards noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibullah

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a quadrupole mass spectrometric set-up for noble gas analysis with its potential application to material accountancy at the input accountability tank of a reprocessing facility. Linear dependence of ion source pressure on the inlet pressure was considered to be practicable criterion for the functionality of the instrument. Short term and long term sensitivity variations have also been discussed. No memory effect was observed under the experimental conditions. (author)

  4. MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARDONA, J.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, R.; PTITSYN, V.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented [2]. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model

  5. Short quadrupole, first at the SC, then at LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Quadrupoles of this type were built for the beam lines of the 600 MeV Synchro-Cylclotron. Surplus ones were installed in the LEAR injection line. The particularity of these quads is that they are very short and that a special design, resembling the "Lambertson magnet", limits and linearizes their stray field. This was achieved by the iron between the poles extending beyond the poles.

  6. Quantized TDHF for isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.

    1988-01-01

    The time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory supplemented with the regularity and single-valuedness quantization condition for the gauge invariant component of the wavefunction is applied to the description of the centroid energy and escape width of isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 16 O, 40 Ca and 110 Zr. Calculations are performed using the Skyrme SIII effective interaction. An important role of the finite oscillation amplitude in the mean-field dynamics is emphasized. (orig.)

  7. Longitudinal capture in the radio-frequency-quadrupole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, S.

    1980-03-01

    The radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure not only can attain easily transverse focusing in the low-beta region, but also can obtain very high capture efficiency because of its low beta-lambda and low-particle rigidity. An optimization study of the zero space-charge longitudinal capture in an RFQ linac that yields configurations with large capture efficiency is described

  8. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators

  9. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Quadrupole Prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehak,M.; Jain, A. K.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    The design and measurement of the NSLS-II ring quadrupoles prototypes are presented. These magnets are part of a larger prototype program described in [1]. Advances in software, hardware, and manufacturing have led to some new level of insight in the quest for the perfect magnet design. Three geometric features are used to minimize the first three allowed harmonics by way of optimization. Validations through measurement and confidence levels in calculations are established.

  10. Linearised collective Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, M.; Heumann, D.; Scheid, W.

    1990-11-01

    The linearisation of the Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations yields a new spin degree of freedom, which is called collective spin and has a value of 3/2. With the introduction of collective spin dependent potentials, this linearised Schroedinger equation is then used for the description of low energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities of some even-odd Xe, Ir and Au nuclei which have a spin 3/2 in their groundstate. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic performance of new Fermilab high gradient quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanft, R.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Lamm, M.J.; McInturff, A.D.; Mokhtarani, A.; Riddiford, A.

    1991-05-01

    For the Fermilab Tevatron low beta insertions installed in 1990--1991 as part of a luminosity upgrade there were built approximately 35 superconducting cold iron quadrupoles utilizing a two layer cos 2θ coil geometry with 76 mm diameter aperature. The field harmonics and strengths of these magnets obtained by measurement at cryogenic conditions are presented. Evidence for a longitudinal periodic structure in the remnant field is shown. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Measurement of the transfer function of the main SPS Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A; Semanaz, P; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1998-01-01

    During two short MD's we have measured the transfer function (amplitude and phase) of the main quadrupole string QD. By the word string we mean the global effect of power supplies, magnets and the eddy current effects of the vacuum chamber. This paper presents the measurement procedure and the results, which are needed for the design of a real-time feedback system for the betatron tunes ( Qloop).

  13. A quadrupole mass spectrometer system for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor for nuclear safeguards-related surveillance of a pilot-scale gas centrifuge plant is described. This monitor utilises a quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure the isotopic composition of UF 6 in the feed and product gas streams. Details of the design and construction are given, and several difficulties are identified and discussed. Finally, the performance of this system is illustrated with typical results

  14. Working Around Cosmic Variance: Remote Quadrupole Measurements of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Arsalan; Bunn, Emory

    2018-01-01

    Anisotropies in the CMB maps continue to revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. However, the statistical interpretation of these anisotropies is tainted with a posteriori statistics. The problem is particularly emphasized for lower order multipoles, i.e. in the cosmic variance regime of the power spectrum. Naturally, the solution lies in acquiring a new data set – a rather difficult task given the sample size of the Universe.The CMB temperature, in theory, depends on: the direction of photon propagation, the time at which the photons are observed, and the observer’s location in space. In existing CMB data, only the first parameter varies. However, as first pointed out by Kamionkowski and Loeb, a solution lies in making the so-called “Remote Quadrupole Measurements” by analyzing the secondary polarization produced by incoming CMB photons via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. These observations allow us to measure the projected CMB quadrupole at the location and look-back time of a galaxy cluster.At low redshifts, the remote quadrupole is strongly correlated to the CMB anisotropy from our last scattering surface. We provide here a formalism for computing the covariance and relation matrices for both the two-point correlation function on the last scattering surface of a galaxy cluster and the cross correlation of the remote quadrupole with the local CMB. We then calculate these matrices based on a fiducial model and a non-standard model that suppresses power at large angles for ~104 clusters up to z=2. We anticipate to make a priori predictions of the differences between our expectations for the standard and non-standard models. Such an analysis is timely in the wake of the CMB S4 era which will provide us with an extensive SZ cluster catalogue.

  15. Giant 4p-quadrupole resonances in the Rare Earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew, J.A.D.; Netzer, F.P.; Clark, C.W.; Morar, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray absorption of Ce obtained by partial secondary yield, is compared with previously obtained electron-energy loss measurements in reflection mode. The absence of a strong feature below 4p 3/2 threshold in photon absorption provides confirmation that the peak in EELS is nondipole in character. Theoretical analysis supports interpretation in terms of a p-f giant quadrupole resonance, a result which broadens the analogy between giant resonances in atomic and nuclear physics

  16. Radio-frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A.

    1982-10-19

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  17. General quadrupole shapes in the Interacting Boson Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic attributes of nuclear quadrupole shapes are investigated within the algebraic framework of the Interacting Boson Model. For each shape the Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic and collective parts, normal modes are identified and intrinsic states are constructed and used to estimate transition matrix elements. Special emphasis is paid to new features (e.g. rigid triaxiality and coexisting deformed shapes) that emerge in the presence of the three-body interactions. 27 refs

  18. Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.

  19. Design of the PEP-II Interaction Region Septum Quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Younger, F.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II QF2 magnet is one of the final focus quadrupoles for the Low-Energy Ring (LER) and utilizes a septum aperture to accommodate the adjacent High-Energy Ring (HER) beamline. The LER lattice design specification calls for an extremely high field quality for this magnet. A conventional water-cooled copper coil and laminated steel core design was selected to allow adjustment in the excitation. The close proximity between the LER and HER beamlines and the required integrated quadrupole strength result in a moderately high current density septum design. The QF2 magnets are imbedded in a confined region at each end of the BaBar detector, thus requiring a small magnet core cross section. Pole face windings are included in the QF2 design to buck the skew octupole term induced by the solenoidal fringe field that leaks out of the detector. Back-leg windings are included to buck a small dipole component induced by the lack of perfect quadrupole symmetry in this septum design. 2D pole contour optimization and 3D end chamfers are used to minimize harmonic errors; a separate permanent-magnet Harmonic Corrector Ring compensates for remaining field errors. The design methods and approach, 2D and 3D analyses, and the resulting expected magnet performance are described in this paper.

  20. Quadrupole magnets for IR-FEL at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwali, Kailash; Singh, Kushraj; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    The IR-FEL project at RRCAT needs quadrupole magnets for focusing 15 to 35 MeV electron beam through a dog-leg type beam line. This bend needs tighter relative tolerances on the central quadrupole triplet . The magnetic design, fabrication and magnetic characterization of five quadrupole magnets were carried out. The poles are detachable and wider than the coils. This significantly improves the good field region of the magnet. The magnet cross-section was optimized using 2D POISON code and entry-exit tapers were optimized using 3D code TOSCA.. The aperture radius of the magnet is 30 mm and the total core length is 180 mm. The integrated gradient of magnet is 0.51 T. The magnetic measurements were carried out using Danfysik make rotating coil bench model 690. Integrated gradient and multipoles present in the magnet aperture were measured at various excitation levels. The details of magnetic development and the magnetic measurements are discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  2. Observation of forbidden (E2) lines in the ultraviolet spectra of Ca II, Sr II, and Ba II by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doidge, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Forbidden (electric quadrupole, E2) transitions of the type ns 2 S 1/2 –nd 2 D 3/2 and ns 2 S 1/2 –nd 2 D 5/2 in the ultraviolet spectra of singly ionized Ca, Sr, and Ba (with n = 4, 5 or 6 for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively) have been observed in the emission spectrum of an inductively coupled argon plasma. Wavelengths and wavenumbers of the six lines are reported and the values are in good agreement with those expected from literature data for the energy levels involved. - Highlights: • Wavelengths measured using commercially available ICP emission spectrometer • First wavelength and wavenumber measurements of some E2 lines of Ba +, Ca +, Sr + • Evidence for small plasma shifts in the wavenumbers of Ba + and Sr +

  3. Decay of giant resonance E2 isoscalar in heavy nuclei. Decaimento da ressonancia gigante E2 isoescalar em nucleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdade, S B [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1980-01-01

    In this work, it is made a study of the giant resonance E2 isoscalar, in heavy nuclei. Fission probabilities for this resonance were determined by various authors, in different experiments, for {sup 238}U. (A.C.A.S.).

  4. Branching ratios of radiative transitions in O VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Chiranjib; Chaudhuri, Rajat K

    2007-01-01

    We study the branching ratios of the allowed and forbidden radiative transitions among the first few (9) fine structure levels of O VI using relativistic coupled-cluster theory. We find irregular patterns for a number of transitions within n-complexes with n ≤ 4. We have used the existing values of the allowed electric dipole (E1) transition as a benchmark of our theory. Good agreement with the existing values establish accuracies of not only the theoretical method but the basis function as well. In general, the electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are greater in magnitude than magnetic dipole (M1) transition probabilities, whereas for medium atomic transition frequencies they are of the same order of magnitude. On the other hand, if the transitions involved are in between two fine-structure components of the same term, then the M1 transition probability is more probable than that of E2. The results presented here in tabular and graphical form are compared with the available theoretical and observed data. Graphical analysis helps to understand the trends of electric and magnetic transitions for the decay channels presented here. Our calculated values of the lifetimes of the excited states are in very good agreement with the available results

  5. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Large scale genotype comparison of human papillomavirus E2-host interaction networks provides new insights for e2 molecular functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Muller

    Full Text Available Human Papillomaviruses (HPV cause widespread infections in humans, resulting in latent infections or diseases ranging from benign hyperplasia to cancers. HPV-induced pathologies result from complex interplays between viral proteins and the host proteome. Given the major public health concern due to HPV-associated cancers, most studies have focused on the early proteins expressed by HPV genotypes with high oncogenic potential (designated high-risk HPV or HR-HPV. To advance the global understanding of HPV pathogenesis, we mapped the virus/host interaction networks of the E2 regulatory protein from 12 genotypes representative of the range of HPV pathogenicity. Large-scale identification of E2-interaction partners was performed by yeast two-hybrid screenings of a HaCaT cDNA library. Based on a high-confidence scoring scheme, a subset of these partners was then validated for pair-wise interaction in mammalian cells with the whole range of the 12 E2 proteins, allowing a comparative interaction analysis. Hierarchical clustering of E2-host interaction profiles mostly recapitulated HPV phylogeny and provides clues to the involvement of E2 in HPV infection. A set of cellular proteins could thus be identified discriminating, among the mucosal HPV, E2 proteins of HR-HPV 16 or 18 from the non-oncogenic genital HPV. The study of the interaction networks revealed a preferential hijacking of highly connected cellular proteins and the targeting of several functional families. These include transcription regulation, regulation of apoptosis, RNA processing, ubiquitination and intracellular trafficking. The present work provides an overview of E2 biological functions across multiple HPV genotypes.

  7. Large scale genotype comparison of human papillomavirus E2-host interaction networks provides new insights for e2 molecular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mandy; Jacob, Yves; Jones, Louis; Weiss, Amélie; Brino, Laurent; Chantier, Thibault; Lotteau, Vincent; Favre, Michel; Demeret, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) cause widespread infections in humans, resulting in latent infections or diseases ranging from benign hyperplasia to cancers. HPV-induced pathologies result from complex interplays between viral proteins and the host proteome. Given the major public health concern due to HPV-associated cancers, most studies have focused on the early proteins expressed by HPV genotypes with high oncogenic potential (designated high-risk HPV or HR-HPV). To advance the global understanding of HPV pathogenesis, we mapped the virus/host interaction networks of the E2 regulatory protein from 12 genotypes representative of the range of HPV pathogenicity. Large-scale identification of E2-interaction partners was performed by yeast two-hybrid screenings of a HaCaT cDNA library. Based on a high-confidence scoring scheme, a subset of these partners was then validated for pair-wise interaction in mammalian cells with the whole range of the 12 E2 proteins, allowing a comparative interaction analysis. Hierarchical clustering of E2-host interaction profiles mostly recapitulated HPV phylogeny and provides clues to the involvement of E2 in HPV infection. A set of cellular proteins could thus be identified discriminating, among the mucosal HPV, E2 proteins of HR-HPV 16 or 18 from the non-oncogenic genital HPV. The study of the interaction networks revealed a preferential hijacking of highly connected cellular proteins and the targeting of several functional families. These include transcription regulation, regulation of apoptosis, RNA processing, ubiquitination and intracellular trafficking. The present work provides an overview of E2 biological functions across multiple HPV genotypes.

  8. E2 - an intermediate-age LMC cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommer, R.A.; Olszewski, E.W.; Aaronson, M.; Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1986-01-01

    A color-magnitude diagram is presented for the faint star cluster E2, located near the tip of the Magellanic Stream. The main-sequence turnoff, a few giants, and a giant clump can be discerned. Comparisons with VandenBerg models show E2 to be a 1.5 Gyr old cluster with abundance Z of about 0.01 at the distance of the LMC, and thus similar to the more populous intermediate-age LMC clusters. The existence of cluster formation at a large distance from the LMC center (E2 is at almost 8 deg radius) is discussed in the context of the star-formation history, structure, and kinematics of the outer halo of the Large Magellanic Cloud. 42 references

  9. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  10. Design, simulation and construction of quadrupole magnets for focusing electron beam in powerful industrial electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KH Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and simulation of quadrupole magnets and electron beam optical of that by CST Studio code has been studied. Based on simulation result the magnetic quadrupole has been done for using in beam line of first Iranian powerful electron accelerator. For making the suitable magnetic field the effects of material and core geometry and coils current variation on quadrupole magnetic field have been studied. For test of quadrupole magnet the 10 MeV beam energy and 0.5 pi mm mrad emittance of input beam has been considered. We see the electron beam through the quadrupole magnet focus in one side and defocus in other side. The optimum of distance between two quadrupole magnets for low emittance have been achieved. The simulation results have good agreement with experimental results

  11. Compact quadrupole triplet for the S-DALINAC polarized electron injector SPIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, C.; Eichhorn, R.; Enders, J.; Hessler, C.; Poltoratska, Y. [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, W.; Mueller, W.F.O.; Steiner, B.; Weiland, T. [Inst. fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    An ultra compact quadrupole triplet for the S-DALINAC Polarized Electron Injector SPIN has been developed. This development is due to limiting spatial restrictions. Each individual quadrupole has a length of 8 mm, affixed by two 2 mm aluminum plates, resulting in a length of only 12 mm per quadrupole. The gaps between each quadrupole are set to 18 mm, therefore the complete triplet has a total length of only 72 mm. The quadrupole design includes a large aperture, suitable for CF 35 beam pipes. As fringe fields reach far info neighboring yokes, the assembly requires simulation by a beam dynamics tool for optimal weighting of the current excitation. Measurement of the magnetic field distribution is compared to numerical values and the quadrupole strength is calculated. (orig.)

