WorldWideScience

Sample records for qi threshold setting

  1. Development of the Quality Improvement Minimum Quality Criteria Set (QI-MQCS): a tool for critical appraisal of quality improvement intervention publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Susanne; Shekelle, Paul G; Liu, Jodi L; Sherwood Danz, Margie; Foy, Robbie; Lim, Yee-Wei; Motala, Aneesa; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2015-12-01

    Valid, reliable critical appraisal tools advance quality improvement (QI) intervention impacts by helping stakeholders identify higher quality studies. QI approaches are diverse and differ from clinical interventions. Widely used critical appraisal instruments do not take unique QI features into account and existing QI tools (eg, Standards for QI Reporting Excellence) are intended for publication guidance rather than critical appraisal. This study developed and psychometrically tested a critical appraisal instrument, the QI Minimum Quality Criteria Set (QI-MQCS) for assessing QI-specific features of QI publications. Approaches to developing the tool and ensuring validity included a literature review, in-person and online survey expert panel input, and application to empirical examples. We investigated psychometric properties in a set of diverse QI publications (N=54) by analysing reliability measures and item endorsement rates and explored sources of disagreement between reviewers. The QI-MQCS includes 16 content domains to evaluate QI intervention publications: Organisational Motivation, Intervention Rationale, Intervention Description, Organisational Characteristics, Implementation, Study Design, Comparator Description, Data Sources, Timing, Adherence/Fidelity, Health Outcomes, Organisational Readiness, Penetration/Reach, Sustainability, Spread and Limitations. Median inter-rater agreement for QI-MQCS items was κ 0.57 (83% agreement). Item statistics indicated sufficient ability to differentiate between publications (median quality criteria met 67%). Internal consistency measures indicated coherence without excessive conceptual overlap (absolute mean interitem correlation=0.19). The critical appraisal instrument is accompanied by a user manual detailing What to consider, Where to look and How to rate. We developed a ready-to-use, valid and reliable critical appraisal instrument applicable to healthcare QI intervention publications, but recognise scope for

  2. [Getting qi and arrival of qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nong-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the inter-relationship between getting qi and arrival of qi, the relevant theory in the Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor is re-considered, and then the relationship of the two concepts by combining with some opinions from scholars is compared and analyzed. Getting qi is the signal of acupuncture at an acupoint; also it is a sign of arrival of qi at an acupoint; what's more, it is the premise for reinforcing or reducing manipulation. The sensation of arrival of qi comes from both doctors and patients, characterized with explicit symptoms including "tight and swift", "sunken, sticky and tight", "light, loose and slow", "warm at the acupoint" or "cold at the acupoint" as well as implicit symptom including "qi moving along the meridians"; also there is the condition of qi regulation that is characterized with "paced and harmony" stomach qi. The arrival of qi could be divided into "qi moving to the needles" and "qi traveling to the diseases". The "qi moving to the needles" has similar meaning to getting qi. The "qi traveling to the diseases" is reflected as "qi arrival with efficacy" and characterized as an immediate effect or a delayed effect. There are differences between the concepts of getting qi and arrival of qi. Getting qi focuses on the importance of the doctor during acupuncture processes (differentiate the nature of qi, guard qi, manipulate qi), which also suggests the clinical significance of implicit getting qi. "Arrival of qi" emphasizes "qi arrival with efficacy", and indicates that during treatment the differences of the exterior or interior and deficit or surplus should be distinguished. For external and shallow diseases involving myofascia-related diseases, miu needling and shallow needling can achieve an immediate treatment effect; for deep, internal and deficient diseases, reinforcing or reducing manipulation should be used to achieve stomach qi, which has delayed effects but can be used as an indicator. It is believed that pulse

  3. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Hedegaard Rasmussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative...... potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no correlation. Support for the threshold theory of creativity was found, in that the correlation between IQ and innovativeness was positive and significant below a cutoff point of IQ 120. Above the cutoff, no significant relation was identified, and the two...... correlations differed significantly. The finding was stable across distinct parts of the sample, providing support for the theory, although the correlations in all subsamples were small. The findings lend support to the existence of threshold effects using perceptual measures of behavior in real...

  4. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. © 2015 The

  5. YI LING QI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. YI LING QI. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1329-1333. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS nanoparticles · QING YING LIU YI LING QI YI FAN ZHENG XU CHUN SONG · More Details ...

  6. Permitted and forbidden sets in symmetric threshold-linear networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnloser, Richard H R; Seung, H Sebastian; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2003-03-01

    The richness and complexity of recurrent cortical circuits is an inexhaustible source of inspiration for thinking about high-level biological computation. In past theoretical studies, constraints on the synaptic connection patterns of threshold-linear networks were found that guaranteed bounded network dynamics, convergence to attractive fixed points, and multistability, all fundamental aspects of cortical information processing. However, these conditions were only sufficient, and it remained unclear which were the minimal (necessary) conditions for convergence and multistability. We show that symmetric threshold-linear networks converge to a set of attractive fixed points if and only if the network matrix is copositive. Furthermore, the set of attractive fixed points is nonconnected (the network is multiattractive) if and only if the network matrix is not positive semidefinite. There are permitted sets of neurons that can be coactive at a stable steady state and forbidden sets that cannot. Permitted sets are clustered in the sense that subsets of permitted sets are permitted and supersets of forbidden sets are forbidden. By viewing permitted sets as memories stored in the synaptic connections, we provide a formulation of long-term memory that is more general than the traditional perspective of fixed-point attractor networks. There is a close correspondence between threshold-linear networks and networks defined by the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations.

  7. Thresholds of Toxicological Concern - Setting a threshold for testing below which there is little concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Low dose, low risk; very low dose, no real risk. Setting a pragmatic threshold below which concerns become negligible is the purpose of thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC). The idea is that such threshold values do not need to be established for each and every chemical based on experimental data, but that by analyzing the distribution of lowest or no-effect doses of many chemicals, a TTC can be defined - typically using the 5th percentile of this distribution and lowering it by an uncertainty factor of, e.g., 100. In doing so, TTC aims to compare exposure information (dose) with a threshold below which any hazard manifestation is very unlikely to occur. The history and current developments of this concept are reviewed and the application of TTC for different regulated products and their hazards is discussed. TTC lends itself as a pragmatic filter to deprioritize testing needs whenever real-life exposures are much lower than levels where hazard manifestation would be expected, a situation that is called "negligible exposure" in the REACH legislation, though the TTC concept has not been fully incorporated in its implementation (yet). Other areas and regulations - especially in the food sector and for pharmaceutical impurities - are more proactive. Large, curated databases on toxic effects of chemicals provide us with the opportunity to set TTC for many hazards and substance classes and thus offer a precautionary second tier for risk assessments if hazard cannot be excluded. This allows focusing testing efforts better on relevant exposures to chemicals.

  8. Bank supervision using the Threshold-Minimum Dominating Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogas, Periklis; Papadimitriou, Theophilos; Matthaiou, Maria-Artemis

    2016-06-01

    An optimized, healthy and stable banking system resilient to financial crises is a prerequisite for sustainable growth. Minimization of (a) the associated systemic risk and (b) the propagation of contagion in the case of a banking crisis are necessary conditions to achieve this goal. Central Banks are in charge of this significant undertaking via a close and detailed monitoring of the banking network. In this paper, we propose the use of an auxiliary supervision/monitoring system that is both efficient with respect to the required resources and can promptly identify a set of banks that are in distress so that immediate and appropriate action can be taken by the supervising authority. We use the network defined by the interrelations between banking institutions employing tools from Complex Networks theory for an efficient management of the entire banking network. In doing so, we introduce the Threshold Minimum Dominating Set (T-MDS). The T-MDS is used to identify the smallest and most efficient subset of banks that can be used as (a) sensors of distress of a manifesting banking crisis and (b) provide a path of possible contagion. We propose the use of this method as a supplementary monitoring tool in the arsenal of a Central Bank. Our dataset includes the 122 largest American banks in terms of their interbank loans. The empirical results show that when the T-MDS methodology is applied, we can have an efficient supervision of the whole banking network, by monitoring just a subset of 47 banks.

  9. Ultrafuzziness Optimization Based on Type II Fuzzy Sets for Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudan Studiawan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Image thresholding is one of the processing techniques to provide high quality preprocessed image. Image vagueness and bad illumination are common obstacles yielding in a poor image thresholding output. By assuming image as fuzzy sets, several different fuzzy thresholding techniques have been proposed to remove these obstacles during threshold selection. In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for thresholding image using ultrafuzziness optimization to decrease uncertainty in fuzzy system by common fuzzy sets like type II fuzzy sets. Optimization was conducted by involving ultrafuzziness measurement for background and object fuzzy sets separately. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed image thresholding method had good performances for images with high vagueness, low level contrast, and grayscale ambiguity.

  10. Automatic Threshold Setting and Its Uncertainty Quantification in Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Setting optimal alarm thresholds in vibration based condition monitoring system is inherently difficult. There are no established thresholds for many vibration based measurements. Most of the time, the thresholds are set based on statistics of the collected data available. Often times the underly......Setting optimal alarm thresholds in vibration based condition monitoring system is inherently difficult. There are no established thresholds for many vibration based measurements. Most of the time, the thresholds are set based on statistics of the collected data available. Often times...... the underlying probability distribution that describes the data is not known. Choosing an incorrect distribution to describe the data and then setting up thresholds based on the chosen distribution could result in sub-optimal thresholds. Moreover, in wind turbine applications the collected data available may...... not represent the whole operating conditions of a turbine, which results in uncertainty in the parameters of the fitted probability distribution and the thresholds calculated. In this study, Johnson, Normal, and Weibull distributions are investigated; which distribution can best fit vibration data collected...

  11. Using Johnson Distribution for Automatic Threshold Setting in Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    work, the moment matching method is used with implementation based on (Hill, Hill, & Holder, 1976) due to its simplicity in Scilab (Enterprises, 2012... Scilab CASCI library, see (Enterprises, 2012). threshold = F−1(1− pf). (6) Setting an alarm threshold involves collecting vibration data over a period...distributions. In Proceed- ings of the 20th conference on winter simulation (pp. 165–179). Enterprises, S. (2012). Scilab : Free and open source software

  12. Interprofessional QI Training Enhances Competency and QI Productivity Among Graduates: Findings From Nationwide Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, Thomas; Heiser, Karen; Bethune, Andrew; Crandall, Wallace; McClead, Richard; Davis, J Terrance; Brilli, Richard J

    2018-02-01

    Significant resources are expended on quality improvement (QI) training courses. The authors sought to determine whether education provided in QI course training improves self-assessed QI content competence and QI-related productivity among course graduates. "Quality Improvement Essentials" is a four-month didactic and experiential course designed to prepare multidisciplinary professionals to participate in and lead QI efforts at Nationwide Children's Hospital (NCH). This study used a milestone-based self-assessment survey of graduates from 2012 to 2014 to gauge change in participants' self-assessed QI competency after course completion. Four competency domains were evaluated: QI knowledge; testing and implementing change using teams; data management and analysis; and spreading and sustaining science. Metrics for assessing individual QI productivity were presentation or publication of QI work outside NCH; local, regional, or national QI teaching; serving on a local, regional, or national QI committee; appointment as a QI leader; involvement in an internal or external QI collaborative; and leading a maintenance of certification Part IV project approved by NCH. Course participation more than doubled participants' self-assessed QI competence across all four domains. Gains continued after the course, increasing with time rather than degrading. Self-assessed competency increase was significantly associated with increased QI productivity. Self-assessed QI competence dramatically improved after participation in an educational course and continued to increase over time. Increased self-assessed QI competency correlated with increased individual QI productivity. Further studies are necessary to fully evaluate "return on investment" for this type of course.

  13. Effects of programming threshold and maplaw settings on acoustic thresholds and speech discrimination with the MED-EL COMBI 40+ cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Paul J

    2006-12-01

    The principal task in the programming of a cochlear implant (CI) speech processor is the setting of the electrical dynamic range (output) for each electrode, to ensure that a comfortable loudness percept is obtained for a range of input levels. This typically involves separate psychophysical measurement of electrical threshold ([theta] e) and upper tolerance levels using short current bursts generated by the fitting software. Anecdotal clinical experience and some experimental studies suggest that the measurement of [theta]e is relatively unimportant and that the setting of upper tolerance limits is more critical for processor programming. The present study aims to test this hypothesis and examines in detail how acoustic thresholds and speech recognition are affected by setting of the lower limit of the output ("Programming threshold" or "PT") to understand better the influence of this parameter and how it interacts with certain other programming parameters. Test programs (maps) were generated with PT set to artificially high and low values and tested on users of the MED-EL COMBI 40+ CI system. Acoustic thresholds and speech recognition scores (sentence tests) were measured for each of the test maps. Acoustic thresholds were also measured using maps with a range of output compression functions ("maplaws"). In addition, subjective reports were recorded regarding the presence of "background threshold stimulation" which is occasionally reported by CI users if PT is set to relatively high values when using the CIS strategy. Manipulation of PT was found to have very little effect. Setting PT to minimum produced a mean 5 dB (S.D. = 6.25) increase in acoustic thresholds, relative to thresholds with PT set normally, and had no statistically significant effect on speech recognition scores on a sentence test. On the other hand, maplaw setting was found to have a significant effect on acoustic thresholds (raised as maplaw is made more linear), which provides some theoretical

  14. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2011-01-01

    with security against malicious behavior. Our second contribution is complete Paillier [Pai99] threshold encryption scheme in the two-party setting with security against malicious behavior. Furthermore, we describe how to extend our protocols to the multiparty setting with dishonest majority. Our RSA key...... generation is comprised of the following: (i) a distributed protocol for generation of an RSA composite, and (ii) a biprimality test for verifying the validity of the generated composite. Our Paillier threshold encryption scheme uses the RSA composite as public key and is comprised of: (i) a distributed......The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite...

  15. Using natural range of variation to set decision thresholds: a case study for great plains grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Jonas, Jayne L.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Natural range of variation (NRV) may be used to establish decision thresholds or action assessment points when ecological thresholds are either unknown or do not exist for attributes of interest in a managed ecosystem. The process for estimating NRV involves identifying spatial and temporal scales that adequately capture the heterogeneity of the ecosystem; compiling data for the attributes of interest via study of historic records, analysis and interpretation of proxy records, modeling, space-for-time substitutions, or analysis of long-term monitoring data; and quantifying the NRV from those data. At least 19 National Park Service (NPS) units in North America’s Great Plains are monitoring plant species richness and evenness as indicators of vegetation integrity in native grasslands, but little information on natural, temporal variability of these indicators is available. In this case study, we use six long-term vegetation monitoring datasets to quantify the temporal variability of these attributes in reference conditions for a variety of Great Plains grassland types, and then illustrate the implications of using different NRVs based on these quantities for setting management decision thresholds. Temporal variability of richness (as measured by the coefficient of variation, CV) is fairly consistent across the wide variety of conditions occurring in Colorado shortgrass prairie to Minnesota tallgrass sand savanna (CV 0.20–0.45) and generally less than that of production at the same sites. Temporal variability of evenness spans a greater range of CV than richness, and it is greater than that of production in some sites but less in other sites. This natural temporal variability may mask undesirable changes in Great Plains grasslands vegetation. Consequently, we suggest that managers consider using a relatively narrow NRV (interquartile range of all richness or evenness values observed in reference conditions) for designating a surveillance threshold, at which

  16. Can we set a global threshold age to define mature forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Philip; Jung, Martin; Brearley, Francis Q.

    2016-01-01

    ) whether we can set a threshold age for mature forests. Using data from previously published studies we modelled the impacts of forest age and climate on BD using linear mixed effects models. We examined the potential biases in the dataset by comparing how representative it was of global mature forests......Globally, mature forests appear to be increasing in biomass density (BD). There is disagreement whether these increases are the result of increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations or a legacy effect of previous land-use. Recently, it was suggested that a threshold of 450 years should be used...... to define mature forests and that many forests increasing in BD may be younger than this. However, the study making these suggestions failed to account for the interactions between forest age and climate. Here we revisit the issue to identify: (1) how climate and forest age control global forest BD and (2...

  17. A probabilistic Poisson-based model accounts for an extensive set of absolute auditory threshold measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Peter; Matysiak, Artur; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2017-09-01

    Thresholds for detecting sounds in quiet decrease with increasing sound duration in every species studied. The neural mechanisms underlying this trade-off, often referred to as temporal integration, are not fully understood. Here, we probe the human auditory system with a large set of tone stimuli differing in duration, shape of the temporal amplitude envelope, duration of silent gaps between bursts, and frequency. Duration was varied by varying the plateau duration of plateau-burst (PB) stimuli, the duration of the onsets and offsets of onset-offset (OO) stimuli, and the number of identical bursts of multiple-burst (MB) stimuli. Absolute thresholds for a large number of ears (>230) were measured using a 3-interval-3-alternative forced choice (3I-3AFC) procedure. Thresholds decreased with increasing sound duration in a manner that depended on the temporal envelope. Most commonly, thresholds for MB stimuli were highest followed by thresholds for OO and PB stimuli of corresponding durations. Differences in the thresholds for MB and OO stimuli and in the thresholds for MB and PB stimuli, however, varied widely across ears, were negative in some ears, and were tightly correlated. We show that the variation and correlation of MB-OO and MB-PB threshold differences are linked to threshold microstructure, which affects the relative detectability of the sidebands of the MB stimuli and affects estimates of the bandwidth of auditory filters. We also found that thresholds for MB stimuli increased with increasing duration of the silent gaps between bursts. We propose a new model and show that it accurately accounts for our results and does so considerably better than a leaky-integrator-of-intensity model and a probabilistic model proposed by others. Our model is based on the assumption that sensory events are generated by a Poisson point process with a low rate in the absence of stimulation and higher, time-varying rates in the presence of stimulation. A subject in a 3I-3AFC

  18. Can we set a global threshold age to define mature forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, mature forests appear to be increasing in biomass density (BD. There is disagreement whether these increases are the result of increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations or a legacy effect of previous land-use. Recently, it was suggested that a threshold of 450 years should be used to define mature forests and that many forests increasing in BD may be younger than this. However, the study making these suggestions failed to account for the interactions between forest age and climate. Here we revisit the issue to identify: (1 how climate and forest age control global forest BD and (2 whether we can set a threshold age for mature forests. Using data from previously published studies we modelled the impacts of forest age and climate on BD using linear mixed effects models. We examined the potential biases in the dataset by comparing how representative it was of global mature forests in terms of its distribution, the climate space it occupied, and the ages of the forests used. BD increased with forest age, mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Importantly, the effect of forest age increased with increasing temperature, but the effect of precipitation decreased with increasing temperatures. The dataset was biased towards northern hemisphere forests in relatively dry, cold climates. The dataset was also clearly biased towards forests <250 years of age. Our analysis suggests that there is not a single threshold age for forest maturity. Since climate interacts with forest age to determine BD, a threshold age at which they reach equilibrium can only be determined locally. We caution against using BD as the only determinant of forest maturity since this ignores forest biodiversity and tree size structure which may take longer to recover. Future research should address the utility and cost-effectiveness of different methods for determining whether forests should be classified as mature.

  19. Predictive information speeds up visual awareness in an individuation task by modulating threshold setting, not processing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Esther; Van Opstal, Filip; Verguts, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Theories on visual awareness claim that predicted stimuli reach awareness faster than unpredicted ones. In the current study, we disentangle whether prior information about the upcoming stimulus affects visual awareness of stimulus location (i.e., individuation) by modulating processing efficiency or threshold setting. Analogous research on stimulus identification revealed that prior information modulates threshold setting. However, as identification and individuation are two functionally and neurally distinct processes, the mechanisms underlying identification cannot simply be extrapolated directly to individuation. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate how individuation is influenced by prior information about the upcoming stimulus. To do so, a drift diffusion model was fitted to estimate the processing efficiency and threshold setting for predicted versus unpredicted stimuli in a cued individuation paradigm. Participants were asked to locate a picture, following a cue that was congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to the picture's identity. Pictures were individuated faster in the congruent and neutral condition compared to the incongruent condition. In the diffusion model analysis, the processing efficiency was not significantly different across conditions. However, the threshold setting was significantly higher following an incongruent cue compared to both congruent and neutral cues. Our results indicate that predictive information about the upcoming stimulus influences visual awareness by shifting the threshold for individuation rather than by enhancing processing efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: methods for setting and examples from around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André Soares; Guerra-Junior, Augusto Afonso; Godman, Brian; Morton, Alec; Ruas, Cristina Mariano

    2018-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) are used to judge if an intervention represents sufficient value for money to merit adoption in healthcare systems. The study was motivated by the Brazilian context of HTA, where meetings are being conducted to decide on the definition of a threshold. Areas covered: An electronic search was conducted on Medline (via PubMed), Lilacs (via BVS) and ScienceDirect followed by a complementary search of references of included studies, Google Scholar and conference abstracts. Cost-effectiveness thresholds are usually calculated through three different approaches: the willingness-to-pay, representative of welfare economics; the precedent method, based on the value of an already funded technology; and the opportunity cost method, which links the threshold to the volume of health displaced. An explicit threshold has never been formally adopted in most places. Some countries have defined thresholds, with some flexibility to consider other factors. An implicit threshold could be determined by research of funded cases. Expert commentary: CETs have had an important role as a 'bridging concept' between the world of academic research and the 'real world' of healthcare prioritization. The definition of a cost-effectiveness threshold is paramount for the construction of a transparent and efficient Health Technology Assessment system.

  1. Dynamic-thresholding level set: a novel computer-aided volumetry method for liver tumors in hepatic CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Harris, Gordon J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of the volume of focal liver tumors, called liver tumor volumetry, is indispensable for assessing the growth of tumors and for monitoring the response of tumors to oncology treatments. Traditional edge models, such as the maximum gradient and zero-crossing methods, often fail to detect the accurate boundary of a fuzzy object such as a liver tumor. As a result, the computerized volumetry based on these edge models tends to differ from manual segmentation results performed by physicians. In this study, we developed a novel computerized volumetry method for fuzzy objects, called dynamic-thresholding level set (DT level set). An optimal threshold value computed from a histogram tends to shift, relative to the theoretical threshold value obtained from a normal distribution model, toward a smaller region in the histogram. We thus designed a mobile shell structure, called a propagating shell, which is a thick region encompassing the level set front. The optimal threshold calculated from the histogram of the shell drives the level set front toward the boundary of a liver tumor. When the volume ratio between the object and the background in the shell approaches one, the optimal threshold value best fits the theoretical threshold value and the shell stops propagating. Application of the DT level set to 26 hepatic CT cases with 63 biopsy-confirmed hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and metastases showed that the computer measured volumes were highly correlated with those of tumors measured manually by physicians. Our preliminary results showed that DT level set was effective and accurate in estimating the volumes of liver tumors detected in hepatic CT images.

  2. Using Johnson Distribution for Automatic Threshold Setting in Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    not rep- resent the whole operating conditions of a turbine, which re- sults in uncertainty in the parameters of the fitted probabil- ity distribution and the thresholds calculated. In this study Johnson distribution is used to identify shape, location, and scale parameters of distribution that can best...... fit vibration data. This study shows that using Johnson distribution can elim- inate testing or fitting various distributions to the data, and have more direct approach to obtain optimal thresholds. To quantify uncertainty in the thresholds due to limited data, im- plementations with bootstrap method...

  3. On what basis are medical cost-effectiveness thresholds set? Clashing opinions and an absence of data: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David; Ubels, Jasper; Norström, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    The amount a government should be willing to invest in adopting new medical treatments has long been under debate. With many countries using formal cost-effectiveness (C/E) thresholds when examining potential new treatments and ever-growing medical costs, accurately setting the level of a C/E threshold can be essential for an efficient healthcare system. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the prominent approaches to setting a C/E threshold, compile available national-level C/E threshold data and willingness-to-pay (WTP) data, and to discern whether associations exist between these values, gross domestic product (GDP) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE). This review further examines current obstacles faced with the presently available data. A systematic review was performed to collect articles which have studied national C/E thresholds and willingness-to-pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) in the general population. Associations between GDP, HALE, WTP, and C/E thresholds were analyzed with correlations. Seventeen countries were identified from nine unique sources to have formal C/E thresholds within our inclusion criteria. Thirteen countries from nine sources were identified to have WTP per QALY data within our inclusion criteria. Two possible associations were identified: C/E thresholds with HALE (quadratic correlation of 0.63), and C/E thresholds with GDP per capita (polynomial correlation of 0.84). However, these results are based on few observations and therefore firm conclusions cannot be made. Most national C/E thresholds identified in our review fall within the WHO's recommended range of one-to-three times GDP per capita. However, the quality and quantity of data available regarding national average WTP per QALY, opportunity costs, and C/E thresholds is poor in comparison to the importance of adequate investment in healthcare. There exists an obvious risk that countries might either over- or underinvest in healthcare if they

  4. Thermography applied acupuncture and qi-gong

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    Qin, Yuwen; Ji, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Long; Li, Hong-Qi

    1997-04-01

    Thermographic technique can be used to measure temperature distribution of body surface in real-time, non-contact and full-field, which has been successfully used in medical diagnosis, remote sensing, and NDT, etc. The authors have developed a thermographic experiment that can be applied to inspect the effect of action of acupuncture and qi-gong (a system of deep breathing exercises) by measuring the temperature of hand and arm. The observation is performed respectively by thermography for the dynamic changes of temperature of the arm and hand after acupuncture therapy and qi-gong therapy. Thermographic results show that the temperature on the collateral channels increases markedly. In the meantime, it can be seen that the above therapies of Chinese medicine can stimulate the channel collateral system. This also contributes a new basis to the effect of action of the therapies of Chinese medicine. The work shows that thermographic technique is a powerful tool for research in Chinese medicine. In this paper, some thermal images are obtained from the persons treated with acupuncture and qi- gong.

  5. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore U.S. ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, M.E.; Lambert, K.F.; Blett, T.F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, L.H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, R. A.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Jeffries, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage. Based on the results of a comprehensive review of air pollution thresholds, we conclude: ??? Ecosystem services such as air and water purification, decomposition and detoxification of waste materials, climate regulation, regeneration of soil fertility, production and biodiversity maintenance, as well as crop, timber and fish supplies are impacted by deposition of nitrogen, sulfur, mercury and other pollutants. The consequences of these changes may be difficult or impossible to reverse as impacts cascade throughout affected ecosystems. ??? The effects of too much nitrogen are common across the U.S. and include altered plant and lichen communities, enhanced growth of invasive species, eutrophication and acidification of lands and waters, and habitat deterioration for native species, including endangered species. ??? Lake, stream and soil acidification is widespread across the eastern United States. Up to 65% of lakes within sensitive areas receive acid deposition that exceeds critical loads. ??? Mercury contamination adversely affects fish in many inland and coastal waters. Fish consumption advisories for mercury exist in all 50

  6. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

  7. Frequency-Locked Detector Threshold Setting Criteria Based on Mean-Time-To-Lose-Lock (MTLL) for GPS Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tian; Yuan, Heliang; Zhao, Na; Qin, Honglei; Sun, Kewen; Ji, Yuanfa

    2017-12-04

    Frequency-locked detector (FLD) has been widely utilized in tracking loops of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to indicate their locking status. The relation between FLD and lock status has been seldom discussed. The traditional PLL experience is not suitable for FLL. In this paper, the threshold setting criteria for frequency-locked detector in the GPS receiver has been proposed by analyzing statistical characteristic of FLD output. The approximate probability distribution of frequency-locked detector is theoretically derived by using a statistical approach, which reveals the relationship between probabilities of frequency-locked detector and the carrier-to-noise ratio ( C / N ₀) of the received GPS signal. The relationship among mean-time-to-lose-lock (MTLL), detection threshold and lock probability related to C / N ₀ can be further discovered by utilizing this probability. Therefore, a theoretical basis for threshold setting criteria in frequency locked loops for GPS receivers is provided based on mean-time-to-lose-lock analysis.

  8. Three Identities of the Catalan-Qi Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mahmoud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors find three new identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers and provide alternative proofs of two identities of the Catalan numbers. The three identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers generalize three identities of the Catalan numbers.

  9. Three Identities of the Catalan-Qi Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Mahmoud; Feng Qi

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the authors find three new identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers and provide alternative proofs of two identities of the Catalan numbers. The three identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers generalize three identities of the Catalan numbers.

  10. Qi Liu - Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. QI LIU. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 34 Issue 2 April 2011 pp 183-189. Study of structural transformations and phases formation upon calcination of Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcite nanosheets · Zhanshuang Li Yanchao Song Jun Wang Qi Liu Piaoping Yang ...

  11. Setting the Threshold for Surgical Prevention in Women at Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Menon, Usha

    2018-01-01

    considered at younger than 45. In other moderate-risk gene mutation carriers and those with polygenic risk, RRSO needs be considered at 50. There is need for establishment/expansion of well-defined pathways to increase clinical access to RRSO. It is time to lower the risk threshold for RRSO to enable introduction of a targeted primary prevention approach, which could significantly impact the future burden of ovarian cancer.

  12. Effects of manual threshold setting on image analysis results of a sandstone sample structural characterization by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson C.; Fernandes, Celso P.; Fernandes, Jaquiel S.; Marques, Leonardo C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Nagata, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    X-ray microtomography is a nondestructive nuclear technique widely applied for samples structural characterization. This methodology permits the investigation of materials porous phase, without special sample preparation, generating bidimensional images of the irradiated sample. The images are generated by the linear attenuation coefficient mapping of the sample. In order to do a quantitative characterization, the images have to be binarized, separating porous phase from the material matrix. The choice of the correct threshold in the grey level histogram is an important and discerning procedure for the binary images creation. Slight variations of the threshold level led to substantial variations in physical parameters determination, like porosity and pore size distribution values. The aim of this work is to evaluate these variations based on some manual threshold setting. Employing Imago image analysis software, four operators determined the porosity and pore size distribution of a sandstone sample by image analysis. The microtomography measurements were accomplished with the following scan conditions: 60 kV, 165 μA, 1 mm Al filter, 0.45 deg step size and 180.0 deg total rotation angle with and 3.8 μm and 11 μm spatial resolution. The global average porosity values, determined by the operators, range from 27.8 to 32.4 % for 3.8 μm spatial resolution and 12.3 to 28.3 % for 11 μm spatial resolution. Percentage differences among the pore size distributions were also found. For the same pore size range, 5.5 % and 17.1 %, for 3.8 μm and 11 μm spatial resolutions respectively, were noted. (author)

  13. Runoff thresholds and land-to-marine ecosystem connectivity in a dry tropical setting: St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; LaFevor, M. C.; Roy, J.

    2017-12-01

    Developing a conceptually sound yet practical understanding of runoff and sediment delivery from human occupied lands to tropical ocean waters still represents a pivotal need of coral reef management worldwide. In the dry tropical and ephemeral streamflow setting that typifies the small watersheds ( 1s km2) draining the US Virgin Islands, changes in hydrologic and sediment delivery dynamics provoked by unsurfaced road networks represent a major threat to coral reefs and other sensitive marine ecosystems. Through a combined empirical and modeling approach, this study evaluates how road building and associated stormflow restoration strategies affect rainfall thresholds for runoff generation at varying spatial scales and their impact on land-to-sea connectivity. Rainfall thresholds and runoff coefficients for precipitation excess on unpaved roads are 2-3 mm and 22-30% (respectively) or a full order of magnitude different from those for undisturbed hillslopes and watersheds. Here we discuss the use of a `volume-to-breakthrough' inspired index to predict the potential of road runoff to reach downslope portions of the watershed and the coastline as runon. The index integrates the effects of storm-by-storm runoff accumulation for every road drainage point with its flow distance to specific locations along the stream network. While large runoff volumes and short flow distances imply a relatively high connectivity potential, small volumes and long distances are associated to low delivery potential. The index has proven able to discern observed runoff responses under a variety of road-stream network scenarios and rainfall conditions. These results enhance our understanding of ephemeral stream hydrology and are serving to improve coral reef management strategies throughout the Northeastern Caribbean.

