in which regulatory authorities in the UK have come to address what is invariably described as a ‘growing interest in CAM’, I will show how the problem of quackery today is increasingly located in an ethical field of practitioner competency, qualifications, conduct, responsibility and personal professional...... health. Yet, in this paper, I argue that this is only one form that the problem of ‘quackery’ has taken in the past two centuries or so in the United Kingdom. Just as Roy Porter showed how the mid-19th century professionalization of medicine gave rise to a ‘quackery with a difference’ as a whole range...
Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi
Full Text Available Dental disease restricts activities in school, work, and home and often significantly diminishes the quality of life for many children and adults, especially those who have low income or are uninsured. Though the overall dentist population ratio in India is 1:10,000, at present in rural India, one dentist is serving 2.5 lakhs of people. Only 15-20% of people in India are able to get dental services through national schemes, and 80-85% are spending money from their pockets, providing an ideal breeding ground for quackery into dental practice in India. Dental quacks cater to the lower-middle and lower socioeconomic classes that cannot afford qualified dental practitioners. A large number of people visiting these quacks seek care only when in pain, have a restricted budget, and are not very quality conscious. Dentistry has come a long way in the last one and a half century; today it is ranked as one of the most respected professions. It is incumbent upon dentists everywhere to protect this hard-earned reputation by weeding out quacks from among them. The government should urge fresh graduates to practice in rural areas and provide more incentives to them. Public health dentists should take the initiative of adopting more community-oriented oral health programs to increase the awareness among rural populations.
Widder, Rebecca M; Anderson, Douglas C
Medical quackery has been a pressing issue nearly from the start of the medical profession - whether the nostrums and patent medications of old or the super-foods and miracle supplements of today. Throughout history and into the modern day, the medical establishment has tried to counteract the claims of charlatans in order to protect patients from potentially harmful treatments. Countering today's pseudo-medicine begins with an examination of what makes patients susceptible to the claims of quack medicine. Understanding why patients are susceptible to dubious health claims begins with an examination of the rhetoric used to persuade a demographic toward alternative therapies. This knowledge can then be used to educate patients, and to better demonstrate the benefits of evidence-based medicine while improving patient interactions.
Chonko, Lawrence B.
"Quackery" is a term commonly associated with the medical profession. It is often associated with those who are proponents of alternative medicines, the benefits of which are not based on science. In this article, it is asserted that quack methodologies have been infused into the teaching of marketing. Marketing education is not indicted with…
Skinner, Daniel; Schneider, Adam
This article uses a reading of John Wesley's Primitive Physic, or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases (1747) to resist the common rejection-often as "quackery"-of Wesley's treatments for common maladies. We engage Wesley not because he was right but because his approach offers useful moments of pause in light of contemporary medical epistemology. Wesley's recommendations were primarily oriented towards the categories of personal responsibility and capability, but he also sought to empower individuals-especially the poor-with the knowledge to safely and affordably treat maladies of their own. We leverage Primitive Physic to rethink contemporary medical knowledge production, especially as sanctioned by randomized clinical trials and legitimate views of experience and contemporary institutions such as the AMA. Ultimately, we suggest that the medical humanities has a key role to play in mining the discarded and dismissed for what they can tell scholars about medical knowledge.
Blaheta, Roman A; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Juengel, Eva
The cyanogenic diglucoside, amygdalin, has gained high popularity among cancer patients together with, or in place of, conventional therapy. Still, evidence based research on amygdalin is sparse and its benefit controversial. Since so many cancer patients consume amygdalin, and many clinicians administer it without clear knowledge of its mode of action, current knowledge has been summarized and the pros and cons of its use weighed. A retrospective analysis was conducted for amygdalin relevant reports using the PubMed database with the main search term "Amygdalin" or "laetrile", at times combined with "cancer", "patient", "cyanide" or "toxic". We did not exclude any "unwanted" articles. Additionally, internet sources authorized by governmental or national institutions have also been included. Individual chapters summarize pharmacokinetics, preclinical and clinical studies and toxicity. No convincing evidence showing that amygdalin induces rapid, distinct tumor regression in cancer patients, particularly in those with late-stage disease, is apparent. However, there is also no evidence that purified amygdalin, administered in "therapeutic" dosage, causes toxicity. Multiple aspects of amygdalin administration have not yet been adequately explored, making further investigation necessary to evaluate its actual therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Renckens, Cees N M
Discontentment with the massive violations of the influential Dutch Prime Minister's (Johan Rudolf Thorbecke) health laws led to the foundation of the Dutch Society Against Quackery, in 1880. Within a few years, the Society had more than 1,100 members. Initially, quackery mostly consisted of the unauthorized practice of medicine and the peddling of industrially manufactured ''secret remedies.'' Since the 50s however, the energy of the society focused mainly on magnetizers, especially after they gained support from the field of parapsychology, lay manipulators of the back and herb doctors. The most important object of the society since 1980 has been the fight against the so-called alternative medicine, of which Chinese acupuncture, homeopathy, manipulative therapy, anthroposophical medicine, and naturopathy are prominent targets. Despite numerous costly lawsuits, the society still survives and is probably the oldest as well as the largest of its kind in the world.