  12. Approaching the r-process "waiting point" nuclei below $^{132}$Sn: quadrupole collectivity in $^{128}$Cd

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Nardelli, S; Voulot, D; Habs, D; Schwerdtfeger, W; Iwanicki, J S

    We propose to investigate the nucleus $^{128}$Cd neighbouring the r-process "waiting point" $^{130}$Cd. A possible explanation for the peak in the solar r-abundances at A $\\approx$ 130 is a quenching of the N = 82 shell closure for spherical nuclei below $^{132}$Sn. This explanation seems to be in agreement with recent $\\beta$-decay measurements performed at ISOLDE. In contrast to this picture, a beyond-mean-field approach would explain the anomaly in the excitation energy observed for $^{128}$Cd rather with a quite large quadrupole collectivity. Therefore, we propose to measure the reduced transition strengths B(E2) between ground state and first excited 2$^{+}$-state in $^{128}$Cd applying $\\gamma$-spectroscopy with MINIBALL after "safe" Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated beam obtained from REX-ISOLDE. Such a measurement came into reach only because of the source developments made in 2006 for experiment IS411, in particular the use of a heated quartz transfer line. The result from the proposed measure...

  13. Observation of electric quadrupole X-ray transitions in muonic thallium, lead and bismuth

    CERN Document Server

    Schneuwly, H; Engfer, R; Jahnke, U; Kankeleit, E; Lindenberger, K H; Pearce, R M; Petitjean, C; Schellenberg, L; Schröder, W U; Walter, H K; Zehnder, A

    1972-01-01

    Electric quadrupole X-ray transitions (5g to 3d, 4f to 2p, and 3d to 1s) have been observed in muonic Tl, Pb and Bi. From the 3 to 1 transitions, energy splittings of the n=3 levels were deduced. From a comparison of the relative intensities of E1 and E2 transitions the population ratios 5g/5f, 4f/4d, and 3d/3p were deduced. These ratios are well reproduced by a cascade calculation assuming a statistical initial population at n=20, including K, L and M shell conversion. In the case of /sup 205/Tl discrepancies between the experimental and the calculated 3d-1s/3p-is intensity ratio can be explained by nuclear excitation. From the 3p/sub 3/2/ to 1s/sub 1/2/ intensity in /sup 209 /Bi one can deduce the ratio of the radiationless to the X-ray transition width and give limits for prompt neutron emission from the 3d level. (23 refs).

  14. pVHL's kryptonite: E2-EPF UCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohh, Michael

    2006-08-01

    E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) is a member of an E2 family of enzymes that catalyzes the ligation of ubiquitin to proteins targeted for destruction by the proteasome. UCP is overexpressed in common human cancers, suggesting its involvement in oncogenesis, but a physiologic target of UCP has not been identified. In a recent report published in Nature Medicine, Jung et al. identified von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, which targets the alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for ubiquitin-mediated destruction, as a bona fide substrate of UCP and demonstrated a potential pVHL-HIF pathway-dependent role for UCP in cancer development.

  15. Isotopic dependence of the giant quadrupole resonance in the stable even-mass molybdenum nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, A.; Gaillard, Y.; Bemolle, A.M.; Buenerd, M.; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; de Saintignon, P.

    1979-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of 110 MeV 3 He particles is used to probe the quadrupole strength in the even Mo isotopes. The peak position of the giant quadrupole resonance is found to decrease more rapidly than predicted by the A/sup -1/3/ law, a behavior very similar to that exhibited by the photonuclear giant dipole resonance. The width and strength of the giant quadrupole resonance are practically constant in 92 Mo through 100 Mo

  16. Sensitivity of (α,α') cross sections to excited-state quadrupole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Scott, A.; Ronningen, R.M.; Hamilton, J.H.; Kruse, T.H.; Suchannek, R.; Savin, W.

    1977-01-01

    Inelastic α particle scattering at 21 and 24 MeV has been used to estimate the electric quadrupole moment of the second 2 + state in 180 Hf. Sensitivity to the assumed quadrupole moment is due almost entirely to reorientation via the nuclear force. Results suggest that the technique may be a useful method of estimating excited state quadrupole moments, particularly for states with high excitation energies or with J greater than 2

  17. Stability of the coherent quadrupole oscillations excited by the beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Chao, A.W.

    1983-10-01

    We study the coherent quadrupole motion in the presence of beam-beam interaction, using a linear approximation to the beam-beam force. The corresponding beam-beam limit is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of a system of linear equations describing the coherent quadrupole motion. We find that the stability of the quadrupole motions imposes severe limits on the beam current, as is the case for the dipole instability. Preliminary results of this study have appeared elsewhere

  18. Kinetic energy in the collective quadrupole Hamiltonian from the experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolos, R.V., E-mail: jolos@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kolganova, E.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-10

    Dependence of the kinetic energy term of the collective nuclear Hamiltonian on collective momentum is considered. It is shown that the fourth order in collective momentum term of the collective quadrupole Hamiltonian generates a sizable effect on the excitation energies and the matrix elements of the quadrupole moment operator. It is demonstrated that the results of calculation are sensitive to the values of some matrix elements of the quadrupole moment. It stresses the importance for a concrete nucleus to have the experimental data for the reduced matrix elements of the quadrupole moment operator taken between all low lying states with the angular momenta not exceeding 4.

  19. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported

  20. The Erez–Rosen metric and the role of the quadrupole on light propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Crosta, Mariateresa; Vecchiato, Alberto; De Felice, Fernando; Geralico, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The gravitational field of a static body with the quadrupole moment is described by an exact solution found by Erez and Rosen. Here, we investigate the role of the quadrupole in the motion, deflection and lensing of a light ray in the above metric. The standard lensing observables such as image positions and magnification have been explicitly obtained in the weak-field and small-quadrupole limit. In this limit, the spacetime metric appears as the natural generalization to quadrupole corrections of the metric form adopted also in current astrometric models. Hence, the corresponding analytical solution of the inverse ray tracing problem and the consistency with other approaches are also discussed. (paper)

  1. Comparison of conventional and novel quadrupole drift tube magnets inspired by Klaus Halbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Quadrupole drift tube magnets for a heavy-ion linac provide a demanding application of magnet technology. A comparison is made of three different solutions to the problem of providing an adjustable high-field-strength quadrupole magnet in a small volume. A conventional tape-wound electromagnet quadrupole magnet (conventional) is compared with an adjustable permanent-magnet/iron quadrupole magnet (hybrid) and a laced permanent-magnet/iron/electromagnet (laced). Data is presented from magnets constructed for the SuperHILAC heavy-ion linear accelerator, and conclusions are drawn for various applications.

  2. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  3. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  4. Random errors in the magnetic field coefficients of superconducting quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Prodell, A.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1987-01-01

    The random multipole errors of superconducting quadrupoles are studied. For analyzing the multipoles which arise due to random variations in the size and locations of the current blocks, a model is outlined which gives the fractional field coefficients from the current distributions. With this approach, based on the symmetries of the quadrupole magnet, estimates are obtained of the random multipole errors for the arc quadrupoles envisioned for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and for a single-layer quadrupole proposed for the Superconducting Super Collider

  5. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of 4-[(E)-(-2,5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of 4-[(E)-(-2,5- dimethoxybenzylidene)amino] benzoic acid. Schiff base, SBDAB was carried out inorder to determine its inhibitory efficiency at higher temperature using weight loss and gasometric techniques. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the studied Schiff base increased with increase in ...

  7. Calculation of B(E2) for the 18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.I.A. de; Carlin Filho, N.; Chen, Y.T.; Coimbra, M.M.; Takai, H.; Mastroleo, R.C.; Silveira, L.A.; Villari, A.C.C.

    1982-03-01

    A detailed calculation of the reduced probability of transition B(E2) for 18 F, utilizing a simple model and the nucleon-nucleon interaction matrix given by Kuo-Brown is presented. In spite of the simplicity of the model, the results are satisfactory and are compared with the experimental data and other author calculations. (Author) [pt

  8. A new convenient access to highly functionalized (E)-2-arylvinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The esterification of phenols using anhydrides or acyl halides as esterifying agent is one of the most routinely used transformation in organic synthesis. While this method was applied in the synthesis of. 4-acyloxy-(E)-2-arylvinyl bromides, the yield was poor mainly due to the formation of by-product un- der condition of acid ...

  9. E2F target genes: unraveling the biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracken, Adrian P; Ciro, Marco; Cocito, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The E2F transcription factors are downstream effectors of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) pathway and are required for the timely regulation of numerous genes essential for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Several laboratories have used genome-wide approaches to discover novel target...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  11. Nuclear wobbling motion and properties of E-2 transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y R [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, M [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan)

    1992-08-01

    The nuclear wobbling motion associated with the static triaxial deformation are discussed based on a microscopic theory. Properties of the E2-transitions between the one-phonon wobbling band and the yrast (vacuum) band are studied and their characteristic features are suggested. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Design and application possibilities of superconducting radio-frequency quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Deitinghoff, H.

    1990-01-01

    In recent experiments, cw surface electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m have been obtained in a superconducting rf quadrupole (SCRFQ) device. In this paper we explore some design and application possibilities of SCRFQs which have been opened by these results. For example, SCRFQs may be able to accelerate higher cw currents than is now possible. Also, highly-modulated SCRFQs could be designed to provide compact, high-longitudinal-gradient devices. Some conceptual designs and applications will be discussed. 15 refs., 2 figs

  13. Transport properties of a discrete helical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meitzler, C.R.; Antes, K.; Datte, P.; Huson, F.R.; Xiu, L.

    1991-01-01

    The helical electrostatic quadrupole (HESQ) lens has been proposed as a low energy beam transport system which permits intense H - beams to be focused into an RFQ without seriously increasing the beam's emittance. A stepwise continuous HESQ lens has been constructed, and preliminary tests have shown that the structure does provide focusing. In order to understand the transport properties of this device, further detailed studies have been performed. Emittances were measured 3.5 cm from the end of the HESQ at two different voltages on the HESQ electrodes. A comparison of these experimental results with a linear model of the HESQ beam transport is made. 4 refs., 5 figs

  14. Status of the quadrupoles for RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 408 regular arc quadrupoles. Two full size prototypes have been constructed and tested. The construction uses the single layer, collarless concept which has been successful in the RHIC dipoles. Both the magnets attained short sample current, which is 60% higher than the operating current. This corresponds to a gradient of 113 T/m with clear bore of 80 mm. The preliminary field measurements are in agreement with the calculations, with the exception of an unexpectedly large show sextupole. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer B. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Goodzeit, Carl L. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Ball, Millicent J. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  16. Design of an rf quadrupole for Landau damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papke, K.; Grudiev, A.

    2017-08-01

    The recently proposed superconducting quadrupole resonator for Landau damping in accelerators is subjected to a detailed design study. The optimization process of two different cavity types is presented following the requirements of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) with the main focus on quadrupolar strength, surface peak fields, and impedance. The lower order and higher order mode (LOM and HOM) spectrum of the optimized cavities is investigated and different approaches for their damping are proposed. On the basis of an example the first two higher order multipole errors are calculated. Likewise on this example the required rf power and optimal external quality factor for the input coupler is derived.

  17. Scaling laws for aberrations in magnetic quadrupole lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, R.W.; Heighway, E.A.; Christian, R.S.; Dragt, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the third-order (spherical) abberrations in magnetic quadrupole lenses for use in conventional charged particle beam transport systems. An analytical description of the abberrations is presented and this is compared with the results of high order numerical integration. The dependence of the aberration strength on the system geometry and f number is given and a comparison of doublet and triplet systems made. The reduction of the aberrations in both doublet and triplet systems using embedded magnetic octupole lenses is also discussed and analytical predictions are given

  18. Table of Nuclear Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    2011-04-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. The literature search covers the period to late 2010. Many of the entries prior to 1988 follow those in Raghavan P., Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 42, 189 (1989). (author)

  19. Table of Nuclear Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    2014-02-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. The literature search covers the period to early 2014. Many of the entries prior to 1988 follow those in Raghavan P., Atomic and Nuclear Data Tables 42, 189 (1989). (author)

  20. Radio-frequency quadrupole: general properties and specific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Hamm, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. Recent experimental tests have confirmed its expected performance and have led to an increased interest in a wide range of possible applications. The general properties of RFQ accelerators are reviewed and beam dynamics simulation results are presented for their use in a variety of accelerating systems. These include the low-beta sections of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Accelerator, a 200-MHz proton linear accelerator, and a xenon accelerator for heavy ion fusion

  1. A compact quadrupole ion filter for helium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A compact quadrupole ion filter was conceived and constructed for optimum performance at the mass four region of the mass spectra. It was primarely designed for geological applications in the measurements of helium of soil-gases. The whole ion filter structure is 15 cm long by 3.5 cm diameter, including ion source and collecting plate. The sensitivity to helium is of the order of 10 - 2 A.torr - 1 measured at a total pressure of 6x10 - 6 torr and resolution 6. The system can be easily adapted to work as a dynamic residual gas analyser for other purposes. (Author) [pt

  2. Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals

  3. Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J.; Wanderer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals

  4. Radio frequency quadrupole linac for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.L.; Young, L.M.; Clark, W.L.; Billen, J.H.; DePaula, R.F.; Naranjo, A.C.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Roybal, P.L.; Stovall, J.E.; Ray, K.; Richter, R.

    1993-01-01

    A 2.5 MeV, 428 MHz radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed and fabricated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and GAR Electroforming for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. This device is a two segment accelerator fabricated from tellurium-copper (CDA14500) vane/cavity quadrants which are joined by electroforming. The structure incorporates an integral vacuum jacket and has no longitudinal rf or mechanical joints. The SSC RFQ linac is an extension of the design of the 1.0 MeV RFQ which was successfully flown on the BEAR Project. (orig.)

  5. Tests of high gradient superconducting quadrupole magnets for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Carson, J.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koepke, K.; Mantsch, P.; McInturff, A.D.; Riddiford, A.; Strait, J.