  14. On the qi deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Chu; Chang, Hen-Hong; Huang, Po-Yu; Hsu, Mutsu

    2014-09-01

    Qi deficiency (QD), one of the most common disorders in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is relevant to many disorders in obstetrics and gynecology. This study aimed to identify the common processes and criteria for diagnosing QD among contemporary proficient TCM practitioners. Steps of decision tree analysis and modified Delphi method were merged together into four-round postal questionnaires to collect qualitative and quantitative data. Open-ended questions and content analysis were used to explore the proficient TCM practitioners' cognitive activities used for diagnosis. The statements obtained from the qualitative responses were used to develop the items for subsequent questionnaires. Based on the TCM practitioners' responses, the diagnostic processes and criteria for making diagnosis were generated. Twenty-eight out of the 30 participants completed all four questionnaires from June 2007 to January 2010. The 11 diagnostic procedures identified in the returned first round of questionnaires were used as the alternatives to select and rank for all the steps to diagnose QD. After three more rounds of postal surveys, an algorithm with a five-stage diagnostic process as well as sets of decision criteria were identified. Although the priorities of procedures and descriptions of reasoning were varied, the content revealed the major themes in the model. The criteria to differentiate signs and symptoms (S/S) included five principles for correlating S/S with QD, and 17 S/S should be differentiated carefully. The results demonstrate that the TCM practitioners precisely diagnosed QD using a number of specific procedures and criteria that could be used as a reference to understand women complaining of S/S that could be similar to QD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. 78 FR 43857 - Order Relating to Yaming Nina Qi Hanson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Hanson shall not take any action or make or permit to be made any public statement, directly or... intention to initiate an administrative proceeding against Qi Hanson pursuant to Section 766.3 of the Export..., delivering, storing, disposing of, forwarding, transporting, financing, or otherwise servicing in any way...

  16. Artemisiae Argyi Folium and its geo-authentic crude drug qi ai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diangang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The superior quality of qi ai compared with general AAF may be due to relatively higher contents of bioactive components. This study provides basic information for further study and utilization of AAF and qi ai.

  17. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  18. Demonstration of Qubit Operations Below a Rigorous Fault Tolerance Threshold With Gate Set Tomography (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-15

    mth iteration, we add data from gate sequences of length 2(m 1) into the pool, then numerically adjust the estimate to minimize the w2 divergence ...infidelity alone is hard. Threshold theorems against general errors (arbitrary CP maps) are stated in terms of the diamond norm distance between the

  19. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: © Mariann Seriff The following video is intended ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Video › Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health ...

  20. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: © Mariann Seriff The following video is intended ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Video › Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health ...

  1. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: © Mariann Seriff The following video is intended ... Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Video › Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health ...

  2. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  3. Acupuncture phenomenon of the Qi energy complete awakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor N. Skakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims The aim is to study the phenomenon of the Qi energy complete awakening using the acupuncture method and the reactions appearing during this process that lead to recovery of the body and of the cardiovascular system first of all. Materials and methods The study is based on the classical acupuncture method using the unique technique of effecting the points by I-Ching. Results The result is the body recovering the pathologic diseases the patient has been suffering for decades. Conclusion The new method for acupuncture is the Qi energy complete awakening based on structuring the Qi energy in the acupoints according to the figures of gua (trigrams and hexagrams in the Chinese Canon of Changes and can be used for the treatment of almost any kind of the disease including cardiovascular. The given method allows not only balancing the Yin and Yang energy in the human body but also launching the generalized recovery program concentrated in the deepest layers of the human genetic memory. The given method allows treating many diseases considered to be incurable by the official medicine.

  4. [Comparative analysis on the biological basis of blood stasis syndrome induced by qi-stagnation and qi-deficiency in patients with unstable angina pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-xun; Liu, Jian-xun; Lin, Cheng-ren

    2010-04-01

    To comparatively analyse the objective characteristics of different syndrome types of qi-disturbance-induced blood stasis syndrome (QDBS) in the pathogenetic evolution of unstable angina coronary heart disease (UA-CHD). Seventy-eight patients with UA-CHD of QDBS were differentiated into 2 groups: 55 in the qi-deficiency-induced blood-stasis syndrome group (A) and 23 in the qi-stagnation-induced blood-stasis syndrome group (B). The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing their blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolisms, coagulation function, thyroid function and inflammation reaction changes, etc. In the pathogenetic process of qi-disturbance induced blood stasis, the initiating age, levels of HbA1c, TSH, PT and APTT between the two groups were significantly different (P emotional stress is possibly the essence of qi-stagnation induced blood stasis syndrome.

  5. Low energy threshold analysis of the phase I and phase II data sets of the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, S R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, S R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rielage, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported from a joint analysis of Phase I and Phase II data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The effective electron kinetic energy threshold used is T{sub eff} = 3.5 MeV, the lowest analysis threshold yet achieved with water Cherenkov detector data. In units of 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup =1}, the total flux of active-flavor neutrinos from {sup 8}B decay in the Sun measured using the neutral current (NC) reaction of neutrinos on deuterons, with no constraint on the {sup 8}B neutrino energy spectrum, is found to be {Phi}{sub NC} = 5.140{sub -0.158}{sup +0.160}(stat){sub -0.117}{sup +0.132}(syst). These uncertainties are more than a factor of two smaller than previously published results. Also presented are the spectra of recoil electrons from the charged current reaction of neutrinos on deuterons and the elastic scattering of electrons. A fit to the SNO data in which the free parameters directly describe the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux and the energy-dependent Ve survival probability provides a measure of the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} = 5.046{sub -0.152}{sup +0.159}(stat){sub -0.123}{sup +0.107}(syst). Combining these new results with results of all other solar experiments and the KamLAND reactor experiment yields best-fit values of the mixing parameters of {theta}{sub 12} = 34.06{sub -0.84}{sup +1.16} degrees and {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} = 7.59{sub -0.21}{sup +0.20} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The global value of {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} is extracted to a precision of {sub -2.95}{sup +2.38}%. In a three-flavor analysis the best fit value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} is 2.00{sub -1.63}{sup +2.09} x 10{sup -2}. Interpreting this as a limit implies an upper bound of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} < 0.057 (95% C. L.).

  6. Histone titration against the genome sets the DNA-to-cytoplasm threshold for the Xenopus midblastula transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Amanda A.; Jukam, David; Straight, Aaron F.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    During early development, animal embryos depend on maternally deposited RNA until zygotic genes become transcriptionally active. Before this maternal-to-zygotic transition, many species execute rapid and synchronous cell divisions without growth phases or cell cycle checkpoints. The coordinated onset of transcription, cell cycle lengthening, and cell cycle checkpoints comprise the midblastula transition (MBT). A long-standing model in the frog, Xenopus laevis, posits that MBT timing is controlled by a maternally loaded inhibitory factor that is titrated against the exponentially increasing amount of DNA. To identify MBT regulators, we developed an assay using Xenopus egg extract that recapitulates the activation of transcription only above the DNA-to-cytoplasm ratio found in embryos at the MBT. We used this system to biochemically purify factors responsible for inhibiting transcription below the threshold DNA-to-cytoplasm ratio. This unbiased approach identified histones H3 and H4 as concentration-dependent inhibitory factors. Addition or depletion of H3/H4 from the extract quantitatively shifted the amount of DNA required for transcriptional activation in vitro. Moreover, reduction of H3 protein in embryos induced premature transcriptional activation and cell cycle lengthening, and the addition of H3/H4 shortened post-MBT cell cycles. Our observations support a model for MBT regulation by DNA-based titration and suggest that depletion of free histones regulates the MBT. More broadly, our work shows how a constant concentration DNA binding molecule can effectively measure the amount of cytoplasm per genome to coordinate division, growth, and development. PMID:25713373

  7. Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Tambosi, Leandro R; Pearse, William D; Bueno, Adriana A; Bruscagin, Roberta T; Condez, Thais H; Dixo, Marianna; Igari, Alexandre T; Martensen, Alexandre C; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2014-08-29

    Ecological set-asides are a promising strategy for conserving biodiversity in human-modified landscapes; however, landowner participation is often precluded by financial constraints. We assessed the ecological benefits and economic costs of paying landowners to set aside private land for restoration. Benefits were calculated from data on nearly 25,000 captures of Brazilian Atlantic Forest vertebrates, and economic costs were estimated for several restoration scenarios and values of payment for ecosystem services. We show that an annual investment equivalent to 6.5% of what Brazil spends on agricultural subsidies would revert species composition and ecological functions across farmlands to levels found inside protected areas, thereby benefiting local people. Hence, efforts to secure the future of this and other biodiversity hotspots may be cost-effective. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. QiShenYiQi Pills, a Compound Chinese Medicine, Prevented Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Regulating Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy that limits its clinical application, to deal with which no effective management is available so far. The present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ, a compound Chinese medicine, against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment with QSYQ significantly attenuated the cisplatin induced increase in plasma urea and creatinine, along with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells, improved the renal microcirculation disturbance as indicated by renal blood flow, microvascular flow velocity, and the number of adherent leukocytes. Additionally, QSYQ prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing the cisplatin induced downregulation of mitochondrial complex activity and the expression of NDUFA10, ATP5D, and Sirt3. Meanwhile, the cisplatin-increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, caspase9, cleaved-caspase9, and cleaved-caspase3 were all diminished by QSYQ pretreatment. In summary, the pretreatment with QSYQ remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice, possibly via the regulation of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  9. [Study of setting of ventilator volume tidal and airway pressure alarm threshold with continuous extra-sternum heart compression in cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-yu; Wang, Xiao-yuan; Cai, Tian-bin; Jiang, Wen-fang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the setting of ventilator volume tidal (VT) and airway pressure alarm threshold during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by continuous extra-sternum heart compression. Forty cases with respiration and cardiac arrest in the department of critical care medicine were randomly divided into low VT ventilation group and conventional VT group. Both groups were given the volume control mode. In the low VT ventilation group, VT was set on 6 - 7 ml/kg, and high pressure alarm threshold was adjusted to 60 cm H2O by the conventional 40 cm H2O during CPR. In the conventional VT group, VT and high pressure alarm threshold were set at 8 - 12 ml/kg and 40 cm H2O, respectively. Real-time actual VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), and arterial blood gas test, blood lactic acid at 10 minutes and 30 minutes after CPR were observed. At 10 minutes after CPR, in the low VT ventilation group, arterial blood pH, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), HCO3(-), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and blood lactic acid were better as compared with those in the conventional VT ventilation group (pH: 7.21±0.09 vs. 7.13±0.07, PaO2: 45.35±5.92 mm Hg vs. 40.70±4.70 mm Hg, PaCO2: 57.10±7.59 mm Hg vs. 61.60±5.47 mm Hg, HCO3(-): 18.50±3.50 mmol/L vs. 14.75±2.65 mmol/L, SaO2: 0.796±0.069 vs. 0.699±0.066, blood lactic acid: 7.07±1.60 mmol/L vs. 8.13±1.56 mmol/L, all P<0.05). The success rate of resuscitation in the low VT ventilation group was higher than that of the conventional VT ventilation group (45% vs. 15%, P<0.05), and PIP (cm H2O) of low VT ventilation group was lower than that of the conventional VT group (37.25±7.99 cm H2O vs. 42.70±7.40 cm H2O, P<0.05). In all the patients in both groups barotrauma did not occur. The strategy of low ventilator VT (6 - 7 ml/kg) with appropriate elevation of airway pressure alarm threshold was better than that of conventional ventilation setting, with no increase in

  10. [Professor GAO Yuchun's experience on "sequential acupuncture leads to smooth movement of qi"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Xing, Xiao; Cui, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Professor GAO Yuchun is considered as the key successor of GAO's academic school of acupuncture and moxibustion in Yanzhao region. Professor GAO's clinical experience of, "sequential acupuncture" is introduced in details in this article. In Professor GAO's opinions, appropriate acupuncture sequence is the key to satisfactory clinical effects during treatment. Based on different acupoints, sequential acupuncture can achieve the aim of qi following needles and needles leading qi; based on different symptoms, sequential acupuncture can regulate qi movement; based on different body positions, sequential acupuncture can harmonize qi-blood and reinforcing deficiency and reducing excess. In all, according to the differences of disease condition and constitution, based on the accurate acupoint selection and appropriate manipulation, it is essential to capture the nature of diseases and make the order of acupuncture, which can achieve the aim of regulating qi movement and reinforcing deficiency and reducing excess.

  11. [Guiding-qi acupuncture for dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenzhang; Zeng, Liang; Tao, Ying; Zhou, Yingfan; Zhao, Ran; Huang, Xinyun; Hou, Wenguang; Zhang, Ren; Zong, Lei

    2018-02-12

    To observe the clinical efficacy differences between different needling methods for dry eye syndrome. Sixty patients of dry eye syndrome were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases (60 eyes) in each group. Shangjingming (Extra), Xiajingming (Extra), Tongziliao (GB 1), Cuanzhu (BL 2), Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taixi (KI 3) and Taichong (LR 3) were selected in the two groups. The control group was treated with conventional acupuncture, while the observation group was treated with guiding- qi acupuncture. Electroacupuncture (EA) was used at bilateral Tongziliao (GB1) and Cuanzhu (BL 2), 30 min per treatment. The treatment was given three times per week. Totally 1-month treatment (12 treatments) was given. The eye symptom score, breakup time of tear film (BUT), Schirmer Ⅰ test (SⅠT) and visual analogue scale (VAS) score were compared before and after treatment in the two groups. The clinical efficacy was compared between the two groups. Compared before treatment, the eye symptom score, BUT, SⅠT and VAS score were improved after treatment in the two groups (all P eye symptom score and SⅠT in the observation group were superior to those in the control group (both P 0.05). The total effective rate was 86.7% (52/60) in the observation group, which was superior to 73.3% (44/60) in the control group ( P dry eye syndrome, and the efficacy of guiding- qi acupuncture combined with EA is superior to that of conventional EA.

  12. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-11-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (Pcoat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (Phypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  14. Cardioprotective Effects of QiShenYiQi Dripping Pills on Transverse Aortic Constriction-Induced Heart Failure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guoran; Ren, Haojin; Zhang, Chi; Zhu, Xiaogang; Xu, Chao; Wang, Liyue

    2018-01-01

    QiShenYiQi dripping pills (QSYQ), a traditional Chinese medicine, are commonly used to treat coronary heart disease, and QSYQ was recently approved as a complementary treatment for ischemic heart failure in China. However, only few studies reported on whether QSYQ exerts a protective effect on heart failure induced by pressure overload. In this study, we explored the role of QSYQ in a mouse model of heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Twenty-eight C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: Sham + NS group, Sham + QSYQ group, TAC + NS group, and TAC + QSYQ group. QSYQ dissolved in normal saline (NS) was administered intragastrically (3.5 mg/100 g/day) in the Sham + QSYQ and TAC + QSYQ groups. In the Sham + NS and TAC + NS groups, NS was provided every day intragastrically. Eight weeks after TAC, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization were performed to evaluate the cardiac function, and immunofluorescent staining with anti-actinin2 antibody was performed to determine the structure of the myocardial fibers. Moreover, TUNEL staining and Masson trichrome staining were employed to assess the effects of QSYQ on cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis. Western blots and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to measure the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the heart, and immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31 antibody was performed to explore the role of QSYQ in cardiac angiogenesis. Results showed that TAC-induced cardiac dysfunction and disrupted structure of myocardial fibers significantly improved after QSYQ treatment. Moreover, QSYQ treatment also significantly improved cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis in TAC-induced heart failure, which was accompanied by an increase in VEGF expression levels and maintenance of microvessel density in the heart. In conclusion, QSYQ exerts a protective effect on TAC-induced heart failure, which could be attributed to enhanced cardiac angiogenesis

  15. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

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    Full Text Available ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... Y Z Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: © Mariann Seriff The following ...

  16. Logarithmically complete monotonicity of a function related to the Catalan-Qi function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors find necessary and sufficient conditions such that a function related to the Catalan-Qi function, which is an alternative generalization of the Catalan numbers, is logarithmically complete monotonic.

  17. [Qi as a materialist concept on the level of medical philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2005-03-01

    This paper has made a distinction between the materialist concept of qi on the medical philosophical level and its substantial existence, and illustrated the materiality and multiplicity of qi. Materiality refers to the objective reality, a summation of various things or phenomena related to human beings; while multiplicity refers to diversity of specific substances, each holding its individual essence. Based on two essential conceptions "xiang" and "xiangji", and combining the theories of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, this paper has also made a preliminary study on the substantial existence of qi at macro- and micro-levels, and on physiological (normal) and pathological (abnormal) aspects. It is the author's argument that studies of the substantial existence of qi from different aspects, micro-dimension in particular, will push the syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine to a more subtle sphere.

  18. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool that features tai chi and qi gong as an activity to enhance wellness. These exercise therapies ... care approaches used to promote a healthy lifestyle. As always, talk to your health care provider if ...

  19. Weaker cognitive control abilities of Pi (Spleen) qi-deficient individuals supported Chinese medicine diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Yan; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Xu, Gui-Ping; Li, Yun-Si; Xie, Wei-Yun; Bai, Li-Hua; Jin, Hua

    2017-07-28

    To investigate whether Pi (Spleen) qi-deficiency affected psychological and neural responses in relevance to cognitive control. Pi qi-deficient and balanced participants were asked to perform the Stroop task, a classical cognitive control paradigm. In this paradigm, participants had to judge the color of the prompted word. The word's meaning indicated the color (the consistent condition) or not (the inconsistent condition), or were unrelated to the color (the neutral condition). Electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded during the task. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that Pi qi-deficient individuals failed to exhibit a normal Stroop effect as Balanced individuals did, such as the accuracy differences between the consistent and the inconsistent conditions as well as the N450 effect (P>0.05). Meanwhile, Pi qi-deficient individuals displayed larger P2 and P3 amplitudes than balanced individuals did during performing the cognitive control task (Pcognitive control aspect.

  20. [Discussion on needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response (Deqi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Hong-Du

    2012-12-01

    The current appointed teaching material of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion holds that there is no difference among the needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response. However, the author has a different understanding. Therefore, Neijing (Internal Classic), its annotation, exposition and understandings of ancient and modern famous experts are cited to analyze their meanings. And the result indicates that the needling sensation is subjective feelings and perceived responses of doctors and patients. Arrival of qi is the healing process of the organ through activating the anti-pathogenic qi to expel the pathogens. The needling response is the final aim of acupuncture therapy. Thus, the meaning of needling sensation, arrival of qi, and needling response are different. And an accurate understanding can better guide acupuncture treatment.

  1. Feasibility of a virtual learning collaborative to implement an obesity QI project in 29 pediatric practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Tamara; Morton, Michaela; Weissman, Mark; O'Brien, Ellen; Hamburger, Ellen; Hancock, Yolandra; Moon, Rachel Y

    2014-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) activities are required to maintain board certification in pediatrics. However, because of lack of training and resources, pediatricians may feel overwhelmed by the need to implement QI activities. Pediatricians also face challenges when caring for overweight and obese children. To create a virtual (online) QI learning collaborative through which pediatric practices could easily develop and implement a continuous QI process. Prospective cohort. Pediatric practices that were part of the Children's National Health Network were invited to participate, with the option to receive continuing medical education and maintenance of certification credits. s) Practices conducted baseline and monthly chart audits, participated in educational webinars and selected monthly practice changes, using Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. Practices reported activities monthly and periodic feedback was provided to practices about their performance. s) Improvement in (i) body mass index (BMI) percentile documentation, (ii) appropriate nutritional and activity counseling and (iii) follow-up management for high-risk patients. Twenty-nine practices (120 providers) participated, and 24 practices completed all program activities. Monthly chart audits demonstrated continuous improvement in documentation of BMI, abnormal weight diagnosis, nutrition and activity screening and counseling, weight-related health messages and follow-up management of overweight and obese patients. Impact of QI activities on visit duration and practice efficiency was minimal. A virtual learning collaborative was successful in providing a framework for pediatricians to implement a continuous QI process and achieve practice improvements. This format can be utilized to address multiple health issues.

  2. THE ERUPTION OF THE CANDIDATE YOUNG STAR ASASSN-15QI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Jose, Jessy; Gully-Santiago, Michael [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, 100871 Beijing (China); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Caltech, MC 105-24, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Kaplan, Kyle [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Smith, Martin C. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Bersier, David [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Mulders, Gijs D. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Ayani, Kazuya, E-mail: gherczeg1@gmail.com [Bisei Astronomical Observatory, 1723-70 Okura, Bisei, Ibara, Okayama 714-1411 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-10

    Outbursts on young stars are usually interpreted as accretion bursts caused by instabilities in the disk or the star–disk connection. However, some protostellar outbursts may not fit into this framework. In this paper, we analyze optical and near-infrared spectra and photometry to characterize the 2015 outburst of the probable young star ASASSN-15qi. The ∼3.5 mag brightening in the V band was sudden, with an unresolved rise time of less than one day. The outburst decayed exponentially by 1 mag for 6 days and then gradually back to the pre-outburst level after 200 days. The outburst is dominated by emission from ∼10,000 K gas. An explosive release of energy accelerated matter from the star in all directions, seen in a spectacular cool, spherical wind with a maximum velocity of 1000 km s{sup −1}. The wind and hot gas both disappeared as the outburst faded and the source returned to its quiescent F-star spectrum. Nebulosity near the star brightened with a delay of 10–20 days. Fluorescent excitation of H{sub 2} is detected in emission from vibrational levels as high as v = 11, also with a possible time delay in flux increase. The mid-infrared spectral energy distribution does not indicate the presence of warm dust emission, though the optical photospheric absorption and CO overtone emission could be related to a gaseous disk. Archival photometry reveals a prior outburst in 1976. Although we speculate about possible causes for this outburst, none of the explanations are compelling.

  3. Qing-Qi Rickshaw : A Boon Or Bane For Public Transportation? A Study Of Road Traffic Injury Patterns Involving Qing-Qi Rickshaws In Karachi Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzammil, Muhammad; Minhas, Muhammad Saeed; Effendi, Jahanzeb; Jahanzeb, Syed; Mughal, Ayesha; Qadir, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The three-wheeler Qing-qi and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) auto-rickshaws were introduced in Karachi to meet the transportation demand of the growing population. These vehicles have directly or indirectly been implicated in a number of road traffic violations as well as road accidents. This study aims to describe the crash characteristics and injury patterns for Qing-qi rickshaw occupants and other road users hit by Qing-qi rickshaw in Karachi, Pakistan. An Observational/ Descriptive study was conducted at Accident & Emergency and Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi Pakistan from July 2014 to June 2015.All patients who came with Qing-qi rickshaw accident in Accident & Emergency (A&E) of JPMC were included. Crash characteristics, details of injuries, injury severity parameters and outcome were documented in detailed interviews. Four hundred and eighty-six rickshaw related injuries were noted in road traffic accidents by Qing-gi rickshaw. Age range was 2-85 (43.5±58.68). 350 injured victims were males and 136 were females. By occupation most victims were laborers and daily wage workers (45%) and students (21%). Overloading of vehicle with more than two passengers was found in (28.5%). The most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56%), followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw and roll over on turning (61%). Injury severity on arrival were mild (49%), moderate were (32%), and severe were (19%). Injuries related to head and neck (26%), face (14%), thorax and abdomen (5%), lower extremity and pelvic girdle (31%) and upper extremity (23%) were observed. Qing-qi rickshaw injuries are common and these vehicles are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Occupants and road users are both at risk of injuries.

  4. Making cognitive decision support work: Facilitating adoption, knowledge and behavior change through QI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Charlene; Brunker, Cherie; Butler, Jorie; Supiano, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    This paper evaluates the role of facilitation in the successful implementation of Computerized Decision Support (CDS). Facilitation processes include education, specialized computerized decision support, and work process reengineering. These techniques, as well as modeling and feedback enhance self-efficacy, which we propose is one of the factors that mediate the effectiveness of any CDS. In this study, outpatient clinics implemented quality improvement (QI) projects focused on improving geriatric care. Quality Improvement is the systematic process of improving quality through continuous measurement and targeted actions. The program, entitled "Advancing Geriatric Education through Quality Improvement" (AGE QI), consisted of a 6-month, QI based, intervention: (1) 2h didactic session, (2) 1h QI planning session, (3) computerized decision support design and implementation, (4) QI facilitation activities, (5) outcome feedback, and (6) 20h of CME. Specifically, we examined the impact of the QI based program on clinician's perceived self-efficacy in caring for older adults and the relationship of implementation support and facilitation on perceived success. The intervention was implemented at 3 institutions, 27 community healthcare system clinics, and 134 providers. This study reports the results of pre/post surveys for the forty-nine clinicians who completed the full CME program. Self-efficacy ratings for specific clinical behaviors related to care of older adults were assessed using a Likert based instrument. Self-ratings of efficacy improved across the following domains (depression, falls, end-of-life, functional status and medication management) and specifically in QI targeted domains and were associated with overall clinic improvements. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Relationship between endogenous hydrogen sulfide and blood stasis syndrome based on the Qi-blood theory of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Xue-mei

    2013-09-01

    "Qi" and "blood" are two essential concepts in Chinese medicine (CM). As qi is intangible, the concept of qi is still controversial between CM and Western medicine. However, the endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other gaseous signaling molecules provides a new approach for understanding the essence of qi in CM. Blood stasis syndrome is a common syndrome in CM. According to the CM theory, the incidence of blood stasis syndrome is closely correlated to the reckless movement of qi, as qi and blood are inseparable in regulating physiological functions. In recent years, more and more evidences suggest a close correlation between blood stasis syndrome and microcirculation dysfunction. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between endogenous H2S and blood stasis syndrome based on qi-blood theory of CM. We found that endogenous H2S maybe a material basis in concept of qi in CM, while dysfunctional microcirculation is the pathological basis of the blood stasis syndrome. As qi is closely associated with incidence and progression of blood stasis syndrome, endogenous H2S may play an important role in preventing and treating the blood stasis syndrome by improving the function of microcirculation.

  6. The impact of threshold language assistance programming on the accessibility of mental health services for persons with limited English proficiency in the Medi-Cal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Wu, Frances M; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2012-06-01

    Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits federal funds recipients from providing care to limited English proficiency (LEP) persons more limited in scope or lower in quality than care provided to others. In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health implemented a "threshold language access policy" to meet its Title VI obligations. Under this policy, Medi-Cal agencies must provide language assistance programming in a non-English language where a county's Medical population contains either 3000 residents or 5% speakers of that language. We examine the impact of threshold language policy-required language assistance programming on LEP persons' access to mental health services by analyzing the county-level penetration rate of services for Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese speakers across 34 California counties, over 10 years of quarterly data. Exploiting a time series with nonequivalent control group study design, we studied this phenomena using linear regression with random county effects to account for trends over time. Threshold language policy-required assistance programming led to an immediate and significant increase in the penetration rate of mental health services for Russian (8.2, P language speaking persons. Threshold language assistance programming was effective in increasing mental health access for Russian and Vietnamese, but not for Spanish-speaking LEP persons.

  7. Qi Gong exercises and Feldenkrais method from the perspective of Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Stöckl, Andrea; Mucha, Dariusz

    2010-07-01

    This study describes two similar approaches to human movement: Qi Gong exercises and the Feldenkrais method. These systems are investigated in terms of Gestalt concepts and humanistic psychology. Moshe Feldenkrais created the concept known as Awareness Through Movement. This concept assumes that by becoming more aware of one's movements, one functions at a higher level. In similar ways to those using the Feldenkrais method, individuals may become more aware of their own movements by performing Qi Gong exercises: A therapeutic modality that facilitates mind-body integration. Qi Gong exercises commonly lead to increased personal awareness accompained by enhanced quality, fluency and smoothness of movement. These two methods of movement therapies are explored in terms of their relations with Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology. (c) 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Some properties of the Catalan-Qi function related to the Catalan numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Mahmoud, Mansour; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Liu, Fang-Fang

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the authors find some properties of the Catalan numbers, the Catalan function, and the Catalan-Qi function which is a generalization of the Catalan numbers. Concretely speaking, the authors present a new expression, asymptotic expansions, integral representations, logarithmic convexity, complete monotonicity, minimality, logarithmically complete monotonicity, a generating function, and inequalities of the Catalan numbers, the Catalan function, and the Catalan-Qi function. As by-products, an exponential expansion and a double inequality for the ratio of two gamma functions are derived.

  9. Efficacy of integrative medicine in deficiency of both qi and yin in the rat model of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: A rat model of T2DM with both qi and yin deficiency was successfully replicated. CHF appeared to be more efficacious than IM and PIO in the rat model of qi and yin deficiency pattern of T2DM, though IM and PIO were each found to have their merits and drawbacks in attenuating T2DM indicators in the rat model.

  10. Education in Quality Improvement for Pediatric Practice: an online program to teach clinicians QI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, David G; Morawski, Lori F; Lazorick, Suzanne; Bradbury, Scott; Kamachi, Karen; Suresh, Gautham K

    2014-01-01

    Education in Quality Improvement for Pediatric Practice (EQIPP) is an online program designed to improve evidence-based care delivery by teaching front-line clinicians quality improvement (QI) skills. Our objective was to evaluate EQIPP data to characterize 1) participant enrollment, use patterns, and demographics; 2) changes in performance in clinical QI measures from baseline to follow-up measurement; and 3) participant experience. We conducted an observational study of EQIPP participants utilizing 1 of 3 modules (asthma, immunizations, gastroesophageal reflux disease) from 2009 to 2013. Enrollment and use, demographic, and quality measure data were extracted directly from the EQIPP system; participant experience was assessed via an optional online survey. Study participants (n = 3501) were diverse in their gender, age, and race; most were board certified. Significant quality gaps were observed across many of the quality measures at baseline; sizable improvements were observed across most quality measures at follow-up. Participants were generally satisfied with their experience. The most influential module elements were collecting and analyzing data, creating and implementing aim statements and improvement plans, and completing "QI Basics." Online educational programs, such as EQIPP, hold promise for front-line clinicians to learn QI. The sustainability of the observed improvements in care processes and their linkage to improvements in health outcomes are unknown and are an essential topic for future study. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The following video is intended to be an educational tool that features tai chi and qi gong as an activity to enhance wellness. These exercise therapies are generally considered safe, self-care approaches used to promote a healthy lifestyle. As always, talk to your health care provider if you are ...