María Dolores Rivero
Full Text Available This paper aims to study how the written press of the cities of Córdoba and Buenos Aires (Argentina defined the "continuous advance of quackery and charlatanry" at different times of 1920s. In a context of limited national historiography related to the study of the empirical practices, we want to probe this problem in two different geographic spaces that formed part, —even today— of a country with strong regional inequalities. We wonder how journalistic representations defined "quackery" as a puzzle whose pieces refer to the State, graduate professionals, the society and the empirical healers themselves. In our reconstruction, we recognize that these discourses were influenced by the editorial course and the ideological affiliation to which the newspapers of two of the most important metropolis of Argentina asserted. Based on a qualitative methodology, we put into an analytical perspective a set of news with the aim to rescue "voices and looks" that contributed to build the empirical practices of heal as a social problem of the public sphere during the years of study.
The figure of the ‘miracle cure’-peddling quack pretending spectacular properties for worthless tonics is iconic. From their 19th century traveling wagon shows to their 21st century Internet spam scams, hucksters and cranks have been consistently targeted by health authorities as a danger to publ...
Duke, E Steven
A few dentists are responsible for most of the unconventional or unethical dentistry performed on the public. However, the influence of a few can have a major effect on the public's trust of the profession. Suppressing the introduction or continued development of new technologies in the dental profession is not the solution. Rather, new technologies should be integrated into existing established modes of dental practice. Innovations are good for the dental profession and for the public. As prudent dentists, our goal should be to critically assess innovations and demand validation before allowing unconditional widespread use in dental procedures. Regarding unethical clinicians, they probably always will put their interest ahead of the patient's. However, through peer pressure and enhanced education in ethics early in dental education, we can begin to minimize such activity within the profession.
van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M
The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist.
Gold, Peter W; Novella, S; Roy, R; Marcus, D; Bell, I; Davidovitch, N; Saine, A
This is an edited transcript of a debate held at the University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA on 25 October 2007. Homeopathy is a widely used but controversial form of complementary and alternative medicine. Six distinguished international speakers, including advocates and skeptics concerning homeopathy, debated the plausibility, theoretical principles, clinical and basic research evidence, ethical and other issues surrounding homeopathy.
includes an electrically conductive wire wound substantially around the ring, and tubing wrapped .... considerable chromosomal damage in dividing human diploid fibroblasts. .... Magnetic healing, quackery, and the debate about the health effects of electromagnetic fields. ... role of coenzyme Q10 and l-carnitine in mice.
New York State Council on Economic Education, Albany.
The document consists of 12 consumer education units for grade 12: Consumer Purchasing; Purchasing Food, Clothing, Furniture, and Appliances; Purchasing and Maintaining an Automobile; Housing; Consumer Credit; Money Management; Fraud, Quackery, and Deception; Banking and Savings; Investments; Life Insurance; Security Programs (Social Security,…
Worrall, Russell S.
This article discusses health fraud in special education. Psychopathology of health fraud, standards by which pseudoscience and quackery are defined, and the complexities of learning disorders are considered. A scale to determine whether an alternative therapy is reasonable is presented. Several popular therapies are used as examples. (Author/PB)
Goldstein, B H
This is the third in a series of 5 articles providing a contemporary overview and introduction to unconventional dentistry (UD) and its correlation to unconventional medicine (UM). UD presents issues of dental quackery, fraud and malpractice, and it also engenders professional concerns about public protection and professional risks. Case reports illustrate numerous issues. The reader is encouraged to evaluate the cases for problems related to malpractice, fraud, ethics, behaviours and professionalism. A discussion of ethical issues is beyond the scope of this paper.