    1989-09-01

    Tests have been completed on three prototype magnets and two production magnets to be used for the Tevatron Dφ/Bφ low- β insertion. These cold iron, two shell quadrupoles are made of 36 strand Rutherford type NbTi superconducting cable. Magnet field gradients well in excess of the design 1.41 T/cm have been achieved at a transfer function of 0.291 T/cm/kA. Quench performance at 4.2 K and 3.7 K and magnetic multipole measurement data are presented and discussed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Novel integrated design framework for radio frequency quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Simon; Easton, Matthew; Lawrie, Scott; Letchford, Alan; Pozimski, Jürgen; Savage, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel design framework for Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs), developed as part of the design of the FETS RFQ, is presented. This framework integrates several previously disparate steps in the design of RFQs, including the beam dynamics design, mechanical design, electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical modelling and beam dynamics simulations. Each stage of the design process is described in detail, including the various software options and reasons for the final software suite selected. Results are given for each of these steps, describing how each stage affects the overall design process, with an emphasis on the resulting design choices for the FETS RFQ

  7. Quadrupole singlet focusing for achromatic parallel-to-parallel devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A first order achromatic magnetic deflection system for use in conjunction with a charged particle accelerator is realized from a stepped gap magnet wherein charged particles propagating through the system are subject to at least two adjacent homogeneous magnetic fields in adjacent regions in traversing one-half of a symmetric trajectory through the system. A quadrupole singlet element Q of adjustable focal length disposed substantially at the entrance plane of such a symmetric system makes possible the coincidence of the waists of the beam in both the vertical (transverse) and (radial) bending planes. (author)

  8. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  9. Transistor regenerative spectrometer for 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.P.; Mikhal'kov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Improvement of the Robinson transducer for investigations of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) in 14 N is described. Amplifier of the suggested transducer is made using p-n field effect transistor and small-noise SHF bipolar transistor. Such a circuit permits to obtain optimal relation between input resistance, low-frequency noises and transconductance which provides uniform gain of the transducer in the frequency range of 0.6-12 MHz and permits to construct a transistor spectrometer of NQR not yielding to a lamp spectrometer in sensitivity [ru

  10. A differential equation for the transition probability B(E2)↑ and the resulting recursion relations connecting even–even nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattnaik, S. [Taratarini College, Purusottampur, Ganjam, Odisha (India); Nayak, R. C. [Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Brahmapur-760007 (India)

    2014-04-15

    We obtain here a new relation for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ of a given nucleus in terms of its derivatives with respect to neutron and proton numbers based on a similar local energy relation in the Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model of atomic nuclei, which is essentially built on the foundation of the Hugenholtz–Van Hove (HVH) theorem of many-body theory. Obviously, such a relation in the form of a differential equation is expected to be more powerful than the usual algebraic difference equations. Although the relation for B(E2)↑ has been perceived simply on the basis of a corresponding differential equation for the local energy in the INM model, its theoretical foundation otherwise has been clearly demonstrated. We further exploit the differential equation in using the very definitions of the derivatives to obtain two different recursion relations for B(E2)↑, connecting in each case three neighboring even–even nuclei from lower to higher mass numbers and vice versa. We demonstrate their numerical validity using available data throughout the nuclear chart and also explore their possible utility in predicting B(E2)↑ values. (author)

  11. A differential equation for the transition probability B(E2)↑ and the resulting recursion relations connecting even–even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Nayak, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    We obtain here a new relation for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ of a given nucleus in terms of its derivatives with respect to neutron and proton numbers based on a similar local energy relation in the Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model of atomic nuclei, which is essentially built on the foundation of the Hugenholtz–Van Hove (HVH) theorem of many-body theory. Obviously, such a relation in the form of a differential equation is expected to be more powerful than the usual algebraic difference equations. Although the relation for B(E2)↑ has been perceived simply on the basis of a corresponding differential equation for the local energy in the INM model, its theoretical foundation otherwise has been clearly demonstrated. We further exploit the differential equation in using the very definitions of the derivatives to obtain two different recursion relations for B(E2)↑, connecting in each case three neighboring even–even nuclei from lower to higher mass numbers and vice versa. We demonstrate their numerical validity using available data throughout the nuclear chart and also explore their possible utility in predicting B(E2)↑ values. (author)

  12. Dosage-dependent copy number gains in E2f1 and E2f3 drive hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Lindsey N.; Bae, Sooin; Tsai, Shih-Yin; Tang, Xing; Srivastava, Arunima; Koivisto, Christopher; Martin, Chelsea K.; Ridolfi, Elisa; Miller, Grace C.; Zorko, Sarah M.; Plevris, Emilia; Hadjiyannis, Yannis; Perez, Miguel; Nolan, Eric; Kladney, Raleigh; Westendorp, Bart; de Bruin, Alain; Fernandez, Soledad; Rosol, Thomas J.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Pipas, James M.; Leone, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway, either through genetic mutation of upstream regulatory components or mutation of RB1 itself, is believed to be a required event in cancer. However, genetic alterations in the RB-regulated E2F family of transcription factors are

  13. Analysis of quadrupole splitting of multiple Fe sites intermixed in Si(111) with Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawauchi, Taizo, E-mail: kawauchi@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Zhang, Xiaowei [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Fukutani, Katsuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    The iron silicide has various interesting phases both fundamentally and technologically, which have acquired much attention to date. Iron silicides are often fabricated on a Si substrate by a solid phase epitaxy method, and the initial stage of intermixing of iron atoms with substrate Si is of crucial importance for silicide fabrication, which remains to be clarified. Here, we have investigated the initial stage of the iron-silicide formation before crystallization with Mössbauer spectroscopy suited to characterization of magnetic and chemical properties of {sup 57}Fe atoms in materials. The sample was prepared by deposition of {sup 57}Fe of 1 nm on a Si(111) surface at 450 K. Conventional Mössbauer spectroscopy in the energy domain revealed presence of two iron sites with similar quadrupole splits and isomer shifts, which hampered complete analysis of this system. By combining the time-domain spectroscopy using polarized synchrotron radiation, we have separately analyzed the quadrupole splits and isomer shifts for the two iron sites. By using the theoretical simulation, furthermore, we successfully reproduced the experimentally observed time spectrum of the nuclear resonant scattering on the assumption that iron atoms randomly occupy the substitutional sites for Si at the initial stage of intermixing before crystallization of an iron silicide. - Highlights: • Quadrupole split of Fe in an iron silicide is measured by Mossbauer spectroscopy. • Two components are separately analyzed with time- and energy-domain spectra. • The time spectrum is well reproduced by numerical simulation. • Results indicate that Fe atoms randomly occupy two possible sites in Fe silicide.

  14. Adjustable permanent quadrupoles for the next linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, James T.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to -20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype

  15. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2001-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to - 20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype

  16. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A.J.; Kwan, J.W.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Henestroza, E.; Minsky, D.M.; Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.

    2007-01-01

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  17. Precision Magnet Measurements for X-Band Accelerator Quadrupole Triplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Armstrong, J P

    2012-05-16

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology at LLNL. Beamline magnets will include an emittance compensation solenoid, windowpane steering dipoles, and quadrupole magnets. Demanding tolerances have been placed on the alignment of these magnets, which directly affects the electron bunch beam quality. A magnet mapping system has been established at LLNL in order to ensure the delivered magnets match their field specification, and the mountings are aligned and capable of reaching the specified alignment tolerances. The magnet measurement system will be described which uses a 3-axis Lakeshore gauss probe mounted on a 3-axis translation stage. Alignment accuracy and precision will be discussed, as well as centering measurements and analysis. The dependence on data analysis over direct multi-pole measurement allows a significant improvement in useful alignment information. Detailed analysis of measurements on the beamline quadrupoles will be discussed, including multi-pole content both from alignment of the magnets, and the intrinsic level of multi-pole magnetic field.

  18. Quadrupole oscillations as paradigm of the chaotic motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezovoj, V.P.; Bolotin, Yu.L.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Granovsky, M.Ya.

    2003-01-01

    A complete description of classical dynamics, generated by the Hamiltonian of quadrupole nuclear oscillations, is presented. Those peculiarities of quantum dynamics, which can be interpreted as quantum manifestations of classical stochasticity are identified. Semiclassical approximation to an energy spectrum is developed through quantization of the Birkhoff-Gustavson normal form. We show that the type of classical motion is correlated with the structure of the stationary wave functions. Correlations were found both in the coordinate space (the lattice of nodal curves and the distribution of the probability density) and in the Hilbert space associated with the integrable part of the Hamiltonian. Quadrupole oscillations of nuclei were used to investigate the shell structure destruction induced by the increase of nonintegrable perturbation, which models residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. The process of wave packet tunneling through potential barrier is considered for the case of finite motion. We demonstrate that the stringent correlation between the level quasi-crossing and the wave function delocalization, which leads to the resonant tunneling, takes place [ru

  19. High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2001-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 5600 magnets, each of which must be highly reliable and/or quickly repairable in order that the NLC reach its 85% overall availability goal. A multidiscipline engineering team was assembled at SLAC to develop a more reliable electromagnet design than historically had been achieved at SLAC. This team carried out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a standard SLAC quadrupole magnet system. They overcame a number of longstanding design prejudices, producing 10 major design changes. This paper describes how a prototype magnet was constructed and the extensive testing carried out on it to prove full functionality with an improvement in reliability. The magnet's fabrication cost will be compared to the cost of a magnet with the same requirements made in the historic SLAC way. The NLC will use over 1600 of these 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles with a range of integrated strengths from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of 0 to -20% and core lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. A magnetic measurement set-up has been developed that can measure sub-micron shifts of a magnetic center. The prototype satisfied the center shift requirement over the full range of integrated strengths

  20. The quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn isotopes - an apology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, H.; Barbosa, M. B.; Correia, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010 we presented an update of the nuclear quadrupole moments (Q) for the Cd and Zn isotopes, based essentially on straightforward density functional (DF) calculations (H. Haas and J.G. Correia, Hyperfine Interact 198, 133-137 (2010)). It has been apparent for some years that the standard DF procedure obviously fails, however, to reproduce the known electric-field gradient (EFG) for various systems, typical cases being Cu2O, As and Sb, and the solid halogens. Recently a cure for this deficiency has been found in the hybrid DF technique. This method is now applied to solid Cd and Zn, and the resultant quadrupole moments are about 15 % smaller than in our earlier report. Also nuclear systematics, using the recently revised values of Q for the long-lived 11/2 isomers in111Cd to129Cd, together with earlier PAD data for107,109Cd, leads to the same conclusion. In addition, EFG calculations for the cadmium dimethyl molecule further support the new values: Q(111Cd, 5/2+) = .683(20) b, Q(67Zn, gs) = .132(5) b. This implies, that the value for the atomic EFG in the 3it {P}1 state of Zn must be revised, as it has been for Cd.

  1. Study of Nb3Sn cables for superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, R.

    1999-10-01

    In particle physics, the quest for higher energies may be satisfied by the use of niobium-tin superconducting magnets. Such magnets are made of Rutherford type cables which are wound from superconducting strands. The strands are made by the 'internal tin' method. The aim of this study is to determine the main parameters for the fabrication of a quadrupole. The two main requirements the cable must fulfill are high critical current and low losses. The main parameters were determined from different measurements and models. Thus, the key parameters for the current transport capacity are the number and the diameter of the filaments, the number of sub-elements, the surface of superconductor and the copper-to-non-copper ratio. For the hysteresis losses, the main parameters appear to be the effective filament diameter and the spacing of the filaments. For intra-strand losses, the main parameters appear to be the filaments' diameter, the filament spacing, the nature of the diffusion barrier and the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper. The interstrand resistances for the cable are the key parameters for the losses. Thus, the nature of the strands coating or the presence of a stainless steel core can strongly diminish the cable losses. Finally, a design, for the strands and the cables for the fabrication of a quadrupole is proposed. (author)

  2. Transition quadrupole moments in the superdeformed band of 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, C.J.; Ideguchi, E.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Reviol, W.; Ryu, S.K.; Sarantites, D.G.; Baktash, C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C.J.; Reiter, P.; Seweryniak, D.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rudolph, D.

    2003-01-01

    The transition quadrupole moments Q t for the superdeformed band in 40 Ca have been determined through thin-target Doppler-shift attenuation analyses. A best-fit value of Q t =1.30±0.05 e b is obtained when a single value is assumed for the entire band. Fitting separate quadrupole moments for in-band transitions decaying from the high-spin states and the presumably admixed low-spin states results in Q t (high)=1.81 -0.26 +0.41 e b and Q t (low)=1.18 -0.05 +0.06 e b, respectively. Q t values extracted for individual transitions in a Doppler-broadened line-shape analysis also indicate smaller Q t values at lower spins. These results are consistent with the interpretation of this band as an eight-particle-eight-hole superdeformed band with a significant admixture of less-collective configurations at low spins

  3. Chaotic motion in axially symmetric potentials with oblate quadrupole deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letelier, Patricio S. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramos-Caro, Javier, E-mail: javier@ime.unicamp.br [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lopez-Suspes, Framsol, E-mail: framsol@gmail.com [Facultad de Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Santo Tomas and Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2011-10-03

    By computing the Poincare's surfaces of section and Lyapunov exponents, we study the effect of introducing an oblate quadrupole in the dynamics associated with two generic spherical potentials of physical interest: the central monopole and the isotropic harmonic oscillator. In the former case we find saddle points in the effective potential, in contrast to the statements presented by Gueron and Letelier in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. The results we show in the second case have application in nuclear or atomic physics. In particular, we find values of oblate deformation leading to a disappearance of shell structure in the single-particle spectrum. -- Highlights: → We find chaotic motion around a monopole with oblate quadrupole deformation. → This corrects the statements introduced in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. → We present an alternative model for the potential due to an oblate deformed nuclei. → This leads to stochastic regions in the phase space of classical orbits. → It suggests that the shell structure of single-particle spectrum tends to disappear.

  4. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Design of permanent magnet quadrupole for LEHIPA DTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2011-01-01

    The drift tube linac (DTL) of the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA) has been designed to accelerate 30 mA proton beam from 3 MeV to 20 MeV in a distance of around 13 m. A FFDD lattice structure is selected to provide strong transverse focusing, where each drift tube includes one quadrupole magnet. Beam dynamics simulations specified an effective magnet length of 47 mm, maximum field gradient of 47 T/m, and bore aperture of 24 mm. For these specifications, a detailed design of a very thin permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is presented. Four types of PMQ designs have been compared: a 16-segment trapezoidal design in the Halbach configuration, two 16-segment rectangular designs (with and without gaps), and an 8-segment rectangular design. 2D and 3D modeling codes, POISSON and CST Studio suite are used for the design studies. The good field region is calculated based on field gradient deviation in the transverse plane and integral field homogeneity. The very low aspect ratio of these PMQs leads to edge effects, thereby reducing the central field strength. The 3D simulations are used to study these edge effects. (author)

  6. The Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC Injection Transfer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Chertok, I; Churkin, I N; Giesch, Manfred; Golubenko, O B; Kalbreier, Willi; Kouba, G; Mejidzade, V; Mikhailov, S; Steshov, A; Sukhanov, A; Sukhina, B; Schirm, K M; Weisse, E

    2000-01-01

    Two injection transfer lines, each about 2.8 km long, are being built to transfer protons at 450 GeV from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A total of 180 quadrupole magnets are required; they are produced in the framework of the contribution of the Russian Federation to the construction of the LHC. The classical quadrupoles, built from laminated steel cores and copper coils, have a core length of 1.4 m, an inscribed diameter of 32 mm and a strength of 53.5 T/m at a current of 530 A. The total weight of one magnet is 1.1 ton. For obtaining the required field quality at the small inscribed diameter, great care in the stamping of the laminations and the assembly of quadrants is necessary. Special instruments have been developed to measure, with a precision of some mm, the variations of the pole gaps over the full length of the magnet and correlate them to the obtained field distribution. The design has been developed in a collaboration between BINP and CERN. Fabrication and ...

  7. S-phase checkpoint elements of the E2F-1 family increase radiosensitivity in fibrosarcoma cells lacking p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodis, Stephan; Pruschy, Martin; Wirbelauer, Christiane; Glanzmann, Christoph; Krek, Wilhelm

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Correct advance of cells through the S-phase of the mammalian cell cycle depends on the timely controlled activity of the E2F-1 transcription factor by cyclin A-cdk2. We are studying the reproductive integrity and radiosensitation of isogenic mouse fibrosarcoma cells, differing only in their p53 status, after expression of E2F-1 wildtype (wt) and specific E2F-1 mutants (mt) lacking the cyclin-A-binding domain. In this tumor model system only p53 wild-type expressing tumor cells are sensitive to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Material and Methods: Either wild-type p53 or genetically engineered p53 'null' mouse embryo fibroblasts were transfected with the oncogenes E1A and ras. These otherwise isogenic fibrosarcoma cells, with a malignant phenotype and tumorigenic in nude mice, were transfected with retroviruses containing either E2F-1 wild-type or specific E2F-1 mutants lacking the cyclin-A binding domain. Reproductive integrity after E2F-1 transfection with or without ionizing radiation (RT) was tested using the clonogenic assay. Tumor cell morphology of treated cells is analyzed for cell death mechanism. Results: E2F-1 wild-type expression in fibrosarcoma cells induced a clear p53 dependent cell death. While clonogenic survival of p53 'null' tumor cells was only slightly reduced with the expression of E2F-1 wild type (survival fraction of 0.5), the clonogenic survival of p53 wild-type fibrosarcoma tumor cells was reduced by at least one logarithm (survival fraction of 0.05). However, expression of the specific E2F-1 mutant lacking the cyclin-A binding domain reduced clonogenic survival in both the p53 'null' and the p53 wild-type fibrosarcoma cells by at least 2 logarithms (survival fraction 0.01 for p53 'null' and 0.002 for p53 wild-type). The mean values of the survival fractions after 2 and 5 Gy radiation alone in p53 'null' fibrosarcoma cells (SF 2 and SF 5) were SF 2 0.7, SF 5 = 0.15, respectively. The combination of ionizing RT in the p53

  8. Investigation of generalized overlap amplitudes via (e,2e) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.R.J.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-11-01

    The (e,2e) reaction has previously been shown to be an extremely direct and accurate measure of the overlap of the wave function of a target molecule with that of different resolved electronic states of the positive ion resulting from electron knockout. The present paper discusses the reaction in relation to the direct computation of the structure overlaps for different ion states as the generalized overlap amplitudes appearing in the spectral resolution of the one-particle Green's function. The case of water is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the Green's function technique for calculating (e,2e) cross sections of the principal ion states and the use of the reaction as a very sensitive measure of the long-range charge density. (Author)

  9. Spectrometer requirements for (e,e'2N) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightbody, J.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    One specific experiment that may be performed with a future CW accelerator is a study of (e,e'2N) reactions through which we may learn details of the short range interaction of two nucleons within nuclear matter. It is suspected that the only mechanism which can lead to the observed high momentum components in the single nucleon momentum distribution (above approx. 400 MeV/c) inferred from (e,e'p) and (γ,p) measurements is the presence of short-range few-body correlations in the many-body nuclear wave function. It is expected that the explicit pair correlation function may be inferred from relative two-nucleon momentum distributions measured in (e,e'2N) experiments. It is therefore interesting to estimate counting rates using measured one-body momentum distributions to see what types of spectrometers are required

  10. E2 nuclear resonance effects in pionic and kaonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, C.J.; Biagi, S.F.; Blecher, M.