  12. Effect of Qi Ming Granule on the choroidal circulation in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of a Chinese medicine(Qi Ming granuleon the retinal and choroidal circulation in diabetes patients. METHODS: According to the results of fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, all the 45 diabetes patients were divided into no diabetic retinopathy(NDRgroup and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRgroup. All subjects were examined by FFA and indocyanine green angiography(ICGAat the same time. After taken Qi Ming granule for 3mo, all subjects were examined by the same method. FFA and ICGA were used to evaluate the retinal and choroidal circulation and their features. The key points were filling time for the retinal and choroidal circulation before and after treatments. The accuracy data was used to evaluate the effect.RESULTS: After taken Qi Ming granule for 3mo, there were significant decrease of the retina and the choroid filling time in NDR and NPDR groups. The occurrence rate of various abnormal angiographic features were significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: Qi Ming granule can accelerate the blood flow of retina and choroid, improve the blood circulation in diabetes patients, and delay the occurrence and development of diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Requirement of histidine 217 for ubiquinone reductase activity (Qi site) in the cytochrome bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K A; Dutton, P L; Daldal, F

    1994-01-25

    Folding models suggest that the highly conserved histidine 217 of the cytochrome b subunit from the cytochrome bc1 complex is close to the quinone reductase (Qi) site. This histidine (bH217) in the cytochrome b polypeptide of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been replaced with three other residues, aspartate (D), arginine (R), and leucine (L). bH217D and bH217R are able to grow photoheterotrophically and contain active cytochrome bc1 complexes (60% of wild-type activity), whereas the bH217L mutant is photosynthetically incompetent and contains a cytochrome bc1 complex that has only 10% of the wild-type activity. Single-turnover flash-activated electron transfer experiments show that cytochrome bH is reduced via the Qo site with near native rates in the mutant strains but that electron transfer between cytochrome bH and quinone bound at the Qi site is greatly slowed. These results are consistent with redox midpoint potential (Em) measurements of the cytochrome b subunit hemes and the Qi site quinone. The Em values of cyt bL and bH are approximately the same in the mutants and wild type, although the mutant strains have a larger relative concentration of what may be the high-potential form of cytochrome bH, called cytochrome b150. However, the redox properties of the semiquinone at the Qi site are altered significantly. The Qi site semiquinone stability constant of bH217R is 10 times higher than in the wild type, while in the other two strains (bH217D and bH217L) the stability constant is much lower than in the wild type. Thus H217 appears to have major effects on the redox properties of the quinone bound at the Qi site. These data are incorporated into a suggestion that H217 forms part of the binding pocket of the Qi site in a manner reminiscent of the interaction between quinone bound at the Qb site and H190 of the L subunit of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center.

  14. The Chinese Herb Yi-Qi-Huo-Xue Protects Cardiomyocyte Function in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To study the effect of the Chinese herb Yi-qi-huo-xue on cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats. Methods. Rats were fed a high fat and high glucose diet and injected with 50 ml/kg streptozotocin (STZ to induce diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM, followed by treatment with Yi-qi-huo-xue for 4 weeks. We measured the rats’ heart weight index, observed the myocardial morphology using hematoxylin eosin (HE staining, and determined the content of collagen types I and III in the myocardium using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. We determined Bcl-2, Bax, and P53 protein expression by Western blot analysis and the cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate via a flow cytometry assay. Results. Compared with the rats in the control group, the diabetic rats gained weight and had increased blood sugar levels, an enhanced heart weight index, and increased myocardial pathophysiological damage. There was a decrease in their Bcl-2 expression, and their Bax and P53 expression increased. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was enhanced, and there was an increase in the content of collagen types I and III in the myocardium. After treatment with Yi-qi-huo-xue, all levels listed above returned to normal. Conclusion. The Chinese herb Yi-qi-huo-xue degraded the myocardial interstitial collagen types I and III to protect the myocardium of the diabetic rats, thus delaying the role of myocardial fibrosis. Yi-qi-huo-xue could play an important role in protecting the myocardium of DCM rats by enhancing the expression of the Bcl-2 protein, inhibiting the expression of the Bax and P53 proteins, increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibiting the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.

  15. Temporal changes in glycaemic thresholds for treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes in an urban Australian setting: The Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M E; Chubb, Stephen A P; Curtis, Bradley H; Barraclough, Helen; Davis, Wendy A

    2017-12-12

    Pharmacotherapy and supportive care for diabetes in Australia are improving, with potential beneficial effects on therapeutic procrastination. To determine whether glycaemic thresholds for therapeutic intensification in type 2 diabetes changed over the 15 years between Phases of the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study (FDS). We studied 531 Phase 1 participants (mean age 62.4 years, 54.2% males, median diabetes duration 3.0 years) with valid data from baseline assessment and five subsequent annual reviews between 1993 and 2001, and 930 Phase 2 participants (mean age 65.3 years, 53.8% males, median diabetes duration 8.0 years) with valid data from baseline and two subsequent biennial reviews between 2008 and 2015. The main outcome measure was HbA 1c at assessments before and after change in blood glucose-lowering therapy (average 6 months in Phase 1, 12 months in Phase 2). Ninety-seven participants in Phase 1 and 84 in Phase 2 progressed from diet-based management to oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs), and 45 and 85 participants, respectively, progressed from diet/OHAs to insulin. The median HbA 1c was 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) and 6.9% (52 mmol/mol) before OHA initiation in Phases 1 and 2, respectively, and 9.1% (76 mmol/mol) and 7.8% (62 mmol/mol), respectively, before insulin initiation. There were median HbA 1c falls of 0.3% (3 mmol/mol) and 1.5% (16 mmol/mol) after OHA and insulin initiation in Phase 1 but no statistically significant changes in Phase 2. HbA 1c thresholds triggering treatment intensification fell between FDS Phases, suggesting a more proactive approach to management of glycaemia over time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Conservation economics. Response to Comment on "Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Tambosi, Leandro R; Pearse, William D; Bueno, Adriana A; Bruscagin, Roberta T; Condez, Thais H; Dixo, Marianna; Igari, Alexandre T; Martensen, Alexandre C; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-02-13

    Finney claims that we did not include transaction costs while assessing the economic costs of a set-aside program in Brazil and that accounting for them could potentially render large payments for environmental services (PES) projects unfeasible. We agree with the need for a better understanding of transaction costs but provide evidence that they do not alter the feasibility of the set-aside scheme we proposed. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Brain areas involved in acupuncture needling sensation of de qi: a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Li, Gan-Long; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Na

    2012-12-01

    De qi is a sensory response elicited by acupuncture stimulation. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), de qi is essential for clinical efficacy. However, the understanding of the neurobiological basis of de qi is still limited. To investigate the relationship between brain activation and de qi by taking a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan while applying acupuncture at TE5. A total of 24 volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups, and received verum or sham acupuncture at true acupuncture point TE5 or a nearby sham point according to grouping. All subjects then received a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scan. All six subjects in the verum acupuncture at true acupuncture point group experienced de qi sensation; in contrast, all six subjects in the sham acupuncture at the sham point group responded with nothing other than non-sensation. Compared to the scan results from subjects who experienced non-sensation, SPECT scans from subjects with de qi sensation demonstrated significant activated points mainly located in brodmann areas 6, 8, 19, 21, 28, 33, 35, 37, 47, the parahippocampal gyrus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum and red nucleus; deactivated points were seen in brodmann areas 9 and 25. Verum acupuncture at true acupuncture points is more likely to elicit de qi sensation. De qi sensations mainly resulted in brain area activations, but not deactivations. These brain areas are related to the curative effect of Te5. The acupuncture needle sensations of de qi and sharp pain are associated with different patterns of activations and deactivations in the brain.

  18. Optimizing Systems of Threshold Detection Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banschbach, David C

    2008-01-01

    .... Below the threshold all signals are ignored. We develop a mathematical model for setting individual sensor thresholds to obtain optimal probability of detecting a significant event, given a limit on the total number of false positives allowed...

  19. The Contribution of Different Components in QiShenYiQi Pills® to Its Potential to Modulate Energy Metabolism in Protection of Ischemic Myocardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chen Cui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart diseases remain a challenge for clinicians. QiShenYiQi pills® (QSYQ has been reported to be curative during coronary heart diseases with modulation of energy metabolism as one of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we detected the effect of QSYQ and its components on rat myocardial structure, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity and energy metabolism, and heart function after 30 min of cardiac ischemia, with focusing on the contribution of each component to its potential to regulate energy metabolism. Results showed that treatment with QSYQ and all its five components protected myocardial structure from damage by ischemia. QSYQ also attenuated release of myocardial cTnI, and restored the production of ATP after cardiac ischemia. AS-IV and Rb1, but not Rg1, R1, and DLA, had similar effect as QSYQ in regulation of energy metabolism. These results indicate that QSYQ may prevent ischemia-induced cardiac injury via regulation of energy metabolism, to which each of its components contributes differently.

  20. Switched modified function projective synchronization of hyperchaotic Qi system with uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Sudheer, K.; Sabir, M.

    2010-12-01

    This work is involved with switched modified function projective synchronization of two identical Qi hyperchaotic systems using adaptive control method. Switched synchronization of chaotic systems in which a state variable of the drive system synchronize with a different state variable of the response system is a promising type of synchronization as it provides greater security in secure communication. Modified function projective synchronization with the unpredictability of scaling functions can enhance security. Recently formulated hyperchaotic Qi system in the hyperchaotic mode has an extremely broad frequency bandwidth of high magnitudes, verifying its unusual random nature and indicating its great potential for some relevant engineering applications such as secure communications. By Lyapunove stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems modified function projective synchronized. Synchronization under the effect of noise is also considered. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.

  1. The Role of Rumination and Stressful Life Events in the Relationship between the Qi Stagnation Constitution and Depression in Women: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaosheng

    2017-01-01

    The qi stagnation constitution is associated with depression in traditional Chinese medicine. It is unclear how rumination and stressful life events affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. The Qi Stagnation Constitution Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist were used to assess this association in 1200 female college students. The results revealed that the qi stagnation constitution was positively associated with depression. Furthermore, rumination was a partial mediator of the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. In addition, stressful life events moderated the direct effect and mediating effect of the qi stagnation constitution on depression. These findings indicate that rumination and stressful life events may affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression in women. PMID:28757889

  2. The Role of Rumination and Stressful Life Events in the Relationship between the Qi Stagnation Constitution and Depression in Women: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The qi stagnation constitution is associated with depression in traditional Chinese medicine. It is unclear how rumination and stressful life events affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. The Qi Stagnation Constitution Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist were used to assess this association in 1200 female college students. The results revealed that the qi stagnation constitution was positively associated with depression. Furthermore, rumination was a partial mediator of the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression. In addition, stressful life events moderated the direct effect and mediating effect of the qi stagnation constitution on depression. These findings indicate that rumination and stressful life events may affect the relationship between the qi stagnation constitution and depression in women.

  3. Bifurcation Analysis of the QI 3-D Four-Wing Chaotic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.; Qi, G.; Wang, Z.; Wyk, B.J. van

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations of a new 3-D four-wing quadratic autonomous system proposed by Qi et al. The center manifold technique is used to reduce the dimensions of this system. The pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations of the system are theoretically analyzed. The influence of system parameters on other bifurcations are also investigated. The theoretical analysis and simulations demonstrate the rich dynamics of the system. (authors)

  4. External Qi therapy to treat symptoms of Agent Orange Sequelae in Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Woo, Won-Hong; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Hong, Sung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung; Moon, Sun-Rock

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of Qi therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment for various symptoms presented by Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War with Agent Orange Sequelae. Nine subjects volunteered to receive 30 minutes of Qi therapy, twice per day for 7 days. There was marked improvement in 89% of the patients with impaired physical activity, 86% of those with psychological disorder, 78% of those with heavy drug use, and 67% of those with fatigue, indigestion and high blood glucose levels. This data suggests that Qi therapy combined with conventional treatment has positive effects in reducing and managing the pain, psychosomatic disorders, and substance abuse in patients with Agent Orange Sequelae. We cannot completely discount the possible influence of the placebo effect, and more objective, clinical measures are needed to study the long-term effects of Qi therapy.

  5. Traditional Chinese medicine formula Bi-Qi capsule alleviates rheumatoid arthritis-induced inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage destruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Jiantong; Sun, Tingting; Jin, Tingting; Li, Baoli; Pathak, Janak L

    2018-03-14

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Bi-Qi capsule (Bi-Qi) is a commonly prescribed drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanism of Bi-Qi-mediated amelioration of RA pathogenesis is still a mystery. Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in rats is an established model that shares many similarities with RA in humans. In this study we investigated the effect of Bi-Qi on the pathogenesis of CIA in rats. CIA was developed in Sprague-Dawley (S.D) rats (n = 60, female) and used as a model resembling RA in humans. Rats were treated with a high or moderate dose of Bi-Qi, or methotrexate (MTX). Effects of the treatment on local joint and systemic inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage destruction, and other main features in the pathogenesis of CIA were analyzed. Inflamed and swollen ankles and joints were observed in arthritic rats, while Bi-Qi or MTX treatment alleviated these symptoms. Only the Bi-Qi moderate dose decreased RA-induced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Both Bi-Qi and MTX reduced the interleukin (IL)-18 serum level. Protein levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and osteopontin in serum, synovium, and cartilage were elevated in arthritic rats, while Bi-Qi alleviated these effects. Synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration in synovium and a high degree of cartilage degradation was observed in RA, and Bi-Qi or MTX alleviated this effect. Bi-Qi at the moderate dose was the most effective in mitigating CIA-related clinical complications. Our findings showed that Bi-Qi alleviates CIA-induced inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage destruction, and the other main features in the pathogenesis of CIA. This provides fundamental evidence for the anti-arthritic properties of Bi-Qi and corroborates the use of Bi-Qi TCM formula for the treatment of RA.

  6. Improving cachectic symptoms and immune strength of tumour-bearing mice in chemotherapy by a combination of Scutellaria baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2012-05-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterised by the loss of body mass and directly compromises immune response and the quality of life of cancer patients. In the present study, we set out to investigate the role of Chinese herbs as anticancer medicines and/or chemotherapeutic adjuvants to increase therapeutic efficacy and/or ameliorate given side-effects in animal model. Twelve kinds of herbs were chosen from the ingredients of major Chinese herbal medicines, and their effects on the antioxidant activity were investigated. To obtain the anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) when consumed with minimal side-effects, we investigated the combination effect of Scutellaria baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang that may enhance the anticancer activity of 5-FU on subcutaneous tumour growth in C57BL/6 mice challenged with Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang, a multiple-component herbal extract, was shown to have high anti-oxidation activity, while S. baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) was demonstrated to have high tumour-growth inhibition activity. Thus, S. baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang were evaluated for their combinaton effects on the cancer-induced cachectic murine upon receiving 5-FU chemotherapy. As a result, tumour masses and losses of carcass and/or gastrocnemius muscle were found to be significantly decreased. This combination otherwise increased both Th1/Th2 ratio and NK cytotoxicity. In the mice receiving with or without 5-FU, the serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) increased by all means but otherwise decreased when the herbal combination was administrated. Additionally, the expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and muscle RING finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) decreased in the gastrocnemius muscle when the herbal combination was applied. Our results revealed that the combination of S. baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang is able to ameliorate cachectic symptoms and positively stimulate anti-tumour immunity while undergoing

  7. Validation of the qi blood yin yang deficiency questionnaire on chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Keun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue (CF) reflects an imbalance of inter-organ functions or of the four essential physiological components qi, blood (xue), yin, and yang. CF can be subdivided into different patterns. However, there are no diagnostic methods for CF. This study aimed to clinically validate a pattern identification method by identifying correlations between CF and responses to the qi blood yin yang deficiency questionnaire (QBYY-Q). Participants were recruited between May and June 2014 through the Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine hospital website and via posters and comprised 129 CF patients diagnosed with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1994) criteria. Participants who had organic diseases that explained the CF were excluded. A total of 159 participants were asked to complete the QBYY-Q, the fatigue severity scale, and the Chalder fatigue scale. The latter two questionnaires were used to assess convergent validity with the QBYY-Q. Among the 129 CF participants, 70 and 59 had chronic fatigue syndrome and idiopathic chronic fatigue, respectively. Two Korean medical doctors independently assessed participants' qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiency patterns using QBYY deficiency pattern identification guidelines. Based on the results of a preliminary study of the QBYY-Q, we selected 32 reliable items for symptoms corresponding to each deficiency pattern. The items were used to estimate internal consistency and construct validity. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed for scores on each deficiency pattern. The data were means and standard deviations or numbers of participants and proportions for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. A statistical significance level of P yin, and yang deficiency were 45.1, 58.0, 52.2, and 63.4 %, respectively. Each QBYY-Q deficiency score was positively associated with each corresponding deficiency pattern. Qi deficiency was used as a reference category. Odds ratios of blood, yin

  8. Impact of Qi-invigorating traditional Chinese medicines on intestinal flora: A basis for rational choice of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Meng; Li, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ying

    2017-04-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Qi (vital energy) is regarded as a driving force of biological activities in human body, including both nutrient substances and organ functions. Qi-invigorating TCMs are widely used to treat various symptoms and disorders, such as fatigue, obesity, immunosuppression, intestinal flora imbalance, and gastrointestinal diseases, in which Qi is considered to be reduced or depleted. Interestingly, abundant clinical evidences suggest that these disorders are associated with the alternation of intestinal flora, which directly affects disease status. Herein we review the interaction between gut microbiota and Qi-invigorating TCMs under healthy and disease conditions and discuss the mechanisms of action and applications of Qi-invigorating TCMs in enhancing health status through microbial alternation. A better understanding of the role of Qi-invigorating TCMs in modulating microbial composition and the association between intestinal microbiota and diseases would help reveal the clinical consequences of microbiota alteration and explore opportunities to harness this symbiotic relationship to improve public health. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulteis Gery

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture provides a means of peripheral stimulation for pain relief. However, the detailed neuronal mechanisms by which acupuncture relieves pain are still poorly understood and information regarding optimal treatment settings is still inadequate. Previous studies with a short burst of unilateral electroacupuncture (EA in the Tendinomuscular Meridians (TMM treatment model for pain demonstrated a transient dermatomally correlated bilateral analgesic effect with corresponding peripheral modality-specific sensory threshold alterations. However, the impact of EA duration on the analgesic effect in this particular treatment model is unknown. To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model. Methods Baseline peripheral sensory thresholds were measured at pre-marked testing sites along the medial aspects (liver and spleen meridians of bilateral lower extremities. A 5-second hot pain stimulation was delivered to the testing sites and the corresponding pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were recorded. Three different EA (5Hz stimulation durations (5, 15 and 30 minutes were randomly tested at least one week apart. At the last 10 seconds of each EA session, 5 seconds of subject specific HP stimulation was delivered to the testing sites. The corresponding pain and EA VAS scores of de qi sensation (tingling during and after the EA were recorded. The measurements were repeated immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the EA stimulation. A four-factor repeat measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of stimulation duration, time, location (thigh vs. calf and side (ipsilateral vs. contralateral of EA on sensory thresholds and HP VAS scores. Results A significant (P Conclusion Longer durations of EA stimulation provide a more sustainable analgesic benefit

  10. Assessment of Electromagnetic Interference with Active Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs) Caused by the Qi A13 Design Wireless Charging Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckler, Tobias; Jagielski, Kai; Stunder, Dominik

    2015-05-27

    Electromagnetic interference is a concern for people wearing cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). The aim of this study was to assess the electromagnetic compatibility between CIEDs and the magnetic field of a common wireless charging technology. To do so the voltage induced in CIEDs by Qi A13 design magnetic fields were measured and compared with the performance limits set by ISO 14117. In order to carry this out a measuring circuit was developed which can be connected with unipolar or bipolar pacemaker leads. The measuring system was positioned at the four most common implantation sites in a torso phantom filled with physiological saline solution. The phantom was exposed by using Helmholtz coils from 5 µT to 27 µT with 111 kHz sine‑bursts or by using a Qi A13 design wireless charging board (Qi‑A13‑Board) in two operating modes "power transfer" and "pinging". With the Helmholtz coils the lowest magnetic flux density at which the performance limit was exceeded is 11 µT. With the Qi‑A13‑Board in power transfer mode 10.8% and in pinging mode 45.7% (2.2% at 10 cm distance) of the performance limit were reached at maximum. In neither of the scrutinized cases, did the voltage induced by the Qi‑A13‑Board exceed the performance limits.

  11. Cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by QiShenYiQi Pill® via ameliorate of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing Rui Chen,1–3 Jing Wei,1–3 Ling Yan Wang,1–3 Yan Zhu,1–3 Lan Li,1–3 Mary Akinyi Olunga,1–3 Xiu Mei Gao,1–3 Guan Wei Fan1–31Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae, Ministry of Education, 3Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of QiShenYiQi Pill® (QSYQ on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury through antioxidative stress and mitochondrial protection.Methods and results: Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with QSYQ or saline for 7 days and subjected to ischemia (30 minutes occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and reperfusion (120 minutes. Cardiac functions were evaluated by echocardiogram and hemodynamics. Myocardial mitochondria were obtained to evaluate changes in mitochondrial structure and function, immediately after 120 minutes reperfusion. Pretreatment with QSYQ protected against I/R-induced myocardial structural injury and improved cardiac hemodynamics, as demonstrated by normalized serum creatine kinase and suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, the impaired myocardial mitochondrial structure and function decreased level of ATP (accompanied by reduction of ATP5D and increase in the expression of cytochrome C. Myocardial fiber rupture, interstitial edema, and infiltrated leukocytes were all significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with QSYQ.Conclusion: Pretreatment of QSYQ in Sprague Dawley rats improves ventricular function and energy metabolism and reduces oxidative stress via ameliorating multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions during I/R injury.Keywords: QSYQ, ischemia/reperfusion injury, energy metabolism, mitochondria

  12. Influence of de qi on the immediate analgesic effect of SP6 acupuncture in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea and cold and dampness stagnation: a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min-Yi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wang, Lin-Peng; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yan-Xia; She, Yan-Fen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Wang, Pei; Hu, Ni-Juan; Lin, Chi; Hu, Shang-Qin; Wu, Gui-Wen; Wang, Ya-Feng; Sun, Jun-Jun; Jiang, Si-Zhu; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this multicentre randomised controlled trial was to investigate the contribution of de qi to the immediate analgesic effect of acupuncture in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea and the specific traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis cold and dampness stagnation . Eighty-eight patients with primary dysmenorrhoea and cold and dampness stagnation were randomly assigned to de qi (n=43) or no de qi (n=45) groups and underwent 30 min of SP6 acupuncture. The de qi group received deep needling at SP6 with manipulation using thick needles; the no de qi group received shallow needling with no manipulation using thin needles. In both groups the pain scores and actual de qi sensation were evaluated using a visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-P) and the acupuncture de qi clinical assessment scale (ADCAS), respectively. Both groups showed reductions in VAS-P, with no signficant differences between groups. ADCAS scores showed 43/43 and 25/45 patients in de qi and no de qi groups, respectively, actually experienced de qi sensation. Independent of original group allocation, VAS-P reductions associated with actual de qi (n=68) were greater than those without (28.4±18.19 mm vs 14.6±12.28 mm, p=0.008). This study showed no significant difference in VAS-P scores in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea and cold and dampness stagnation immediately after SP6 acupuncture designed to induce or avoid de qi sensation. Both treatments significantly reduced VAS-P relative to baseline. Irrespective of group allocation, patients experiencing actual de qi sensation demonstrated larger reductions in pain score relative to those without, suggesting greater analgesic effects. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13003086); Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. [Mechanism of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture against influenza immune inflammatory injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Ri; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Wang, Lan; Zhou, Ping-An; Yin, Ren-Yi; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    To observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on mRNA expression of lung inflammatory cytokines and pulmonary pathological injury of mice infected by influenza virus, in order to discuss the mechanism of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines against pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of infected mice. In different time phases after mice were infected with influenza virus FM1, the RT-PCR method was adopted to observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on five inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ, and the changes in pulmonary pathological injury of mice with viral pneumonia after intervention with tonifying qi traditional Chinese medicines. (1) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines significantly reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α at 1-5 d and IL-1 mRNA expression at 7 d, may increase IL-1 mRNA expression in mouse lung at 3 d, significantly reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in mouse lung and increased IL-10 mRNA expression at 3-7 d, and significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression at 1 d. (2) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines could significantly inhibited and repaired pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of mice infected by FM1, which was most remarkable at 3-7 d after the infection with influenza virus FM1. Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture could resist pulmonary immune inflammatory injury and repair inflammatory injury by regulating the mRNA expression of imbalance inflammatory cytokines of organisms infected with influenza virus.

  14. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  15. A QI Initiative to Reduce Hospitalization for Children With Isolated Skull Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Todd W; Stack, Anne M; Monuteaux, Michael C; Parver, Stephanie L; Gordon, Catherine R; Gordon, Caroline D; Proctor, Mark R; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2016-06-01

    Although children with isolated skull fractures rarely require acute interventions, most are hospitalized. Our aim was to safely decrease the hospitalization rate for children with isolated skull fractures. We designed and executed this multifaceted quality improvement (QI) initiative between January 2008 and July 2015 to reduce hospitalization rates for children ≤21 years old with isolated skull fractures at a single tertiary care pediatric institution. We defined an isolated skull fracture as a skull fracture without intracranial injury. The QI intervention consisted of 2 steps: (1) development and implementation of an evidence-based guideline, and (2) dissemination of a provider survey designed to reinforce guideline awareness and adherence. Our primary outcome was hospitalization rate and our balancing measure was hospital readmission within 72 hours. We used standard statistical process control methodology to assess change over time. To assess for secular trends, we examined admission rates for children with an isolated skull fracture in the Pediatric Health Information System administrative database. We identified 321 children with an isolated skull fracture with a median age of 11 months (interquartile range 5-16 months). The baseline admission rate was 71% (179/249, 95% confidence interval, 66%-77%) and decreased to 46% (34/72, 95% confidence interval, 35%-60%) after implementation of our QI initiative. No child was readmitted after discharge. The admission rate in our secular trend control group remained unchanged at 78%. We safely reduced the hospitalization rate for children with isolated skull fractures without an increase in the readmissions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Analysis of linear measurements on 3D surface models using CBCT data segmentation obtained by automatic standard pre-set thresholds in two segmentation software programs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleti, Marcelo Lupion; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Pagin, Otávio; Moretti, Marcela Rodrigues; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of linear measurements on three-dimensional (3D) surface models obtained by standard pre-set thresholds in two segmentation software programs. Ten mandibles with 17 silica markers were scanned for 0.3-mm voxels in the i-CAT Classic (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA). Twenty linear measurements were carried out by two observers two times on the 3D surface models: the Dolphin Imaging 11.5 (Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA), using two filters(Translucent and Solid-1), and in the InVesalius 3.0.0 (Centre for Information Technology Renato Archer, Campinas, SP, Brazil). The physical measurements were made by another observer two times using a digital caliper on the dry mandibles. Excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability for the markers, physical measurements, and 3D surface models were found (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's r ≥ 0.91). The linear measurements on 3D surface models by Dolphin and InVesalius software programs were accurate (Dolphin Solid-1 > InVesalius > Dolphin Translucent). The highest absolute and percentage errors were obtained for the variable R1-R1 (1.37 mm) and MF-AC (2.53 %) in the Dolphin Translucent and InVesalius software, respectively. Linear measurements on 3D surface models obtained by standard pre-set thresholds in the Dolphin and InVesalius software programs are reliable and accurate compared with physical measurements. Studies that evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the 3D models are necessary to ensure error predictability and to establish diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis in a more realistic way.

  17. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James David

    2016-01-29

    The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang) and antagonists (yin) that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi) in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients.

  18. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James David Adams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang and antagonists (yin that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients.

  19. Protocol for the evaluation and validation of Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire: prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Keun Ho

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the pattern identification standard of qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiency patterns diagnosis. The current study will investigate the usefulness of the Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire as a diagnostic tool for qi, blood, yin, and yang deficiencies by assessing the agreement between the scores and a gold standard established by assessors. This protocol is for a single center, prospective, observational study. A total of 248 eligible patients with unexplained chronic fatigue will be assigned to four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio as the qi deficiency group, blood deficiency group, yin deficiency group, and yang deficiency group. The primary outcome will be measured using the score of the Qi Blood Yin Yang deficiency pattern questionnaire and the secondary outcomes will be measured using the fatigue severity scale, Korean-translated chalder fatigue scale, computerized tongue image analysis system, and three types of pattern identification questionnaires (cold-heat, food accumulation, and seven emotions patterns). The safety of the clinical study will be assessed after measurements at every visit. All statistical analysis will be performed using the R Statistics program. Statistics experts will analyze the relationship between clinical data using the Pearson's Chi-squared test and independent t -test. This study will provide reference data and good evidence that are applicable to future studies. Furthermore, the results of the present study are useful to improve the care of patients with unexplained chronic fatigue and unexplained chronic fatigue-related disorders.

  20. Oral Astragalus (Huang qi) for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guobin; Chen, Xiankun; Liu, Zhuangzhu; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, La; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Wen, Zehuai; Guo, Xinfeng; Qin, Xindong; Liang, Jueyao; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-12-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in children and can involve both upper and lower airways. Many children experience frequent ARTI episodes or recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in early life, which creates challenges for paediatricians, primary care physicians, parents and carers of children.In China, Astragalus (Huang qi), alone or in combination with other herbs, is used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in the form of a water extract, to reduce the risk of ARTIs; it is believed to stimulate the immune system. Better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of Astragalus may provide insights into ARTI prevention, and consequently reduced antibiotic use. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral Astragalus for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children in community settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to 31 December 2015), Embase (Elsevier) (1974 to 31 December 2015), AMED (Ovid) (1985 to 31 December 2015), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to 31 December 2015) and Chinese Scientific Journals full text database (CQVIP) (1989 to 31 December 2015), China Biology Medicine disc (CBM 1976 to 31 December 2015) and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (WanFang) (1998 to 31 December 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral Astragalus as a sole Chinese herbal preparation with placebo to prevent frequent episodes of ARTIs in children. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures for this review. We assessed search results to identify relevant studies. We planned to extract data using standardised forms. Disagreements were to be resolved through discussion. Risk of bias was to be assessed using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We planned to use mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous data and risk

  1. Ensuring Support for Research and Quality Improvement (QI) Networks: Four Pillars of Sustainability-An Emerging Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional research and quality improvement (QI) projects using electronic clinical data (ECD) hold great promise for improving quality of care and patient outcomes but typically require significant infrastructure investments both to initiate and maintain the project over its duration. Consequently, it is important for these projects to think holistically about sustainability to ensure their long-term success. Four "pillars" of sustainability are discussed based on the experiences of EDM Forum grantees and other research and QI networks. These include trust and value, governance, management, and financial and administrative support. Two "foundational considerations," adaptive capacity and policy levers, are also discussed.

  2. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  3. Alteration of radiation-induced hematotoxicity by Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study reported here was to investigate the ability of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT), known to elevate hematopoietic functions, to protect mice undergoing treatment with whole body single gamma-irradiation. BZYQT was given (25 mg/kg B.W.) intraperitoneally at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation and 30 minute and 24 hours after irradiation. Recovery of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts was significantly stimulated by extract of BZYQT. Stimulated recovery by the extract from the BZYQT was also observed in thrombocytes. However, the anti-radiation effect of erythrocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit was not as significant as that of leukocyte. Further studies are needed to better characterize the protective nature of BZYQT extract and its ingredients

  4. Alteration of radiation-induced hematotoxicity by Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Sik [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study reported here was to investigate the ability of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT), known to elevate hematopoietic functions, to protect mice undergoing treatment with whole body single gamma-irradiation. BZYQT was given (25 mg/kg B.W.) intraperitoneally at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation and 30 minute and 24 hours after irradiation. Recovery of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts was significantly stimulated by extract of BZYQT. Stimulated recovery by the extract from the BZYQT was also observed in thrombocytes. However, the anti-radiation effect of erythrocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit was not as significant as that of leukocyte. Further studies are needed to better characterize the protective nature of BZYQT extract and its ingredients.