Alternative medicine and reform strategies made Anna Fischer-Dückelmann a most controversial, notorious, and widely read women doctor before World War I. She published a dozen titles in 13 languages asserting that national well-being depended on maternal prowess. To her critics, Fischer-Dückelmann's commitment to medical self-help and practices of Physiatrie amounted to medical quackery. Her career has been largely unexamined, yet her feminist critiques and social concerns are not far removed from modern social medicine. For this pioneering doctor, treating physical and emotional ills and promoting the health of families were first steps toward healing the divisions of a world at war.
Guzley, G J
So-called unorthodox methods of cancer treatment are readily available to patients and families. They are frequently claimed to be "harmless" or "nontoxic" or "painless" alternatives to more standard treatment regimens. The Congress of the United States has estimated that $2 billion is spent annually on cancer quackery. Many physicians will be asked by their patients for opinions on such alternative treatment regimens, and the purpose of this review is to provide the practitioner with the basic information necessary to discuss these topics with their patients.
Matute, Helena; Yarritu, Ion; Vadillo, Miguel A
Pseudoscience, superstitions, and quackery are serious problems that threaten public health and in which many variables are involved. Psychology, however, has much to say about them, as it is the illusory perceptions of causality of so many people that needs to be understood. The proposal we put forward is that these illusions arise from the normal functioning of the cognitive system when trying to associate causes and effects. Thus, we propose to apply basic research and theories on causal learning to reduce the impact of pseudoscience. We review the literature on the illusion of control and the causal learning traditions, and then present an experiment as an illustration of how this approach can provide fruitful ideas to reduce pseudoscientific thinking. The experiment first illustrates the development of a quackery illusion through the testimony of fictitious patients who report feeling better. Two different predictions arising from the integration of the causal learning and illusion of control domains are then proven effective in reducing this illusion. One is showing the testimony of people who feel better without having followed the treatment. The other is asking participants to think in causal terms rather than in terms of effectiveness. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
The patient doctor relational dimer has become complex with the hierarchical or fiduciary manner changing to an equal or un equal relationship. Trust and control are interchangeable, leading to increased patient requirements for disclosure and expectations of a cafeteria approach in diagnoses and management of his/her bodily condition. From any mismatch, there is a potential for medical litigation. In this context, the rise of global consumerism, the explosion of information available on the internet, and the changed manner of the medical profession from being shrouded in mystic / ceremony to trifurcation of medical services to doctoral diagnoses and management, ancillary pharmacy industry, and paramedical services like nursing, counselling and the new age quackery have contributed to this dimer. PMID:19881132
Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender
Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.
Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo R; Castiel, Luis David; Bagrichevsky, Marcos; Griep, Rosane Harter
This article discusses the proliferation of medical quackery and fraud appearing and disappearing daily on the Internet. The customers of these scams, made vulnerable by disease or the prospect of death, use the Internet to buy products that would probably be ignored in other contexts. This vulnerability is linked to strenuous physical demands that compromise the ability to make decisions. The attempt to control the phenomenon of fraud as strictly rational, without taking into account the vulnerability of consumers who have little to lose and not considering their demands for comprehensive care, can lead to disappointing results, since these nostrums seem to be filling the gaps left by health care structures that have been insensitive to the immaterial nature of human fears.
Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P
Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate.
Aural surgery is a branch of nineteenth-century medicine and surgery providing specialized treatment for ear diseases. During the 1830s, faced with a "popular prejudice" against the curability of deafness as well as intraprofessional rivalries and continuous accusations of quackery, aurists found their surgical authority questioned and their field's value threatened. In an attempt to bolster aural surgery's reputation, in 1841, the aurist John Harrison Curtis (1778-1856) introduced his new diagnostic instrument, the cephaloscope, which could not only improve diagnosis but also provide approaches for regulating aural knowledge, thus strengthening aural surgery's authority. This article examines the motives underlying Curtis's introduction of the cephaloscope and the meanings it held for the occupational group at large.