    1977-09-01

    The attenuation due to the E2 nuclear resonance effect has been measured in hadronic atoms using pions with 111 Cd and 112 Cd, and for kaons with 122 Sn. Energies of the relevant X-ray and γ-ray transitions and of the X-ray cascade intensities have also been measured so as to give a self-consistent set of information. The results are found to be in very good agreement with theoretical calculations. (author)

  11. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs)-E2 at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains the operation of the ASRG during space missions

  12. Description of surface quadrupole oscillations of heated spherical nuclei in the Brownian-motion approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svin'in, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Brownian motion of a quadrupole quantum oscillator is considered as a model of surface quadrupole oscillations of heated spherical nuclei. The integrals of the motion related to energy and angular momentum conservation are constructed and the wave functions are obtained for states with definite values of these integrals of the motion in the phonon representation

  13. Analysis of magnetic nanoparticles using quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpino, Francesca; Moore, Lee R.; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Williams, P. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The new technique of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is described. It is a separation and characterization technique for particulate magnetic materials. Components of a sample are eluted from the separation channel at times dependent on the strength of their interaction with the magnetic field. A quadrupole electromagnet allows a programmed reduction of field strength during analysis of polydisperse samples

  14. The effect of quadrupole fields on particle confinement in a field-reversed mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, D.B.; Berk, H.L.; Hammer, J.; Morse, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A particle simulation code has been modified to simulate particle loss caused by quadrupole magnetic fields on a field-reversed mirror plasma device. Since analytic fields are chosen for the equilibrium, the numerical algorithm is highly accurate for long-time integrations of particle orbits. The resultant particle loss due to the quadrupole fields can be competitive with collisional loss in the device

  15. Rotations as coherent states of SU(6) quadrupole phonons in the SU(3) limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Paar, V [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet; Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1981-06-18

    Analytic expressions for the wavefunctions of the ground-state rotational band for even and odd nuclei are derived in terms of spherical quadrupole phonons truncated at N(max) phonons. For N(max) ..-->.. infinite the Bohr-Mottelson rotational states are generated as an asymptotic gaussian distribution of quadrupole phonons.

  16. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; construction period; quadrupole.

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Photo; CERN PhotoLab

    1962-01-01

    One of the 24 quadrupoles. They were made of massive (non-laminated) soft iron, which at the low field-strength (35 G on the pole-tips) presented problems. Later they were fitted with shims on all 4 poles, to correct the quadrupole and sextupole components.

  17. Neutron-proton ratios of collective quadrupole matrix elements in even Fe and Cr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antalik, R.

    1989-01-01

    M n /M p ratios are investigated within the QRPA framework for the low-lying quadrupole states and for isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 54,56,58 Fe and 50,52,54 Cr. Theoretical results for 2 l ? + states are in good agreement with empirical ones obtained from recent proton and pion inelastic scattering studies. 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. Quadrupole moment in the excited 2Psub(1/2) state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Yakhontov, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    Computation of the quadrupole moment values in the 2Psub(1/2) states of hydrogen and meso-hydrogen is carried out. It is shown that allowance for the hyperfine interaction of the electron with the proton in the first order of perturbation theory results in giant values of the quadrupole moment of the atoms. (author)

  19. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  20. Determination of nuclear quadrupole moments – An example of the synergy of ab initio calculations and microwave spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellö, Vladimir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Comenius University, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-01-22

    Highly correlated scalar relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at nuclei in diatomic molecules in combination with accurate nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained from microwave spectroscopy are used for determination of nuclear quadrupole moments.

  1. Strong quadrupole interaction in electron paramagnetic resonance. Study of the indium hexacyanide (III) in KCl irradiated with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugman, N.V.

    1973-08-01

    The radiation effects in ]Ir III (CN) 6 ] 3- diamagnetic complexe inserted in the KCl lattice and irradiated with electrons of 2MeV by electron spin resonance (ESR) are analysed. Formulas for g and A tensors in the ligand field approximation, are derivated to calculate non coupling electron density in the metal. The X polarization field of inner shells is positive, indicating a 6s function mixture in the non coupling electron molecular orbital. The observed hyperfine structure is assigned to 4 equivalent nitrogen and one non equivalent nitrogen. This hypothesis is verified by experience of isotope substitution with 15 N. The s and p spin density in ligands are calculated and discussed in terms of molecular obitals. The effects of strong quadrupole interaction into the EPR spectra of ]Ir II (CN) 5 ] 3- complex are analysed by MAGNSPEC computer program to diagonalize the Spin Hamiltonian of the system. Empiric rules for EPR espectrum interpretation with strong quadrupole interaction. A review of EPR technique and a review of main concepts of crystal-field and ligand field theories, are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. High-Energy Gun-Injected Toroidal Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, J.E.; Henins, I.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Marshall, J.; Sherwood, A.R.

    1971-01-01

    A quadrupole device is being used to investigate the trapping and containment of an energetic gun plasma. The quadrupole is designed to contain a peak density of 5 x 10 13 cm -3 at 2.5 keV within the MHD-stable region. At design field there are 5 gyro-radii for 2. 5-keV protons from the separatrix to the ψ crit . The interior conductors are directly driven with a 0.8-MJ capacitor bank. The current to the coils is fed through a single pair of dipole-guarded conductors to each coil. The coils are also supported from the current feed, The dipole guard is in a force-free configuration with 5 gyro-radii for 2. 5-keV protons from the separatrix (between the dipole and quadrupole fields) to the dipole surface. The dipole is designed so that loss of plasma from the dipole region will be directed away from the interior conductors. This feature is necessary for the prevention of contamination by secondary gas produced by plasma lost at the dipole guard. Experiments at one-half design value of magnetic field have shown that the kilovolt energy gun plasma is trapped by depolarization currents around the coils, and that a very high percentage (>50%) of the gun output can be trapped. The plasma density is measured by a unique Michelson interferometer using CO 2 laser light. The energy of the plasma is derived from magnetic pickup loops placed outside the containment region. The leak caused by the dipole guard Held has been examined by double electric probe measurements. The plasma drift thus inferred is an order of magnitude less than that predicted by a model of Meade's or by calculations by us. This casts doubt upon the validity of any such simple model and emphasizes the necessity of further experimental investigation of the matter. New coils which are being built to operate at full design magnetic field strength will allow a check on the containment time of the device for kilovolt energy plasma. (author)

  3. Evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity north-east of $^{132}$ Sn: the even Te and Xe isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study excited states in isotopes north-east of the doubly-magic $^{132}$Sn by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to the determine B(E2) and B(E3) values to follow the evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity when going away from the shell closures at Z = 50 and N = 82. The B(E2; 0$^+_{gs}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$^+_{1}$) values in the even isotopes $^{138-144}$Xe have been measured at REX-ISOLDE and the systematic trend towards neutron-rich nuclei is well described even by an empirical Grodzins-type formula. An increasing dipole moment observed for $^{140,142}$Xe is interpreted as indirect signature of increasing octupole correlations peaking at N = 88. So far, no B(E3) values are known. In contrast to the Xe isotopes, the Te ones, in particular $^{136}$Te, are known for their notoriously irregular behaviour. In order to understand the nuclear structure also on a microscopic basis, the isotope $^{136}$Te with just one pair of protons and neutrons...

  4. Symmetries of Quadrupole-Collective Vibrational Motion in Transitional Even-Even 124−134Xenon Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Pietralla, N; Rainovski, G; Ahn, T; Bauer, C; Leske, J; Möller, O; Möller, T

    2010-01-01

    Projectile-Coulomb excitation of Xe isotopes has been performed at ANL using the Gammasphere array for the detection of γ-rays. The one-quadrupole phonon 2+ 1,ms mixed-symmetry state (MSS) has been traced in the stable N=80 isotones down to 134Xe. First, the data on absolute E2 andM1 transition rates quantify the amount of F-spin symmetry in these nuclei and provide a new local measure for the pn-QQ interaction. Second, the evolution of the 2+ 1,ms state has been studied along the sequence of stable even-even 124−134Xe isotopes that are considered to form a shape transition path from vibrational nuclei with vibrational U(5) symmetry near N=82 to γ-softly deformed shapes with almost O(6) symmetry. Third, our data on more than 50 absolute E2 transition rates between off-yrast low-spin states of 124,126Xe enable us to quantitatively test O(6) symmetry in these nuclei. As a result we find that O(6) symmetry is more strongly broken in the A=130 mass region than previously thought. The data will be discussed.

  5. Selection of bioaccumulation criteria for environmental emergency (E2) planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketcheson, K.; Hradecky, K.; Gagne, M.; St-Amant-Verret, M.

    2006-01-01

    Environment Canada's Environmental Emergency regulations require the evaluation of a substance by a Risk Evaluation Framework (REF). Bioaccumulation criteria are used within the environmental hazard ratings section of the REF to determine the risk of a substance to organisms and are obtained from 3 types of measurements depending on data reliability: (1) bioaccumulation factors (BAF); (2) bioconcentration factors (BCF); and (3) an octanol-water partition coefficient (log K ow ). This paper presented details of a study of international and regional bioaccumulation criteria conducted to aid in determining appropriate criteria for E2 regulations and plans, with specific reference to substances toxic to aquatic organisms. An E2 plan is required if a substance has a bioconcentration factor of more than 500 in conjunction with aquatic toxicity. Bioaccumulation criteria from several sources for 745 substances were obtained to aid in choosing the most important parameters. Various international and regional criteria were examined and corresponding sources were summarized, and different source criteria was compared with empirical chemical data. The criteria chosen included both log K ow values and BCF values, although it was suggested that BCF and BAF are more realistic measures of bioaccumulation than log K ow , as they are derived from animal studies. The chosen values agreed with the virtual elimination criteria set out by the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 1999 as well as United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. It was concluded that the bioaccumulation criteria for E2 planning will help Environment Canada ensure the protection of the environment from hazardous substances. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  6. (e,2e) spectroscopy of solids with improved energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canney, S.; Brunger, M.J.; Storer, P.J.; Utteridge, S.; Vos, M.; Weigold, E.

    1996-03-01

    A brief overview of the (e,2e) technique as applied to solids is reported, including the spectrometer used in these studies. In particular it is described how the energy resolution of the spectrometer has been improved, by a factor of two, by the addition of an electron monochromator for production of the incident electron beam. This monochromator is also discussed in some detail. Results obtained using the monochromated beam are compared with previous data collected with a standard electron-gun source. 37 refs., 9 figs

  7. Design and fabrication of the BNL radio frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory polarized H - injection program for the AGS will utilize a Radio Frequency Quadrupole for acceleration between the polarized source and the Alvarez Linac. Although operation will commence with a few μ amperes of H - current, it is anticipated that future polarized H - sources will have a considerably improved output. The RFQ will operate at 201.25 MHz and will be capable of handling a beam current of 0.02 amperes with a duty cycle of 0.25%. The resulting low average power has allowed novel solutions to the problems of vane alignment, rf current contacts, and removal of heat from the vanes. The cavity design philosophy will be discussed together with the thermodynamics of heat removal from the vane. Details of the fabrication will be presented with a status report

  8. Application of artificial intelligence to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Crawford, R.W.; Kehler, T.P.; Kunz, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the authors have designed a totally computerized triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with the ultimate goal of using it as a prototype for ''knowledge-based'' instrument control. As an ''intelligent'' instrument, with its computer-based data acquisition and control system, it has the ability to learn and respond quickly. The intelligence is encoded in the system using the representation and rule-based reasoning heuristic techniques of Artificial Intelligence. These techniques are used to encode heuristic knowledge, or the intuition, formal and informal rules, and experiential knowledge that the human expert normally uses to make decisions and arrive at solutions in a specific domain problem. In this specific case, the knowledge the authors are encoding is a tuning procedure for the spectrometer, including heuristics to describe a self-adaptive, feedback control process for real-time optimization or tuning of the data acquisition procedure throughout the entire data collection process

  9. Anisotropic cosmological constant and the CMB quadrupole anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2008-01-01

    There are evidences that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) large-angle anomalies imply a departure from statistical isotropy and hence from the standard cosmological model. We propose a ΛCDM model extension whose dark energy component preserves its nondynamical character but wields anisotropic vacuum pressure. Exact solutions for the cosmological scale factors are presented, upper bounds for the deformation parameter are evaluated and its value is estimated considering the elliptical universe proposal to solve the quadrupole anomaly. This model can be constructed from a Bianchi I cosmology with a cosmological constant from two different ways: (i) a straightforward anisotropic modification of the vacuum pressure consistently with energy-momentum conservation; (ii) a Poisson structure deformation between canonical momenta such that the dynamics remain invariant under scale factors rescalings

  10. Design of an rf quadrupole for Landau damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Papke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed superconducting quadrupole resonator for Landau damping in accelerators is subjected to a detailed design study. The optimization process of two different cavity types is presented following the requirements of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC with the main focus on quadrupolar strength, surface peak fields, and impedance. The lower order and higher order mode (LOM and HOM spectrum of the optimized cavities is investigated and different approaches for their damping are proposed. On the basis of an example the first two higher order multipole errors are calculated. Likewise on this example the required rf power and optimal external quality factor for the input coupler is derived.

  11. Upgrading the Lyon cluster ion accelerator by a radiofrequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.O.; Schempp, A.

    1987-02-01

    The design is presented of an RFQ with variable final energy suitable to post-accelerate cluster ions from the Lyon electrostatic cluster-ion accelerator in the mass ranges from 1 to 25 μ and 1 to 50 μ to kinetic energies of 1.32-2.5 MeV and 2.64-5.0 MeV for cw and pulsed operation, respectively. Furthermore, a beam line is described which matches the electrostatically preaccelerated beam to the RFQ by use of electrostatic quadrupole triplets. When used without RFQ this beam line serves to improve beam parameters on the target, such as the particle flux density or beam divergence. The estimated costs of this project are about DM 345 000.- or FF 1 200 000.- without VAT. (orig.) [de

  12. Theory of nuclear quadrupole interactions in solid hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.S.; Sahoo, N.; Das, T.P.; Kelires, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear quadrupole interaction of 19 F * (I=5/2) nucleus in solid hydrogen fluoride has been studied using the Hartree Fock cluster technique to understand the influence of both intrachain hydrogen bonding effects and the weak interchain interaction. On the basis of our investigations, the 34.04 MHz coupling constant observed by TDPAD measurements has been ascribed to the bulk solid while the observed 40.13 MHz coupling constant is suggested as arising from a small two- or three-molecule cluster produced during the proton irradiation process. Two alternate explanations are offered for the origin of coupling constants close to 40 MHz in a number of solid hydrocarbons containing hydrogen and fluorine ligands. (orig.)