  5. [Analysis in pulmonary ventilatory function from 100 patients with ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W

    1999-03-01

    To explore the pathogenesis of ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of Qi, which is correlated with obstruction of pulmonary ventilation. The pulmonary ventilatory function was measured in 100 patients with the internal piles, the interno-external hemorrhoid and prolapse of rectum, the prolapse of anus was the principal symptom of them. Data from the 100 patients showed that 67% of them were diagnosed with the obstruction of pulmonary ventilation, the ratio was far less in the health control group. FEV 1.0 (mean +/- s) (2011.65 +/- 875) ml, MMF (1.84 +/- 1.24) L/s and PEF (2.34 +/- 1.51) L/s in male patients, (1551.54 +/- 514) ml, (1.57 +/- 0.62) L/s and (1.85 +/- 0.92) L/s in female patients, but those values were higher in the control than in the patients. The statistical analysis was performed and the difference was significant between patients and the control group (P < 0.01). The patients with ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of Qi accompanied with obstruction of pulmonary ventilation in different degree and varied sorts, it confirmed that the pathogenesis of ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of Qi is related with "sinking of pectoral Qi".

  6. 78 FR 56264 - Big Bear Mining Corp., Four Rivers BioEnergy, Inc., Mainland Resources, Inc., QI Systems Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Big Bear Mining Corp., Four Rivers BioEnergy, Inc., Mainland Resources, Inc., QI Systems Inc., South Texas Oil Co., and Synova Healthcare Group, Inc... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Big Bear Mining...

  7. Threshold quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding

  8. Craniometric examination of Longxian and Qi Li Cun archaeological sites to assess population continuity in ancient northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Victoria E; Porter, Tarun A; Wu, Xiujie; Liu, Wu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, population continuity and discontinuity in northern China are explored using craniometric analyses from two archaeological sites, Longxian (Warring States) and Qi Li Cun (Han Dynasty). Neither population has been previously studied. Artefactual evidence shows the individuals from Qi Li Cun were Xianbei, descendants from Mongolia. Longxian is from further south in the central plains at an earlier time, thus, we expect to observe variability between these groups. In total, 24 cranial measurements were obtained on 66 crania from these sites. Howells's cranial measurements on Anyang (42 crania) and Hainan (83 crania) Chinese samples were included for comparative purposes. Less variability is expected between Longxian and Howells's Chinese data due to geographic and temporal similarity. With closer geographic and temporal affinity with Anyang, the expectation is for Longxian and Anyang to be similar. Few statistical differences exist between Longxian and Qi Li Cun; this was supported by the similarity found through principal components analysis (PCA). Regardless of sex, canonical discriminant analysis shows clustering of Longxian and Qi Li Cun separate from those of Anyang and Hainan. Their similarity indicates the people from Longxian and Qi Li Cun likely share Mongolian ancestry. Our results, supported by other studies, suggest that despite temporal differences, Mongolians living in China during the Warring States and Han dynasty retained their cultural and genetic Mongolian identity. These data add valuable bioarchaeological information regarding the peopling of northern China during a crucial period of cultural and political change in the Early Bronze Age and Iron Age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of an integrated continuing medical education (CME) and quality improvement (QI) program on radiation oncologist (RO) clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Cheng Nang; Shakespeare, Thomas Philip; Mukherjee, Rahul K.; Back, Michael F.; Lee, Khai Mun; Lu, Jiade Jay; Wynne, Christopher J.; Lim, Keith; Tang, Johann; Zhang Xiaojian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There has been little radiation oncologist (RO)-specific research in continuing medical education (CME) or quality improvement (QI) program efficacy. Our aim was to evaluate a CME/QI program for changes in RO behavior, performance, and adherence to department protocols/studies over the first 12 months of the program. Methods and Materials: The CME/QI program combined chart audit with feedback (C-AWF), simulation review AWF (SR-AWF), reminder checklists, and targeted CME tutorials. Between April 2003 and March 2004, management of 75 patients was evaluated by chart audit with feedback (C-AWF) and 178 patients via simulation review audit (SR-AWF) using a validated instrument. Scores were presented, and case management was discussed with individualized educational feedback. RO behavior and performance was compared over the first year of the program. Results: Comparing the first and second 6 months, there was a significant improvement in mean behavior (12.7-13.6 of 14, p = 0.0005) and RO performance (7.6-7.9 of 8, p = 0.018) scores. Protocol/study adherence significantly improved from 90.3% to 96.6% (p = 0.005). A total of 50 actions were generated, including the identification of learning needs to direct CME tutorials, the systematic change of suboptimal RO practice, and the alteration of deficient management of 3% of patients audited during the program. Conclusion: An integrated CME/QI program combining C-AWF, SR-AWF, QI reminders, and targeted CME tutorials effectively improved targeted RO behavior and performance over a 12-month period. There was a corresponding increase in departmental protocol and study adherence

  10. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  11. Efficacy and Safety of the TCM Qi-Supplementing Therapy in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-qian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Qi-supplementing therapy has been used widely for treating myasthenia gravis (MG in China. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Qi-supplementing therapy as an adjunctive therapy in MG patients. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched through June 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating the add-on effect of Qi-supplementing therapy in MG patients were included. The outcome measures were the total effective rate, relapse rate, and adverse events. Results. Twenty-three RCTs involving 1,691 MG patients were included. The included studies were of low-to-moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed that Qi-supplementing therapy combined with Western medicine (WM significantly improved the total response rate and reduced the relapse risk during 6–24 months of follow-up. Subgroup analysis showed that Qi-supplementing therapy only affected the total response rate within the first 6 months of treatment. Moreover, the rate of adverse events was lower with the addition of Qi-supplementing therapy to WM than with WM only. Conclusions. Short-term Qi-supplementing therapy combined with WM appears to be superior to WM for improving the total response rate and reducing the relapse rate. However, more high-quality RCTs are warranted owing to methodological flaws of previous trials.

  12. [Health assessment of Qi'ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Gong; Zheng, Yao-Hui; Peng, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2010-02-01

    Based on the theories of wetland ecosystem health and by using "Pressure-State-Response" model, a health assessment indicator system for Qi' ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary was built, and the assessment indices, assessment criteria, indices weighted values, assessment grades, and assessment methods were established to assess the health state of this ecosystem. In 2008, the overall health index of this ecosystem was 0.6580, health level was of grade II (healthy), and the pressure, state, and response indices were 0.3469, 0.8718, and 0.7754, respectively, suggesting that this ecosystem was good in state and response, but still had definite pressure. As a provincial nature reserve, this ecosystem was to be further improved in its health level. However, the research on the health assessment of mangrove wetland ecosystem was still young. Further studies should be made on the selection of assessment indices, long-term oriented monitoring of these indices, and quantification of the relations between ecosystem health level and ecosystem services.

  13. [metabonomics research on coronary heart disease patients of phlegm turbidity syndrome and qi deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Ze-qi; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2015-02-01

    To study the correlation between Chinese medical types of coronary heart disease (CHD) [i.e., phlegm turbidity syndrome (PTS) and qi deficiency syndrome (QDS)] and their metabolites. Recruited were 65 CHD patients including 37 cases of PTS and 28 cases of QDS. Serum endogenous metabolites in the two syndrome types were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer (GC/MS), and their differences between their metabolic profiles analyzed. More than 100 chromatographic peaks were totally scanned. Chromatograms obtained was matched with mass spectrum bank, and finally we got the category contribution value of 46 kinds of substances. Results of MCTree analysis showed patients of PTS and patients of QDS could be effectively distinguished. Compounds contributing to identify the two syndromes were sequenced as serine, valine, 2 hydroxy propionic acid. Comparison of metabolites showed contents of serine and 2 hydroxy propionic acid were higher in patients of PTS than in patients of QDS (Pmetabonomics of CHD TCM syndrome types could provide material bases for TCM syndrome differentiation of CHD, indicating that metabonomics technologies might become a new research method for TCM syndrome typing.

  14. On Chinese-English Translation of Tourist Attraction in Cross-cultural Perspective--Taking Qi Culture as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滕龙

    2014-01-01

    Tourist textsfeature vividness and distinctiveness and its translation is a typical cross-cultural activity.By applying cross-cultural consciousness to the tourist material's translation, foreigners can understand the cultural connotation easily. Therefore, cross-cultural consciousness plays an important role in the translation of tourist materials.This thesis, taking Qi culture as an exam-ple, explores some typical tourist attractions from perspectives of historical allusions and legend as well as traditional customs. The analysis of Qi cultural connotation concludes business culture, Pu culture and filial piety culture. So, in order to transmit the cul-tural information to foreign tourists accurately, it is necessary to apply inter-cultural consciousness to the translation of tourist texts.

  15. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  16. Ensuring Support for Research and Quality Improvement (QI) Networks: Four Pillars of Sustainability?An Emerging Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holve, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional research and quality improvement (QI) projects using electronic clinical data (ECD) hold great promise for improving quality of care and patient outcomes but typically require significant infrastructure investments both to initiate and maintain the project over its duration. Consequently, it is important for these projects to think holistically about sustainability to ensure their long-term success. Four ?pillars? of sustainability are discussed based on the experiences of...

  17. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  18. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Follow-up of probable young star ASASSN-15qi (Herczeg+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, G. J.; Dong, S.; Shappee, B. J.; Chen, P.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Jose, J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kaplan, K.; Holoien, T.-S.; Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Zhu, Z.; Smith, M. C.; Bersier, D.; Mulders, G. D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ayani, K.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Connelley, M.; Harmanen, J.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Maehara, H.; Takata, K.; Yuk, H.; Zheng, W.

    2017-02-01

    The outburst of ASASSN-15qi (2MASS J22560882+5831040) occurred on JD2457298 (2015 October 2; UTC dates are used herein). The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) is an all-sky V-band transient survey with a limiting magnitude of ~17. ASAS-SN photometry of ASASSN-15qi was obtained from two different telescopes on Haleakala, Hawaii with intervals of one to three days. ASAS-SN photometry is listed in Table 2. Archival photometry, ground-based optical photometry with Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) 1m telescope at McDonald Observatory between 2015 October 23 and December 23 and at the Liverpool Telescope on 2016 April 26 and June 11, Swift/UVOT photometry on 2015 October 12 (ID 00034098001) and 2015 December 27 (ID 00034098002), NIR photometry with the NOTCam camera at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) on 2015 December 22 and Spitzer/IRAC MIR photometry on 2006 December 29 (Program ID 30734, PI Donald Figer) and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) SCUBA2 submillimeter observations of ASASSN-15qi on 2015 November 5 and optical and NIR spectroscopy observations are also described in section 2. (1 data file).

  20. Impact of a national QI programme on reducing electronic health record notifications to clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tina; Patel-Teague, Shilpa; Kroupa, Laura; Meyer, Ashley N D; Singh, Hardeep

    2018-03-05

    Emerging evidence suggests electronic health record (EHR)-related information overload is a risk to patient safety. In the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), EHR-based 'inbox' notifications originally intended for communicating important clinical information are now cited by 70% of primary care practitioners (PCPs) to be of unmanageable volume. We evaluated the impact of a national, multicomponent, quality improvement (QI) programme to reduce low-value EHR notifications. The programme involved three steps: (1) accessing daily PCP notification load data at all 148 facilities operated nationally by the VA; (2) standardising and restricting mandatory notification types at all facilities to a recommended list; and (3) hands-on training for all PCPs on customising and processing notifications more effectively. Designated leaders at each of VA's 18 regional networks led programme implementation using a nationally developed toolkit. Each network supervised technical requirements and data collection, ensuring consistency. Coaching calls and emails allowed the national team to address implementation challenges and monitor effects. We analysed notification load and mandatory notifications preintervention (March 2017) and immediately postintervention (June-July 2017) to assess programme impact. Median number of mandatory notification types at each facility decreased significantly from 15 (IQR: 13-19) to 10 (IQR: 10-11) preintervention to postintervention, respectively (Pmanage them. Nevertheless, our project suggests feasibility of using large-scale 'de-implementation' interventions to reduce unintended safety or efficiency consequences of well-intended electronic communication systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. A Robust Threshold for Iterative Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalaycioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel threshold computation method for pilot symbol assisted iterative channel estimation in OFDM systems is considered. As the bits are transmitted in packets, the proposed technique is based on calculating a particular threshold for each data packet in order to select the reliable decoder output symbols to improve the channel estimation performance. Iteratively, additional pilot symbols are established according to the threshold and the channel is re-estimated with the new pilots inserted to the known channel estimation pilot set. The proposed threshold calculation method for selecting additional pilots performs better than non-iterative channel estimation, no threshold and fixed threshold techniques in poor HF channel simulations.

  2. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments.

  3. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  4. Thresholds in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Hofmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations of biological radiation effects frequently use the word 'threshold'. The meaning of this word is explored together with its relationship to the fundamental character of radiation effects and to the question of perception. It is emphasised that although the existence of either a dose or an LET threshold can never be settled by experimental radiobiological investigations, it may be argued on fundamental statistical grounds that for all statistical processes, and especially where the number of observed events is small, the concept of a threshold is logically invalid. (U.K.)

  5. Development of a core set of quality indicators for paediatric primary care practices in Europe, COSI-PPC-EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Dominik A; Huss, Gottfried; Auras, Silke; Caceres, Juan Ruiz-Canela; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Geraedts, Max

    2018-06-01

    Paediatric ambulatory healthcare systems in Europe are, because of historical reasons, diverse and show strikingly different outcomes. All across Europe, the benchmarking of structures, processes and outcomes could reveal opportunities for improving Paediatric Primary Care (PPC). The aim of this study was to develop a set of Quality Indicators (QIs) to assess and monitor PPC in Europe. In a three-step process, we used the available external evidence and European expert consensus in a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM) to develop an indicator set. (1) A broad literature and online research of published QI and guidelines yielded an inventory of 1516 QI. (2) A collaborative panel of paediatric senior experts from the European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) and the European Confederation of Primary Care Paediatricians (ECPCP) from 15 European countries participated in a first consensus process to reduce the initial indicator inventory by eliminating not PPC-focused indicators and duplicates. (3) In a second consensus process, the panel rated the QI regarding validity and feasibility. The final QI set "COSI-PPC-EU" consists of 42 indicators in five categories of PPC: (A) health promotion/prevention/screening (13 QI), (B) acute care (9 QI), (C) chronic care (8 QI), (D) practice management (3 QI) and (E) patient safety (9 QI). COSI-PPC-EU represents a consented set of a limited number of valid quality indicators for the application in paediatric primary care in different healthcare systems throughout Europe. What is Known: • Paediatric ambulatory healthcare systems in Europe are diverse and show strikingly different outcomes. • There are known gaps in quality performance measures of paediatric primary care in Europe. Pre-existing sets of quality indicators are predominantly limited to national populations, specific diseases and hospital care. What is New: • A set of 42 quality indicators for primary paediatric care in Europe was developed in a multi

  6. Management and Long-Term Outcome of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Presenting with Heart Failure in a Contemporary New Zealand Cohort (ANZACS-QI 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Shaw Hua Anthony; Devlin, Gerry; Lee, Mildred; Doughty, Rob N; Kerr, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Acute heart failure (HF) associated with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) predicts adverse outcome. There have been important recent improvements in ACS management. Our aim was to describe the management and outcomes in those with and without HF in a contemporary ACS cohort. Consecutive patients presenting with ACS between 2007 and 2011 were enrolled in the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry. Outcomes and medication dispensing were obtained using anonymised linkage to national data sets. A summary pharmacotherapy measure of "quadruple therapy" was defined as dispensing of at least one agent from each of the four evidence-based classes - anti-platelet, statin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and beta blocker. Of 3743 ACS patients 14% had acute HF. Acute heart failure patients were older (69.2±12.6 vs 62.3±12.8 years, pcoronary angiography (66% vs 86%, pAcute heart failure complicating ACS is associated with heightened risk of short-term and long-term mortality. One in three ACS patients with HF did not have coronary angiography and less than half received quadruple therapy a year after presentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  8. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  9. [Efficacy of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-xin; Lu, Qing-ge

    2015-05-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 120 patients with secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE were randomly assigned to groups A (aged [35.5 ± 5.4] yr), B (aged [36.2 ± 5.7] yr), and C (aged [35.2 ± 5.3] yr) in the ratio of 1:1:1 to receive Qilin Pills (once 6 g, bid), sertraline (once 50 mg, qd), and Qilin Pills plus sertraline, respectively, all for 4 weeks. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores were obtained before and after medication and at 1 month after drug withdrawal, and comparative analyses were made among the three groups of patients. The IELT was dramatically prolonged in groups A, B, and C after treatment ([3.23 ± 1.84], [3.87 ± 2.43], and [5.92 ± 3.11] min) and at 1 month after drug withdrawal ([1.85 ± 1.27], [1.52 ± 1.06], and [ 4.26 ± 1.88 ] min) as compared with the baseline ([0.88 ± 0.45], [0.84 ± 0.47], and [0.85 ± 0.50] min) (P Pills combined with sertraline has a definite efficacy in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE and therefore deserves wide clinical application.

  10. [Effect of protein intervention on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Na; Mao, Xin-Min; Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Lin-Lin; Wang, Ye; Tao, Yi-Cun; Wang, Jing-Wei; Guo, Jia-Jia; Lan, Yi

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of plant protein and animal protein on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats. 110 male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n=10), diabetic model group (n=20), disease-symptoms group (n=80). The rats of blank group received ordinary feeding, while other groups were fed with high sugar and fat diets. During the whole process of feeding, rats of disease-symptoms group were given with Qingpi-Fuzi (15.75 g•kg⁻¹) once a day through oral administration. Five weeks later, the rats were given with a low dose of STZ (40 mg•kg⁻¹) by intraperitoneal injection to establish experimental diabetic models. Then the models were randomly divided into disease-symptoms group 1 (Qi and Yin deficiency diabetic group, 15.75 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 2 (plant protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 3 (animal protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 4 (berberine group, 0.1 g•kg⁻¹). The drugs were given for 4 weeks by gavage administration. After 4 weeks of protein intervention, the abdominal aortic blood was collected and serum was isolated to analyze its free amino acid by using AQC pre-column derivatization HPLC and fluorescence detector. Four weeks after the protein intervention, plant protein, animal protein and berberine had no obvious effect on body weight and blood sugar in type 2 diabetic rats. As compared with animal protein group, histidine and proline(PYin deficiency type 2 diabetic SD rats. Symbolic differential compounds could be found through metabonomics technology, providing experimental basis for early warning of type 2 diabetes and diagnosis of Qi and Yin deficiency syndrome. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Gene Expression Profiles of HIV/AIDS Patients with Qi-Yin Deficiency and Dampness-Heat Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Chen, Yulong; Xie, Shiping; Xu, Qianlei; Chen, Jianshe; Wang, Changhai; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Suna; Wu, Xingwei; Zhang, Ning

    2016-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes. Comparison with healthy persons identified 113 mRNAs-41 enhanced and 72 decreased-in the qi-yin deficiency group. Additionally, 76 mRNAs were found in the dampness-heat retention group: 14 increased and 62 decreased. Functional genetic analysis of the mRNAs indicated that two TCM syndromes were correlated with cell apoptosis, immunoinflammatory responses, and lymphocyte activation. Differentially expressed mRNAs in the qi-yin deficiency group were obviously associated with cellular activity, communication, protein localization, cellular ion homeostasis, and regulation of cell motion, whereas mRNAs in the dampness-heat retention group were associated with sequence-specific DNA binding, cellular response to stress, and hemopoietic or lymphoid organ development. These results suggest that the formation of different TCM syndromes in patients with HIV/AIDS were founded on biological transcriptomics, which reveal mechanisms of the formation of these syndromes in HIV/AIDS. Differentially expressed mRNAs in two TCM syndrome groups tended to normalize after TCM intervention, which indicates that TCM might remit symptoms by changing genetic expression.

  12. Clinical Observation on Insomnia Treated by Wei-Defensive Qi-Regulating and Brain-Strengthening Needling Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xi-yan; LI Xing-rui; MA Qiao-lin; ZHAO Xin-ji; SHAO Su-ju; WEI Yu-long; SUN Wei-xia; HANG Guo-qi

    2007-01-01

    In order to make a report on 90 cases of insomnia treated by the Wei-defensive qi-regulating and brain-strengthening needling technique,as a clinical subject of the multiple center,for assessing the preliminary standardized indications and operating methods and making an initial summary for writing the draft of the technique operation.Methods:By ratio of 1:1,the patients in conformity with the criteria were randomly divided into the experimental group and control group.In the experimental group,45 cases were treated with the Wei-defensive qi-regulating and brain-strengthening needling technique on Baihui (GV 20),Dazhui(GV 14),Shenmai(BL 62),Zhaohai(KI 6),plus ear points.In the control group,45 cases were treated with routine acupuncture on Sishencong(Ex-HN 1),Shenmen (HT 7),Sanyinjiao(SP 6),etc.The therapeutic effects in the two groups were observed and assessed in comparison.Results:The results showed cure in 15 cases.remarkable effect in 27 cases,effect in 42 cases,failure in 6 cases,and the total eriective rate in 94.4% in 90 cases of insomnia.In the three centers,the statistic management was performed based upon PSQI integral and showed significant difference(P<0.01),and no significant difference among various groups(P>0.01).Conclusion:The therapeutic effect in the treatment of insomnia by Wei-defensive qi-regulating and brain-strengthening needling technique is better than the control group and the therapeutic effect and methods in various centers are stable.without any deviation.

  13. On setting NRC alarm thresholds for inventory differences and process unit loss estimators: Clarifying their statistical basis with hypothesis testing methods and error propagation models from Jaech, Bowen and Bennett and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, L.

    1995-01-01

    Major fuel cycle facilities in the US private sector are required to respond-at predetermined alarm levels-to various special nuclear material loss estimators in the material control and accounting (MC and A) area. This paper presents US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) policy, along with the underlying statistical rationale, for establishing and inspecting the application of thresholds to detect excessive inventory differences (ID). Accordingly, escalating responsive action must be taken to satisfy NRC's MC and A regulations for low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion/fabrication plants and LEU enrichment facilities. The establishment of appropriate ID detection thresholds depends on a site-specific goal quantity, a specified probability of detection and the standard error of the ID. Regulatory guidelines for ID significance tests and process control tests conducted by licensees with highly enriched uranium are similarly rationalized in definitive hypothesis testing including null and alternative hypotheses; statistical efforts of the first, second, third, and fourth kinds; and suitable test statistics, uncertainty estimates, prevailing assumptions, and critical values for comparisons. Conceptual approaches are described in the context of significance test considerations and measurement error models including the treatment of so called ''systematic error variance'' effects as observations of random variables in the statistical sense

  14. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  15. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  16. Threshold guidance update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Last years' activities (1984) included the development of a threshold guidance dose, the development of threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose, the development of supporting documentation, review by a technical peer review committee, and review by the DOE community. As a result of the comments, areas have been identified for more extensive analysis, including an alternative basis for selection of the guidance dose and the development of quality assurance guidelines. Development of quality assurance guidelines will provide a reasonable basis for determining that a given waste stream qualifies as a threshold waste stream and can then be the basis for a more extensive cost-benefit analysis. The threshold guidance and supporting documentation will be revised, based on the comments received. The revised documents will be provided to DOE by early November. DOE-HQ has indicated that the revised documents will be available for review by DOE field offices and their contractors

  17. Near threshold fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. C.; Strum, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10(exp -5) mm/cycle (4 x 10(exp -7) inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity are described.

  18. [Correlation between spirit-qi acupuncture and lifting-thrusting twirling method for spirit in Huangdi Neijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuge; Qin, Yuheng; Li, Li; Li, Mei

    2016-03-01

    By analyzing the articles in Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor), combined with the verification of consciousness in vitro in clinic and modern science, it is found Huangdi Neijing has made special requirements of treating spirit for physicians using spirit-qi acupuncture. The physicians consciously use different methods to motivate the spirit of physician and patients, especially patients, to transform it to the physiological effect of patients, which could minimize the psychological factors that make negative influence on treatment; also the psychotherapy is considered as the most important principle of treating spirit. The reinforcing and reducing methods in later generations, mainly lifting-thrusting twirling method, unintentionally lead patients into a basic or strong status of treating spirit or keeping spirit during the process of achieving stimulation and needle sensation. To partially perform the special role of treating spirit for physicians in Huangdi Neijing on patients could cause the chages including patient-based using spirit to move qi. It not only inspires the body's natural resistance to disease and self-healing, but also motivates the self-protection mechanism of keeping spirit.

  19. Theory of sinking of qi in treating chronic disease and its clinical application%从大气下陷论治慢性病经验举隅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范逸品

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are usually occult in onset, complicated, recur repeatedly and long-term, treatment-resistant and so on. With the development of the society, environmental and social changes, chronic diseases has been the most dangerous threats to human health. This paper detailed the concept about qi and sinking of qi and pathogenesis, and holds that sinking of qi is closely related to chronic disease. Through the successful case in the treatment of sequela of myocarditis and progressive muscular dystrophy(PMD), we demonstrate the curative effect about theory of sinking of qi in treating chronic diseases, and analysis the advantages about therapy of invigorating qi and ascending qi collapse.%慢性病具有起病隐匿、病因复杂、反复发作、迁延难愈等特点.随着社会发展、环境因素及生活方式的变化,慢性病已逐渐成为威胁人类健康的首要原因.文章叙述了大气和大气下陷概念及病机特点,提出大气下陷与慢性病密切相关,以病毒性心肌炎后遗症与进行性肌营养不良治疗为例,证实了从大气下陷论治慢性病的疗效并分析了益气升陷法的优势作用.

  20. Threshold factorization redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  1. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  2. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  3. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Resonance phenomena near thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1995-12-01

    The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with both discrete and resonance states is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the discrete states can trap the resonance ones and also that the discrete states can directly influence the scattering cross section. (orig.)

  5. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of ..... pressure for longevity include low heritabilities, the increased generation interval necessary to obtain survival information, and automatic selection because long-lived cows contribute more offspring to subsequent ...

  6. Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae from Xizang province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GB Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae from Xizang province (Tibet, China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by other scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive. In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

  7. Treatment of Motor Neuron Disease with Qi-invigorating Herbs—— A Report of 31 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃小兰; 杨志敏; 何德平; 刘旭生; 陈红霞; 黄燕; 张文青

    2002-01-01

    @@ The motor neuron disease (MND) refers to a group of progressive diseases with unknown reasons, which attacks the cells of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the motor nuclei of the brain stem cranial nerves and the pyramidal cells of the cerebral motor cortex. It is characterized in clinic by atrophy of the muscles, myasthenia and even death due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle. Currently, there is still no any effective cure for this illness. 50-70% of the victims will die in 3 to 5 years, and the survival time for those with brain stem injuries is no more than two years.1 Since 1996, the authors have treated 31 cases of motor neuron disease with large dosage of qi-invigorating drugs in accordance with Prof. Liu Mocai's experience, and obtained certain therapeutic effects. A report follows.

  8. [Experimental study on the treatment of serious soft tissue injuries with strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-wen; Zhu, Yong-zhan; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wu, Zheng-jie; He, Li-lei

    2008-09-01

    To study the effects of Chinese drugs based on strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule on neoformative capillaries and fibroblast during the soft tissue repair after serious trauma in rats, so as to explore the biological basis of the TCM theory "the spleen dominate extremities and muscles" applied to the treatment of soft tissue injuries. The model rats were established by bleeding from femoral artery and lancing method, and the rats were randomly divided into the control group, strengthening the spleen group and activating blood and resolving stasis group. The samples were got from the tissue of the wounded area at the 5th, 10th and 15th days after oral administration of the traditional Chinese medicine. After fixation and section, the tissues were stained by CD31 and PCNA staining. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the tissue of the wounded area were observed through multi-purpose microscope (ZEISS Axioskop2). Quantitative analysis was carried out on Image-ProPlus image analyzer. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the wounded tissue in the strengthening the spleen group were larger than that in the control group at the 5th, 10th and 15th day. And the proliferation speed of capillaries and fibroblasts was faster than those in the control group or the activating blood and resolving stasis group. The Chinese drugs according to strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule were effective to promote growth of the granulation tissue and facilitate healing of the wounded area. And it has better effect than the treatment of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis.

  9. The influence of intestine-based treatment using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang on the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that “treating from the intestine” using Xuan Bai Cheng Qi Tang and its modified formulae can regulate the concentration of trace elements in the main organs of COPD rats. This may be one of the mechanisms for intestine-based treatment for COPD.

  10. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  11. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  12. An examination of fire spread thresholds in discontinuous fuel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Kara M. Yedinak

    2010-01-01

    Many fuel beds, especially live vegetation canopies (conifer forests, shrub fields, bunch-grasses) contain gaps between vegetation clumps. Fires burning in these fuel types often display thresholds for spread that are observed to depend on environmental factors like wind, slope, and fuel moisture content. To investigate threshold spread behaviours, we conducted a set...

  13. Crossing the Petawatt threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.

    1996-01-01

    A revolutionary new laser called the Petawatt, developed by Lawrence Livermore researchers after an intensive three-year development effort, has produced more than 1,000 trillion (open-quotes petaclose quotes) watts of power, a world record. By crossing the petawatt threshold, the extraordinarily powerful laser heralds a new age in laser research. Lasers that provide a petawatt of power or more in a picosecond may make it possible to achieve fusion using significantly less energy than currently envisioned, through a novel Livermore concept called open-quotes fast ignition.close quotes The petawatt laser will also enable researchers to study the fundamental properties of matter, thereby aiding the Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship efforts and opening entirely new physical regimes to study. The technology developed for the Petawatt has also provided several spinoff technologies, including a new approach to laser material processing

  14. Image thresholding in the high resolution target movement monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Randy H.; Watkins, Steve E.; Jones, Tristan H.; Apel, Derek B.; Bairineni, Deepti

    2009-03-01

    Image thresholding in the High Resolution Target Movement Monitor (HRTMM) is examined. The HRTMM was developed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology to detect and measure wall movements in underground mines to help reduce fatality and injury rates. The system detects the movement of a target with sub-millimeter accuracy based on the images of one or more laser dots projected on the target and viewed by a high-resolution camera. The relative position of the centroid of the laser dot (determined by software using thresholding concepts) in the images is the key factor in detecting the target movement. Prior versions of the HRTMM set the image threshold based on a manual, visual examination of the images. This work systematically examines the effect of varying threshold on the calculated centroid position and describes an algorithm for determining a threshold setting. First, the thresholding effects on the centroid position are determined for a stationary target. Plots of the centroid positions as a function of varying thresholds are obtained to identify clusters of thresholds for which the centroid position does not change for stationary targets. Second, the target is moved away from the camera in sub-millimeter increments and several images are obtained at each position and analyzed as a function of centroid position, target movement and varying threshold values. With this approach, the HRTMM can accommodate images in batch mode without the need for manual intervention. The capability for the HRTMM to provide automated, continuous monitoring of wall movement is enhanced.

  15. Regional rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence using a centenary database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Teresa; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, Susana; Cruz Oliveira, Sérgio; Garcia, Ricardo A. C.; Quaresma, Ivânia

    2018-04-01

    This work proposes a comprehensive method to assess rainfall thresholds for landslide initiation using a centenary landslide database associated with a single centenary daily rainfall data set. The method is applied to the Lisbon region and includes the rainfall return period analysis that was used to identify the critical rainfall combination (cumulated rainfall duration) related to each landslide event. The spatial representativeness of the reference rain gauge is evaluated and the rainfall thresholds are assessed and calibrated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) metrics. Results show that landslide events located up to 10 km from the rain gauge can be used to calculate the rainfall thresholds in the study area; however, these thresholds may be used with acceptable confidence up to 50 km from the rain gauge. The rainfall thresholds obtained using linear and potential regression perform well in ROC metrics. However, the intermediate thresholds based on the probability of landslide events established in the zone between the lower-limit threshold and the upper-limit threshold are much more informative as they indicate the probability of landslide event occurrence given rainfall exceeding the threshold. This information can be easily included in landslide early warning systems, especially when combined with the probability of rainfall above each threshold.