Arvide Cambra, L M
This article reports a preliminary study of Abu-l-Ala: his life, his works and his significance as a writer, scientist and physician. All existing Arab manuscripts on the Kitāb muŷarrabāt al-jawāss are cited, and Arabic manuscript no. 520 from the Bodleian Library in Oxford is described. Finally, the translation is given, and folios 41v., 42r., 52v., 53r., 81v., 82v., 93r., 94v., 97v., 100r. and 100v. reproduced, from the Bodleian Library manuscript of the Kitāb muŷarrabāt al-jawāss. This material includes the peculiarities and therapeutic features of plants and animals such as elecampane, love-in-a-mist, ivy, the goat, the ostrich, the hoopoe and laudanum. The text reproduced here, as well as the work in general, contains large doses of quackery.
Full Text Available This article describes the efforts of several Islamic organizations like the Sarekat Islam (1911, Muhammadiyah (1912, and Persjarikatan Oelama (1913 in transforming the Javanese paradigm, particularly of those who were cultured in quackery and mysticism. The analysis in this article relies on news and articles that were published in newspapers and Islamic journals from 1911 to1942. This article also aims to discuss various crucial problems in Javanese society in the twentieth century, ranging from the social, political, economic, and cultural sphere to religious life. Moreover, this article also portrays the development of the press and local mass media in Java and how they carried out their missionary movements by using rational standardsCopyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v17i1.469
Full Text Available The patient doctor relational dimer has become complex with the hierarchical or fiduciary manner changing to an equal or un equal relationship. Trust and control are interchangeable, leading to increased patient requirements for disclosure and expectations of a cafeteria approach in diagnoses and management of his/her bodily condition. From any mismatch, there is a potential for medical litigation. In this context, the rise of global consumerism, the explosion of information available on the internet, and the changed manner of the medical profession from being shrouded in mystic / ceremony to trifurcation of medical services to doctoral diagnoses and management, ancillary pharmacy industry, and paramedical services like nursing, counselling and the new age quackery have contributed to this dimer.
The patient doctor relational dimer has become complex with the hierarchical or fiduciary manner changing to an equal or un equal relationship. Trust and control are interchangeable, leading to increased patient requirements for disclosure and expectations of a cafeteria approach in diagnoses and management of his/her bodily condition. From any mismatch, there is a potential for medical litigation. In this context, the rise of global consumerism, the explosion of information available on the internet, and the changed manner of the medical profession from being shrouded in mystic / ceremony to trifurcation of medical services to doctoral diagnoses and management, ancillary pharmacy industry, and paramedical services like nursing, counselling and the new age quackery have contributed to this dimer.
David J. Ferrero
Full Text Available Pedagogical and curricular beliefs and commitments are expressions of deeper philosophical and ideological worldviews that empirical research can sometimes modify but not ultimately eliminate. The pluralism these views produce is reasonable in that they all represent plausible interpretations of liberal-republican values and professional standards of practice; they should be granted some room to flourish under a system of carefully regulated autonomy and choice. Three objections to a conception of school choice grounded in a notion of reasonable pluralism among educational doctrines are addressed: 1 that it would undermine educators' efforts to secure status for themselves as professionals by admitting that “best practices” in education offer rough guidance at best; 2 that it would leave parents and students vulnerable to quackery; 3 that it abandons the common school tradition and its aspirations. I conclude with an examination of why the conceptual basis on which a society designs a system of choice makes a difference.
A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.
Waits, Robert K
Around 1850, Isaac L. Pulvermacher (1815-1884) joined the ranks of so-called "galvanists" who had, for nearly a century, been touting the shocks and sparks of electricity as a miracle cure for all ills, including neurological complaints such as palsy and hemiplegia. The famed authors, Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), in France, and Charles Dickens (1812-1870), in England, although contemporaries, apparently never met or corresponded. But during their lives, they both became aware of Pulvermacher and his patented Hydro-Electric Chains, claimed to impart vigor and cure nearly every complaint. Pulvermacher's chains made a cameo appearance in Madame Bovary (1857), Flaubert's controversial (and most successful) novel. Among Dickens's last letters (1870) was an order for I. L. Pulvermacher and Company's "magic band." Since the Victorian age, electrical and magnetic cures, for better or worse, continue to be products of both the medical profession and quackery. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Typhoid fever is endemic in many developing countries with a high rate of complications. Aim of this study is to analyse epidemiological features, clinical presentations, complications and therapeutic outcomes of enteric perforation peritonitis diagnosed and treated in our hospital. Records of total number of 646 patients, who presented with perforation peritonitis due to enteric fever in the surgical emergency unit of Dr Ram Manohar Lohia hospital, New Delhi between January 2001 and December 2013, were reviewed retrospectively. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Out of 646 patients, 62 (9.59% presented in shock. Stomal, peristomal, local and systemic complications were high in these patients. Primary closure was done in 212 (33.12 patients, primary ileostomy was created in 410 (64.06 patients, and resection and anastomosis was done in 24 (3.75 patients. Thirteen patients (2.01% died of typhoid intestinal perforation. To prevent complications of typhoid fever, in addition to control sanitation, it is also important to control quackery and malpractices. Awareness and education about the disease, its nature and complications will also be of great help.