  13. Manufacturing experience for the LHC inner triplet quadrupole cables

    CERN Document Server

    Scanlan, R M; Bossert, R; Kerby, J S; Ghosh, A K; Boivin, M; Roy, T

    2002-01-01

    The design for the U.S. LHC Inner Triplet Quadrupole magnet requires a 37 strand (inner layer) and a 46 strand (outer layer) cable. This represents the largest number of strands attempted to date for a production quantity of Rutherford-type cable. The cable parameters were optimized during the production of a series of short prototype magnets produced at FNAL. These optimization studies focused on critical current degradation, dimensional control, coil winding, and interstrand resistance. After the R&D phase was complete, the technology was transferred to NEEW and a new cabling machine was installed to produce these cables. At present, about 60 unit lengths, out of 90 required for the entire production series of magnets, have been completed for each type of cable. The manufacturing experience with these challenging cables will be reported. Finally, the implications for even larger cables, with more strands, will be discussed. (8 refs).

  14. Cryogenic tests of the first two LHC quadrupole prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.; Deregel, J.; Perot, J.; Rifflet, J.M.; Vedrine, P.; Cortella, J.; Le Coroller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two LHC (Large Hadron Collider) twin aperture quadrupole prototypes were constructed at CEA Saclay (a CERN-CEA collaboration agreement). Their main characteristics are: 3.05 m length, 56 mm coil aperture, 180 mm between the two apertures, 252 T/m nominal gradient at 15060 A. They have been tested and measured in the 1.8 K Saclay test facility in an horizontal cryostat. The magnets are instrumented in order to investigate their behaviour during cool-down, stand-by, powering and current ramping, quenching and warming-up. A summary of the cryogenic, mechanical, pressure and electrical measurements is presented. The quench protection heaters are efficient down to 3000 A. Losses during ramping up and down are reported. (from authors) 5 fig., 11 ref

  15. Beam-induced quench test of LHC main quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Holzer, E B; Kurfuerst, C; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Zamantzas, C

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected beam loss might lead to a transition of the accelerator superconducting magnet to a normal conducting state. The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system is designed to abort the beam before the energy deposited in the magnet coils reach a quench-provoking level. In order to verify the threshold settings generated by simulation, a series of beam-induced quench tests at various beam energies has been performed. The beam losses are generated by means of an orbital bump peaked in one of main quadrupole magnets (MQ). The analysis includes not only BLM data but also the quench protection system (QPS) and cryogenics data. The measurements are compared to Geant4 simulations of energy deposition inside the coils and corresponding BLM signal outside the cryostat.

  16. A Cryogenic Test Stand for LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.H.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Peterson, T.J.; Rabehl, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    A new test stand for testing LHC interaction region (IR) quadrupole magnets at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has been designed and operated. The test stand uses a double bath system with a lambda plate to provide the magnet with a stagnant bath of pressurized He II at 1.9 K and 0.13 MPa. A cryostated magnet 0.91 m in diameter and up to 13 m in length can be accommodated. This paper describes the system design and operation. Issues related to both 4.5 K and 1.9 K operations and magnet quenching are highlighted. An overview of the data acquisition and cryogenics controls systems is also included

  17. A radio frequency quadrupole ion beam buncher for ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, G; Dezfuli, A M G; Henry, S; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kim, T; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lamour, E; Lunney, M D; Moore, R B; Quint, W; Schwarz, S; Varfalvy, P; Vermeeren, L

    1998-01-01

    ISOLTRAP is a Penning trap spectrometer at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN for the mass determination of radioisotopes. It consists of three electromagnetic traps in tandem; a Paul trap for ISOLDE beam collection, a Penning trap for cooling and purification and a high-precision Penning trap for the measurement of masses by cyclotron resonance. The Paul trap, which collects radionuclide ions using only electric fields and a noble buffer gas, has been essential for the masses of radionuclides that cannot be surface ionized. The success with this system has led to the present program to increase the collection efficiency by replacing the Paul trap by a radiofrequency quadrupole ion guide operating as a buncher. This system would also provide a DC ISOLDE beam of emittance approaching 1$\\pi$ -mm-mrad. (3 refs).

  18. A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp

    2012-12-19

    This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical

  19. A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical

  20. Gravitational radiation in quadratic f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naef, Joachim; Jetzer, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational radiation emitted by an isolated system for gravity theories with Lagrange density f(R)=R+aR 2 . As a formal result, we obtain leading order corrections to the quadrupole formula in general relativity. We make use of the analogy of f(R) theories with scalar-tensor theories, which in contrast to general relativity feature an additional scalar degree of freedom. Unlike general relativity, where the leading order gravitational radiation is produced by quadrupole moments, the additional degree of freedom predicts gravitational radiation of all multipoles, in particular, monopoles and dipoles, as this is the case for the most alternative gravity theories known today. An application to a hypothetical binary pulsar moving in a circular orbit yields the rough limit a 17 m 2 by constraining the dipole power to account at most for 1% of the quadrupole power as predicted by general relativity.

  1. Einstein’s quadrupole formula from the kinetic-conformal Hořava theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellorín, Jorge; Restuccia, Alvaro

    We analyze the radiative and nonradiative linearized variables in a gravity theory within the family of the nonprojectable Hořava theories, the Hořava theory at the kinetic-conformal point. There is no extra mode in this formulation, the theory shares the same number of degrees of freedom with general relativity. The large-distance effective action, which is the one we consider, can be given in a generally-covariant form under asymptotically flat boundary conditions, the Einstein-aether theory under the condition of hypersurface orthogonality on the aether vector. In the linearized theory, we find that only the transverse-traceless tensorial modes obey a sourced wave equation, as in general relativity. The rest of variables are nonradiative. The result is gauge-independent at the level of the linearized theory. For the case of a weak source, we find that the leading mode in the far zone is exactly Einstein’s quadrupole formula of general relativity, if some coupling constants are properly identified. There are no monopoles nor dipoles in this formulation, in distinction to the nonprojectable Horava theory outside the kinetic-conformal point. We also discuss some constraints on the theory arising from the observational bounds on Lorentz-violating theories.

  2. Prostaglandin E(2) synthase inhibition as a therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Jitesh P; Srivastava, Punit K; Dev, Rishabh; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-07-01

    Most NSAIDs function by inhibiting biosynthesis of PGE(2) by inhibition of COX-1 and/or COX-2. Since COX-1 has a protective function in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), non-selective inhibition of both cycloxy genases leads to moderate to severe gastro-intestinal intolerance. Attempts to identify selective inhibitors of COX-2, led to the identification of celecoxib and rofecoxib. However, long-term use of these drugs has serious adverse effects of sudden myocardial infarction and thrombosis. Drug-mediated imbalance in the levels of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) with a bias towards TXA(2) may be the primary reason for these events. This resulted in the drugs being withdrawn from the market, leaving a need for an effective and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, the focus of research has shifted to enzymes downstream of COX in the prosta glandin biosynthetic pathway such as prostaglandin E(2) synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) specifically isomerizes PGH(2) to PGE(2), under inflammatory conditions. In this review, we examine the biology of mPGES-1 and its role in disease. Progress in designing molecules that can selectively inhibit mPGES-1 is reviewed. mPGES-1 has the potential to be a target for anti-inflammatory therapy, devoid of adverse GIT and cardiac effects and warrants further investigation.

  3. Ab initio determination of the nuclear quadrupole moments of 114In, 115In, and 117In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo A.; Renteria, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We present here ab initio determinations of the nuclear-quadrupole moment Q of hyperfine-probe-nuclear states of three different In isotopes: the 5 + 192 keV excited state of 114 In (probe for nuclear quadrupole alignment spectroscopy), the 9/2 + ground state of 115 In (nuclear magnetic and nuclear quadrupole resonance probe), and the 3/2 + 659 keV excited state of 117 In (perturbed angular correlations probe). These nuclear-quadrupole moments were determined by comparing experimental nuclear-quadrupole frequencies to the electric field gradient tensor calculated with high accuracy at In sites in metallic indium within the density functional theory. These ab initio calculations were performed with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The results obtained for the quadrupole moments of 114 In [Q( 114 In)=-0.14(1) b] are in clear discrepancy with those reported in the literature [Q( 114 In)=+0.16(6) b and +0.739(12) b]. For 115 In and 117 In our results are in excellent agreement with the literature and in the last case Q( 117 In) is determined with more precision. In the case of Q( 117 In), its sign cannot be determined because standard γ-γ perturbed angular correlations experiments are not sensitive to the sign of the nuclear-quadrupole frequency

  4. Quadrupole moments as measures of electron correlation in two-electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceraulo, S.C.; Berry, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    We have calculated quadrupole moments, Q zz , of helium in several of its doubly excited states and in two of its singly excited Rydberg states, and of the alkaline-earth atoms Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba in their ground and low-lying excited states. The calculations use well-converged, frozen-core configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions and, for interpretive purposes, Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic wave functions and single-term, optimized, molecular rotor-vibrator (RV) wave functions. The quadrupole moments calculated using RV wave functions serve as a test of the validity of the correlated, moleculelike model, which has been used to describe the effects of electron correlation in these two-electron and pseudo-two-electron atoms. Likewise, the quadrupole moments calculated with HF wave functions test the validity of the independent-particle model. In addition to their predictive use and their application to testing simple models, the quadrupole moments calculated with CI wave functions reveal previously unavailable information about the electronic structure of these atoms. Experimental methods by which these quadrupole moments might be measured are also discussed. The quadrupole moments computed from CI wave functions are presented as predictions; measurements of Q zz have been made for only two singly excited Rydberg states of He, and a value of Q zz has been computed previously for only one of the states reported here. We present these results in the hope of stimulating others to measure some of these quadrupole moments

  5. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells.

  6. Immunological evaluation of Escherichia coli-derived hepatitis C virus second envelope protein (E2) variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Carrera, S; Viña, A; Garay, H E; Reyes, O; Alvarez-Lajonchere, L; Guerra, I; González, L J; Morales, J

    2001-09-01

    Two variants of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope protein, lacking the C-terminal domain and comprising amino acids 458-650 (E2A) and 382-605 (E2C), respectively, were efficiently produced in BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli cells. E2A and E2C were used to immunize mice. The E2C variant induced the maximal mean antibody titer. Anti-E2C mouse sera reacted mainly with E2 synthetic peptides covering the 70 amino acid N-terminal region of the E2 protein. Moreover, a panel of anti-HCV positive human sera recognized only the E2C protein (28.2%) and the synthetic peptide covering the HVR-1 of the E2 protein (23.1%). These data indicate the existence of an immunologically relevant region in the HVR-1 of the HCV E2 protein.

  7. The effect of quadrupole force to the spectra of nuclei in the f7/2 shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingying

    1992-01-01

    The effect of quadrupole force on the spectra of nuclei in the f 7/2 shell is tested. The nuclear spectra are calculated by using the surface delta interaction plus quadrupole interaction and the modified surface delta interaction respectively. The results calculated with the former are much better than those with the latter, the role of the isospin modified term in the modified surface delta interaction can be substituted by the quadrupole interaction term. It is also shown that the effect of quadrupole interaction in the f 7/2 shell is important although the quadrupole deformations of nuclei in this region are not large

  8. Axially symmetric two-body problem in general relativity. III. Bondi mass loss and the failure of the quadrupole formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Hobill, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Suggested difficulties and criticism regarding earlier work is addressed. It is demonstrated that the rate of gravitational energy loss from the authors' model free-fall system employing the widely accepted Bondi method agrees precisely with the results described in prior works. Origins of the breakdown of the quadrupole formalism for free fall, previously indicated, are now delineated in detail. The role of source structure in the energy loss rate re-emerges, bringing into question much of the earlier work of others. The iterative technique with flat-space wave operators is justified. A new approach to quasiperiodic systems such as binary stars is described. Ideally modeled upon the actual birth of such systems, it evolves from an initially stationary configuration, again avoiding the problems and ambiguities regarding incoming radiation

  9. Study of the electronics architecture for the mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupoles of the CLIC linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Slaathaug, A

    2010-01-01

    To reach a sufficient luminosity, the transverse beam sizes and emittances in future linear particle accelerators should be reduced to the nanometer level. Mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupole magnets is of the utmost importance for this. The piezo actuators used for this purpose can also be used to make fast incremental orientation adjustments with a nanometer resolution. The main requirements for the CLIC stabilisation electronics is a robust, low noise, low delay, high accuracy and resolution, low band and radiation resistant feedback control loop. Due to the high number of controllers (about 4000) a cost optimization should also be made. Different architectures are evaluated for a magnet stabilisation prototype, including the sensors type and configuration, partition between software and hardware for control algorithms, and optimization of the ADC/DAC converters. The controllers will be distributed along the 50 km long accelerator and a communication bus should allow external control. Furthermore, o...

  10. The transcriptional regulator gene E2 of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 influences the radiosensitivity of cervical keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindel, Katja; Rieken, Stefan; Daffinger, Sigrid; Weber, Klaus J; Villiers, Ethel-Michele de; Debus, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that HPV induced tumors constitute a specific subclass of cancer with a better response to radiation treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate meaning of viral E2-gene for radiosensitivity. W12 cells contain episomal HPV 16 genomes, whereas S12 cells, which derive from the W12 line, contain HPV DNA as integrated copies. Clonogenic survival was analyzed using 96-well in vitro test. Using flow cytometry cell cycle analyses were performed. Expression of pRb and p53 were analyzed using intracellular staining. W12 cells (intact E2 gene) showed a lower survival fraction than S12 cells. W12 cells developed a G2/M block 24 h after irradiation with 2 Gy whereas S12 showed no G2/M bloc. After irradiation S12 cells developed polyploidy and pRb-positive cells decreased. W12 cells showed no change of pRb-positive cells. Depending on E2 gene status differences in cell cycle regulation might cause radioresistance. The E2/E7/pRb pathway seems to influence HPV-induced radiosensitivity. Our experiments demonstrated an effect of HPV on radiosensitivity of cervical keratinocytes via viral transcription regulator E2 pathway

  11. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  12. Measurement of time dependent fields in high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Coulter, K.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been performed on prototype and production magnets from two high gradient superconducting quadrupoles designs. One design is a double shell quadrupole with 36 strand Rutherford cable. The other design is a single shell quadrupole with 5 individually monolithic strands connected in series. These magnets have similar bore diameters and cable dimensions. However, there are significant differences between the two designs, as well as differences between prototype and production magnets within each design, with regard to Cu to superconductor ratio, filament diameter and filament spacing to strand diameter. The time dependence of fixed currents of the measured magnetic fields is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. The Analysis of Quadrupole Magnetic Focusing Effect by Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2003-01-01

    Quadrupole magnets will introduce focusing effect to a beam of the charge particle passing parallel to the magnet faces. The focusing effect is need to control the particle beam, so that it is in accordance with necessity requirement stated. This paper describes the analysis of focusing effect on the quadrupole magnetic by the finite element method. The finite element method in this paper is used for solve the potential distribution of magnetic field. If the potential magnetic field distribution in every node have known, a charge particle trajectory can be traced. This charge particle trajectory will secure the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnets. (author)

  14. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  15. (e, 2e) processes on Ne, Ar and Xe targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G; Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K K, E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.co, E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.i [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur-313 601 (India)

    2010-06-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to explain the features of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for the (e, 2e) processes on inert targets Ne, Ar and Xe but there are still certain discrepancies in theoretical results and measurements, which require more theoretical efforts to understand the collision dynamics of these targets. We present in this paper the results of our modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculation of TDCS for the ionization of Ne (2p), Ar (3p) and Xe (5p) targets. We modify the standard DWBA formalism by including the correlation-polarization potential (which is function of electron density) and compare our computed results with the available experimental and theoretical data. We observe that the polarization potential is able to improve the agreement with experimental results.