  16. Woman Survival in Chinese Feudal Patrilineal Society: An Analysis of Song Lian's Destiny in Qi Qie Chenqun By Su Tong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuc Lin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article depicted woman’s difficulties in maintaining her life as well as her aggressiveness in the patrilineal society in Chinese feudal time. Article analyzed Song Lian’s bad fate. She was the main character of qi qie chenqun novel, written by Su Tong. Article analysis consisted of three parts. The first part described Song Lian’s background of life and her becoming a mistress. The second part indicated Song Lian’s attacking behavior to other woman because of defending her life. His third part analyzed some causes that made Song Lian did not survive in life. It can be concluded that the fact, Song Lian is able to be survive but she decides to be a mistress caused by both personal and o social reasons. Song Lian’s attacking other woman is caused by her anger representing her unsuccessful life. Principally, Song Lian’s failure in the feudal life is caused by her unsuccessful in becoming a respected woman. If she had been a respected woman, she would have also competed with other women in achieving a better life.      

  17. Effect of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction on Pancreatitis-Associated Intestinal Dysmotility in Patients and in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of intestinal motility and related infectious complications are the predominant clinical phenomenon in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. We aimed to investigate the effects of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD on the gastrointestinal injury in SAP patients and the potential mechanism involved in rats. DCQD was enema administered to 70 patients for 7 days in West China Hospital. Mortality and organ failure during admission were observed and blood samples for laboratory analysis were collected. We also experimentally examined plasma inflammatory cytokines in rat serum and carried the morphometric studies of the gut. Intestinal propulsion index and serum and tissue vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP were also detected. Though DCQD did not affect the overall incidence of organ failure, it shortened the average time of paralytic intestinal obstruction and decreased the morbidity of infectious complications in patients with SAP. Compared with untreated rats, the DCQD lowered the levels of proinflammatory cytokine and decreased the mean pathological intestinal lesion scores. The VIP level in intestinal tissue or serum in DCQD group was obviously lowered and intestinal propulsion index was significantly improved. In conclusion, DCQD has good effect on pancreatitis-associated intestinal dysmotility in patients and in rat models.

  18. Crossing the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John; Tambasco, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    First, we summarize the circumstances in which chaotic pilot-wave dynamics gives rise to quantum-like statistical behavior. For ``closed'' systems, in which the droplet is confined to a finite domain either by boundaries or applied forces, quantum-like features arise when the persistence time of the waves exceeds the time required for the droplet to cross its domain. Second, motivated by the similarities between this hydrodynamic system and stochastic electrodynamics, we examine the behavior of a bouncing droplet above the Faraday threshold, where a stochastic element is introduced into the drop dynamics by virtue of its interaction with a background Faraday wave field. With a view to extending the dynamical range of pilot-wave systems to capture more quantum-like features, we consider a generalized theoretical framework for stochastic pilot-wave dynamics in which the relative magnitudes of the drop-generated pilot-wave field and a stochastic background field may be varied continuously. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through their CMMI and DMS divisions.

  19. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  20. Creation and Implementation of an Environmental Scan to Assess Cancer Genetics Services at Three Oncology Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Erica M; Walsh, Michael T; Baker, Ellen; Muse, Kimberly I; Oakley, Holly D; Krukenberg, Rebekah C; Dresbold, Cara S; Jenkinson, Sandra B; Eppolito, Amanda L; Teed, Kelly B; Klein, Molly H; Morman, Nichole A; Bowdish, Elizabeth C; Russ, Pauline; Wise, Emaline E; Cooper, Julia N; Method, Michael W; Henson, John W; Grainger, Andrew V; Arun, Banu K; Lu, Karen H

    2018-05-16

    An environmental scan (ES) is an efficient mixed-methods approach to collect and interpret relevant data for strategic planning and project design. To date, the ES has not been used nor evaluated in the clinical cancer genetics setting. We created and implemented an ES to inform the design of a quality improvement (QI) project to increase the rates of adherence to national guidelines for cancer genetic counseling and genetic testing at three unique oncology care settings (OCS). The ES collected qualitative and quantitative data from reviews of internal processes, past QI efforts, the literature, and each OCS. The ES used a data collection form and semi-structured interviews to aid in data collection. The ES was completed within 6 months, and sufficient data were captured to identify opportunities and threats to the QI project's success, as well as potential barriers to, and facilitators of guideline-based cancer genetics services at each OCS. Previously unreported barriers were identified, including inefficient genetic counseling appointment scheduling processes and the inability to track referrals, genetics appointments, and genetic test results within electronic medical record systems. The ES was a valuable process for QI project planning at three OCS and may be used to evaluate genetics services in other settings.

  1. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-peng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10, Zusanli (ST36, Pishu (BL20, and Shenshu (BL23 once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

  2. 6 June 2012 - Chinese Nanjing University President J.Chen in the ATLAS visitor centre with Member of the ATLAS Collaboration I. Wingerter and International Relations Office Adviser E. Tsesmelis. M. Qi, Nanjing University and ATLAS Collaboration, accompanies the delegation.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    6 June 2012 - Chinese Nanjing University President J.Chen in the ATLAS visitor centre with Member of the ATLAS Collaboration I. Wingerter and International Relations Office Adviser E. Tsesmelis. M. Qi, Nanjing University and ATLAS Collaboration, accompanies the delegation.

  3. A non-parametric framework for estimating threshold limit values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulm Kurt

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate a threshold limit value for a compound known to have harmful health effects, an 'elbow' threshold model is usually applied. We are interested on non-parametric flexible alternatives. Methods We describe how a step function model fitted by isotonic regression can be used to estimate threshold limit values. This method returns a set of candidate locations, and we discuss two algorithms to select the threshold among them: the reduced isotonic regression and an algorithm considering the closed family of hypotheses. We assess the performance of these two alternative approaches under different scenarios in a simulation study. We illustrate the framework by analysing the data from a study conducted by the German Research Foundation aiming to set a threshold limit value in the exposure to total dust at workplace, as a causal agent for developing chronic bronchitis. Results In the paper we demonstrate the use and the properties of the proposed methodology along with the results from an application. The method appears to detect the threshold with satisfactory success. However, its performance can be compromised by the low power to reject the constant risk assumption when the true dose-response relationship is weak. Conclusion The estimation of thresholds based on isotonic framework is conceptually simple and sufficiently powerful. Given that in threshold value estimation context there is not a gold standard method, the proposed model provides a useful non-parametric alternative to the standard approaches and can corroborate or challenge their findings.

  4. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, D; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  5. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, D; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  6. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  7. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  8. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  9. Quality Indicators for In-Hospital Pharmaceutical Care of Dutch Elderly Patients Development and Validation of an ACOVE-Based Quality Indicator Set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, Peter C.; Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Smorenburg, Susanne M.; van Kan, Hendrikus J.; Bijleveld, Yuma A.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 2001, the ACOVE (Assessing Care Of Vulnerable Elders) quality indicators (QIs) were developed in the US to measure the quality of care of vulnerable elderly patients. However, the ACOVE QI set was developed mainly to assess the overall quality of care of community-dwelling vulnerable

  10. The first ever Cochrane event in Russia and Russian speaking countries - Cochrane Russia Launch - Evidence-based medicine: Achievements and barriers (QiQUM 2015) International Conference, Kazan, December 7-8, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, Liliya Eugenevna; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Kazan hosted Russia's second International Conference QiQUM 2015 on Cochrane evidence for health policy, which was entirely independent of the pharmaceutical or other health industry, bringing together 259 participants from 11 countries and 13 regions of the Russian Federation. The Conference was greeted and endorsed by world leaders in Evidence-based medicine, health and pharmaceutical information, policy and regulation, and the World Health Organization. Participants discussed the professional and social problems arising from biased health information, unethical pharmaceutical promotion, misleading reporting of clinical trials with consequent flaws in health care delivery and the role of Cochrane evidence for informed decisions and better health. The first in history Cochrane workshop, facilitated jointly by experts from Cochrane and the WHO, with 40 participants from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Russia introduced the concept of Cochrane systematic review and the Use of Cochrane evidence in WHO policy setting. Websites document conference materials and provide interface for future collaboration: http://kpfu.ru/biology-medicine/struktura-instituta/kafedry/kfikf/konferenciya/mezhdunarodnaya-konferenciya-39dokazatelnaya.html and http://russia.cochrane.org/news/international-conference.

  11. Conceptions of nuclear threshold status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews some alternative definitions of nuclear threshold status. Each of them is important, and major analytical confusions would result if one sense of the term is mistaken for another. The motives for nations entering into such threshold status are a blend of civilian and military gains, and of national interests versus parochial or bureaucratic interests. A portion of the rationale for threshold status emerges inevitably from the pursuit of economic goals, and another portion is made more attraction by the derives of the domestic political process. Yet the impact on international security cannot be dismissed, especially where conflicts among the states remain real. Among the military or national security motives are basic deterrence, psychological warfare, war-fighting and, more generally, national prestige. In the end, as the threshold phenomenon is assayed for lessons concerning the role of nuclear weapons more generally in international relations and security, one might conclude that threshold status and outright proliferation coverage to a degree in the motives for all of the states involved and in the advantages attained. As this paper has illustrated, nuclear threshold status is more subtle and more ambiguous than outright proliferation, and it takes considerable time to sort out the complexities. Yet the world has now had a substantial amount of time to deal with this ambiguous status, and this may tempt more states to exploit it

  12. [Retrospective analysis of risk factors in 900 patients with ischemic cerebral stroke of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome and qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome in Wuhan District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin; Wang, Kai-xin; Chen, Guo-hua

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the correlation between risk factors and ischemic cerebral stroke of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome and qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome. Totally 900 patients of the two syndrome types were recruited. Risk factors correlated to ischemic cerebral stroke such as gender, age, time of onset, site of infarction, tongue proper, tongue fur, pulse picture, hypertension, diabetes, past stroke history, hyperlipidemia, hematocrit, smoking, drinking, genetic factor, blood type, complications were analyzed using Chi-square test and non-conditional Logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance existed between the two syndrome types in age (X2 = 8.2392, P = 0.0413), hyperlipidemia (X2 = 4.8386, P = 0.0278), tongue proper (X2 = 7.9470, P = 0.0048), and tongue fur (X2 = 4.3298, P = 0.0375). Statistical significance existed between the two syndrome types in hyperlipidemia, tongue proper, and tongue fur, and their OR value was 0.699 (P = 0.0282), 0.332 (P =0.0071), and 0.667 (P = 0.0382) respectively. The OR value of the past stroke history was 3.226 (P = 0.0314), that of complications 0.203 (P = 0.0705), and that of anterior circulation infarction 0.214 (P = 0.0098). Among different ages groups, the constituent ratio of qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome was obviously higher than that of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome. Besides, patients of qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome were liable to suffer from hyperlipidemia, anterior circulation infarction, and complications. The age, blood lipid levels, site of infarction, complications are closely correlated with Chinese syndrome types of ischemic cerebral stroke, which can provide objective indices for typing ischemic cerebral stroke.

  13. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  14. Doubler system quench detection threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Martin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental study leading to the determination of the sensitivity needed for protecting the Fermilab Doubler from damage during quenches is presented. The quench voltage thresholds involved were obtained from measurements made on Doubler cable of resistance x temperature and voltage x time during quenches under several currents and from data collected during operation of the Doubler Quench Protection System as implemented in the B-12 string of 20 magnets. At 4kA, a quench voltage threshold in excess of 5.OV will limit the peak Doubler cable temperature to 452K for quenches originating in the magnet coils whereas a threshold of 0.5V is required for quenches originating outside of coils

  15. The influence of olfactory concept on the probability of detecting sub- and peri-threshold odorants in a complex mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J.H.F.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Roozen, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Kroeze, J.H.A.

    2001-01-01

    The headspace of apple juice was analysed to obtain an ecologically relevant stimulus model mixture of apple volatiles. Two sets of volatiles were made up: a set of eight supra-threshold volatiles (MIX) and a set of three sub-threshold volatiles. These sets were used to test the hypothesis that

  16. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  17. A threshold for dissipative fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and γ-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T thresh to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E Bar (T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T thresh /E Bar (T) thresh /E Bar (T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems

  18. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  19. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs.

  20. Threshold current for fireball generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  1. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  2. ENTRIA workshop. Determine threshold values in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diener, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Threshold values affect our daily lives. Whether it concerns traffic or noise regulations, we all experience thresholds on a regular basis. But how are such values generated? The conference ''Determine Thres-hold Values in Radiation Protection'', taking place on January 27th 2015 in Braunschweig, focused on this question. The conference was undertaken in the context of the BMBF-funded interdisciplinary research project ''ENTRIA - Disposal Options for Radioactive Residues''. It aimed to stimulate a cross-disciplinary discussion. Spea-kers from different disciplinary backgrounds talked about topics like procedures of setting threshold values, standards for evaluating dosages, and public participation in the standardization of threshold values. Two major theses emerged: First, setting threshold values always requires considering contexts and protection targets. Second, existing uncertainties must be communicated in and with the public. Altogether, the conference offered lots of input and issues for discussion. In addition, it raised interesting and important questions for further and ongoing work in the research project ENTRIA.

  3. [Effects of Chinese herbal medicines for regulating liver qi on expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3B receptor in hypothalamic tissues of rats with anger emotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qing-fang; Zhang, Hui-yun

    2011-08-01

    To explore the central mechanisms of anger emotion and the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for regulating liver qi on the anger emotion and the expression level of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3B receptor (5-HT3BR) in rat hypothalamus. Rat models of anger-in or anger-out emotions were prepared by the methods of resident intruder paradigm. There were five groups in this study: control, anger-in model, Jingqianshu Granule-treated anger-in, anger-out model and Jingqianping Granule-treated anger-out groups. The treatment groups were orally given Jingqianshu granules and Jingqianping granules respectively, and the model groups and the normal control group were given sterile water. Open-field test and sucrose preference test were used to evaluate behavioristics of the rats. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods were used to detect the expression levels of 5-HT3BR mRNA and protein in the rat hypothalamus. The expression of 5-HT3BR in hypothalamus of anger-in model rats increased obviously (Pexpressions of 5-HT3BR in the treatment groups were significantly improved (Pexpression and the anger-out emotion can obviously reduce its expression. Chinese herbal medicines for regulating liver qi may treat anger emotion in rats by improving the hypothalamic 5-HT3BR protein and gene expression levels.

  4. Incidencia de Mindfulness y Qi Gong sobre el Estado de Salud, Bienestar Psicológico, Satisfacción Vital y Estrés Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Oblitas Guadalupe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó a través de un abordaje metodológico pre-experimental con medidas de tipo pre-test y post-test. Participaron 52 trabajadores de la Universidad de la Costa (Barranquilla, Colombia, quienes asistieron por invitación al taller de ocho horas de mindfulness y qi gong para el mejoramiento de la salud, bienestar psicológico, satisfacción vital y reducción del estrés. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Cuestionario de Salud sf-11, Escala de Bienestar Psicológico (Ryff & Keyes, 1995, Escala de Satisfacción Vital (Cortés, 2013 y Escala Numérica de Estrés Laboral. La combinación de mindfulness y qi gong produjo una mejoría en el estado de salud de los trabajadores —salud general, energía, eficiencia, actividades domésticas y disminución del dolor—, cambios importantes en el bienestar psicológico —adaptación, confianza, claridad, apertura y autoestima—, y mejoramiento de la satisfacción vital —salud y productividad—. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los niveles de estrés laboral.

  5. Total quality management in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D F

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing demands on hospitals for improved quality and lower costs, hospitals have been forced to reevaluate their manner of operation and quality assurance (QA) programs. Hospitals have been faced with customer dissatisfaction with services, escalating costs, intense competition, and reduced reimbursement for services. As a result, many hospitals have incorporated total quality management (TQM), also known as continuous quality improvement (CQI) and quality improvement (QI), to improve quality care and decrease costs. This article examines the concept of TQM, its rationale, and how it can be implemented in a hospital. A comparison of TQM and QA is made. Examples of hospital implementation of TQM and problems and issues associated with TQM in the hospital setting are explored.

  6. Percolation Threshold Parameters of Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 041141-041147 ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : percolation threshold * universality * infinite cluster Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  7. Threshold analyses and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    In the context of threshold investigations of Lorentz violation, we discuss the fundamental principle of coordinate independence, the role of an effective dynamical framework, and the conditions of positivity and causality. Our analysis excludes a variety of previously considered Lorentz-breaking parameters and opens an avenue for viable dispersion-relation investigations of Lorentz violation

  8. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Bharucha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 12MA threshold and a small decay width, <1 MeV. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the A state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 12MA and ii a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  9. Defining indoor heat thresholds for health in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mindy; Carmichael, Catriona; Murray, Virginia; Dengel, Andy; Swainson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    It has been recognised that as outdoor ambient temperatures increase past a particular threshold, so do mortality/morbidity rates. However, similar thresholds for indoor temperatures have not yet been identified. Due to a warming climate, the non-sustainability of air conditioning as a solution, and the desire for more energy-efficient airtight homes, thresholds for indoor temperature should be defined as a public health issue. The aim of this paper is to outline the need for indoor heat thresholds and to establish if they can be identified. Our objectives include: describing how indoor temperature is measured; highlighting threshold measurements and indices; describing adaptation to heat; summary of the risk of susceptible groups to heat; reviewing the current evidence on the link between sleep, heat and health; exploring current heat and health warning systems and thresholds; exploring the built environment and the risk of overheating; and identifying the gaps in current knowledge and research. A global literature search of key databases was conducted using a pre-defined set of keywords to retrieve peer-reviewed and grey literature. The paper will apply the findings to the context of the UK. A summary of 96 articles, reports, government documents and textbooks were analysed and a gap analysis was conducted. Evidence on the effects of indoor heat on health implies that buildings are modifiers of the effect of climate on health outcomes. Personal exposure and place-based heat studies showed the most significant correlations between indoor heat and health outcomes. However, the data are sparse and inconclusive in terms of identifying evidence-based definitions for thresholds. Further research needs to be conducted in order to provide an evidence base for threshold determination. Indoor and outdoor heat are related but are different in terms of language and measurement. Future collaboration between the health and building sectors is needed to develop a common

  10. Handling of BLM abort thresholds in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot Del Busto, E; Holzer, EB; Zamantzas, C; Kruk, G; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Nemcic, M; Orecka, A; Jackson, S; Roderick, C; Skaugen, A

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system (BLM) for the LHC consists of about 3600 Ionization Chambers (IC) located around the ring. Its main purpose is to request a beam abort when the measured losses exceed a certain threshold. The BLM detectors integrate the measured signals in 12 different time intervals (running from 40us to 83.8s) enabling for a different set of abort thresholds depending on the duration of the beam loss. Furthermore, 32 energy levels running from 450GeV to 7TeV account for the fact that the energy density of a particle shower increases with the energy of the primary particle, i.e. the beam energy. Thus, a set of ! 3600 × 12 × 32 = 1.3 · 106 thresholds must be handled. These thresholds are highly critical for the safety of the machine and depend to a large part on human judgment, which cannot be replaced by automatic test procedures. The BLM team has defined well established procedures to compute, set and check new BLM thresholds, in order to avoid and/or find non-conformities due to manipulat...

  11. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Tina; Jemec Auflič, Mateja; Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Komac, Marko; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    thresholds has been verified by the use of several statistical parameters. Equations of thresholds of each specific zone are quite different mainly due to different climate regime and the density of the rain gauge network. In general, all thresholds have good capacity of avoiding false alarms, but at the same time, some missed alarm can be expected from local threshold, while the national threshold will lead to less missed alarm. Beside the setting of a threshold system, directly usable for civil protection purposes at national scale, an additional outcome of this work is possibility of applying methodology to another region, therefore testing its degree of exportability in different geological and climatological settings.

  12. The issue of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.

    1994-01-01

    The states which have not joined the Non-proliferation Treaty nor have undertaken any other internationally binding commitment not to develop or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons are considered a threshold states. Their nuclear status is rendered opaque as a conscious policy. Nuclear threshold status remains a key disarmament issue. For those few states, as India, Pakistan, Israel, who have put themselves in this position, the security returns have been transitory and largely illusory. The cost to them, and to the international community committed to the norm of non-proliferation, has been huge. The decisions which could lead to recovery from the situation in which they find themselves are essentially at their own hands. Whatever assistance the rest of international community is able to extend, it will need to be accompanied by a vital political signal

  13. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  14. Realistic Realizations Of Threshold Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hassan M.

    1987-08-01

    Threshold logic, in which each input is weighted, has many theoretical advantages over the standard gate realization, such as reducing the number of gates, interconnections, and power dissipation. However, because of the difficult synthesis procedure and complicated circuit implementation, their use in the design of digital systems is almost nonexistant. In this study, three methods of NMOS realizations are discussed, and their advantages and shortcomings are explored. Also, the possibility of using the methods to realize multi-valued logic is examined.

  15. Root finding with threshold circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 462, Nov 30 (2012), s. 59-69 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : root finding * threshold circuit * power series Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512008006#

  16. Estimating International Poverty Lines from Comparable National Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Jolliffe, Dean; Prydz, Espen Beer

    2016-01-01

    World Bank's international poverty line of $1.90/day, at 2011 purchasing power parity, is based on a collection of national poverty lines, which were originally used to set the international poverty line of $1.25/day at 2005 purchasing power parity. This paper proposes an approach for estimating a more recent, complete, and comparable collection of national poverty thresholds from reported...

  17. Why GHQ threshold varies from one place to another

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, DP; Oldehinkel, T; Ormel, J

    Background. No convincing explanation has been forthcoming for the variation in best threshold to adopt for the GHQ in different settings. Methods. Data dealing with the GHQ and the CIDI in 15 cities from a recent WHO study was subjected to further analysis. Results. The mean number of CIDI symptoms

  18. Design proposal for door thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolka Radim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panels for openings in structures have always been an essential and integral part of buildings. Their importance in terms of a building´s functionality was not recognised. However, the general view on this issue has changed from focusing on big planar segments and critical details to sub-elements of these structures. This does not only focus on the forms of connecting joints but also on the supporting systems that keep the panels in the right position and ensure they function properly. One of the most strained segments is the threshold structure, especially the entrance door threshold structure. It is the part where substantial defects in construction occur in terms of waterproofing, as well as in the static, thermal and technical functions thereof. In conventional buildings, this problem is solved by pulling the floor structure under the entrance door structure and subsequently covering it with waterproofing material. This system cannot work effectively over the long term so local defects occur. A proposal is put forward to solve this problem by installing a sub-threshold door coupler made of composite materials. The coupler is designed so that its variability complies with the required parameters for most door structures on the European market.

  19. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  20. Cochlear neuropathy and the coding of supra-threshold sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Verhulst, Sarah; Shaheen, Luke; Liberman, M Charles; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses (SSSRs) in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs), paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation (FM), reveal individual differences that correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in SSSRs in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  1. Cochlear Neuropathy and the Coding of Supra-threshold Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds, behavioral ability in paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation, correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in subcortical steady-state responses in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  2. Bedding material affects mechanical thresholds, heat thresholds and texture preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Francie; O’Hara, Crystal L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the bedding type animals are housed on can affect breeding behavior and cage environment. Yet little is known about its effects on evoked behavior responses or non-reflexive behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were housed for two weeks on one of five bedding types: Aspen Sani Chips® (standard bedding for our institute), ALPHA-Dri®, Cellu-Dri™, Pure-o’Cel™ or TEK-Fresh. Mice housed on Aspen exhibited the lowest (most sensitive) mechanical thresholds while those on TEK-Fresh exhibited 3-fold higher thresholds. While bedding type had no effect on responses to punctate or dynamic light touch stimuli, TEK-Fresh housed animals exhibited greater responsiveness in a noxious needle assay, than those housed on the other bedding types. Heat sensitivity was also affected by bedding as animals housed on Aspen exhibited the shortest (most sensitive) latencies to withdrawal whereas those housed on TEK-Fresh had the longest (least sensitive) latencies to response. Slight differences between bedding types were also seen in a moderate cold temperature preference assay. A modified tactile conditioned place preference chamber assay revealed that animals preferred TEK-Fresh to Aspen bedding. Bedding type had no effect in a non-reflexive wheel running assay. In both acute (two day) and chronic (5 week) inflammation induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in the hindpaw, mechanical thresholds were reduced in all groups regardless of bedding type, but TEK-Fresh and Pure-o’Cel™ groups exhibited a greater dynamic range between controls and inflamed cohorts than Aspen housed mice. PMID:26456764

  3. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and 99m Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p 99 mTc. (author)

  4. Assessment of effects of a formula used in the traditional Chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan on the morphologic and osmotic fragility of red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Giani

    Full Text Available Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (BYQW is a combination of some medicinal herbs widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat blood, spleen and stomach disorders. Morphometric analysis and osmotic fragility assay have been used to evaluate changes on membrane integrity of red blood cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an aqueous BYQW extract on the morphology and osmotic fragility of red blood cells. Blood samples were treated with BYQW extract, quantitative/qualitative morphological analysis and osmotic fragility assay were carried out against control groups treated with saline. The data obtained indicated no modification on morphology but osmotic fragility assay suggested a significant (p<0.05 increasing of hemolysis in red blood cells isolated from blood treated with aqueous BYQW extract. In conclusion, the aqueous BYQW extract could affect the membrane integrity decreasing the osmotic resistance but without altering the shape of red blood cells.

  5. Computational analysis of thresholds for magnetophosphenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    In international guidelines, basic restriction limits on the exposure of humans to low-frequency magnetic and electric fields are set with the objective of preventing the generation of phosphenes, visual sensations of flashing light not caused by light. Measured data on magnetophosphenes, i.e. phosphenes caused by a magnetically induced electric field on the retina, are available from volunteer studies. However, there is no simple way for determining the retinal threshold electric field or current density from the measured threshold magnetic flux density. In this study, the experimental field configuration of a previous study, in which phosphenes were generated in volunteers by exposing their heads to a magnetic field between the poles of an electromagnet, is computationally reproduced. The finite-element method is used for determining the induced electric field and current in five different MRI-based anatomical models of the head. The direction of the induced current density on the retina is dominantly radial to the eyeball, and the maximum induced current density is observed at the superior and inferior sides of the retina, which agrees with literature data on the location of magnetophosphenes at the periphery of the visual field. On the basis of computed data, the macroscopic retinal threshold current density for phosphenes at 20 Hz can be estimated as 10 mA m −2 (−20% to  + 30%, depending on the anatomical model); this current density corresponds to an induced eddy current of 14 μA (−20% to  + 10%), and about 20% of this eddy current flows through each eye. The ICNIRP basic restriction limit for the induced electric field in the case of occupational exposure is not exceeded until the magnetic flux density is about two to three times the measured threshold for magnetophosphenes, so the basic restriction limit does not seem to be conservative. However, the reasons for the non-conservativeness are purely technical: removal of the highest 1% of

  6. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides that frequently cause fatalities and large economic damage. Using a variety of information sources, we have compiled a catalogue listing 753 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides in Italy. For each event in the catalogue, the exact or approximate location of the landslide and the time or period of initiation of the slope failure is known, together with information on the rainfall duration D, and the rainfall mean intensity I, that have resulted in the slope failure. The catalogue represents the single largest collection of information on rainfall-induced landslides in Italy, and was exploited to determine the minimum rainfall conditions necessary for landslide occurrence in Italy, and in the Abruzzo Region, central Italy. For the purpose, new national rainfall thresholds for Italy and new regional rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo Region were established, using two independent statistical methods, including a Bayesian inference method and a new Frequentist approach. The two methods proved complementary, with the Bayesian method more suited to analyze small data sets, and the Frequentist method performing better when applied to large data sets. The new regional thresholds for the Abruzzo Region are lower than the new national thresholds for Italy, and lower than the regional thresholds proposed in the literature for the Piedmont and Lombardy Regions in northern Italy, and for the Campania Region in southern Italy. This is important, because it shows that landslides in Italy can be triggered by less severe rainfall conditions than previously recognized. The Frequentist method experimented in this work allows for the definition of multiple minimum rainfall thresholds, each based on a different exceedance probability level. This makes the thresholds suited for the design of probabilistic schemes for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. A scheme based on four

  7. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.

    2000-07-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  8. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data

  9. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchuk, M.I. E-mail: levchuk@dragon.bas-net.by; L' vov, A.I. E-mail: lvov@x4u.lebedev.ru

    2000-07-17

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  10. Dimensional threshold for fracture linkage and hooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Juliette; Chabani, Arezki; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Fracture connectivity in rocks depends on spatial properties of the pattern including length, abundance and orientation. When fractures form a single-strike set, they hardly cross-cut each other and the connectivity is limited. Linkage probability increases with increasing fracture abundance and length as small fractures connect to each other to form longer ones. A process for parallel fracture linkage is the "hooking", where two converging fracture tips mutually deviate and then converge to connect due to the interaction of their crack-tip stresses. Quantifying the processes and conditions for fracture linkage in single-strike fracture sets is crucial to better predicting fluid flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. For 1734 fractures in Permian shales of the Lodève Basin, SE France, we measured geometrical parameters in 2D, characterizing three stages of the hooking process: underlapping, overlapping and linkage. We deciphered the threshold values, shape ratios and limiting conditions to switch from one stage to another one. The hook set up depends on the spacing (S) and fracture length (Lh) with the relation S ≈ 0.15 Lh. Once the hooking is initiated, with the fracture deviation length (L) L ≈ 0.4 Lh, the fractures reaches the linkage stage only when the spacing is reduced to S ≈ 0.02 Lh and the convergence (C) is < 0.1 L. These conditions apply to multi-scale fractures with a shape ratio L/S = 10 and for fracture curvature of 10°-20°.

  11. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit or debit card, including one made over the Internet, the candidate shall provide sufficient... section shall not count toward the threshold amount. (c) Threshold certification by Commission. (1) After...

  12. Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.

    2005-01-01

    From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems

  13. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates 'good' glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from 'bad' glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region

  14. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  15. Counting SET-free sets

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Nate

    2016-01-01

    We consider the following counting problem related to the card game SET: How many $k$-element SET-free sets are there in an $n$-dimensional SET deck? Through a series of algebraic reformulations and reinterpretations, we show the answer to this question satisfies two polynomiality conditions.

  16. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  17. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-10

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  18. Comparison of memory thresholds for planar qudit geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jacob; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Gheorghiu, Vlad

    2017-11-01

    We introduce and analyze a new type of decoding algorithm called general color clustering, based on renormalization group methods, to be used in qudit color codes. The performance of this decoder is analyzed under a generalized bit-flip error model, and is used to obtain the first memory threshold estimates for qudit 6-6-6 color codes. The proposed decoder is compared with similar decoding schemes for qudit surface codes as well as the current leading qubit decoders for both sets of codes. We find that, as with surface codes, clustering performs sub-optimally for qubit color codes, giving a threshold of 5.6 % compared to the 8.0 % obtained through surface projection decoding methods. However, the threshold rate increases by up to 112% for large qudit dimensions, plateauing around 11.9 % . All the analysis is performed using QTop, a new open-source software for simulating and visualizing topological quantum error correcting codes.

  19. On the mixing time of geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mixing time of random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). We specifically study the mixing times of random walks on 2-dimensional GTGs near the connectivity threshold. We provide a set of criteria on the distribution of vertex weights that guarantees that the mixing time is {Theta}(n log n).

  20. Extracting dynamics from threshold-crossing interspike intervals: Possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Sosnovtseva, O. V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate dynamical characteristics of chaotic attractors from sequences of threshold-crossing interspike intervals, and study how the choice of the threshold level (which sets the equation of a secant plane) influences the results of the numerical computations. Under quite genera...