Chevalier, R L
The Enlightenment, a unique period in the history of Europe, was founded in the scientific and intellectual revolution of the 17th century. Renal anatomy and physiology advanced through the work of men like Eustachio, Malpighi, von Rosenstein and Cotugno, who described both normal and pathologic structures. Despite the earlier discovery of renal tubules and glomeruli, their anatomic and physiologic relationship remained unclear during the 18th century. The definitive explanation would not come until the work of Bowman and Bright in the 19th century. Similarly, the role of renal nerves would not emerge until the 19th century, when Claude Bernard elucidated their role in controlling urine flow in the dog. A key figure was Morgagni (1682-1771), who provided highly precise descriptions of a number of urinary tract anomalies and forms of obstructive nephropathy and developed many insights into renal pathophysiology by pure deductive reasoning. He gave a remarkably accurate description of the basis of reflux nephropathy and recognized that urinary calculi could have many etiologies. Lithotomy was performed as a last resort, and Cheselden reduced the mortality to 17% with a perineal approach; Baseilhac designed a new instrument to facilitate the suprapubic approach. Despite the high quality of men such as Morgagni, physicians had a reputation for quackery and rapacity, and most of their efforts met with little success.
Ober, K P
By the time Mark Twain was born, in 1835, the political forces of Jacksonian democracy had created an era of unregulated medical practice in the United States. Licensure laws were almost nonexistent, and any citizen could practice medicine. Regular ("allopathic") medicine was competing with at least two dozen other sects, including homeopathic, botanical, and hydropathic medicine. Although allopathy presented itself as the "scientific" branch of medicine and proclaimed the practices of the other sects to be "quackery," its therapies were aggressive and toxic and had no proven advantage over the treatments used by competitors. Through the efforts of the American Medical Association (AMA), allopathic medicine eliminated its competition by promoting the reestablishment of licensure laws in the late 1800s. In a continuation of the same endeavor, the AMA sought to identify weak and inadequate medical schools and commissioned Abraham Flexner to write the famous Flexner report of 1910 (the year of Mark Twain's death). Twain, an insightful political observer and social critic who was familiar with the competing medical systems and the medical politics of the 19th century, questioned the wisdom of limiting patients' medical options. He doubted the competence and intentions of physicians as a group even as he maintained confidence in the abilities of his own physicians. He was critical of the empirical medical practices used during his youth, but he saw hope in the new scientific orientation of medicine in the early 20th century. Twain's commentaries provide a unique perspective on pre-Flexnerian medicine in the United States.
Karam, George H
The design of a new medical education building sought through art to create awareness of important values in physicians. An antique silk embroidery depicting Aesculapius crowning a man charged to protect the medical profession from quackery is placed at the beginning of the space leading into the simulation laboratories to highlight the importance of competency. A charcoal drawing by an important regional artist conveys the message that trust can arise from vulnerability, with optimal mentoring being the outcome. A round table with an authentic French Art Deco lantern and a commissioned table designed as an interpretation of the lantern create the sense of importance that fosters critical thinking and professionalism. An outdoor terrace was designed to challenge residents and medical students to become in touch with their capacity for humanism in medicine. Included among the various elements to nurture this core value are an outdoor classroom, conversation gardens, open spaces under plane trees (which are within the family of trees under which Hippocrates taught), and a reflection cove (reminiscent of those sought by poets who travelled to Ravello, Italy, in an attempt to find the meaning of life). The major focal point on the terrace is a commissioned Dale Chihuly sculpture of red reeds intended to encourage art as a form of healing and as a source of humanism.