  16. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT 78600-000 (Brazil); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Câmpus Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, MG (Brazil); Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Ali, E.; Madison, D. H. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Ning, C. G. [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nixon, K. L.; Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, MG (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-28

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of −5°, −10°, and −15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  17. Evaluation of E2 form factor = 24Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, J.R.; Moreira, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Longitudinal and transverse electron scattering form factors for the 2 + state at 1.37 Mev of the 24 Mg nucleus was evaluated with rotational model wavefunctions. Four different approaches were used for the transverse E2 form factor: PHF, cranking model, ridig rotor and irrotational flow. For the nuclear intrinsic wavefunction, the Nilsson model was assumed in all approaches yielding the calculation of the form factor in PWBA and DWBA. The results are discussed and compared with a recent measurement performed with 180 0 electron scattered from this state. The DWBA calculation, taking into account first order corrections shows that PHF and irrotational flow models give the best agreements with the available data and compete in quality with more complex calculation performed under the 'shell model' approach. (author) [pt

  18. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  19. Radiation Dose for Equipment in the LHC Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, K; Spickermann, T

    1998-01-01

    Collisions of protons with residual gas molecules or the beam screen installed in the vacuum chamber are the main sources for the radiation dose in the LHC arcs. The dose due to proton-gas collisions depends on gas pressure, energy and intensity of the circulating beam. The dose is about equally distributed along the arc and has been calculated in previous papers. Collisions of particles with the beam screen will take place where the beam size is largest - close to focusing quadrupole magnets. For this paper the radiation doses due to particles hitting the beam screen in a quadrupole were calculated with the shower codes GEANT3.21 and FLUKA96.

  20. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Derya, V.; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Mertes, L.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1sc +→21+ transition of Gd was determined using results from high-statistics photon scattering. This provides a possibility for a new approach on the search of Jsc + members of the rotational band built on the scissors mode. By application of Alaga's rule, which is justifiable as 156Gd is a well-deformed rotor with good K quantum number, a transition strength of B (E 2 ;2sc +→01+)=0.034 (13 ) W.u. is estimated.

  1. Electronic, magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of single-crystalline UF e2A l10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troć, R.; Samsel-Czekała, M.; Talik, E.; Wawryk, R.; Gajek, Z.; Pasturel, M.

    2015-09-01

    The valence and core-level x-ray photoemission spectra (XPS), performed on an UF e2A l10 single crystal, were measured using the Al Kα radiation. The results of valence XPS show practically two separate regions of spectral intensity, one just at the Fermi level (EF) and the other one being a wide content with its maximum at about 0.8 eV below EF. These give rise to two electronic configurations of the 5 f states in the studied aluminide, itinerant and localized ones, i.e., their dual character. In such a situation the corresponding valence spectra, calculated within the local density approximation (LDA), well explain the former configuration, being responsible for a metallic behavior of the studied compound. Moreover, this behavior is confirmed clearly also by our results of magnetotransport measurements. On the other hand, the obtained magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectric power data support very well the local character of the 5 f2 -electron configuration of the U4 + ion in UF e2A l10 having the orthorhombic and cage-type crystal structure. Based on that configuration, the magnetic and thermal characteristics of the compound were modeled by the effective crystal field (CF) potential in the intermediate coupling scheme using initial parameters obtained by the angular overlap model (AOM). The obtained final CF parameters yielded the CF level scheme, composed of only singlets, proper for orthorhombic symmetry. Such a set of singlets reproduces in a satisfactory way both the strongly anisotropic temperature variations of the magnetic susceptibility, measured along the three main crystallographic directions, as well as the Schottky anomaly, evaluated using specific heat results of isomorphic ThF e2A l10 as a phonon reference. Also, the strongly anisotropic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient and its low temperature maxima observed for the compound studied here have been explained roughly by the CF effect.

  2. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K. [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Ruebenbauer, K., E-mail: sfrueben@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, Av. A. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Górnicki, R. [RENON, ul. Gliniana 15/15, PL-30-732 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in {sup 57}Fe have been collected at room temperature by using {sup 57}Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V{sub zz} = +1.61(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2} for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the {sup 57}Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V{sub zz} = +1.92(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2}. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge

  3. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J.; Górnicki, R.

    2016-01-01

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in "5"7Fe have been collected at room temperature by using "5"7Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V_z_z = +1.61(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2 for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the "5"7Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the "5"7Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V_z_z = +1.92(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge for ab initio calculations

  4. Triple Quadrupole Versus High Resolution Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Timon; Sleno, Lekha; Hall, Rabea A.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a systematic comparison of high and low resolution LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum. Identical sample preparation, chromatography separations, electrospray ionization sources, precursor ion selection, and ion activation were used; the two assays differed only in the implemented final mass analyzer stage; viz. high resolution quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) versus low resolution triple quadrupole instruments. The results were assessed against measured concentration levels from a routine clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. Isobaric interferences prevented the simple use of TOF-MS spectra for extraction of accurate masses and necessitated the application of collision-induced dissociation on the QqTOF platform. The two mass spectrometry assays provided very similar analytical figures of merit, reflecting the lack of relevant isobaric interferences in the MS/MS domain, and were successfully applied to determine the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for patients with chronic liver disease.

  5. Magnetic imaging of antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases in R bxF e2 -yS e2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazi, J.; Mousavi, T.; Dudin, P.; van der Laan, G.; Maccherozzi, F.; Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Speller, S. C.

    2018-02-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cuprate materials, with the ability to carry large electrical currents with no resistance at easily reachable temperatures, have stimulated enormous scientific and industrial interest since their discovery in the 1980's. However, technological applications of these promising compounds have been limited by their chemical and microstructural complexity and the challenging processing strategies required for the exploitation of their extraordinary properties. The lack of theoretical understanding of the mechanism for superconductivity in these HTS materials has also hindered the search for new superconducting systems with enhanced performance. The unexpected discovery in 2008 of HTS iron-based compounds has provided an entirely new family of materials for studying the crucial interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in unconventional superconductors. Alkali-metal-doped iron selenide (AxF e2 -yS e2 , A =alkali metal ) compounds are of particular interest owing to the coexistence of superconductivity at relatively high temperatures with antiferromagnetism. Intrinsic phase separation on the mesoscopic scale is also known to occur in what were intended to be single crystals of these compounds, making it difficult to interpret bulk property measurements. Here, we use a combination of two advanced microscopy techniques to provide direct evidence of the magnetic properties of the individual phases. First, x-ray linear dichroism studies in a photoelectron emission microscope, and supporting multiplet calculations, indicate that the matrix (majority) phase is antiferromagnetic whereas the minority phase is nonmagnetic at room temperature. Second, cryogenic magnetic force microscopy demonstrates unambiguously that superconductivity occurs only in the minority phase. The correlation of these findings with previous microstructural studies and bulk measurements paves the way for understanding the intriguing electronic and magnetic

  6. Communication: On the isotope anomaly of nuclear quadrupole coupling in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    The dependence of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCC) on the interaction between electrons and a nucleus of finite size is theoretically analyzed. A deviation of the ratio of the NQCCs obtained from two different isotopomers of a molecule from the ratio of the corresponding bare nuclear electric quadrupole moments, known as quadrupole anomaly, is interpreted in terms of the logarithmic derivatives of the electric field gradient at the nuclear site with respect to the nuclear charge radius. Quantum chemical calculations based on a Dirac-exact relativistic methodology suggest that the effect of the changing size of the Au nucleus in different isotopomers can be observed for Au-containing molecules, for which the predicted quadrupole anomaly reaches values of the order of 0.1%. This is experimentally detectable and provides an insight into the charge distribution of non-spherical nuclei.

  7. Stabilization of the Electron-Nuclear Spin Orientation in Quantum Dots by the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear quadrupole interaction eliminates the restrictions imposed by hyperfine interaction on the spin coherence of an electron and nuclei in a quantum dot. The strain-induced nuclear quadrupole interaction suppresses the nuclear spin flip and makes possible the zero-field dynamic nuclear polarization in self-organized InP/InGaP quantum dots. The direction of the effective nuclear magnetic field is fixed in space, thus quenching the magnetic depolarization of the electron spin in the quantum dot. The quadrupole interaction suppresses the zero-field electron spin decoherence also for the case of nonpolarized nuclei. These results provide a new vision of the role of the nuclear quadrupole interaction in nanostructures: it elongates the spin memory of the electron-nuclear system.

  8. Energies and transition probabilities from the full solution of nuclear quadrupole-octupole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strecker, M.; Lenske, H.; Minkov, N.

    2013-01-01

    A collective model of nuclear quadrupole-octupole vibrations and rotations, originally restricted to a coherent interplay between quadrupole and octupole modes, is now developed for application beyond this restriction. The eigenvalue problem is solved by diagonalizing the unrestricted Hamiltonian in the basis of the analytic solution obtained in the case of the coherent-mode assumption. Within this scheme the yrast alternating-parity band is constructed by the lowest eigenvalues having the appropriate parity at given angular momentum. Additionally we include the calculation of transition probabilities which are fitted with the energies simultaneously. As a result we obtain a unique set of parameters. The obtained model parameters unambiguously determine the shape of the quadrupole-octupole potential. From the resulting wave functions quadrupole deformation expectation values are calculated which are found to be in agreement with experimental values. (author)

  9. Construction and Qualification of the Pre-Series MQM Superconducting Quadrupoles for the LHC Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R; Lucas, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Landgrebe, D

    2004-01-01

    The LHC insertions will be equipped with individually powered MQM superconducting quadrupoles, produced in three versions with magnetic lengths of 2.4 m, 3.4 m, and 4.8 m. The quadrupoles feature a 56 mm aperture coil, designed on the basis of an 8.8 mm wide Rutherford-type NbTi cable for a nominal gradient of 200 T/m at 1.9 K and 5390 A. A total of 96 quadrupoles are in production in Tesla Engineering, UK. In this report we describe the construction of the pre-series MQM quadrupoles and present the results of the qualification tests.

  10. Kinetic equilibrium of space charge dominated beams in a misaligned quadrupole focusing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of intense beam propagation through the misaligned quadrupole focusing channel has been studied in a self-consistent manner using nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The equations of motion of the beam centroid have been developed and found to be independent of any specific beam distribution. A Vlasov equilibrium distribution and beam envelope equations have been obtained, which provide us a theoretical tool to investigate the dynamics of intense beam propagating in a misaligned quadrupole focusing channel. It is shown that the displaced quadrupoles only cause the centroid of the beam to wander off axis. The beam envelope around the centroid obeys the familiar Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij envelope equation that is independent of the centroid motion. However, the rotation of the quadrupole about its optical axis affects the beam envelope and causes an increase in the projected emittances in the two transverse planes due to the inter-plane coupling

  11. Observation of an E2 (Ubc9-homodimer by crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Y. Alontaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications by the small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO, in particular the formation of poly-SUMO-2 and -3 chains, regulates essential cellular functions and its aberration leads to life-threatening diseases (Geoffroy and Hay, 2009 [1]. It was shown previously that the non-covalent interaction between SUMO and the conjugating enzyme (E2 for SUMO, known as Ubc9, is required for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007 [2]. However, the structure of SUMO-Ubc9 non-covalent complex, by itself, could not explain how the poly-SUMO-2/3 chain forms and consequently a Ubc9 homodimer, although never been observed, was proposed for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007 [2]. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a heterotrimer containing a homodimer of Ubc9 and the RWD domain from RWDD3. The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer is mediated by the N-terminal region of one Ubc9 molecule and a surface near the catalytic Cys of the second Ubc9 molecule (Fig. 1A. This N-terminal surface of Ubc9 that is involved in the homodimer formation also interacts with the RWD domain, the ubiquitin-fold domain of the SUMO activating enzyme (E1, SUMO, and the E3 ligase, RanBP2 (Knipscheer et al., 2007; Tong et al.. 1997; Tatham et al., 2005; Reverter and Lima, 2005; Capili and Lima, 2007; Wang et al., 2009, 2010; Wang and Chen, 2010; Alontaga et al., 2015 [2–10]. The existence of the Ubc9 homodimer in solution is supported by previously published solution NMR studies of rotational correlation time and chemical shift perturbation (Alontaga et al., 2015; Yuan et al., 1999 [10,11]. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical analysis suggests that this dimeric arrangement of Ubc9 is likely important for poly-SUMO chain formation (Fig. 1B and C. The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer described for the first time in this work could provide the critical missing link in the poly-SUMO chain formation mechanism. The data presented here are related

  12. Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR High Luminosity insertion:end view

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Connection end view of the prototype quadrupole before insertion of the inner vacuum chamber with inbedded 6-pole windings. The main components of the structure can be seen: (from inside outwards) the superconducting quadrupole coils surrounded by glass epoxy bandage rings and stainless steel spacers, the low-carbon steel yoke quadrants and the aluminium alloy shrinking rings. See also photos 7702690X, 7702307, 7702308, 7812604X.

  13. Assembly of the first model of MQXFS quadrupole magnet for Hi-Lumi

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086825

    2016-01-01

    Building 927. Assembly of the first model of MQXFS quadrupole magnet for Hi-Lumi. The MQXF models are about 1.5 m long and are used to validate the design before start building the first long prototype. Two types of insertion quadrupoles will be built and installed in the LHC tunnel during LS3. LARP (US collaboration) will built MQXFA type (4.2 meters long) and MQXFB magnets (around 7 m long) will be built at CERN.

  14. A summary of the quench behavior of B ampersand W 1 m collider quadrupole model magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, C.M.; Xu, M.F.; Hlasnicek, P.; Kelley, J.P.; Dixon, K.; Savignano, J.; Letterman, S.; Craig, P.; Maloney, J.; Boyes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quench performance of a B ampersand W-Siemens designed quadrupole magnet at the earliest possible stage, a model magnet program was developed at B ampersand W for the support of the Superconducting Super Collider. The authors report the quench performance, training behavior, and the ramp rate dependence for the QSH-801 through QSH-804 series of short (1.2 meter) quadrupole model magnets

  15. Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF/sup 181/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunzler, J V

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO/sub 3/, SnhfO/sub 3/, CaHfO/sub 3/ e SrHfO/sub 3/ have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians per second was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory.

  16. The tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated in cancer 1 is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenal, Mathias; Trinh, Emmanuelle; Britschgi, Christian

    2009-01-01

    to the HIC1 promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human TIG3 fibroblasts expressing tamoxifen-activated E2F1. In agreement, activation of E2F1 in TIG3-E2F1 cells markedly increased HIC1 expression. Interestingly, expression of E2F1 in the p53(-/-) hepatocellular carcinoma cell line...

  17. Distinct mechanisms of nuclear accumulation regulate the functional consequence of E2F transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, K.E.; Luna, S. de la; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Thangue, N.B. La

    1997-01-01

    Transcription factor E2F plays an important role in coordinating and integrating early cell cycle progression with the transcription apparatus. It is known that physiological E2F arises when a member of two families of proteins, E2F and DP, interact as E2F/DP heterodimers and that transcriptional

  18. SSC collider quadrupole cold mass design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, R.A.; Murray, F.S.; Jonas, P.A.; Mischler, W.R.; Blecher, L.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 1,664 focussing and defocussing superconducting quadrupoles are required for the two SSC collider rings. Collider quadruple magnets (CQMS) must satisfy stringent performance, reliability, life and low cost criteria. Performance requirements include field uniformity, training, quench, tracking, thermal cycling and alignment. The CQM cold mass design presented incorporates lessons IGC and Alsthom Intermagnetics S.A. (AISA), our joint venture with GEC-Alsthom, learned in the design, development and manufacture of 500 MRI, 160 high-field custom and 126 HERA quadruple superconducting magnets. This baseline design reflects careful quantitative assessment of coil winding placement and collar material, evaluation of field uniformity and mechanical performance of the magnet coil ends using 3-D modeling and analysis, and considers tolerance and process variability. Selected CQM cold mass design highlights and a proposed prototype development program that allows incorporation of test feedback into the design to minimize risk are detailed in this paper. This information may be helpful to SSCL in the design and development of prototype CQM'S

  19. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.D.; Schillaci, F.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; Luca, G. De; Gallo, G.; Grmek, A.; Rosa, G. La; Leanza, R.; Pommarel, L.; Flacco, F.A.; Malka, V.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  20. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A. D.; Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A. G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; De Luca, G.; Flacco, F. A.; Gallo, G.; Giove, D.; Grmek, A.; La Rosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Malka, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Scuderi, V.; Vauzour, B.; Zappalà, E.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  1. REDESIGN OF CERNS QUADRUPOLE RESONATOR FOR TESTING OF SUPERCONDUCTING SAMPLES

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozo Romano, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole resonator (QPR) was constructed in 1997 to measure the surface resistance of niobium samples at 400 MHz, the technology and RF frequency chosen for the LHC. It allows measurement of the RF properties of superconducting films deposited on disk-shaped metallic substrates. The samples are used to study different coatings which is much faster than the coating, stripping and re-coating of sample cavities. An electromagnetic and mechanical re-design of the existing QPR has been done with the goal of doubling the magnetic peak fields on the samples. Electromagnetic simulations were carried out on a completely parametrized model, using the existings QPR as baseline and modifying its dimensions. The aim was to optimize the measurement range and resolution by increasing the ratio between the magnetic peak fields on the sample and in the cavity. Increasing the average magnetic field on the sample leads to a more homogenous field distribution over the sample. Some of the modifications were based on t...