  1. Extracting dynamics from threshold-crossing interspike intervals: possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate dynamical characteristics of chaotic attractors from sequences of threshold-crossing interspike intervals, and study how the choice of the threshold level (which sets the equation of a secant plane) influences the results of the numerical computations. Under quite genera...

  2. Crossing Thresholds: Identifying conceptual transitions in postsecondary teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Wilcox

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on research we conducted to begin the process of identifying threshold concepts in the field of postsecondary teaching. Meyer & Land (2006 propose that within all disciplinary fields there seem to be particular threshold concepts that serve as gateways, opening up new and previously inaccessible ways of thinking and practicing. We developed a series of questions focusing on the “troublesome” and “transformative” characteristics of threshold concepts and asked these questions of several constituent groups, including those who are new to practice and the body of knowledge in postsecondary teaching and those who are already knowledgeable and/or experienced in the field. Based on our interpretation of participants’ responses, we identified four recognized concepts in the field of postsecondary teaching as potential threshold concepts in this field: Assessment for/as learning; Learning-centred teaching; Accommodation for diversity; and, Context-driven practice. Our findings suggest that threshold concepts are relevant to the field of postsecondary teaching. Through this work, we hope to help educational developers and faculty members consider what is involved in learning to teach and developing teaching expertise, and to encourage critical discussion about the teaching development “curriculum” in postsecondary settings. Threshold concepts arise as a field develops and are defined as practitioners and scholars in the field define their field. At this stage, we believe the real value of threshold concepts for postsecondary teaching lies in the discussion that arises in the process of identifying and naming the concepts.

  3. A practical threshold concept for simple and reasonable radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Masahito

    2002-01-01

    A half century ago it was assumed for the purpose of protection that radiation risks are linearly proportional at all levels of dose. Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis has greatly contributed to the minimization of doses received by workers and members of the public, while it has brought about 'radiophobia' and unnecessary over-regulation. Now that the existence of bio-defensive mechanisms such as DNA repair, apoptosis and adaptive response are well recognized, the linearity assumption can be said 'unscientific'. Evidences increasingly imply that there are threshold effects in risk of radiation. A concept of 'practical' thresholds is proposed and the classification of 'stochastic' and 'deterministic' radiation effects should be abandoned. 'Practical' thresholds are dose levels below which induction of detectable radiogenic cancers or hereditary effects are not expected. There seems to be no evidence of deleterious health effects from radiation exposures at the current dose limits (50 mSv/y for workers and 5 mSv/y for members of the public), which have been adopted worldwide in the latter half of the 20th century. Those limits are assumed to have been set below certain 'practical' thresholds. As any workers and members of the public do not gain benefits from being exposed, excepting intentional irradiation for medical purposes, their radiation exposures should be kept below 'practical' thresholds. There is no use of 'justification' and 'optimization' (ALARA) principles, because there are no 'radiation detriments' as far as exposures are maintained below 'practical' thresholds. Accordingly the ethical issue of 'justification' to allow benefit to society to offset radiation detriments to individuals can be resolved. And also the ethical issue of 'optimization' to exchange health or safety for economical gain can be resolved. The ALARA principle should be applied to the probability (risk) of exceeding relevant dose limits instead of applying to normal exposures

  4. Cost-effectiveness thresholds in health care: a bookshelf guide to their meaning and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyer, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    There is misunderstanding about both the meaning and the role of cost-effectiveness thresholds in policy decision making. This article dissects the main issues by use of a bookshelf metaphor. Its main conclusions are as follows: it must be possible to compare interventions in terms of their impact on a common measure of health; mere effectiveness is not a persuasive case for inclusion in public insurance plans; public health advocates need to address issues of relative effectiveness; a 'first best' benchmark or threshold ratio of health gain to expenditure identifies the least effective intervention that should be included in a public insurance plan; the reciprocal of this ratio - the 'first best' cost-effectiveness threshold - will rise or fall as the health budget rises or falls (ceteris paribus); setting thresholds too high or too low costs lives; failure to set any cost-effectiveness threshold at all also involves avertable deaths and morbidity; the threshold cannot be set independently of the health budget; the threshold can be approached from either the demand side or the supply side - the two are equivalent only in a health-maximising equilibrium; the supply-side approach generates an estimate of a 'second best' cost-effectiveness threshold that is higher than the 'first best'; the second best threshold is the one generally to be preferred in decisions about adding or subtracting interventions in an established public insurance package; multiple thresholds are implied by systems having distinct and separable health budgets; disinvestment involves eliminating effective technologies from the insured bundle; differential weighting of beneficiaries' health gains may affect the threshold; anonymity and identity are factors that may affect the interpretation of the threshold; the true opportunity cost of health care in a community, where the effectiveness of interventions is determined by their impact on health, is not to be measured in money - but in health

  5. Hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds under general Markovian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Christopher; Wallman, Joel; Beale, Stefanie; Laflamme, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Quantum error correction is instrumental in protecting quantum systems from noise in quantum computing and communication settings. Pauli channels can be efficiently simulated and threshold values for Pauli error rates under a variety of error-correcting codes have been obtained. However, realistic quantum systems can undergo noise processes that differ significantly from Pauli noise. In this paper, we present an efficient hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds and lowering failure rates of an error-correcting code under general completely positive and trace-preserving (i.e., Markovian) noise. We use our hard decoding algorithm to study the performance of several error-correcting codes under various non-Pauli noise models by computing threshold values and failure rates for these codes. We compare the performance of our hard decoding algorithm to decoders optimized for depolarizing noise and show improvements in thresholds and reductions in failure rates by several orders of magnitude. Our hard decoding algorithm can also be adapted to take advantage of a code's non-Pauli transversal gates to further suppress noise. For example, we show that using the transversal gates of the 5-qubit code allows arbitrary rotations around certain axes to be perfectly corrected. Furthermore, we show that Pauli twirling can increase or decrease the threshold depending upon the code properties. Lastly, we show that even if the physical noise model differs slightly from the hypothesized noise model used to determine an optimized decoder, failure rates can still be reduced by applying our hard decoding algorithm.

  6. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  7. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  8. The influence of contextual factors on healthcare quality improvement initiatives: what works, for whom and in what setting? Protocol for a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Wells, Mary; Maxwell, Margaret; Harris, Fiona M; Anderson, Julie; Gray, Nicola M; Milner, Gill; MacGillivray, Stephen

    2017-08-23

    Context shapes the effectiveness of knowledge implementation and influences health improvement. Successful healthcare quality improvement (QI) initiatives frequently fail to transfer to different settings, with local contextual factors often cited as the cause. Understanding and overcoming contextual barriers is therefore crucial to implementing effective improvement; yet context is still poorly understood. There is a paucity of information on the mechanisms underlying how and why QI projects succeed or fail in given settings. A realist review of empirical studies of healthcare QI initiatives will be undertaken to examine the influence and impact of contextual factors on quality improvement in healthcare settings and explore whether QI initiatives can work in all contexts. The review will explore which contextual factors are important, and how, why, when and for whom they are important, within varied settings. The dynamic nature of context and change over time will be explored by examining which aspects of context impact at key points in the improvement trajectory. The review will also consider the influence of context on improvement outcomes (provider- and patient-level), spread and sustainability. The review process will follow five iterative steps: (1) clarify scope, (2) search for evidence, (3) appraise primary studies and extract data, (4) synthesise evidence and draw conclusions and (5) disseminate findings. The reviewers will consult with experts and stakeholders in the early stages to focus the review and develop a programme theory consisting of explanatory 'context-mechanism-outcome' configurations. Searches for primary evidence will be conducted iteratively. Data will be extracted and tested against the programme theory. A review advisory group will oversee the review process. Review findings will follow RAMESES guidelines and will be disseminated via a report, presentations and peer-reviewed publications. The review will update and consolidate evidence

  9. The cost-effectiveness analysis of JinQi Jiangtang tablets for the treatment on prediabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Liping; Shang, Hongcai; Ren, Ming; Wang, Yue; Huo, Da; Lei, Xiang; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Jingbo

    2015-11-03

    reduced the incidence of diabetes mellitus and enhanced reversion rate. compared with the control group (p 0.05); finally the compliance of participants between the two groups had no significant difference. The cost-effectiveness analysis outcomes:in the intervention period of 12 months,on the aspect of reversion rate, the treatment group had better economic advantage by using cost-effectiveness ratio and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio;on the aspect of the incidence of diabetes, the control group had better economic advantage by using cost-effectiveness ratio and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; in the follow-up period of 24 months, on the aspect of reversion rate, the treatment group had better economic advantage by using cost-effectiveness ratio and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, on the aspect of the incidence of diabetes, the control group had better economic advantage by using cost-effectivenes ratio and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.At the same time, these outcomes remained the same by sensitivity analysis. Assuming that prices and resident incomes rose 5%, the sensitiveness analysis shows that the two group affected by the paremeters changed little. The importance and effectiveness of lifestyle education and JinQi Jiangtang tablets was proven. In both the intervention period and follow-up, JinQi Jiangtang tablets combined with lifestyle education had a greater cost advantage effect than the lifestyle education alone on the reversion rate; the lifestyle education had a greater cost advantage effect than the JinQi Jiangtang tablets combined with lifestyle education on the incidence of diabetes. Chinese Clinical Trials ChiCTR-TRC-09000401 ) , registered on 25 May 2009.

  10. Treatment of Goiter with Traditional Chinese Medicine Regimen Xing Qi Hua Ying Tang: A Clinical Study on 72 Patients with Multinodular and Diffuse Goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Li; Lu, Bo

    2018-04-01

    The present work aimed to further explore the therapeutic potential of Xing Qi Hua Ying Tang (XQHYT) by conducting a systemic clinical study in patients with goiter. Seventy-two patients with either multinodular or diffuse goiter were enrolled and randomly assigned into treatment group receiving XQHYT (n = 36) and control group receiving Hai Zao Yu Hu Tang (n = 36). Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Shanxi. Patients were diagnosed multinodular goiter or diffuse goiter resulting from Qi stagnation. All patients took the extract twice a day (100 mL each time) for two courses of treatment, of which a single course lasted for 3 months. Before the treatment was commenced and after the completion of the treatment, general body checks, thyroid function test, and goiter size examination were performed. Scoring of the clinical symptoms using Chinese medicine symptomatology was also done. The symptom score of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group (treatment group, 8.26 ± 2.62; control group, 10.02 ± 2.62; p < 0.05). Substantial reduction in goiter size was seen in 82.3% of XQHYT-treated patients, whereas in the control group only 67.7% of patients exhibited constricted goiter. When assessed by both the Chinese medicine criteria and goiter size, the overall effective rate of the treatment group was 91.2%, whereas that of the control group was only 67.7%. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). XQHYT did not affect the normal functions of liver, kidney, and heart. For both groups of patients, their levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free T4 and free T3 were normal before the treatment, and were not affected by the treatment. XQHYT was shown to be a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of goiter. The herbal regimen ameliorated clinical symptoms of patients that were accompanied with reduction in the size of goiter.

  11. Measurements of VOC fluxes by Eddy-covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS over a mature wheat crop near Paris: Evaluation of data quality and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Pauline; Loubet, Benjamin; Ciuraru, Raluca; Lafouge, Florence; Zurfluh, Olivier; Gonzaga-Gomez, Lais; Fanucci, Olivier; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Decuq, Céline; Gros, Valérie; Sarda, Roland; Zannoni, Nora

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes exchanged by terrestrial ecosystems is of large interest because of their influence on the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere including aerosols and oxidants. Latest developments in the techniques for detecting, identifying and measuring VOC fluxes have considerably improved the abilities to get reliable estimates. Among these, the eddy-covariance (EC) methodology constitutes the most direct approach, and relies on both well-established principles (Aubinet et al. 2000) and a sound continuously worldwide improving experience. The combination of the EC methodology with the latest proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) device, the PTR-Qi-TOF-MS, which allows the identification and quantification of more than 500 VOC at high frequency, now provides a very powerful and precise tool for an accurate quantification of VOC fluxes on various types of terrestrial ecosystems. The complexity of the whole methodology however demands that several data quality requirements are fulfilled. VOC fluxes were measured by EC with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS (national instrument within the ANAEE-France framework) for one month and a half over a mature wheat crop near Paris (FR-GRI ICOS site). Most important emissions (by descending order) were observed from detected compounds with mass-over-charge (m/z) ratios of 33.033 (methanol), 45.033 (acetaldehyde), 93.033 (not identified yet), 59.049 (acetone), and 63.026 (dimethyl sulfide or DMS). Emissions from higher-mass compounds, which might be due to pesticide applications at the beginning of our observation period, were also detected. Some compounds were also seen to deposit (e.g. m/z 47.013, 71.085, 75.044, 83.05) while others exhibited bidirectional fluxes (e.g. m/z 57.07, 69.07). Before analyzing VOC flux responses to meteorological and crop development drivers, a data quality check was performed which included (i) uncertainty analysis of mass and concentration

  12. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Santos Giani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and 99mTc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P and blood cells (BC were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (pBuzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong é uma fórmula utilizada na Medicina Tradicional Chinesa para tratamento de distúrbios nos sistemas digestório e circulatório. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são usados na medicina nuclear. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do extrato de Buzhong na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações do extrato de Buzhong e a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram separados, frações solúveis e insolúveis do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram isoladas. A radioatividade nos constituintes sangüíneos foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade incorporada (%ATI, determinada. Extrato de Buzhong nas maiores concentrações utilizadas altera significativamente (p<0.05 a %ATI nos constituintes sangüíneos. Substâncias presentes no extrato de Buzhong poderiam alterar a membrana celular e/ou gerar radicais livres, que têm propriedades oxidantes, modificando a marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com

  13. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  14. Two new eigenvalue localization sets for tensors and theirs applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianxing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than those presented by Qi (J. Symbolic Comput., 2005, 40, 1302-1324 and Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl., 2014, 21, 39-50. As an application, a weaker checkable sufficient condition for the positive (semi-definiteness of an even-order real symmetric tensor is obtained. Meanwhile, an S-type E-eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than that presented by Wang et al. (Discrete Cont. Dyn.-B, 2017, 22(1, 187-198. As an application, an S-type upper bound for the Z-spectral radius of weakly symmetric nonnegative tensors is obtained. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results.

  15. Threshold behavior in electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghpour, H.R.; Greene, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Ever since the classic work of Wannier in 1953, the process of treating two threshold electrons in the continuum of a positively charged ion has been an active field of study. The authors have developed a treatment motivated by the physics below the double ionization threshold. By modeling the double ionization as a series of Landau-Zener transitions, they obtain an analytical formulation of the absolute threshold probability which has a leading power law behavior, akin to Wannier's law. Some of the noteworthy aspects of this derivation are that the derivation can be conveniently continued below threshold giving rise to a open-quotes cuspclose quotes at threshold, and that on both sides of the threshold, absolute values of the cross sections are obtained

  16. A numerical study of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.S.; Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Hategan, C.

    1979-01-01

    There are some experimental evidences of charged particle threshold states. On the statistical background of levels, some simple structures were observed in excitation spectrum. They occur near the coulombian threshold and have a large reduced width for the decay in the threshold channel. These states were identified as charged cluster threshold states. Such threshold states were observed in sup(15,16,17,18)O, sup(18,19)F, sup(19,20)Ne, sup(24)Mg, sup(32)S. The types of clusters involved were d, t, 3 He, α and even 12 C. They were observed in heavy-ions transfer reactions in the residual nucleus as strong excited levels. The charged particle threshold states occur as simple structures at high excitation energy. They could be interesting both from nuclear structure as well as nuclear reaction mechanism point of view. They could be excited as simple structures both in compound and residual nucleus. (author)

  17. L-H power threshold studies with tungsten/carbon divertor on the EAST tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Xu, G. S.; Gao, W.

    2016-01-01

    The power threshold for low (L) to high (H) confinement mode transition achieved by radio-frequency heating and molybdenum first wall with lithium coating has been experimentally investigated on the EAST tokamak for two sets of divertor geometries and materials: tungsten/carbon divertor and full...... carbon divertor. For both sets of divertors, the power threshold was found to decrease with gradual accumulation of the lithium wall coating, suggesting the important role played by the low Z impurities and/or the edge neutral density on the L-H power threshold. When operating in the upper single null...

  18. Iran: the next nuclear threshold state?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A nuclear threshold state is one that could quickly operationalize its peaceful nuclear program into one capable of producing a nuclear weapon. This thesis compares two known threshold states, Japan and Brazil, with Iran to determine if the Islamic Republic could also be labeled a threshold state. Furthermore, it highlights the implications such a status could have on U.S. nonproliferation policy. Although Iran's nuclear program is mir...

  19. Dynamical thresholds for complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    It is our purpose here to study the effect of nuclear dissipation and shape parametrization on dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. This is done by solving numerically classical equations of motion for head-on collisions to determine whether the dynamical trajectory in a multidimensional deformation space passes inside the fission saddle point and forms a compound nucleus, or whether it passes outside the fission saddle point and reseparates in a fast-fission or deep-inelastic reaction. Specifying the nuclear shape in terms of smoothly joined portions of three quadratic surfaces of revolution, we take into account three symmetric deformation coordinates. However, in some cases we reduce the number of coordinates to two by requiring the ends of the fusing system to be spherical in shape. The nuclear potential energy of deformation is determined in terms of a Coulomb energy and a double volume energy of a Yukawa-plus-exponential folding function. The collective kinetic energy is calculated for incompressible, nearly irrotational flow by means of the Werner-Wheeler approximation. Four possibilities are studied for the transfer of collective kinetic energy into internal single-particle excitation energy: zero dissipation, ordinary two body viscosity, one-body wall-formula dissipation, and one-body wall-and-window dissipation

  20. Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced rat mesangial cell proliferation by suppressing the Wnt pathway and TGF-β1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Sun, Xueyan; Zhan, Yongli; Liu, Huijie; Wen, Yumin; Mao, Huimin; Dong, X I; Li, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum (YQ-S) on rat mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and to investigate the underlying mechanism. MCs were divided into the control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, YQ-S and fosinopril-containing serum (For-S) groups, and cultured for 48 h. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of MCs. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were conducted to detect the expression levels of Wnt4, β-catenin and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in MCs. The results indicated that YQ-S inhibited LPS-induced MC proliferation. The Wnt4 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression levels were reduced in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, the Wnt4, β-catenin and TGF-β1 protein expression levels were suppressed in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Therefore, YQ-S appears to inhibit MC proliferation, and its mechanism may involve the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and downregulation of TGF-β1 expression.

  1. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: tgiani@gmail.com; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI in blood constituents. Substances present in the Buzhong extract could alter the cellular membrane and/or generation of free radicals that have oxidant properties modifying the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc. (author)

  2. Effects of Qi-Fang-Xi-Bi-Granules on Cartilage Morphology and C/ebpα Promoter Methylation in Rats with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of Qi-Fang-Xi-Bi-Granules (QFXBGs on cartilage morphology and methylation of C/ebpα (CCAAT/enhancer binding proteinα at the promoter region. Methods. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA modeling was performed in rats in accordance with Hulth’s method, and control group received sham operation. Eight weeks after KOA modeling, the rats in the KOA modeling group were further divided into 6 groups. Each group was given the appropriate drug. After 8 weeks, half of the rats were used for Micro-CT scan, HE staining, ABH/OG staining, immunohistochemistry, and TUNNEL staining of the knee joint tissue, and the other half were used to examine C/ebpα promoter methylation. Results. The three dose groups of QFXBGs all showed lower degrees of surface fissures and flaking, thicker cartilage layer, and restored chondrocyte and subchondral bone morphology, compared with the KOA model group. C/ebpα-22 promoter methylation levels in the high- and low-dose groups were significantly higher than that in the KOA modeling group (p<0.05, while C/ebpα-2 promoter methylation level in the medium-dose group was significantly higher than that in the KOA modeling group (p<0.05. Conclusions. QFXBGs may alleviate articular cartilage degeneration through promoting C/ebpα-2 or C/ebpα-22 methylation at specific promoter sites.

  3. Qi-Dong-Huo-Xue-Yin Inhibits Inflammation in Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Toll-Like Receptor 4/Caveolin-1 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a critical illness with no current effective treatment. Caveolin-1 indirectly activates inflammation-associated signaling pathways by inhibiting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. This induces an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, which are involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. The compound Chinese prescription Qi-Dong-Huo-Xue-Yin (QDHXY is efficacious for ALI treatment via an anti-inflammatory effect; however, the exact underlying mechanism is unknown. Therefore, we explored the protective effect of QDHXY against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced ALI in mice. Histopathological changes in mouse lung tissues were studied. Furthermore, alterations in the serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were investigated. The levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-1β, and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured. Additionally, the expression levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, caveolin-1, and eNOS were assessed. QDHXY significantly reduced lung infiltration with inflammatory cells and the production of serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, caveolin-1, and MyD88 but not eNOS. These indicate that QDHXY significantly improved the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, possibly by inhibiting the caveolin-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, QDHXY may be a potential treatment for ALI.

  4. A ginástica terapêutica e preventiva chinesa Lian Gong/Qi Gong como um dos instrumentos na prevenção e reabilitação da LER/DORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutembergue Livramento

    Full Text Available Este ensaio traz elementos da medicina ocidental, da medicina tradicional chinesa e da sociologia do trabalho para reflexão sobre o Qi Gong - exercícios terapêuticos, um dos pilares da Medicina Tradicional Chinesa (MTC - como importante meio de prevenção da LER/DORT e recuperação da saúde. Considerando a natureza interdisciplinar e diversos níveis de prevenção, aborda aspectos sociológicos sobre as condições de trabalho frequentemente relacionadas com este tipo de adoecimento e categorias de trabalhadores mais acometidos. Focaliza aspectos médicos sobre a LER/DORT e as Síndromes de Bloqueio na MTC, estabelecendo canais de articulação e contribuição entre esses campos de conhecimento sobre a saúde humana. Ressalta o Qi Gong como importante prática terapêutica e preventiva na MTC e sua adequação à LER/DORT. No âmbito do Qi Gong, focaliza o Lian Gong Shi Ba Fa - Lian Gong em 18 Terapias, já amplamente experimentado na China e divulgado, inclusive no Brasil, para tratar e prevenir síndromes de dor em região cervical, ombros, membros superiores, membros inferiores e região lombar. À guisa de conclusão, são apresentadas algumas reflexões sobre a propriedade e a importância do Qi Gong na reabilitação e na prevenção da LER/DORT.

  5. A quality improvement project using statistical process control methods for type 2 diabetes control in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, David; Douglas, Kate; Goldberg, Vera; Martinez, Boris; Garcia, Pablo; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is a key strategy for improving diabetes care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study reports on a diabetes QI project in rural Guatemala whose primary aim was to improve glycemic control of a panel of adult diabetes patients. Formative research suggested multiple areas for programmatic improvement in ambulatory diabetes care. This project utilized the Model for Improvement and Agile Global Health, our organization's complementary healthcare implementation framework. A bundle of improvement activities were implemented at the home, clinic and institutional level. Control charts of mean hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and proportion of patients meeting target HbA1C showed improvement as special cause variation was identified 3 months after the intervention began. Control charts for secondary process measures offered insights into the value of different components of the intervention. Intensity of home-based diabetes education emerged as an important driver of panel glycemic control. Diabetes QI work is feasible in resource-limited settings in LMICs and can improve glycemic control. Statistical process control charts are a promising methodology for use with panels or registries of diabetes patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Pathways to extinction: beyond the error threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrubia, Susanna C; Domingo, Esteban; Lázaro, Ester

    2010-06-27

    Since the introduction of the quasispecies and the error catastrophe concepts for molecular evolution by Eigen and their subsequent application to viral populations, increased mutagenesis has become a common strategy to cause the extinction of viral infectivity. Nevertheless, the high complexity of virus populations has shown that viral extinction can occur through several other pathways apart from crossing an error threshold. Increases in the mutation rate enhance the appearance of defective forms and promote the selection of mechanisms that are able to counteract the accelerated appearance of mutations. Current models of viral evolution take into account more realistic scenarios that consider compensatory and lethal mutations, a highly redundant genotype-to-phenotype map, rough fitness landscapes relating phenotype and fitness, and where phenotype is described as a set of interdependent traits. Further, viral populations cannot be understood without specifying the characteristics of the environment where they evolve and adapt. Altogether, it turns out that the pathways through which viral quasispecies go extinct are multiple and diverse.

  7. No-threshold dose-response curves for nongenotoxic chemicals: Findings and applications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that no threshold exists when estradiol acts through the same mechanism as an active endogenous estrogen. A Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation accounting for response saturation, background effects, and endogenous estrogen level fit a turtle sex-reversal data set with no threshold and estimated the endogenous dose. Additionally, 31 diverse literature dose-response data sets were analyzed by adding a term for nonhormonal background; good fits were obtained but endogenous dose estimations were not significant due to low resolving power. No thresholds were observed. Data sets were plotted using a normalized MM equation; all 178 data points were accommodated on a single graph. Response rates from ∼1% to >95% were well fit. The findings contradict the threshold assumption and low-dose safety. Calculating risk and assuming additivity of effects from multiple chemicals acting through the same mechanism rather than assuming a safe dose for nonthresholded curves is appropriate

  8. A Fast Method for Measuring Psychophysical Thresholds Across the Cochlear Implant Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Bierer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid threshold measurement procedure, based on Bekesy tracking, is proposed and evaluated for use with cochlear implants (CIs. Fifteen postlingually deafened adult CI users participated. Absolute thresholds for 200-ms trains of biphasic pulses were measured using the new tracking procedure and were compared with thresholds obtained with a traditional forced-choice adaptive procedure under both monopolar and quadrupolar stimulation. Virtual spectral sweeps across the electrode array were implemented in the tracking procedure via current steering, which divides the current between two adjacent electrodes and varies the proportion of current directed to each electrode. Overall, no systematic differences were found between threshold estimates with the new channel sweep procedure and estimates using the adaptive forced-choice procedure. Test–retest reliability for the thresholds from the sweep procedure was somewhat poorer than for thresholds from the forced-choice procedure. However, the new method was about 4 times faster for the same number of repetitions. Overall the reliability and speed of the new tracking procedure provides it with the potential to estimate thresholds in a clinical setting. Rapid methods for estimating thresholds could be of particular clinical importance in combination with focused stimulation techniques that result in larger threshold variations between electrodes.

  9. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Elena; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M; Lecumberri, Pablo; Gómez, Marisol; Pagola, Miguel; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical 18 F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools. (paper)

  10. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  11. Time-efficient multidimensional threshold tracking method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Kowalewski, Borys; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, adaptive methods have been used to reduce the time it takes to estimate psychoacoustic thresholds. However, even with adaptive methods, there are many cases where the testing time is too long to be clinically feasible, particularly when estimating thresholds as a function of anothe...

  12. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention... process exceeds the threshold. (b) For the purposes of determining whether more than a threshold quantity... portion of the process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance in the...

  13. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  14. Summary of DOE threshold limits efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste in DOE sanitary landfills. Waste above a threshold level could be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. After extensive review of a draft threshold guidance document in 1985, a second draft threshold background document was produced in March 1986. The second draft included a preliminary cost-benefit analysis and quality assurance considerations. The review of the second draft has been completed. Final changes to be incorporated include an in-depth cost-benefit analysis of two example sites and recommendations of how to further pursue (i.e. employ) the concept of threshold quantities within the DOE. 3 references

  15. Viabilidade da estimativa de QI a partir dos subtestes Vocabulário e Cubos da WAIS-III Viability of IQ estimates based on Vocabulary and Block Design WAIS-III subtests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a viabilidade de estimar o Quociente de Inteligência (QI de adultos por meio de duas estratégias que utilizam uma forma curta constituída pelos subtestes Vocabulário e Cubos da Escala Wechsler de Inteligência para Adultos (WAIS-III. Participaram do estudo 77 homens e mulheres, com idade média de 39,1 anos (dp=13,4. Foi aplicada a WAIS-III e questionários para cumprir os critérios de inclusão dos participantes sem prejuízos neurológicos e psiquiátricos. Para avaliar a concordância entre as duas estratégias de estimar o QI, utilizou-se o método estatístico proposto por Bland e Altman. Como resultado, encontrou-se que as estimativas de QI geradas pelas duas estratégias apresentam concordância com a medida do QI realizada pela aplicação da escala completa apenas em alguns dos casos avaliados. Sugere-se cautela na utilização dessas estratégias para estimar o QI de adultos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of estimating the Intelligence Quotient (IQ in adults based on two strategies that use Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III. Seventy-seven men and women participated of the study, with mean age of 39.1 (sd=13.4. WAIS-III subtests were administered and questionnaires were used to verify inclusion criteria for participants without neurological or psychiatric impairments. A statistical method proposed by Bland and Altman was used to evaluate the agreement between both strategies to estimate IQ. Results suggest that IQ estimates derived from both strategies only agree with the IQ derived from the full battery in a few cases of the sample. Considering these findings, caution is suggested when using these strategies to estimate adults' IQ.

  16. [Effect of medicines for activating blood and reinforcing Qi on angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium edge area of acute myocardial infarction model in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Wen-Hua; Yin, Shen-Hua; Tang, De-Cai; Li, Bing-Bing

    2014-03-01

    To study the effect of medicines for activating blood and reinforcing Qi on the number of new micro-vessels and the protein expressions of VEGF and bFGF in the infarcted myocardium edge area of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in rats. The AMI model of rats was established. After the successful model establishment, rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, the model group, the Danshen-Huangqi (1 : 2) group, the Danshen-Huangqi (1 : 1) group, the Chuanxiong-Huangqi (1 : 2) group, the Danshen group, the Chuanxiong group, the Chishao group and the Shexiang Baoxin pill group, with five rats in each group. Rats in each medicated group were orally administered with drugs as per 13.5 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) once everyday for three weeks. The immunohistochemical SP method was adopted to detect the expression of vWF in myocardial tissues, and count the number of micro-vessels (MVC). The protein expression of VEGF and bFGF in myocardial tissues were determined by Western blot. The new micro-vessels stained by vWF factor could be found in the infarcted myocardium edge area of the sham-operated group, the model group and all of medicated groups. The sham-operated group show unobvious new micro-vessels in myocardial tissues. A small amount of new micro-vessels could be seen in the infarcted myocardium edge area of the model group. Whereas a larger number of micro-vessels could be seen in the infarcted myocardium edge area of all of medicated groups. The differences between the sham-operated group and the model group had statistical significance (P effect in promoting angiogenesis. Their mechanism for promoting angiogenesis may be related to the improvement of the protein expressions of VEGF and bFGF, so as to increase the contents of VEGF and bFGF and promote the angiogenesis of new vessels.

  17. Threshold-adaptive canny operator based on cross-zero points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boqi; Zhang, Xiuhua; Hong, Hanyu

    2018-03-01

    Canny edge detection[1] is a technique to extract useful structural information from different vision objects and dramatically reduce the amount of data to be processed. It has been widely applied in various computer vision systems. There are two thresholds have to be settled before the edge is segregated from background. Usually, by the experience of developers, two static values are set as the thresholds[2]. In this paper, a novel automatic thresholding method is proposed. The relation between the thresholds and Cross-zero Points is analyzed, and an interpolation function is deduced to determine the thresholds. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method and advantageous for stable edge detection at changing illumination.