Eyo Effiong Ekpe
Full Text Available AIM: Poorly treated bronchopneumonia is the most common cause of empyema thoracis in Nigeria. Ignorance poverty and quackery are the major reasons for inadequate treatment. METHOD: All paediatric patients diagnosed and treated for empyema thoracis secondary to poorly treated bronchopneumonia in our hospital between November 2006 and January 2009 had their case notes retrieved, and data collated into individual proforma for analysis. RESULTS: During the 26 months period, there were 2106 admissions into children emergency unit of our hospital, with 267 having bronchopneumonia (12% and 18 having empyema thoracis (6.7% case prevalence. The age range was 1 month to 16 years with mean of 6.4 years and male: female ratio 3.5: 1. The right pleural space was affected in 50%, left pleural space in 33.33%, and both pleural spaces in 16.66%. Up to 61% of mothers of the patients with empyema thoracis had no or only primary level of formal education, 77.78% of such mothers were not gainfully employed and 44.43% of patients were previously treated by medical charlatans before presentation in our hospital. All patients were successfully treated with antibiotic and tube thoracostomy drainage with satisfactory recovery. CONCLUSION: Empyema thoracis 20 poorly treated bronchopneumonia is still prevalent in Nigeria. Mass literacy campaign, poverty alleviation and provision of affordable and easily accessible medical care throughout the whole country are the immediate solution to this menace. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 181-186
KARAM, GEORGE H.
The design of a new medical education building sought through art to create awareness of important values in physicians. An antique silk embroidery depicting Aesculapius crowning a man charged to protect the medical profession from quackery is placed at the beginning of the space leading into the simulation laboratories to highlight the importance of competency. A charcoal drawing by an important regional artist conveys the message that trust can arise from vulnerability, with optimal mentoring being the outcome. A round table with an authentic French Art Deco lantern and a commissioned table designed as an interpretation of the lantern create the sense of importance that fosters critical thinking and professionalism. An outdoor terrace was designed to challenge residents and medical students to become in touch with their capacity for humanism in medicine. Included among the various elements to nurture this core value are an outdoor classroom, conversation gardens, open spaces under plane trees (which are within the family of trees under which Hippocrates taught), and a reflection cove (reminiscent of those sought by poets who travelled to Ravello, Italy, in an attempt to find the meaning of life). The major focal point on the terrace is a commissioned Dale Chihuly sculpture of red reeds intended to encourage art as a form of healing and as a source of humanism. PMID:28066041
Goudas, Pavlos C; Diamandopoulos, Athanasios A
This work does not analyze the entire subject of uroscopy but focuses on a very small part thereof: i.e., some rare urine colors, in particular green and blue. These are so rare that most modern nephrologists have never encountered them. We conducted a small survey comparing contemporary knowledge with that of the past, with the participation of 40 Greek nephrologists (25 juniors and 15 seniors). Of these, 63% rejected the notion that green or blue urine even exists, while of those who were aware of them, only 20% had personally encountered them. According to our search of the modern literature, such colors result from either consumption of green or blue pigments, liver dysfunction or urine infection by certain bacteria. We searched and traced several passages on these rare urine colors, referred to in ancient Greek fewer than 7 different names, in the Greek medical literature of the Classical, Roman and Byzantine eras. In these passages, the authors not only gave detailed descriptions of the medical conditions of the corresponding patients but also explained this appearance of the urine. Surprisingly, in the studied texts we also found identical explanations with those in modern texts: consumption of certain foods, liver disease and inflammation. We present and comment on these passages, concluding that many uroscopical findings of antiquity were not quackery, but rather reliable medical statements based on thorough observation and rational reasoning.
For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing
Vickery, Connie E; Cotugna, Nancy
This descriptive survey was undertaken to determine the inclusion of complementary and alternative medicine topics into undergraduate didactic dietetics education. The response rate was 34% (n=92) of all directors (N=273) of didactic and coordinated dietetics programs. Almost all programs (n=81; 88%) include complementary and alternative medicine instruction in some form in their curricula; the majority of content is integrated into already existing nutrition courses. The nutrition courses most often containing complementary and alternative medicine were medical nutrition therapy, advance nutrition, and community nutrition. Topics addressed were varied and included herbal supplements, functional foods, Native-American healing, and quackery in medicine. Most directors indicated that complementary and alternative medicine is an important component of dietetics education, yet many indicated that students are not being adequately prepared in this area. The mean familiarity of program directors with complementary and alternative medicine competencies for dietetics practice was 6 on a scale, with 10 being the most knowledgeable. Respondents also identified whether complementary and alternative medicine and dietary supplement competencies were being addressed at all in their curricula. Lack of time seemed to be the limiting factor to incorporation of complementary and alternative medicine topics into the curricula. Evidence from this study indicates that current curricula are providing some complementary and alternative medicine content, but a core of knowledge is lacking. The complementary and alternative medicine competencies for entry-level dietetics practice anticipated by 2006 will be useful in helping educators adequately meet the needs of future professionals in the area of complementary and alternative medicine.