  2. Quadrupole beam-based alignment in the RHIC interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.; Satogata, T.

    2011-01-01

    Continued beam-based alignment (BBA) efforts have provided significant benefit to both heavy ion and polarized proton operations at RHIC. Recent studies demonstrated previously unknown systematic beam position monitor (BPM) offset errors and produced accurate measurements of individual BPM offsets in the experiment interaction regions. Here we describe the algorithm used to collect and analyze data during the 2010 and early 2011 RHIC runs and the results of these measurements. BBA data has been collected over the past two runs for all three of the active experimental IRs at RHIC, updating results from the 2005 run which were taken with incorrectly installed offsets. The technique was successfully applied to expose a systematic misuse of the BPM survey offsets in the control system. This is likely to benefit polarized proton operations as polarization transmission through acceleration ramps depends on RMS orbit control in the arcs, but a quantitative understanding of its impact is still under active investigation. Data taking is ongoing as are refinements to the BBA technique aimed at reducing systematic errors and properly accounting for dispersive effects. Further development may focus on non-triplet BPMs such as those located near snakes, or arc quadrupoles that do not have individually shunted power supplies (a prerequisite for the current method) and as such, will require a modified procedure.

  3. rf quadrupole linac: a new low-energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Fuller, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept in low-energy particle accelerators, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is currently being developed at the Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory. In this new linear accelerating structure both the focusing and accelerating forces are produced by the rf fields. It can accept a high-current, low-velocity dc ion beam and bunch it with a high capture efficiency. The performance of this structure as a low-energy linear accelerator has been verified with the successful construction of a proton RFQ linac. This test structure has accelerated 38 mA of protons from 100 keV to 640 keV in 1.1 meters with a capture efficiency greater than 80%. In this paper a general description of the RFQ linac and an outline of the basic RFQ linac design procedure are presented in addition to the experimental results from the test accelerator. Finally, several applications of this new accelerator are discussed

  4. A quantized microwave quadrupole insulator with topologically protected corner states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher W.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Bahl, Gaurav

    2018-03-01

    The theory of electric polarization in crystals defines the dipole moment of an insulator in terms of a Berry phase (geometric phase) associated with its electronic ground state. This concept not only solves the long-standing puzzle of how to calculate dipole moments in crystals, but also explains topological band structures in insulators and superconductors, including the quantum anomalous Hall insulator and the quantum spin Hall insulator, as well as quantized adiabatic pumping processes. A recent theoretical study has extended the Berry phase framework to also account for higher electric multipole moments, revealing the existence of higher-order topological phases that have not previously been observed. Here we demonstrate experimentally a member of this predicted class of materials—a quantized quadrupole topological insulator—produced using a gigahertz-frequency reconfigurable microwave circuit. We confirm the non-trivial topological phase using spectroscopic measurements and by identifying corner states that result from the bulk topology. In addition, we test the critical prediction that these corner states are protected by the topology of the bulk, and are not due to surface artefacts, by deforming the edges of the crystal lattice from the topological to the trivial regime. Our results provide conclusive evidence of a unique form of robustness against disorder and deformation, which is characteristic of higher-order topological insulators.

  5. Low CMB quadrupole from dark energy isocurvature perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Christopher; Hu, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    We explicate the origin of the temperature quadrupole in the adiabatic dark energy model and explore the mechanism by which scale invariant isocurvature dark energy perturbations can lead to its sharp suppression. The model requires anticorrelated curvature and isocurvature fluctuations and is favored by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data at about the 95% confidence level in a flat scale invariant model. In an inflationary context, the anticorrelation may be established if the curvature fluctuations originate from a variable decay rate of the inflaton; such models however tend to overpredict gravitational waves. This isocurvature model can in the future be distinguished from alternatives involving a reduction in large scale power or modifications to the sound speed of the dark energy through the polarization and its cross correlation with the temperature. The isocurvature model retains the same polarization fluctuations as its adiabatic counterpart but reduces the correlated temperature fluctuations. We present a pedagogical discussion of dark energy fluctuations in a quintessence and k-essence context in the Appendix

  6. Spin dipole and quadrupole resonances in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Love, W.G.; Bimbot, L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Glashausser, C.; Green, A.; Jones, K.; Nanda, S.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distributions of the double differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩ dE(σ) and the spin-flip probability S nn have been measured for inclusive proton inelastic scattering from 40 Ca at 319 MeV. Excitation energies (ω) up to about 40 MeV have been investigated over the angular range from 3.5 degree to 12 degree in the laboratory (0.3 to 0.9 fm -1 ). Here, multipole decompositions of angular distributions of σS nn for the 40 Ca(rvec p,rvec p ') reaction at 319 MeV have been performed in order to compare ΔS=1 strength observed with sum rules. In contrast to the well-known quenching of Gamow-Teller and M1 resonances, the spin-dipole resonance has a total measured strength which is larger than that predicted by the energy-weighted sum rule. The spin-dipole strength distribution supports asymmetric widths predicted by calculations including 2p-2h mixing. The spin-quadrupole resonance is observed near ω=35 MeV and its total strength for ω<40 MeV estimated

  7. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina; Bocos-Bintintan, V

    2009-01-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  8. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bocos-Bintintan, V, E-mail: cornel.cuna@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, 3 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  9. Nuclear quadrupole resonance applied for arsenic oxide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.A.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this study are mounting a pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) building a flow cryostat capable of varying the temperature continuously from 77 K to 340 K and using the spectrometer and the cryostat to study the polycrystalline arsenic oxide. The spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ), the spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 ) and the resonance frequency are obtained as a function of temperature. These data are obtained in 77 to 330 K interval. The relaxation times are obtained using the spin echo technique. The spin echo phenomenon is due to refocusing spins, when a 180 0 C pulse is applied after a 90 0 C pulse. The spin-lattice relaxation time is obtained using the plot of echo amplitude versus the repetition time. The spin-spin relaxation time is obtained using the plot of echo amplitude versus the separation between the 90 0 C - 180 0 C pulses. The theory developed by Bayer is used to explain the spin-lattice relaxation time and the frequency temperature dependence. The spin-spin relaxation time is discussed using the Bloch equations. (author)

  10. Design Challenges for a Wide-Aperture Insertion Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, S; Perez, J C; Ramos, D; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Kirby, G; Sahner, T; Schwerg, N

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a superconducting (Nb-Ti) quadrupole with 120 mm aperture, for an upgrade of the LHC insertion region, faces challenges arising from the LHC beam optics requirements and the heat-deposition. The first triggered extensive studies of coil alternatives with four and six coil-blocks in view of field quality and operation margins. The latter requires more porous insulation schemes for both the cables and the ground-plane. This in turn necessitates extensive heatpropagation and quench-velocity studies, as well as more efficient quench heaters. The engineering design of the magnet includes innovative features such as self-locking collars, which will enable the collaring to be performed with the coils on a horizontal assembly bench, a spring-loaded and collapsible assembly mandrel, tuning-shims for field quality, porous collaring-shoes, and coil end-spacer design based on differential geometry methods. The project also initiated code extensions in the quench-simulation and CAD/CAM module...

  11. Chaos and catastrophes in quadrupole oscillations of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, Yu L; Gonchar, V Yu; Inopin, I V

    1987-02-01

    Dynamics of quadrupole oscillations of atomic nuclei is investigated. A possibility of the transition from the regular regime to the chaotic one is studied; critical energy of this transition for different potential parameters is determined. The obtained results permit to state that for all the considered cases there exists a relatively narrow energy range, where the character of motion varies from regular to chaotic. The determined values of critical energy comply with the following regularities: a) the critical energy for potentials with common central minimum for all the values of parameters coincides with that found by the criterion of negative curvature; b) in the case of potentials with two minia (0 < a < 1/4 b/sup 2/) the critical energy for the central well having several elliptic fixed points coincides with that found by the criterion of negative curvature; for minima corresponding to non-spherical equilibrium states and having only one elliptic fixed point the critical energy coincides with saddle energy; c) similar relation between the number of fixed elliptic points and critical energy of transition to chaos takes place at a < 0.

  12. Hybrid permanent magnet quadrupoles for the Recycler Ring at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Pruss, S.M.; Foster, G.W.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Jackson, G.R.; May, M.R.; Nicol, T.H.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Schlabach, R.; Volk, J.T.

    1997-10-01

    Hybrid Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles are used in several applications for the Fermilab Recycler Ring and associated beam transfer lines. Most of these magnets use a 0.6096 m long iron shell and provide integrated gradients up to 1.4 T-m/m with an iron pole tip radius of 41.6 mm. A 58.4 mm pole radius design is also required. Bricks of 25. 4 mm thick strontium ferrite supply the flux to the back of the pole to produce the desired gradients (0.6 to 2.75 T/m). For temperature compensation, Ni-Fe alloy strips are interspersed between ferrite bricks to subtract flux in a temperature dependent fashion. Adjustments of the permeance of each pole using iron between the pole and the flux return shell permits the matching of pole potentials. Magnetic potentials of the poles are adjusted to the desired value to achieve the prescribed strength and field uniformity based on rotating coil harmonic measurements. Procurement, fabrication, pole potential adjustment, and measured fields will be reported

  13. Fast quadrupole pulsed power supply in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Halama, H.J.; Lambiase, R.F.; Montemurro, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the Polarized Proton Project at the AGS, a pulsed power supply system has been developed to energize a set of twelve fast quadrupoles which are symmetrically distributed around the 1/2-mile circumference of the machine. During a typical acceleration cycle, which is normally repeated every 2.4 s, these magnets are energized with bursts of triangular current pulses. The rise-time of each pulse is less than 2 μs and the width at the base varies from 1 to 3.5 ms depending on the pulse. Within a burst, pulses alternate in polarity and vary in amplitude from 160 A to 2700 A peak. Pulse separation is on the order of 40 ms. Due to the distributed nature of the load and high di/dt, each magnet is powered by a separate modulator. Magnets are driven via coaxial pulse transmission cables up to 200 ft long. In the modulators, the high power pulses are switched with thyratron/ignitron switch pairs. All modulators are charged in parallel with a common system of programmable high voltage power supplies. The overall system is controlled with a distributed network of microcomputers. This paper describes the development, construction and initial performance of the pulsed power supply system

  14. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  15. The Role of the E2F Transcription Factor Family in UV-Induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Gannon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The E2F transcription factor family is traditionally associated with cell cycle control. However, recent data has shown that activating E2Fs (E2F1-3a are potent activators of apoptosis. In contrast, the recently cloned inhibitory E2Fs (E2F7 and 8 appear to antagonize E2F-induced cell death. In this review we will discuss (i the potential role of E2Fs in UV-induced cell death and (ii the implications of this to the development of UV-induced cutaneous malignancies.

  16. The Canonical E2Fs Are Required for Germline Development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of cell fate determinations, including cell division, cell differentiation, and programmed cell death, intensely occur during plant germline development. How these cell fate determinations are regulated remains largely unclear. The transcription factor E2F is a core cell cycle regulator. Here we show that the Arabidopsis canonical E2Fs, including E2Fa, E2Fb, and E2Fc, play a redundant role in plant germline development. The e2fa e2fb e2fc (e2fabc triple mutant is sterile, although its vegetative development appears normal. On the one hand, the e2fabc microspores undergo cell death during pollen mitosis. Microspores start to die at the bicellular stage. By the tricellular stage, the majority of the e2fabc microspores are degenerated. On the other hand, a wild type ovule often has one megaspore mother cell (MMC, whereas the majority of e2fabc ovules have two to three MMCs. The subsequent female gametogenesis of e2fabc mutant is aborted and the vacuole is severely impaired in the embryo sac. Analysis of transmission efficiency showed that the canonical E2Fs from both male and female gametophyte are essential for plant gametogenesis. Our study reveals that the canonical E2Fs are required for plant germline development, especially the pollen mitosis and the archesporial cell (AC-MMC transition.

  17. Tropical cyclones in the GISS ModelE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana J. Camargo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the characteristics of tropical cyclone (TC activity in the GISS general circulation ModelE2 with a horizontal resolution 1°×1°. Four model simulations are analysed. In the first, the model is forced with sea surface temperature (SST from the recent historical climatology. The other three have different idealised climate change simulations, namely (1 a uniform increase of SST by 2 degrees, (2 doubling of the CO2 concentration and (3 a combination of the two. These simulations were performed as part of the US Climate Variability and Predictability Program Hurricane Working Group. Diagnostics of standard measures of TC activity are computed from the recent historical climatological SST simulation and compared with the same measures computed from observations. The changes in TC activity in the three idealised climate change simulations, by comparison with that in the historical climatological SST simulation, are also described. Similar to previous results in the literature, the changes in TC frequency in the simulation with a doubling CO2 and an increase in SST are approximately the linear sum of the TC frequency in the other two simulations. However, in contrast with previous results, in these simulations the effects of CO2 and SST on TC frequency oppose each other. Large-scale environmental variables associated with TC activity are then analysed for the present and future simulations. Model biases in the large-scale fields are identified through a comparison with ERA-Interim reanalysis. Changes in the environmental fields in the future climate simulations are shown and their association with changes in TC activity discussed.

  18. Status of radio frequency quadrupole accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Kothari, Ashok; Kumar, Sugam; Safvan, C.P.; Shankar, Ram

    2015-01-01

    As part of the accelerator augmentation program at IUAC, a High Current Injector (HCI) is being developed to inject highly charged ions into the superconducting LINAC. The HCI consists of a superconducting (High TC) ECR source, producing the high currents of highly charged ions. The ion beams produced will be injected into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator (RFQ) and be accelerated to 180 keV/u. RF power of about 100 kW at 48.5 MHz will be fed to the RFQ during its actual working. The ions will be further accelerated by a Drift Tube Linac (DTL), before being further velocity matched with a low beta cavity into the superconducting LINAC. RFQ at IUAC is a four rod cavity structure having individual demountable copper vanes held on vane posts with a total vane length of 2.536 m and a minimum aperture of 12mm. The vane posts hold twenty nos. of vanes. Water will flow into vanes through the vane posts. The copper plated stainless steel vacuum housing has been divided into two chambers for the ease of fabrication and copper plating. The RFQ stand has provision for alignment in all the three axes. After successfully validating all the electrical and mechanical design parameters on a prototype RFQ, the fabrication of final RFQ has been completed. Initial assembly to check the mechanical accuracies was carried out. Low power RF tests were conducted to validate the design parameters. The resonance frequency of the RFQ was measured as 44.12 MHz and Q value was measured ∼ 5500. The final assembly is in progress. This paper details the present status and future plan of RFQ. (author)

  19. Radio-frequency quadrupole: a new linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    In many Laboratories, great emphasis now is placed on the development of linear accelerators with very large ion currents. To achieve this goal, a primary concern must be the low-velocity part of the accelerator, where the current limit is determined and where most of the emittance growth occurs. The use of magnetic focusing, the conflicting requirements in the choice of linac frequency, and the limitations of high-voltage dc injectors, have tended to produce low-velocity designs that limit overall performance. The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator, invented in the Soviet Union and developed at Los Alamos, offers an attractive solution to many of these low-velocity problems. In the RFQ, the use of RF electric fields for radial focusing, combined with special programming of the bunching, allows high-current dc beams to be captured and accelerated with only small beam loss and low radial emittance growth. Advantages of the RFQ linac include a low injection energy (20 to 50 keV for protons) and a final energy high enough so the beam can be further accelerated with high efficiency in a Wideroee or Alvarez linac. These properties have been confirmed at Los Alamos in a highly successful experimental test performed during the past year. The success of this test and the advances in RFQ design procedures have led to the adoption of this linac for a wide range of applications. The beam-dynamics parameters of three RFQ systems are described. These are the final design for the protytype test of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator, the final design for the prototype test of the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI), and an improved low-velocity linac for heavy ion fusion