  18. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  19. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  20. Photoproduction of the φ(1020) near threshold in CLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedeschi, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross section for the photoproduction of the φ (1020) near threshold (E γ = 1.57GeV) is predicted to be sensitive to production mechanisms other than diffraction. However, the existing low energy data is of limited statistics and kinematical coverage. Complete measurements of φ meson production on the proton have been performed at The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility using a liquid hydrogen target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The φ was identified by missing mass using a proton and positive kaon detected by CLAS in coincidence with an electron in the photon tagger. The energy of the tagged, bremsstrahlung photons ranged from φ-threshold to 2.4 GeV. A description of the data set and the differential cross section for (E γ = 2.0 GeV) will be presented and compared with present theoretical calculations. (author)

  1. Multidimensional epidemic thresholds in diffusion processes over interdependent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Siyari, Payam; Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We propose a new concept of multidimensional epidemic threshold for interdependent networks. •We analytically derive and numerically illustrate the conditions for multilayer epidemics. •We study the evolution of infection density and diffusion dynamics. -- Abstract: Several systems can be modeled as sets of interdependent networks where each network contains distinct nodes. Diffusion processes like the spreading of a disease or the propagation of information constitute fundamental phenomena occurring over such coupled networks. In this paper we propose a new concept of multidimensional epidemic threshold characterizing diffusion processes over interdependent networks, allowing different diffusion rates on the different networks and arbitrary degree distributions. We analytically derive and numerically illustrate the conditions for multilayer epidemics, i.e., the appearance of a giant connected component spanning all the networks. Furthermore, we study the evolution of infection density and diffusion dynamics with extensive simulation experiments on synthetic and real networks

  2. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  3. Reaction thresholds in doubly special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, Daniel; Major, Seth; Hinteleitner, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Two theories of special relativity with an additional invariant scale, 'doubly special relativity', are tested with calculations of particle process kinematics. Using the Judes-Visser modified conservation laws, thresholds are studied in both theories. In contrast with some linear approximations, which allow for particle processes forbidden in special relativity, both the Amelino-Camelia and Magueijo-Smolin frameworks allow no additional processes. To first order, the Amelino-Camelia framework thresholds are lowered and the Magueijo-Smolin framework thresholds may be raised or lowered

  4. Interword and intraword pause threshold in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Florence; Pellegrino, François; Jisa, Harriet; Fayol, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g., scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen (©) (Chesnet and Alamargot, 2005). The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors.

  5. Nonclassicality threshold for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertesi, Tamas; Pal, Karoly F.

    2011-01-01

    The nonclassical properties of the noisy three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, ρ v =v|GHZ> v is nonclassical for the parameter range 1/2< v≤1. It has been posed whether additional settings would allow to lower the threshold visibility. Here we report on Bell inequalities giving a threshold value smaller than v=1/2. This rules out the possibility of a local hidden variable model in the limit of v=1/2. In particular, the lowest threshold visibility we found is v=0.496 057, attainable with 5x5x5 settings, whereas the most economical one in number of settings corresponds to 3x3x4 settings. The method which enabled us to obtain these results, and in particular the about 10 000 tight Bell inequalities giving v<1/2, are also discussed in detail.

  6. A threshold auto-adjustment algorithm of feature points extraction based on grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zili; Li, Jun; Dong, Gaojie

    2018-02-01

    When dealing with high-resolution digital images, detection of feature points is usually the very first important step. Valid feature points depend on the threshold. If the threshold is too low, plenty of feature points will be detected, and they may be aggregated in the rich texture regions, which consequently not only affects the speed of feature description, but also aggravates the burden of following processing; if the threshold is set high, the feature points in poor texture area will lack. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a threshold auto-adjustment method of feature extraction based on grid. By dividing the image into numbers of grid, threshold is set in every local grid for extracting the feature points. When the number of feature points does not meet the threshold requirement, the threshold will be adjusted automatically to change the final number of feature points The experimental results show that feature points produced by our method is more uniform and representative, which avoids the aggregation of feature points and greatly reduces the complexity of following work.

  7. SART-Type Half-Threshold Filtering Approach for CT Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    The [Formula: see text] regularization problem has been widely used to solve the sparsity constrained problems. To enhance the sparsity constraint for better imaging performance, a promising direction is to use the [Formula: see text] norm (0 < p < 1) and solve the [Formula: see text] minimization problem. Very recently, Xu et al. developed an analytic solution for the [Formula: see text] regularization via an iterative thresholding operation, which is also referred to as half-threshold filtering. In this paper, we design a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART)-type half-threshold filtering framework to solve the computed tomography (CT) reconstruction problem. In the medical imaging filed, the discrete gradient transform (DGT) is widely used to define the sparsity. However, the DGT is noninvertible and it cannot be applied to half-threshold filtering for CT reconstruction. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed SART-type half-threshold filtering framework, an emphasis of this paper is to construct a pseudoinverse transforms for DGT. The proposed algorithms are evaluated with numerical and physical phantom data sets. Our results show that the SART-type half-threshold filtering algorithms have great potential to improve the reconstructed image quality from few and noisy projections. They are complementary to the counterparts of the state-of-the-art soft-threshold filtering and hard-threshold filtering.

  8. Using ecological thresholds to inform resource management: current options and future possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M Foley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the face of growing human impacts on ecosystems, scientists and managers recognize the need to better understand thresholds and nonlinear dynamics in ecological systems to help set management targets. However, our understanding of the factors that drive threshold dynamics, and when and how rapidly thresholds will be crossed is currently limited in many systems. In spite of these limitations, there are approaches available to practitioners today—including ecosystem monitoring, statistical methods to identify thresholds and indicators, and threshold-based adaptive management—that can be used to help avoid ecological thresholds or restore systems that have crossed them. We briefly review the current state of knowledge and then use real-world examples to demonstrate how resource managers can use available approaches to avoid crossing ecological thresholds. We also highlight new tools and indicators being developed that have the potential to enhance our ability to detect change, predict when a system is approaching an ecological threshold, or restore systems that have already crossed a tipping point.

  9. Approach to DOE threshold guidance limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.D.; Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for less restrictive criteria governing disposal of extremely low-level radioactive waste has long been recognized. The Low-Level Waste Management Program has been directed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to aid in the development of a threshold guidance limit for DOE low-level waste facilities. Project objectives are concernd with the definition of a threshold limit dose and pathway analysis of radionuclide transport within selected exposure scenarios at DOE sites. Results of the pathway analysis will be used to determine waste radionuclide concentration guidelines that meet the defined threshold limit dose. Methods of measurement and verification of concentration limits round out the project's goals. Work on defining a threshold limit dose is nearing completion. Pathway analysis of sanitary landfill operations at the Savannah River Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is in progress using the DOSTOMAN computer code. Concentration limit calculations and determination of implementation procedures shall follow completion of the pathways work. 4 references

  10. Pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, I.T.; Jeong, M.T.

    1989-08-01

    Electric dipole amplitudes of pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold have been calculated in the framework of the chiral bag model. Our results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data

  11. Effect of dissipation on dynamical fusion thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierk, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of dynamical thresholds to fusion in heavy nuclei (A greater than or equal to 200) due to the nature of the potential-energy surface is shown. These thresholds exist even in the absence of dissipative forces, due to the coupling between the various collective deformation degrees of freedom. Using a macroscopic model of nuclear shape dynamics, It is shown how three different suggested dissipation mechanisms increase by varying amounts the excitation energy over the one-dimensional barrier required to cause compound-nucleus formation. The recently introduced surface-plus-window dissipation may give a reasonable representation of experimental data on fusion thresholds, in addition to properly describing fission-fragment kinetic energies and isoscalar giant multipole widths. Scaling of threshold results to asymmetric systems is discussed. 48 refs., 10 figs

  12. 40 CFR 98.411 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.411 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of industrial greenhouse gases who meets the requirements of § 98.2(a)(4) must report GHG...

  13. Melanin microcavitation threshold in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Wharmby, Andrew W.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2014-02-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of isolated bovine and porcine melanosomes were determined using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the NIR (1000 - 1319 nm) wavelength regime. Average fluence thresholds for microcavitation increased non-linearly with increasing wavelength. Average fluence thresholds were also measured for 10-ns pulses at 532 nm, and found to be comparable to visible ns pulse values published in previous reports. Fluence thresholds were used to calculate melanosome absorption coefficients, which decreased with increasing wavelength. This trend was found to be comparable to the decrease in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer absorption coefficients reported over the same wavelength region. Estimated corneal total intraocular energy (TIE) values were determined and compared to the current and proposed maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe exposure levels. Results from this study support the proposed changes to the MPE levels.

  14. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  15. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  16. Recent progress in understanding climate thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Good, Peter; Bamber, Jonathan; Halladay, Kate; Harper, Anna B.; Jackson, Laura C.; Kay, Gillian; Kruijt, Bart; Lowe, Jason A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Ridley, Jeff; Srokosz, Meric; Turley, Carol; Williamson, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the

  17. Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Threshold Sharing Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Theodore M; Wang, Chenxi; Wing, Jeannette M

    2002-01-01

    .... Our protocol guards against dynamic adversaries. We observe that existing protocols either cannot be readily extended to allow redistribution between different threshold schemes, or have vulnerabilities that allow faulty old shareholders...

  18. Thresholding projection estimators in functional linear models

    OpenAIRE

    Cardot, Hervé; Johannes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the regression function in functional linear regression models by proposing a new type of projection estimators which combine dimension reduction and thresholding. The introduction of a threshold rule allows to get consistency under broad assumptions as well as minimax rates of convergence under additional regularity hypotheses. We also consider the particular case of Sobolev spaces generated by the trigonometric basis which permits to get easily mean squ...

  19. Noise thresholds for optical quantum computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Christopher M; Haselgrove, Henry L; Nielsen, Michael A

    2006-01-20

    In this Letter we numerically investigate the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computing. We allow both photon loss noise and depolarizing noise (as a general proxy for all local noise), and obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible for photon loss probabilities <3 x 10(-3), and for depolarization probabilities <10(-4).

  20. Design of Threshold Controller Based Chaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, I. Raja; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    We propose a very simple implementation of a second-order nonautonomous chaotic oscillator, using a threshold controller as the only source of nonlinearity. We demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of our design through numerical and experimental results. Further, we show that this approach...... of using a threshold controller as a nonlinear element, can be extended to obtain autonomous and multiscroll chaotic attractor circuits as well....

  1. Self-Tuning Threshold Method for Real-Time Gait Phase Detection Based on Ground Contact Forces Using FSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology for detecting the gait phase of human walking on level ground. The previous threshold method (TM sets a threshold to divide the ground contact forces (GCFs into on-ground and off-ground states. However, the previous methods for gait phase detection demonstrate no adaptability to different people and different walking speeds. Therefore, this paper presents a self-tuning triple threshold algorithm (STTTA that calculates adjustable thresholds to adapt to human walking. Two force sensitive resistors (FSRs were placed on the ball and heel to measure GCFs. Three thresholds (i.e., high-threshold, middle-threshold andlow-threshold were used to search out the maximum and minimum GCFs for the self-adjustments of thresholds. The high-threshold was the main threshold used to divide the GCFs into on-ground and off-ground statuses. Then, the gait phases were obtained through the gait phase detection algorithm (GPDA, which provides the rules that determine calculations for STTTA. Finally, the STTTA reliability is determined by comparing the results between STTTA and Mariani method referenced as the timing analysis module (TAM and Lopez–Meyer methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used to detect gait phases in real time and obtain high reliability when compared with the previous methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method exhibits strong adaptability to different wearers walking at different walking speeds.

  2. A New Wavelet Threshold Function and Denoising Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jing-yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effects of denoising, this paper introduces the basic principles of wavelet threshold denoising and traditional structures threshold functions. Meanwhile, it proposes wavelet threshold function and fixed threshold formula which are both improved here. First, this paper studies the problems existing in the traditional wavelet threshold functions and introduces the adjustment factors to construct the new threshold function basis on soft threshold function. Then, it studies the fixed threshold and introduces the logarithmic function of layer number of wavelet decomposition to design the new fixed threshold formula. Finally, this paper uses hard threshold, soft threshold, Garrote threshold, and improved threshold function to denoise different signals. And the paper also calculates signal-to-noise (SNR and mean square errors (MSE of the hard threshold functions, soft thresholding functions, Garrote threshold functions, and the improved threshold function after denoising. Theoretical analysis and experimental results showed that the proposed approach could improve soft threshold functions with constant deviation and hard threshold with discontinuous function problems. The proposed approach could improve the different decomposition scales that adopt the same threshold value to deal with the noise problems, also effectively filter the noise in the signals, and improve the SNR and reduce the MSE of output signals.

  3. Tai Chi and Qi Gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product Research ... tai chi and qigong in older adults. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2009;31(2):245–279. Saeed SA, Antonacci ...

  4. Role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis and the effect of qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIU Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and the molecular mechanism of action of qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription in regulating PTEN and inhibiting liver fibrosis. Methods A total of 27 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 9 rats in each group. The rats in liver fibrosis group were treated with CCl4 to establish a model of liver fibrosis, and those in qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription group were also treated with CCl4 to establish a model and then given a self-made qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription containing Astragalus membranaceus, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and poria. The rats in the control group were given intraperitoneally injected olive oil. HE staining, Masson staining, and immunohistochemical staining of collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1 and collagen type Ⅳ (Col4 were performed to observe the degree of liver fibrosis and collagen deposition; qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, PTEN, and downstream genes AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups. Results In the liver fibrosis group, liver pathology showed perisinusoidal fibrosis and fibrous tissue proliferation, collagen deposition, and formation of fibrous septum in the portal area; compared with the control group, the liver fibrosis group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1, a significant reduction in the expression of PTEN, and significant increases in the mRNA and phosphorylated protein expression of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K (all P<0.01. The qi-tonifying and blood-activating prescription group had a

  5. Optimal Investment Under Transaction Costs: A Threshold Rebalanced Portfolio Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Sait; Donmez, Mehmet Ali; Kozat, Suleyman Serdar

    2013-06-01

    We study optimal investment in a financial market having a finite number of assets from a signal processing perspective. We investigate how an investor should distribute capital over these assets and when he should reallocate the distribution of the funds over these assets to maximize the cumulative wealth over any investment period. In particular, we introduce a portfolio selection algorithm that maximizes the expected cumulative wealth in i.i.d. two-asset discrete-time markets where the market levies proportional transaction costs in buying and selling stocks. We achieve this using "threshold rebalanced portfolios", where trading occurs only if the portfolio breaches certain thresholds. Under the assumption that the relative price sequences have log-normal distribution from the Black-Scholes model, we evaluate the expected wealth under proportional transaction costs and find the threshold rebalanced portfolio that achieves the maximal expected cumulative wealth over any investment period. Our derivations can be readily extended to markets having more than two stocks, where these extensions are pointed out in the paper. As predicted from our derivations, we significantly improve the achieved wealth over portfolio selection algorithms from the literature on historical data sets.

  6. Frequency modulation television analysis: Threshold impulse analysis. [with computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is developed to calculate the FM threshold impulse rates as a function of the carrier-to-noise ratio for a specified FM system. The system parameters and a vector of 1024 integers, representing the probability density of the modulating voltage, are required as input parameters. The computer program is utilized to calculate threshold impulse rates for twenty-four sets of measured probability data supplied by NASA and for sinusoidal and Gaussian modulating waveforms. As a result of the analysis several conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of preemphasis in an FM television system improves the threshold by reducing the impulse rate. (2) Sinusoidal modulation produces a total impulse rate which is a practical upper bound for the impulse rates of TV signals providing the same peak deviations. (3) As the moment of the FM spectrum about the center frequency of the predetection filter increases, the impulse rate tends to increase. (4) A spectrum having an expected frequency above (below) the center frequency of the predetection filter produces a higher negative (positive) than positive (negative) impulse rate.

  7. Selection Strategies for Social Influence in the Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy

    The ubiquity of online social networks makes the study of social influence extremely significant for its applications to marketing, politics and security. Maximizing the spread of influence by strategically selecting nodes as initiators of a new opinion or trend is a challenging problem. We study the performance of various strategies for selection of large fractions of initiators on a classical social influence model, the Threshold model (TM). Under the TM, a node adopts a new opinion only when the fraction of its first neighbors possessing that opinion exceeds a pre-assigned threshold. The strategies we study are of two kinds: strategies based solely on the initial network structure (Degree-rank, Dominating Sets, PageRank etc.) and strategies that take into account the change of the states of the nodes during the evolution of the cascade, e.g. the greedy algorithm. We find that the performance of these strategies depends largely on both the network structure properties, e.g. the assortativity, and the distribution of the thresholds assigned to the nodes. We conclude that the optimal strategy needs to combine the network specifics and the model specific parameters to identify the most influential spreaders. Supported in part by ARL NS-CTA, ARO, and ONR.

  8. Resonances above the ionization threshold in positron-hydrogen scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernoghan, A.A.; Walters, H.R.J.; McAlinden, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Resonances appearing above the ionization threshold in coupled-state calculations of positron-atom scattering are discussed. Calculations in the six state approximation Ps(1s, 2s, 2p) + H(1s, 2s, 2p), which show such resonance structure, are compared with a more extensive 18-state approximation Ps(1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, 2p, 3p, 4p, 3d, 4d) + H(1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, 2p, 3p, 4p, 3d, 4d) in which channels other than 1s, 2s and 2p are represented by pseudostates. The results strongly indicate that the above ionization threshold resonances observed in the six-state approximation, and in other small basis set calculations, are not real. It is suggested that they are a consequence of the neglect, or inadequate representation in other approximations, of ionization channels. In the six-state approximation the positronium component of the system wavefunction attempts to represent the missing ionization channels but in so doing produces unreal resonances above the ionization threshold. More generally it is suggested that, in coupled-state calculations of positron-atom scattering, the atom part of the system wavefunction will try to compensate for defects in the positronium component and vice versa. When the defects are serious, for example, the omission of important ionization channels, unusual spurious behaviour is to be expected. (Author)

  9. Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang exerts effects on a rat model of postpartum depression by regulating inflammatory cytokines and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jingya Li,1,* Ruizhen Zhao,1,* Xiaoli Li,1 Wenjun Sun,1 Miao Qu,1 Qisheng Tang,1 Xinke Yang,1 Shujing Zhang2 1Third Affiliated Hospital, 2School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang (SJF is composed of eight Chinese medicinal herbs. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating postpartum depression (PPD. Previous studies have shown that SJF treats PPD through the neuroendocrine mechanism. Aim: To further investigate the effect of SJF on the immune system, including the inflammatory response system and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells. Materials and methods: Sprague Dawley rats were used to create an animal model of PPD by inducing hormone-simulated pregnancy followed by hormone withdrawal. After hormone withdrawal, the PPD rats were treated with SJF or fluoxetine for 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Levels of Treg cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry analysis. Serum interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gene and protein expressions of IL-1RI, IL-6Rα, and gp130 in the hippocampus were observed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results: Serum IL-1β in PPD rats increased at 2 weeks and declined from then on, while serum IL-6 increased at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Both IL-1β and IL-6 were downregulated by SJF and fluoxetine. Changes in gene and protein expressions of IL-1RI and gp130 in PPD rats were consistent with changes in serum IL-1β, and were able to be regulated by SJF and fluoxetine. The levels of Treg cells were negatively correlated with serum IL-1β and IL-6, and were decreased in PPD rats. The levels of Treg cells were increased by SJF and fluoxetine. Conclusion: Dysfunction of proinflammatory cytokines and Tregs in different stages of PPD was attenuated by SJF and fluoxetine through

  10. Evaluation of an on-line methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes by eddy-covariance with a PTR-TOF-Qi-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Buysse, Pauline; Lafouge, Florence; Ciuraru, Raluca; Decuq, Céline; Zurfluh, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Field scale flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are essential for improving our knowledge of VOC emissions from ecosystems. Many VOCs are emitted from and deposited to ecosystems. Especially less known, are crops which represent more than 50% of French terrestrial surfaces. In this study, we evaluate a new on-line methodology for measuring VOC fluxes by Eddy Covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS. Measurements were performed at the ICOS FR-GRI site over a crop using a 30 m long high flow rate sampling line and an ultrasonic anemometer. A Labview program was specially designed for acquisition and on-line covariance calculation: Whole mass spectra ( 240000 channels) were acquired on-line at 10 Hz and stored in a temporary memory. Every 5 minutes, the spectra were mass-calibrated and normalized by the primary ion peak integral at 10 Hz. The mass spectra peaks were then retrieved from the 5-min averaged spectra by withdrawing the baseline, determining the resolution and using a multiple-peak detection algorithm. In order to optimize the peak detection algorithm for the covariance, we determined the covariances as the integrals of the peaks of the vertical-air-velocity-fluctuation weighed-averaged-spectra. In other terms, we calculate , were w is the vertical component of the air velocity, Sp is the spectra, t is time, lag is the decorrelation lag time and denotes an average. The lag time was determined as the decorrelation time between w and the primary ion (at mass 21.022) which integrates the contribution of all reactions of VOC and water with the primary ion. Our algorithm was evaluated by comparing the exchange velocity of water vapor measured by an open path absorption spectroscopy instrument and the water cluster measured with the PTRQi-TOF-MS. The influence of the algorithm parameters and lag determination is discussed. This study was supported by the ADEME-CORTEA COV3ER project (http://www6.inra.fr/cov3er).

  11. Laser modes and threshold condition i N-mirror resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Skettrup, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Two formal methods for finding laser modes and threshold conditions in laser resonators containing as many as N mirrors are presented. The first method is based on an analysis determining the reflectivity and the transmittivity of an N-mirror system with gain. This is an extension of the classical...... 2 × 2 matrix method. The second method is based on self-consistency equations for the system and directly yields the circulating fields of the individual resonators. A set of rules has been proved to allow these fields to be calculated directly by means of inspection. The laser oscillation condition...

  12. Lipidomics study of plasma phospholipid metabolism in early type 2 diabetes rats with ancient prescription Huang-Qi-San intervention by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Zhu, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Wei-Min; Rong, Xiang-Lu; Feng, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-25

    Potential impact of lipid research has been increasingly realized both in disease treatment and prevention. An effective metabolomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) along with multivariate statistic analysis has been applied for investigating the dynamic change of plasma phospholipids compositions in early type 2 diabetic rats after the treatment of an ancient prescription of Chinese Medicine Huang-Qi-San. The exported UPLC/Q-TOF-MS data of plasma samples were subjected to SIMCA-P and processed by bioMark, mixOmics, Rcomdr packages with R software. A clear score plots of plasma sample groups, including normal control group (NC), model group (MC), positive medicine control group (Flu) and Huang-Qi-San group (HQS), were achieved by principal-components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Biomarkers were screened out using student T test, principal component regression (PCR), partial least-squares regression (PLS) and important variable method (variable influence on projection, VIP). Structures of metabolites were identified and metabolic pathways were deduced by correlation coefficient. The relationship between compounds was explained by the correlation coefficient diagram, and the metabolic differences between similar compounds were illustrated. Based on KEGG database, the biological significances of identified biomarkers were described. The correlation coefficient was firstly applied to identify the structure and deduce the metabolic pathways of phospholipids metabolites, and the study provided a new methodological cue for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolites in the process of regulating Huang-Qi-San for treating early type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calculating the dim light melatonin onset: the impact of threshold and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Thomas A; Burgess, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    The dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is the most reliable circadian phase marker in humans, but the cost of assaying samples is relatively high. Therefore, the authors examined differences between DLMOs calculated from hourly versus half-hourly sampling and differences between DLMOs calculated with two recommended thresholds (a fixed threshold of 3 pg/mL and a variable "3k" threshold equal to the mean plus two standard deviations of the first three low daytime points). The authors calculated these DLMOs from salivary dim light melatonin profiles collected from 122 individuals (64 women) at baseline. DLMOs derived from hourly sampling occurred on average only 6-8 min earlier than the DLMOs derived from half-hourly saliva sampling, and they were highly correlated with each other (r ≥ 0.89, p 30 min from the DLMO derived from half-hourly sampling. The 3 pg/mL threshold produced significantly less variable DLMOs than the 3k threshold. However, the 3k threshold was significantly lower than the 3 pg/mL threshold (p < .001). The DLMOs calculated with the 3k method were significantly earlier (by 22-24 min) than the DLMOs calculated with the 3 pg/mL threshold, regardless of sampling rate. These results suggest that in large research studies and clinical settings, the more affordable and practical option of hourly sampling is adequate for a reasonable estimate of circadian phase. Although the 3 pg/mL fixed threshold is less variable than the 3k threshold, it produces estimates of the DLMO that are further from the initial rise of melatonin.

  14. A ginástica terapêutica e preventiva chinesa Lian Gong/Qi Gong como um dos instrumentos na prevenção e reabilitação da LER/DORT

    OpenAIRE

    Livramento,Gutembergue; Franco,Tânia; Livramento,Alaíde

    2010-01-01

    Este ensaio traz elementos da medicina ocidental, da medicina tradicional chinesa e da sociologia do trabalho para reflexão sobre o Qi Gong - exercícios terapêuticos, um dos pilares da Medicina Tradicional Chinesa (MTC) - como importante meio de prevenção da LER/DORT e recuperação da saúde. Considerando a natureza interdisciplinar e diversos níveis de prevenção, aborda aspectos sociológicos sobre as condições de trabalho frequentemente relacionadas com este tipo de adoecimento e categorias de...

  15. To compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills in the treatment of functional dyspepsia of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome:a randomized group sequential comparative trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, functional dyspepsia (FD) can be divided into different syndromes according to different clinical symptoms and signs, and the most common one is spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome that can be treated by Chinese traditional patent medicine ---- two kinds of Zhizhu pills, between which the primary difference in ingredients is that one contains immature orange fruit of Citrus aurantium L.(IFCA) and the other contains that of Citrus sinensis Osbeck (IFCS). The trial's objective was to compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills on symptom changes in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods A randomized, group sequential, double-blinded, multicenter trial was conducted in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome at 3 hospitals in Beijing between June 2003 and May 2005. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (IFCA group and IFCS group) in a 1:1 ratio, and respectively took one of the two kinds of Zhizhu pills orally, 6 g each time, 3 times a day, for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed with use of a group sequential method, the triangular test (TT). Results A total of 163 patients were randomized, and 3 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropouts, leaving 160 patients (IFCA group: n = 82; IFCS group: n = 78) for statistical analysis. Three interim analyses were done after 62, 116, and 160 patients had completed their 4-week treatment, respectively. At the third interim analysis, the sample path crossed the upper boundary and the trial was stopped, the cure-markedly effective rates were 45% for IFCS group and 67% for IFCA group, respectively, the one-sided p-value was 0.0036, the median unbiased estimate of the odds ratio (OR) for the benefit of IFCA relative to IFCS was 2.91 with 95%CI: 1.40 to 6.06. No adverse events were observed in the two groups. Conclusions Zhizhu pills containing IFCA was superior

  16. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Townsend

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fifty potential threshold concepts, finally settling on six information literacy threshold concepts.

  17. QRS Detection Based on Improved Adaptive Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanyu Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death around the world. In accomplishing quick and accurate diagnosis, automatic electrocardiogram (ECG analysis algorithm plays an important role, whose first step is QRS detection. The threshold algorithm of QRS complex detection is known for its high-speed computation and minimized memory storage. In this mobile era, threshold algorithm can be easily transported into portable, wearable, and wireless ECG systems. However, the detection rate of the threshold algorithm still calls for improvement. An improved adaptive threshold algorithm for QRS detection is reported in this paper. The main steps of this algorithm are preprocessing, peak finding, and adaptive threshold QRS detecting. The detection rate is 99.41%, the sensitivity (Se is 99.72%, and the specificity (Sp is 99.69% on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made with two other algorithms, to prove our superiority. The suspicious abnormal area is shown at the end of the algorithm and RR-Lorenz plot drawn for doctors and cardiologists to use as aid for diagnosis.

  18. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  19. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  20. Threshold concepts in finance: student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-10-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by finance academics. In addition, we investigate the potential of a framework of different types of knowledge to differentiate the delivery of the finance curriculum and the role of modelling in finance. Our purpose is to identify ways to improve curriculum design and delivery, leading to better student outcomes. Whilst we find that there is significant overlap between what students identify as important in finance and the threshold concepts identified by academics, much of this overlap is expressed by indirect reference to the concepts. Further, whilst different types of knowledge are apparent in the student data, there is evidence that students do not necessarily distinguish conceptual from other types of knowledge. As well as investigating the finance curriculum, the research demonstrates the use of threshold concepts to compare and contrast student and academic perceptions of a discipline and, as such, is of interest to researchers in education and other disciplines.

  1. Determining the anaerobic threshold in post-polio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.; Gerrits, K.H.L.; Koopman, F.S.; Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Design Cohort study. Setting Research

  2. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  3. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  4. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saritas, Emine U., E-mail: saritas@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Goodwill, Patrick W. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Conolly, Steven M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of EECS, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  5. Thresholds of ion turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Mourgues, F.; Roubin, J.P.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.L.

    1991-01-01

    The linear thresholds of ionic turbulence are numerically calculated for the Tokamaks JET and TORE SUPRA. It is proved that the stability domain at η i >0 is determined by trapped ion modes and is characterized by η i ≥1 and a threshold L Ti /R of order (0.2/0.3)/(1+T i /T e ). The latter value is significantly smaller than what has been previously predicted. Experimental temperature profiles in heated discharges are usually marginal with respect to this criterium. It is also shown that the eigenmodes are low frequency, low wavenumber ballooned modes, which may produce a very large transport once the threshold ion temperature gradient is reached

  6. THRESHOLD PARAMETER OF THE EXPECTED LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Arnerić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of extreme value analysis is to quantify the probabilistic behavior of unusually large losses using only extreme values above some high threshold rather than using all of the data which gives better fit to tail distribution in comparison to traditional methods with assumption of normality. In our case we estimate market risk using daily returns of the CROBEX index at the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Therefore, it’s necessary to define the excess distribution above some threshold, i.e. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD is used as much more reliable than the normal distribution due to the fact that gives the accent on the extreme values. Parameters of GPD distribution will be estimated using maximum likelihood method (MLE. The contribution of this paper is to specify threshold which is large enough so that GPD approximation valid but low enough so that a sufficient number of observations are available for a precise fit.

  7. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  8. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus...... on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  9. Shifts in the relationship between motor unit recruitment thresholds versus derecruitment thresholds during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A

    2017-12-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with diminished twitch force amplitude. We examined changes in the motor unit recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship during fatigue. Nine men (mean age = 26 years) performed repeated isometric contractions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extensor force until exhaustion. Surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, and were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains. Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates at recruitment and derecruitment were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the protocol. On average, 15 motor units were studied per contraction. For the initial contraction, three subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for all motor units. Five subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for only low-threshold motor units at the beginning, with a mean cross-over of 31.6% MVC. As the muscle fatigued, many motor units were derecruited at progressively higher forces. In turn, decreased slopes and increased y-intercepts were observed. These shifts were complemented by increased firing rates at derecruitment relative to recruitment. As the vastus lateralis fatigued, the central nervous system's compensatory adjustments resulted in a shift of the regression line of the recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, H; Dawber, G; Gulley, N; King, G C; Bowring, N; Ward, R

    2013-01-01

    The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury has been recorded over the energy range (10–40 eV) which covers the region from the lowest state of the singly charged ion, 5d 10 6s( 2 S 1/2 ), to the double charged ionic state, 5d 9 ( 2 D 3/2 )6s( 1 D 2 ). Synchrotron radiation has been used in conjunction with the penetrating-field threshold-electron technique to obtain the spectrum with high resolution. The spectrum shows many more features than observed in previous photoemission measurements with many of these assigned to satellite states converging to the double ionization limit. (paper)

  11. Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    2005-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles

  12. Thresholds in Xeric Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.; Simpson, S. C.; Soto, C. D.; Yuan, F.; Turner, D.; Richter, H.