When electricity became a commodity in 1900, it furnished Germany with new attractions and revolutionized everyday life with all kinds of tools and gadgets; it also opened up a new space for investigating psycho-physical interaction, reviving ideas of a close linkage between psychic life and electricity. The paper traces the emergence of this electro-psychological framework beyond "electroencephalography," the recording of electrical brain waves, to "diagnoscopy," personality profiling by electric phrenology. Diagnoscopy opens a window onto the scientific and public cultures of electricity and psychical processes in Weimar Germany. It garnered enormous attention in the press and was quickly taken up by several institutions for vocational guidance, because it offered a rapid and technological alternative to laborious psychological testing or "subjective" interviewing. Academic psychology and leading figures in brain research reacted with horror; forging counter measures which finally resulted in this technique being denounced as quackery. A few years later, the press celebrated electroencephalography as a mind-reading device, whereas the neuroscientists remained initially skeptical of its significance and the very possibility of an "electroencephalogram" (EEG) before they adapted electroencephalography as a tool for representing various neuro-psychiatric conditions in patterns of recorded signals. The blending of psychophysiology and electrical engineering marks the formation of an electric epistemology in scientific as well as public understanding of the psyche. The transformations of electrodiagnosis from diagnoscopy to the EEG are indicative of a cultural shift in which electricity changed its role from being the power source for experimental apparatuses to becoming a medium of psychic processes.
Trüeb, Ralph M
In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257
Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues affecting their profession. Of concern to all Physicians is the judgment in a recent case where the NCDRC has stated that if MD Medicine Physicians write Physician & Cardiologist on their letterhead it is Quackery. What is MD Medicine degree holder in India qualified and trained to treat ? These are issues which need debate and that can only be initiated once we recognize that there is a problem. Either an MD Medicine is a cardiologist or he is not. If he is then it is the bounded duty of the Association of Physicians of India to challenge this judgment in a higher court of law and seek clear guidelines from MCI as well as Supreme Court on the issue. Editors of Specialty journals have a responsibility of selecting the best articles from those which are submitted to them to be published. Ultimately space in these journals is limited and hence the responsibility to select is enormous and simultaneously reason for rejection of an academic paper also has to be substantial. The question is "do issues which are not core to the specialty concerned deserve space in these?" Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues effecting their profession. Surgical specialties specially obstetricians and their associations have to some extent recognized the problem and taken steps to address the issue specially as regard PCPNDT Act.1 Physicians are more complacent and regard the Consumer Protection Act (CPA) 19862 and problems associated with it to primarily concern the surgical specialties. What is forgotten is that the maximum penalty of 6.08 crore plus interest of 5.5 cr has been awarded in case involving a patient treated primarily by a physician and on whom no surgical procedure was performed.3 It has also to be realized that there is no limit on the amount of compensation which can be asked for under CPA.2 Compensations have been awarded by National
This study discusses the historical significance of the Natural Cure Movement of Germany, centering on the Kneipp Cure, a form of hydrotherapy practiced by Father Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1897). The Kneipp Cure rested on five main tenets: hydrotherapy, exercise, nutrition, herbalism, and the balance of mind and body. This study illuminates the reception of the Kneipp Cure in the context of the trilateral relationship among the Kneipp Cure, the Natural Cure Movement in general, and modern medicine. The Natural Cure Movement was ideologically based on naturalism, criticizing industrialization and urbanization. There existed various theories and methods in it, yet they shared holism and vitalism as common factors. The Natural Cure Movement of Germany began in the early 19th century. During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, it became merged in the Lebensreformbewegung (life reform movement) which campaigned for temperance, anti-tobacco, and anti-vaccination. The core of the Natural Cure Movement was to advocate the world view that nature should be respected and to recognize the natural healing powers of sunlight, air, water, etc. Among varied natural therapies, hydrotherapy spread out through the activities of some medical doctors and amateur healers such as Johann Siegmund Hahn and Vincenz Prie βnitz. Later, the supporters of hydrotherapy gathered together under the German Society of Naturopathy. Sebastian Kneipp, one of the forefathers of hydrotherapy, is distinguished from other proponents of natural therapies in two aspects. First, he did not refuse to employ vaccination and medication. Second, he sought to be recognized by the medical world through cooperating with medical doctors who supported his treatment. As a result, the Kneipp cure was able to be gradually accepted into the medical world despite the "quackery" controversy between modern medicine and the Natural Cure Movement. Nowadays, the name of Sebastian Kneipp remains deeply engraved on
Moran, Michael E.