  20. Solid state NMR, basic theory and recent progress for quadrupole nuclei with half-integer spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter, F.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the basic theory and some recently developed techniques for the study of quadrupole nuclei with half integer spins in powder materials. The latter is connected to the introduction of the double rotation (DOR) by A. Samoson et al. (1) and to the introduction of the multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ MAS) technique by L. Frydman et. al. (2). For integer spins, especially the solid-state deuterium magnetic resonance, we refer to the review of G.L. Hoatson and R.L. Vold: '' 2 H-NMR Spectroscopy of Solids and Liquid Crystals'' (3). For single crystals we refer to O. Kanert and M. Mehring: ''Static quadrupole effects in disordered cubic solids''(4) and we would like also to mention the ''classic'' review of M.H. Cohen and F. Reif: ''Quadrupole effects in NMR studies of solids'' (5). Some more recent reviews in the field under study are D. Freude and J. Haase ''Quadrupole effects in solid-state NMR'' (6). Ch. Jager: ''Satellite Transition Spectroscopy of Quadrupolar Nuclei'' (7) and B.F. Chmelka and J.W. Zwanziger: ''Solid State NMR Line Narrowing Methods for Quadrupolar Nuclei - Double Rotation and Dynamic-Angle Spinning'' (8). A survey of nuclear quadrupole frequency data published before the end of 1982 is given by H. Chihara and N. Nakamura in Landolt-Bornstein, Vol. 20 (9). Values of the chemical shift of quadrupole nuclei in solids can be found in books such as ''Multinuclear NMR'' edited by J. Mason (10). In section 9 of ref (6) some electric field gradient and chemical shift data published from 1983 to 1992 for the most studied quadrupole nuclei sup 27 Al, sup 23 Na, and sup 17 O are given

  1. Investigation of 112Cd via the (d,p) Reaction and a Reassessment of the Quadrupole-Octupole Coupled Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

    The single-particle neutron states in 112Cd have been probed with the 111Cd(d,p) reaction. Beams of up to 1.2 µA of polarized 22 MeV deuterons bombarded 111Cd targets. The reaction protons were momentum analyzed with a Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with spectra were recorded at 10 angles between 10 and 60° with a resolution of 6-7 keV FWHM. In addition to the (d,p) transfer data, (d,d) elastic-scattering data were also obtained and used to ascertain the proper optical model parameters. Cross sections and analyzing powers for all levels observed to be populated were fit to results of DWBA and ADWA calculations, and spectroscopic factors were determined. The 5- level at 2373 keV, previously assigned as a member on the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet set of states because of its enhanced B(E2;5 - to 31 - ) value, was observed to be one of the strongest peaks in the spectrum, and is reassigned as the s1/2 otimes h11/2 two-quasineutron configuration.

  2. Drive Beam Quadrupoles for the CLIC Project: a Novel Method of Fiducialisation and a New Micrometric Adjustment System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)411678; Duquenne, Mathieu; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Rude, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of fiducialisation applied to determine the magnetic axis of the Drive Beam quadrupole of the CLIC project with respect to external alignment fiducials, within a micrometric accuracy and precision. It introduces also a new micrometric adjustment system along 5 Degrees of Freedom, developed for the same Drive Beam quadrupole. The combination of both developments opens very interesting perspectives to get a more simple and accurate alignment of the quadrupoles.

  3. E2F-1-Induced p53-independent apoptosis in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Christian Henrik; Helin, K.; Sehested, M.

    1998-01-01

    The E2F transcription factors are key targets for the retinoblastoma protein, pRB. By inactivation of E2Fs, pRB prevents progression to the S phase. To test proliferative functions of E2F, we generated transgenic mice expressing human E2F-1 and/or human DP-1. When the hydroxymethyl glutaryl...... involving increased apoptosis in the germinal epithelium. This effect was potentiated by simultaneous overexpression of DP-1. Testicular atrophy as a result of overexpression of E2F-1 and DP-1 is independent of functional p53, since p53-nullizygous transgenic mice overexpressing E2F-1 and DP-1 also suffered...

  4. Gravitational radiation in relativistic theory of gravity with a nonzero graviton mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.A.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation of gravitation waves have been analysed in the linear approximation of the relative theory of gravity, with the mass of graviton being nonzero. It is shown that the main contribution to the energy loss due to gravitational radiation has been described by the well-known quadrupole formula. Linear approximation applicability conditions have been analysed

  5. Identification of an ovine atadenovirus gene whose product activates the viral E2 promoter: possible involvement of E2F-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuemin, Daniel; Hofmann, Christian; Uckert, Wolfgang; Both, Gerald W.; Loeser, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Activation of the adenoviral E2 promoter is an early step in adenovirus gene expression. For members of the mast- and aviadenoviruses, this requires induction of the cellular transcription factor E2F by virally encoded gene products such as E1A, E4orf6/7 and orf22/GAM-1. The newly recognized genus atadenovirus, of which the ovine isolate OAdV is the prototype, lacks any sequence homology to those genes. To find a possible link between E2 promoter activation and OAdV gene expression, we utilized a screening method to search for genes within the OAdV genome that were capable of stimulating the viral E2 promoter. One such gene, E43, was identified within the proposed E4 region toward the right-hand end of the OAdV genome. The E43 gene product was also found to be capable of stimulating E2F-1-dependent gene expression. A closer inspection of the E2 promoter revealed the presence of a non-palindromic E2F binding site within the OAdV E2 promoter. Mutation of this site markedly reduced both E2F-1- and E43-dependent promoter activation. Moreover, a direct protein-protein interaction of the E43 gene product with E2F, but not with the retinoblastoma protein pRb, suggested a possible cooperation between these two proteins in activating the E2 promoter. The importance of the E43 gene product for virus replication is also underlined by the finding that an OAdV recombinant with a functionally inactivated E43 gene showed severely inhibited virus growth

  6. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jimin; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-01-01

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed

  7. Knockdown of E2f1 by RNA interference impairs proliferation of rat cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana dos Reis Vasques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E2F1 plays a key role in cell-cycle regulation in mammals, since its transcription factor activity controls genes required for DNA synthesis and apoptosis. E2F1 deregulation is a common feature among different tumor types and can be a major cause of cell proliferation. Thus, blocking E2F1 expression by RNA interference represents a promising therapeutic approach. In this study, the introduction of specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs reduced E2f1 expression by up to 77%, and impaired rat glioma cell proliferation by approximately 70%, as compared to control cells. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of E2f1 target genes, Cyclin A and Cyclin E. Cyclin A was found to be down-regulated, whereas Cyclin E had similar expression to control cells, indicating that gene(s other than E2f1 control its transcription. Other E2f family members, E2f2 and E2f3, which have been classified in the same subgroup of transcriptional activators, were also analyzed. Expression of both E2f2 and E2f3 was similar to control cells, showing no cross-inactivation or up-regulation to compensate for the absence of E2f1. Nevertheless, their expression was insufficient to maintain the initial proliferation potential. Taken together, our results suggest that shE2f1 is a promising therapy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  8. A potential oncogenic role of the commonly observed E2F5 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Jiang; Seon-Hee Yim; Hai-Dong Xu; Seung-Hyun Jung; So Young Yang; Hae-Jin Hu; Chan-Kwon Jung; Yeun-Jun Chung

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression pattern of E2F5 in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and elucidate the roles of E2F5 in hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS: E2F5 expression was analyzed in 120 primary HCCs and 29 normal liver tissues by immunohistochemistry analysis. E2F5-small interfering RNA was transfected into HepG2, an E2F5-overexpressed HCC cell line. After E2F5 knockdown, cell growth capacity and migrating potential were examined. RESULTS: E2F5 was significantly overexpressed in primary HCCs compared with normal liver tissues (P = 0.008). The E2F5-silenced cells showed significantly reduced proliferation (P = 0.004). On the colony formation and soft agar assays, the number of colonies was significantly reduced in E2F5-silenced cells (P = 0.004 and P = 0.009, respectively). E2F5 knockdown resulted in the accumulation of G0/G1 phase cells and a reduction of S phase cells. The number of migrating/invading cells was also reduced after E2F5 knockdown (P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that E2F5 is commonly overexpressed in primary HCC and that E2F5 knockdown significantly repressed the growth of HCC cells.

  9. The retinoblastoma protein binds to a family of E2F transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, J A; Saito, M; Vidal, M

    1993-01-01

    E2F is a transcription factor that helps regulate the expression of a number of genes that are important in cell proliferation. Recently, several laboratories have isolated a cDNA clone that encodes an E2F-like protein, known as E2F-1. Subsequent characterization of this protein showed that it had...... the properties of E2F, but it was difficult to account for all of the suggested E2F activities through the function of this one protein. Using low-stringency hybridization, we have isolated cDNA clones that encode two additional E2F-like proteins, called E2F-2 and E2F-3. The chromosomal locations of the genes...... protein in vivo. Finally, E2F-2 and E2F-3 were able to activate transcription of E2F-responsive genes in a manner that was dependent upon the presence of at least one functional E2F binding site. These observations suggest that the E2F activities described previously result from the combined action...

  10. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jimin, E-mail: jimin.wang@yale.edu; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo, E-mail: yorgo.modis@yale.edu

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  11. Angular anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation is reviewed. Anisotropy on large-scale (dipole and quadrupole) and on small scales is discussed. The smoothing effects of secondary ionization (fractional ionization x) are found to be unimportant over an angular scale greater than approx.= 5(OMEGAx)sup(1/3) degrees. (author)

  12. Puzzle of the 6Li Quadrupole Moment: Steps toward Solving It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Kukulin, V.I.; Pomerantsev, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the origin of the quadrupole deformation in the 6 Li ground state is investigated with allowance for the three-deuteron component of the 6 Li wave function. Two long-standing puzzles related to the tensor interaction in the 6 Li nucleus are known: that of an anomalous smallness of the 6 Li quadrupole moment (being negative, it is smaller in magnitude than the 7 Li quadrupole moment by a factor of 5) and that of an anomalous behavior of the tensor analyzing power T 2q in the scattering of polarized 6 Li nuclei on various targets. It is shown that a large (in magnitude) negative exchange contribution to the 6 Li quadrupole moment from the three-deuteron configuration cancels almost completely the 'direct' positive contribution due to the αd folding potential. As a result, the total quadrupole moment proves to be close to zero and highly sensitive to fine details of the tensor nucleon-nucleon interaction in the 4 He nucleus and of its wave function

  13. Resolution limit of probe-forming systems with magnetic quadrupole lens triplets and quadruplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.G.; Melnik, K.I.; Miroshnichenko, V.I.; Storizhko, V.E.; Sulkio-Cleff, B.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, in MeV ion beam microanalysis efforts to achieve a spatial resolution better than 0.1 μm with a beam current of ∼100 pA have been connected with microprobes of new generation where the probe is formed by means of separated magnetic quadrupole lens structures . However, as was pointed out in , no dramatic improvements in spatial resolution have been produced so far. For better understanding of the situation the authors carried out theoretical studies of multiparameter sets of probe-forming systems based on separated triplets and quadruplets of magnetic quadrupole lenses. Comparisons were made between the highest current values attained at different systems for a given beam spot size. The maximum parasitic sextupole and octupole field components were found whose contributions to spot broadening are tolerable. It is shown that the use of modern electrostatic accelerators and precision magnetic quadrupole lenses makes it possible to eliminate the effect of chromatic aberrations and second- and third-order parasitic aberrations resulting from distortions of the quadrupole lens symmetry. Therefore probe-forming systems with triplets and quadruplets of magnetic quadrupole lenses have a lower theoretical spatial resolution limit which is restricted mainly by intrinsic spherical third-order aberrations in state-of-the-art microprobes

  14. Origin-independent calculation of quadrupole intensities in X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadotte, Stephan; Atkins, Andrew J.; Jacob, Christoph R.

    2012-01-01

    For electronic excitations in the ultraviolet and visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the intensities are usually calculated within the dipole approximation, which assumes that the oscillating electric field is constant over the length scale of the transition. For the short wavelengths used in hard X-ray spectroscopy, the dipole approximation may not be adequate. In particular, for metal K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), it becomes necessary to include higher-order contributions. In quantum-chemical approaches to X-ray spectroscopy, these so-called quadrupole intensities have so far been calculated by including contributions depending on the square of the electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole transition moments. However, the resulting quadrupole intensities depend on the choice of the origin of the coordinate system. Here, we show that for obtaining an origin-independent theory, one has to include all contributions that are of the same order in the wave vector consistently. This leads to two additional contributions depending on products of the electric-dipole and electric-octupole and of the electric-dipole and magnetic-quadrupole transition moments, respectively. We have implemented such an origin-independent calculation of quadrupole intensities in XAS within time-dependent density-functional theory, and demonstrate its usefulness for the calculation of metal and ligand K-edge XAS spectra of transition metal complexes.

  15. E2 = Energy concept x final storage [+ the law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    The world is changing all the time, opinions and evaluations assume new shapes. It is the function of the law to ensure reliability and confidence by its very continuity. However, it is not only the revisions of the law which are subject to the zeitgeist; also the interpretations and applications of the law are not exempt from current trends of thought. The coalition agreement signed by the CDU/CSU and FDP parties on October 26, 2009 announced an energy concept encompassing life extension of nuclear power plants and a continued exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a repository for high-level waste producting heat. The Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) tries to prove in a legal opinion that an extension of nuclear power plant life was illegal and unconstitutional because the problem of the back end of the fuel cycle was not likely to be solved in a foreseeable time. Continuing exploration of the Gorleben salt dome is based on mining law. The agency responsible for filing an application under the German Atomic Energy Act is the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). In Germany, the final storage issue has always been an area of violent political debate. Given the strategic purpose of the DUH legal opinion as a tool furthering opt-out of the use of nuclear power, several points are presented and discussed in this article which were overlooked in that opinion. The equation, 'energy concept x final storage =..?', seems to be open today. The law can support results. Existing legal regulations especially about the nuclear power sector must be used as starting points for new ideas: The existence of legal norms is to ensure reliability and confidence. Consequently, changes in the law must be prepared very thoroughly and weighed comprehensively. In current thinking, after all, transparency is part of political action, especially so in defining and implementing goals in topics such as the energy concept and final storage. Yet, unnecessary delays would not be justified

  16. Plasma lipoproteins in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia associated with apolipoproteins E2 (Arg158 -->Cys), E3-Leiden, and E2 (Lys146-->Gln), and effects of treatment with simvastatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.P.; Smelt, A.H.; Maagdenberg, A.M. van den; Tol, A. van; Vroom T.F.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Frants, R.R.; Havekes, L.M.; Laarse, A. van der; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1994-01-01

    Using a density-gradient ultracentrifugation technique, we analyzed in detail the plasma lipoprotein profiles of 18 patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) who had apolipoprotein (apo) E2(Arg158-->Cys) homozygosity (the E2-158 variant, n = 6), apoE3-Leiden heterozygosity (the E3-Leiden

  17. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  18. Detection of Antibody to Envelope (E2 Antigen of Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Chaudhary

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and four clinical specimens from provincial public health laboratories were tested for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV envelope protein (anti-E2. To evaluate the effect of hypervariability of E2 region on anti-E2 assay, 49 recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA 3.0 positive samples were genotyped. All 49 genotyped samples were positive for anti-E2. Eight of 12 (67% indeterminate, HCV RNA positive samples were anti-E2 reactive. Nine of 30 (30% indeterminate, HCV RNA negative samples were also positive for anti-E2. Anti-E2 was detected in two of 13 (15% RIBA-negative and enzyme immunoassays-positive samples. Although small number of samples were tested, the results showed that it may be possible to resolve indeterminate samples with the anti-E2 assay.

  19. Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppari Jorma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct

  20. 26 CFR 1.860E-2 - Tax on transfers of residual interests to certain organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on transfers of residual interests to certain organizations. 1.860E-2 Section 1.860E-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860E-2...