The history of mankind's suffering greatly from calculus disease has been one of excruciating longevity. Since the first historical records, humans have formed stones and endured the wrath of these concretions' passage via the delicate mechanisms of the urinary tract. This study involved detailed investigations of historical writings of famous stone sufferers to better appreciate the circumstances of our patients. Collected histories both of textbooks and articles were scrutinized for the accounts of famous stone sufferers. Once identified, primary resources were sought with English translations given preference. Cross-referencing all informational sources was attempted. The accounts were then classified as lower urinary tract (BS), upper urinary tract (KS), by century of the individual, and whether these were ancient (before 100 years ago) or recent (from the 20th Century onwards). Many of these great men and woman suffered in relative silence. Not much is available on descriptions of their colic. However, there are others such as Michel Montaigne, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Sydenham, Sir William Osler and Richard Selzer who were able to transform their suffering into ethereal expressions of pure pain and suffering. The ancient descriptions are twofold fascinating, as the victims of stone disease faced quackery and profound ignorance from the medical profession and no effective remedy for the pain. Here again, there are two typical responses: the enlightened cerebral concerns of Montaigne, Sydenham, and Franklin versus the punitive, religious overtones from Erasmus and Pepys. Lower and upper tract stones produced equal horrors to those once thought to incur punishment from the gods, or turning to stone-like "living statues." No amount of literary expression can capture the true essence of renal colic. Medical texts from their earliest times place stone passage near the top of the pantheon of medical suffering. Each of these prolific and
1938,he did not have any of the above-mentioned chronic symptoms before then.The condition that Lu Zhong-an treated Hu Shi was nothing more than a self-limiting one,which Hu Shi called as “minor illness”.This is consistent with Hu Shi's repeated declarations that he had never been cured of diabetes or chronic nephritis by TCM.In fact,Hu Shi considered himself an advocate of Western medicine,and supported his friends in criticizing TCM as the product of a pedantic culture far behind the times.His penetrating criticism of TCM remains both relevant and important,particularly in view of the medical quackery rampant in China today.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The relevance of spiritual practices in health and diseases is well recognized but its application in health care management is lacking . There are many factors responsible for present state of affairs. Firstly , spirituality is dismissed as superstitions , blind faith or worst as quackery resulting in to its poor coverage in modern medical curriculum. Secondly , there is lack of information on evidence based spiritual practices that separate them from superfluous rituals , earlier circumstantial needs , beliefs or extremist concepts. Thirdly , spiritual medicine does not constitute part of medical curriculum so few students , if at all , may take up this as career option. Lastly , research in spirit ual medicine requires a well - equipped laboratory , high tech instruments and a team of expert scientists to generate credible data. All these require extra budgetary provision to an already constrained economy. Interestingly , current technological advances and hard core research at some of the premiere institutes of mind - body - medicine abroad have shown remarkable health benefits from a host of spiritual practices. Unfortunately , not only common man , but even health care professionals seem to be ignorant abou t these developments and hence remain skeptical about spirituality related discussions or deliberations. There is need to create awareness among common people and health care professionals regarding anticipated health benefits from spiritual practices as e vident from scientific data. Such attempt may encourage people t o participation in spirituality related activities with zeal and enthusiasm. The present study is aimed to verify this fact. For this purpose , we have prepared a training module based on avail able scientific evidence on mind - body - medicine. The said information is compiled in the form of Power Point Presentation (ppt and termed as ATPiSM , an abbreviated form of “Awareness Training Programme in