    2011-12-01

    Due to water limitation, thresholds in hydrologic and biogeochemical processes are common in arid and semi-arid systems. Some of these thresholds such as those focused on rainfall runoff relationships have been well studied. However to gain a full picture of the role that thresholds play in driving the hydrology and biogeochemistry of xeric systems a full view of the entire array of processes at work is needed. Here a walk through the landscape of xeric systems will be conducted illustrating the powerful role of hydrologic thresholds on xeric system biogeochemistry. To understand xeric hydro-biogeochemistry two key ideas need to be focused on. First, it is important to start from a framework of reaction and transport. Second an understanding of the temporal and spatial components of thresholds that have a large impact on hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes needs to be offered. In the uplands themselves episodic rewetting and drying of soils permits accelerated biogeochemical processing but also more gradual drainage of water through the subsurface than expected in simple conceptions of biogeochemical processes. Hydrologic thresholds (water content above hygroscopic) results in a stop start nutrient spiral of material across the landscape since runoff connecting uplands to xeric perennial riparian is episodic and often only transports materials a short distance (100's of m). This episodic movement results in important and counter-intuitive nutrient inputs to riparian zones but also significant processing and uptake of nutrients. The floods that transport these biogeochemicals also result in significant input to riparian groundwater and may be key to sustaining these critical ecosystems. Importantly the flood driven recharge process itself is a threshold process dependent on flood characteristics (floods greater than 100 cubic meters per second) and antecedent conditions (losing to near neutral gradients). Floods also appear to influence where arid and semi

  13. Double photoionization of helium near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Armen, G.B.; Sellin, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    There has been substantial recent experimental interest in the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of He near threshold following several theoretical observations that earlier measurements appear to overestimate the ratio, perhaps by as much as 25%, in the first several hundred eV above threshold. The authors recent measurements are 10%-15% below these earlier results and more recent results of Doerner et al. and Samson et al. are yet another 10% lower. The authors will compare these measurement with new data, not yet analyzed, and available theory

  14. Color image Segmentation using automatic thresholding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.

  15. Physico-chemical thresholds in the distribution of fish species among French lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roubeix Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of lakes requires the definition of physico-chemical thresholds to be used for ecosystem preservation or restoration. According to the European Water Framework Directive, the limits between physico-chemical quality classes must be set consistently with biological quality elements. One way to do this consists in analyzing the response of aquatic communities to environmental gradients across monitoring sites and in identifying ecological community thresholds, i.e. zones in the gradients where the species turnover is the highest. In this study, fish data from 196 lakes in France were considered to derive ecological thresholds using the multivariate method of gradient forest. The analysis was performed on 25 species and 36 environmental parameters. The results revealed the highest importance of maximal water temperature in the distribution of fish species. Other important parameters included geographical factors, dissolved organic carbon concentration and water transparency, while nutrients appeared to have low influence. In spite of the diversity of species responses to the gradients, community thresholds were detected in the gradients of the most important physico-chemical parameters and of total phosphorus and nitrate concentrations as well. The thresholds identified in such macroecological study may highlight new patterns of species natural distribution and improve niche characterization. Moreover, when factors that may be influenced by human activities are involved, the thresholds could be used to set environmental standards for lake preservation.

  16. Quantile-based permutation thresholds for quantitative trait loci hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Elias Chaibub; Keller, Mark P; Broman, Andrew F; Attie, Alan D; Jansen, Ritsert C; Broman, Karl W; Yandell, Brian S

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) hotspots (genomic locations affecting many traits) are a common feature in genetical genomics studies and are biologically interesting since they may harbor critical regulators. Therefore, statistical procedures to assess the significance of hotspots are of key importance. One approach, randomly allocating observed QTL across the genomic locations separately by trait, implicitly assumes all traits are uncorrelated. Recently, an empirical test for QTL hotspots was proposed on the basis of the number of traits that exceed a predetermined LOD value, such as the standard permutation LOD threshold. The permutation null distribution of the maximum number of traits across all genomic locations preserves the correlation structure among the phenotypes, avoiding the detection of spurious hotspots due to nongenetic correlation induced by uncontrolled environmental factors and unmeasured variables. However, by considering only the number of traits above a threshold, without accounting for the magnitude of the LOD scores, relevant information is lost. In particular, biologically interesting hotspots composed of a moderate to small number of traits with strong LOD scores may be neglected as nonsignificant. In this article we propose a quantile-based permutation approach that simultaneously accounts for the number and the LOD scores of traits within the hotspots. By considering a sliding scale of mapping thresholds, our method can assess the statistical significance of both small and large hotspots. Although the proposed approach can be applied to any type of heritable high-volume "omic" data set, we restrict our attention to expression (e)QTL analysis. We assess and compare the performances of these three methods in simulations and we illustrate how our approach can effectively assess the significance of moderate and small hotspots with strong LOD scores in a yeast expression data set.

  17. Muscle Weakness Thresholds for Prediction of Diabetes in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark D; Zhang, Peng; Choksi, Palak; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the known links between weakness and early mortality, what remains to be fully understood is the extent to which strength preservation is associated with protection from cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes. The purposes of this study were to determine the association between muscle strength and diabetes among adults, and to identify age- and sex-specific thresholds of low strength for detection of risk. A population-representative sample of 4066 individuals, aged 20-85 years, was included from the combined 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data sets. Strength was assessed using a handheld dynamometer, and the single highest reading from either hand was normalized to body mass. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between normalized grip strength and risk of diabetes, as determined by haemoglobin A1c levels ≥6.5 % (≥48 mmol/mol), while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and television viewing time. For every 0.05 decrement in normalized strength, there were 1.26 times increased adjusted odds for diabetes in men and women. Women were at lower odds of having diabetes (odds ratio 0.49; 95 % confidence interval 0.29-0.82). Age, waist circumference and lower income were also associated with diabetes. The optimal sex- and age-specific weakness thresholds to detect diabetes were 0.56, 0.50 and 0.45 for men at ages of 20-39, 40-59 and 60-80 years, respectively, and 0.42, 0.38 and 0.33 for women at ages of 20-39, 40-59 and 60-80 years, respectively. We present thresholds of strength that can be incorporated into a clinical setting for identifying adults who are at risk of developing diabetes and might benefit from lifestyle interventions to reduce risk.

  18. Development of a landlside EWS based on rainfall thresholds for Tuscany Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Battistini, Alessandro; Rossi, Guglielmo; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    We present the set-up of a landslide EWS based on rainfall thresholds for the Tuscany region (central Italy), that shows a heterogeneous distribution of reliefs and precipitation. The work started with the definition of a single set of thresholds for the whole region, but it resulted unsuitable for EWS purposes, because of the heterogeneity of the Tuscan territory and non-repeatability of the analyses, that were affected by a high degree of subjectivity. To overcome this problem, the work started from the implementation of a software capable of objectively defining the rainfall thresholds, since some of the main issues of these thresholds are the subjectivity of the analysis and therefore their non-repeatability. This software, named MaCumBA, is largely automated and can analyze, in a short time, a high number of rainfall events to define several parameters of the threshold, such as the intensity (I) and the duration (D) of the rainfall event, the no-rain time gap (NRG: how many hours without rain are needed to consider two events as separated) and the equation describing the threshold. The possibility of quickly perform several analyses lead to the decision to divide the territory in 25 homogeneous areas (named alert zones, AZ), so as a single threshold for each AZ could be defined. For the definition of the thresholds two independent datasets (of joint rainfall-landslide occurrences) have been used: a calibration dataset (data from 2000 to 2007) and a validation dataset (2008-2009). Once the thresholds were defined, a WebGIS-based EWS has been implemented. In this system it is possible to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h; forecasting data are collected from LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts. The EWS works on the basis of the threshold parameters defined by MaCumBA (I, D, NRG). An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the Web

  19. Comparison between intensity- duration thresholds and cumulative rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Rosi, Ascanio; Rossi, Guglielmo; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    This work makes a quantitative comparison between the results of landslide forecasting obtained using two different rainfall threshold models, one using intensity-duration thresholds and the other based on cumulative rainfall thresholds in an area of northern Tuscany of 116 km2. The first methodology identifies rainfall intensity-duration thresholds by means a software called MaCumBA (Massive CUMulative Brisk Analyzer) that analyzes rain-gauge records, extracts the intensities (I) and durations (D) of the rainstorms associated with the initiation of landslides, plots these values on a diagram, and identifies thresholds that define the lower bounds of the I-D values. A back analysis using data from past events can be used to identify the threshold conditions associated with the least amount of false alarms. The second method (SIGMA) is based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering: the statistical distribution of the rainfall series is analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) are used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. The name of the model, SIGMA, reflects the central role of the standard deviations in the proposed methodology. The definition of intensity-duration rainfall thresholds requires the combined use of rainfall measurements and an inventory of dated landslides, whereas SIGMA model can be implemented using only rainfall data. These two methodologies were applied in an area of 116 km2 where a database of 1200 landslides was available for the period 2000-2012. The results obtained are compared and discussed. Although several examples of visual comparisons between different intensity-duration rainfall thresholds are reported in the international literature, a quantitative comparison between thresholds obtained in the same area using different techniques and approaches is a relatively undebated research topic.

  20. 辛弃疾的“事功派”思想及在稼轩词中的体现%Xin Qi-ji’s Utilitarianism Ethics Thought And influence on Jiaxuan Ci-poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学达

    2013-01-01

    事功派哲学家陈亮与辛弃疾私交甚厚,其哲学思想必然会对辛弃疾产生影响,而历来对辛弃疾的研究中,似乎很少关注其思想哲学的相关问题。本文旨在论证辛弃疾的哲学思想乃是以陈亮为代表的事功派哲学一脉,并探讨事功派哲学对稼轩词艺术特质及词史地位所产生的深刻影响。%Chen Liang, the philosopher of Utilitarianism Ethics Thought, has a good relationship with Xin Qi-ji. So his philosophical thoughts certainly would have an influence on Xin Qiji. But in the past, on the study of Xin Qi-ji, we can seldom found researches concerning his thought of philosophy. This dissertation is aimed to argue that Xin's philosophical thoughts is a brunch of Chen’s Utilitarianism Ethics Thought and the latter had great influence on Jiaxuan Ci-Poems, including its artistic particularities and the status in Ci-poetry history.

  1. Radar rainfall estimation for the identification of debris-flow precipitation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Identification of rainfall thresholds for the prediction of debris-flow occurrence is a common approach for warning procedures. Traditionally the debris-flow triggering rainfall is derived from the closest available raingauge. However, the spatial and temporal variability of intense rainfall on mountainous areas, where debris flows take place, may lead to large uncertainty in point-based estimates. Nikolopoulos et al. (2014) have shown that this uncertainty translates into a systematic underestimation of the rainfall thresholds, leading to a step degradation of the performances of the rainfall threshold for identification of debris flows occurrence under operational conditions. A potential solution to this limitation lies on use of rainfall estimates from weather radar. Thanks to their high spatial and temporal resolutions, these estimates offer the advantage of providing rainfall information over the actual debris flow location. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of radar precipitation estimations for the identification of debris flow precipitation thresholds. Seven rainfall events that triggered debris flows in the Adige river basin (Eastern Italian Alps) are analyzed using data from a dense raingauge network and a C-Band weather radar. Radar data are elaborated by using a set of correction algorithms specifically developed for weather radar rainfall application in mountainous areas. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of debris flows are identified in the form of average intensity-duration power law curves using a frequentist approach by using both radar rainfall estimates and raingauge data. Sampling uncertainty associated to the derivation of the thresholds is assessed by using a bootstrap technique (Peruccacci et al. 2012). Results show that radar-based rainfall thresholds are largely exceeding those obtained by using raingauge data. Moreover, the differences between the two thresholds may be related to the spatial characteristics (i.e., spatial

  2. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  3. Regression Discontinuity Designs Based on Population Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Andrew C.; Freier, Ronny; Grembi, Veronica

    In many countries, important features of municipal government (such as the electoral system, mayors' salaries, and the number of councillors) depend on whether the municipality is above or below arbitrary population thresholds. Several papers have used a regression discontinuity design (RDD...

  4. Thresholding methods for PET imaging: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Betrouni, N.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; El Abiad, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with positron emission tomography segmentation methods for tumor volume determination. We propose a state of art techniques based on fixed or adaptive threshold. Methods found in literature are analysed with an objective point of view on their methodology, advantages and limitations. Finally, a comparative study is presented. (authors)

  5. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for…

  6. The Resting Motor Threshold - Restless or Resting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Raffin, Estelle Emeline; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2015-01-01

    , the RMT of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle was repeatedly determined using a threshold-hunting procedure while participants performed motor imagery and visual attention tasks with the right or left hand. Data were analyzed using repeated-measure ANOVA. Results RMT differed depending on which...

  7. The gradual nature of threshold switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, M; Salinga, M

    2014-01-01

    The recent commercialization of electronic memories based on phase change materials proved the usability of this peculiar family of materials for application purposes. More advanced data storage and computing concepts, however, demand a deeper understanding especially of the electrical properties of the amorphous phase and the switching behaviour. In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of the current through the amorphous state of the prototypical phase change material, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , under constant voltage. A custom-made electrical tester allows the measurement of delay times over five orders of magnitude, as well as the transient states of electrical excitation prior to the actual threshold switching. We recognize a continuous current increase over time prior to the actual threshold-switching event to be a good measure for the electrical excitation. A clear correlation between a significant rise in pre-switching-current and the later occurrence of threshold switching can be observed. This way, we found experimental evidence for the existence of an absolute minimum for the threshold voltage (or electric field respectively) holding also for time scales far beyond the measurement range. (paper)

  8. Multiparty Computation from Threshold Homomorphic Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to multiparty computation (MPC) basing it on homomorphic threshold crypto-systems. We show that given keys for any sufficiently efficient system of this type, general MPC protocols for n parties can be devised which are secure against an active adversary that corrupts...

  9. Classification error of the thresholded independence rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Britta Anker; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    We consider classification in the situation of two groups with normally distributed data in the ‘large p small n’ framework. To counterbalance the high number of variables we consider the thresholded independence rule. An upper bound on the classification error is established which is taylored...

  10. Intraoperative transfusion threshold and tissue oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Dahl, B; Johansson, P I

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) may be needed to maintain oxygen delivery during major surgery, but the appropriate haemoglobin (Hb) concentration threshold has not been well established. We hypothesised that a higher level of Hb would be associated with improved subcutaneous...... oxygen tension during major spinal surgery....

  11. Handwriting Automaticity: The Search for Performance Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that handwriting has an important role in written composition. In particular, handwriting automaticity appears to relate to success in composition. This relationship has been little explored in British contexts and we currently have little idea of what threshold performance levels might be. In this paper, we report on two…

  12. Grid - a fast threshold tracking procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    A new procedure, called “grid”, is evaluated that allows rapid acquisition of threshold curves for psychophysics and, in particular, psychoacoustic, experiments. In this method, the parameterresponse space is sampled in two dimensions within a single run. This allows the procedure to focus more e...

  13. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed $30 million); (4) Project financing shall be repayable, in whole or in part, from tolls, user fees... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS... project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  14. Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Schleede, Simone; Hauser, Mario

    2010-01-01

    element simulations confirm that lasing occurs in whispering gallery modes which corresponds well to the measured multimode laser-emission. The effect of dye concentration on lasing threshold and lasing wavelength is investigated and can be explained using a standard dye laser model....

  15. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  16. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  17. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound has been described as a bimodal autosomal trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. This study is based on the ability of a person to taste PTC. The present study reports the threshold distribution of PTC taste sensitivity among some Muslim ...

  18. The acoustic reflex threshold in aging ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, C A; Silman, S; Miller, M H

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the controversy regarding the influence of age on the acoustic reflex threshold for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators between Jerger et al. [Mono. Contemp. Audiol. 1 (1978)] and Jerger [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] on the one hand and Silman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] and others on the other. The acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators were evaluated under two measurement conditions. Seventy-two normal-hearing ears were drawn from 72 subjects ranging in age from 20-69 years. The results revealed that age was correlated with the acoustic reflex threshold for BBN activator but not for any of the tonal activators; the correlation was stronger under the 1-dB than under the 5-dB measurement condition. Also, the mean acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise activator were essentially similar to those reported by Jerger et al. (1978) but differed from those obtained in this study under the 1-dB measurement condition.

  19. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from c...

  20. Near threshold behavior of photoelectron satellite intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Becker, U.; Heimann, P.A.; Langer, B.

    1987-09-01

    The historical background and understanding of photoelectron satellite peaks is reviewed, using He(n), Ne(1s), Ne(2p), Ar(1s), and Ar(3s) as case studies. Threshold studies are emphasized. The classification of electron correlation effects as either ''intrinsic'' or ''dynamic'' is recommended. 30 refs., 7 figs

  1. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  2. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  3. Identifying thresholds for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameal F Samhouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the greatest obstacles to moving ecosystem-based management (EBM from concept to practice is the lack of a systematic approach to defining ecosystem-level decision criteria, or reference points that trigger management action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assist resource managers and policymakers in developing EBM decision criteria, we introduce a quantitative, transferable method for identifying utility thresholds. A utility threshold is the level of human-induced pressure (e.g., pollution at which small changes produce substantial improvements toward the EBM goal of protecting an ecosystem's structural (e.g., diversity and functional (e.g., resilience attributes. The analytical approach is based on the detection of nonlinearities in relationships between ecosystem attributes and pressures. We illustrate the method with a hypothetical case study of (1 fishing and (2 nearshore habitat pressure using an empirically-validated marine ecosystem model for British Columbia, Canada, and derive numerical threshold values in terms of the density of two empirically-tractable indicator groups, sablefish and jellyfish. We also describe how to incorporate uncertainty into the estimation of utility thresholds and highlight their value in the context of understanding EBM trade-offs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For any policy scenario, an understanding of utility thresholds provides insight into the amount and type of management intervention required to make significant progress toward improved ecosystem structure and function. The approach outlined in this paper can be applied in the context of single or multiple human-induced pressures, to any marine, freshwater, or terrestrial ecosystem, and should facilitate more effective management.

  4. Do multiple body modifications alter pain threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotová, A; Hrabák, P; Hříbek, P; Rokyta, R

    2017-12-30

    In recent years, epidemiological data has shown an increasing number of young people who deliberately self-injure. There have also been parallel increases in the number of people with tattoos and those who voluntarily undergo painful procedures associated with piercing, scarification, and tattooing. People with self-injury behaviors often say that they do not feel the pain. However, there is no information regarding pain perception in those that visit tattoo parlors and piercing studios compared to those who don't. The aim of this study was to compare nociceptive sensitivity in four groups of subjects (n=105, mean age 26 years, 48 women and 57 men) with different motivations to experience pain (i.e., with and without multiple body modifications) in two different situations; (1) in controlled, emotionally neutral conditions, and (2) at a "Hell Party" (HP), an event organized by a piercing and tattoo parlor, with a main event featuring a public demonstration of painful techniques (burn scars, hanging on hooks, etc.). Pain thresholds of the fingers of the hand were measured using a thermal stimulator and mechanical algometer. In HP participants, information about alcohol intake, self-harming behavior, and psychiatric history were used in the analysis as intervening variables. Individuals with body modifications as well as without body modifications had higher thermal pain thresholds at Hell Party, compared to thresholds measured at control neutral conditions. No such differences were found relative to mechanical pain thresholds. Increased pain threshold in all HP participants, irrespectively of body modification, cannot be simply explained by a decrease in the sensory component of pain; instead, we found that the environment significantly influenced the cognitive and affective component of pain.

  5. Revisiting the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, María S.; Moreno, Gustavo A.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we review all the available experimental neutron data for the 7 Li(p,n) reaction near threshold which is necessary to obtain an accurate source model for Monte Carlo simulations in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Scattered published experimental results such as cross sections, differential neutron yields and total yields were collected and analyzed, exploring the sensitivity of the fitting parameters to the different possible variables and deriving a consistent working set of parameters to evaluate the neutron source near threshold. - Highlights: • We review neutron experimental data for the 7 Li(p,n) reaction near threshold. • A new computational method was used to study all the available published data. • A consistent description of the neutron source was derived fitting the available data. • We found that the neutron yield at 0° studied by Kononov is the most sensitive curve. • A consistent set of parameters to parametrize the Breit–Wigner formula is presented

  6. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  7. Comparisons between detection threshold and loudness perception for individual cochlear implant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Nye, Amberly D

    2014-01-01

    thresholds had the narrowest dynamic ranges (for σ ≥ 0.5) and steepest growth of loudness functions for all electrode configurations. Conclusions Together with previous studies using focused stimulation, the results suggest that auditory responses to electrical stimuli at both threshold and suprathreshold current levels are not uniform across the electrode array of individual cochlear implant listeners. Specifically, the steeper growth of loudness and thus smaller dynamic ranges observed for high-threshold channels are consistent with a degraded electrode-neuron interface, which could stem from lower numbers of functioning auditory neurons or a relatively large distance between the neurons and electrodes. These findings may have potential implications for how stimulation levels are set during the clinical mapping procedure, particularly for speech-processing strategies that use focused electrical fields. PMID:25036146

  8. Study of pp→ppη reaction at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, A.

    1994-11-01

    The η production has been studied through the pp → ppη reaction at threshold. Data were taken at the Synchrotron of the ''Laboratoire National Saturne''. The detection in coincidence of the two protons scattered near 0 deg and analysed with the magnetic spectrometer SPES3 allows the reconstruction of missing mass spectra for the η signature. A simulation program which takes into account all the experimental set up characteristics has been realized and tested through the pp → dπ + reaction detected simultaneously with pp → ppη. The generated proton momentum spectra for pp → ppη show a pronounced η mass dependence. This characteristic, connected to the kinematical properties of pp → ppη at threshold, is used to extract the mass of the meson η. The obtained value, m η = 547.65 ± 0.18 MeV, is in good agreement with measurement done recently through the pd → H eη reaction. The total cross section σ t of pp → ppη measured at 1260, 1265 and 1300 MeV presents a strong energy dependence. This cross section increases less with energy than the phase-space. The influence of p-p and η-p final state interactions in our measurements is studied. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions and assess the dominant character of the baryonic resonance N * (1535) in the η mechanism production at threshold. These experimental results give an energy dependence which is not well reproduced by the theoretical predictions. This discrepancy could be an incorrect description of the η-p interaction in the models. (author). 48 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs

  9. Compartmentalization in environmental science and the perversion of multiple thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkart, W. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D 85716 Oberschleissheim, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-04-17

    Nature and living organisms are separated into compartments. The self-assembly of phospholipid micelles was as fundamental to the emergence of life and evolution as the formation of DNA precursors and their self-replication. Also, modern science owes much of its success to the study of single compartments, the dissection of complex structures and event chains into smaller study objects which can be manipulated with a set of more and more sophisticated equipment. However, in environmental science, these insights are obtained at a price: firstly, it is difficult to recognize, let alone to take into account what is lost during fragmentation and dissection; and secondly, artificial compartments such as scientific disciplines become self-sustaining, leading to new and unnecessary boundaries, subtly framing scientific culture and impeding progress in holistic understanding. The long-standing but fruitless quest to define dose-effect relationships and thresholds for single toxic agents in our environment is a central part of the problem. Debating single-agent toxicity in splendid isolation is deeply flawed in view of a modern world where people are exposed to low levels of a multitude of genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents. Its potential danger lies in the unwarranted postulation of separate thresholds for agents with similar action. A unifying concept involving toxicology and radiation biology is needed for a full mechanistic assessment of environmental health risks. The threat of synergism may be less than expected, but this may also hold for the safety margin commonly thought to be a consequence of linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship assumptions.

  10. Differential equation models for sharp threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harrison C; Dimitrov, Nedialko B

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension to differential equation models of dynamical systems to allow us to analyze probabilistic threshold dynamics that fundamentally and globally change system behavior. We apply our novel modeling approach to two cases of interest: a model of infectious disease modified for malware where a detection event drastically changes dynamics by introducing a new class in competition with the original infection; and the Lanchester model of armed conflict, where the loss of a key capability drastically changes the effectiveness of one of the sides. We derive and demonstrate a step-by-step, repeatable method for applying our novel modeling approach to an arbitrary system, and we compare the resulting differential equations to simulations of the system's random progression. Our work leads to a simple and easily implemented method for analyzing probabilistic threshold dynamics using differential equations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  12. Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt

  13. Edith Wharton's threshold phobia and two worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    The American novelist Edith Wharton suffered an unusual childhood neurotic symptom, a fear of crossing thresholds, a condition that might be called a "threshold phobia." This symptom is identified and examined in autobiographical material, letters, diaries, and selected literary fiction and nonfiction left by Wharton to arrive at a formulation not previously drawn together. A fascinating theme-living or being trapped between "two worlds"-runs through much of the writer's life and work. The phobia is related to this theme, and both can be linked more broadly to certain sexual conflicts in women. This understanding of Wharton's phobia, it is argued, throws new light on the developmental issues and conflicts related to the female "oedipal" or triadic phase, characterized by the need to negotiate the two worlds of mother and of father. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  14. Ultracompact low-threshold organic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotare, Parag B; Mahony, Thomas S; Bulović, Vladimir

    2014-11-25

    We report an ultracompact low-threshold laser with an Alq3:DCM host:guest molecular organic thin film gain layer. The device uses a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity which provides a high quality factor to mode volume (Q/V) ratio and increased spontaneous emission factor along with a small footprint. Lasing is observed with a threshold of 4.2 μJ/cm(2) when pumped by femtosecond pulses of λ = 400 nm wavelength light. We also model the dynamics of the laser and show good agreement with the experimental data. The inherent waveguide geometry of the structure enables easy on-chip integration with potential applications in biochemical sensing, inertial sensors, and data communication.

  15. Predicting visual acuity from detection thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newacheck, J S; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G; Adams, A J

    1990-03-01

    Visual performance based exclusively on high luminance and high contrast letter acuity measures often fails to predict individual performance at low contrast and low luminance. Here we measured visual acuity over a wide range of contrasts and luminances (low mesopic to photopic) for 17 young normal observers. Acuity vs. contrast functions appear to fit a single template which can be displaced laterally along the log contrast axis. The magnitude of this lateral displacement for different luminances was well predicted by the contrast threshold difference for a 4 min arc spot. The acuity vs. contrast template, taken from the mean of all 17 subjects, was used in conjunction with individual spot contrast threshold measures to predict an individual's visual acuity over a wide range of luminance and contrast levels. The accuracy of the visual acuity predictions from this simple procedure closely approximates test-retest accuracy for both positive (projected Landolt rings) and negative contrast (Bailey-Lovie charts).

  16. The monolithic double-threshold discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    A double-threshold discriminator capable of processing input signals of different duration is described. Simplicity of the discriminator circuitry makes it possible to embody the discriminator in multichannel ICs using microwave bipolar-JFET technology. Time walk is calculated to be less than 0.35 ns for the input ramp signals with rise times 25-100 ns and amplitudes 50 mV-1 V

  17. Framework for determining airport daily departure and arrival delay thresholds: statistical modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Nabugoomu, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    The study derives a framework for assessing airport efficiency through evaluating optimal arrival and departure delay thresholds. Assumptions of airport efficiency measurements, though based upon minimum numeric values such as 15 min of turnaround time, cannot be extrapolated to determine proportions of delay-days of an airport. This study explored the concept of delay threshold to determine the proportion of delay-days as an expansion of the theory of delay and our previous work. Data-driven approach using statistical modelling was employed to a limited set of determinants of daily delay at an airport. For the purpose of testing the efficacy of the threshold levels, operational data for Entebbe International Airport were used as a case study. Findings show differences in the proportions of delay at departure (μ = 0.499; 95 % CI = 0.023) and arrival (μ = 0.363; 95 % CI = 0.022). Multivariate logistic model confirmed an optimal daily departure and arrival delay threshold of 60 % for the airport given the four probable thresholds {50, 60, 70, 80}. The decision for the threshold value was based on the number of significant determinants, the goodness of fit statistics based on the Wald test and the area under the receiver operating curves. These findings propose a modelling framework to generate relevant information for the Air Traffic Management relevant in planning and measurement of airport operational efficiency.

  18. A Cyfip2-Dependent Excitatory Interneuron Pathway Establishes the Innate Startle Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kurt C; Jain, Roshan A; Wolman, Marc A; Echeverry, Fabio A; Nelson, Jessica C; Hayer, Katharina E; Miltenberg, Ben; Pereda, Alberto E; Granato, Michael

    2018-04-17

    Sensory experiences dynamically modify whether animals respond to a given stimulus, but it is unclear how innate behavioral thresholds are established. Here, we identify molecular and circuit-level mechanisms underlying the innate threshold of the zebrafish startle response. From a forward genetic screen, we isolated five mutant lines with reduced innate startle thresholds. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identify the causative mutation for one line to be in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-interacting protein cyfip2. We show that cyfip2 acts independently of FMRP and that reactivation of cyfip2 restores the baseline threshold after phenotype onset. Finally, we show that cyfip2 regulates the innate startle threshold by reducing neural activity in a small group of excitatory hindbrain interneurons. Thus, we identify a selective set of genes critical to establishing an innate behavioral threshold and uncover a circuit-level role for cyfip2 in this process. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Threshold Learning Dynamics in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Marsili, Matteo; Vega-Redondo, Fernado; San Miguel, Maxi

    2011-01-01

    Social learning is defined as the ability of a population to aggregate information, a process which must crucially depend on the mechanisms of social interaction. Consumers choosing which product to buy, or voters deciding which option to take with respect to an important issue, typically confront external signals to the information gathered from their contacts. Economic models typically predict that correct social learning occurs in large populations unless some individuals display unbounded influence. We challenge this conclusion by showing that an intuitive threshold process of individual adjustment does not always lead to such social learning. We find, specifically, that three generic regimes exist separated by sharp discontinuous transitions. And only in one of them, where the threshold is within a suitable intermediate range, the population learns the correct information. In the other two, where the threshold is either too high or too low, the system either freezes or enters into persistent flux, respectively. These regimes are generally observed in different social networks (both complex or regular), but limited interaction is found to promote correct learning by enlarging the parameter region where it occurs. PMID:21637714

  20. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  1. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  2. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  3. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ''false negative or false positive'' indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments

  4. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of acetaldehyde and acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J.; Siggel-King, Michele R.F.; King, George C.; Malins, Andrew E.R.; Eypper, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acrolein. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acrolein. •Determination of vertical ionization potentials in acetaldehyde and acrolein. -- Abstract: High-resolution (6 meV and 12 meV) threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectra of acetaldehyde and acrolein (2-propenal) have been recorded over the valence binding energy region 10–20 eV, employing synchrotron radiation and a penetrating-field electron spectrometer. These TPE spectra are presented here for the first time. All of the band structures observed in the TPE spectra replicate those found in their conventional HeI photoelectron (PE) spectra. However, the relative band intensities are found to be dramatically different in the two types of spectra that are attributed to the different dominant operative formation mechanisms. In addition, some band shapes and their vertical ionization potentials are found to differ in the two types of spectra that are associated with the autoionization of Rydberg states in the two molecules

  5. A new S-type eigenvalue inclusion set for tensors and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng-Ge; Wang, Li-Gong; Xu, Zhong; Cui, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new S -type eigenvalue localization set for a tensor is derived by dividing [Formula: see text] into disjoint subsets S and its complement. It is proved that this new set is sharper than those presented by Qi (J. Symb. Comput. 40:1302-1324, 2005), Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 21:39-50, 2014) and Li et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 481:36-53, 2015). As applications of the results, new bounds for the spectral radius of nonnegative tensors and the minimum H -eigenvalue of strong M -tensors are established, and we prove that these bounds are tighter than those obtained by Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 21:39-50, 2014) and He and Huang (J. Inequal. Appl. 2014:114, 2014).

  6. Perspective: Uses and misuses of thresholds in diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Najarian, Robert M; Tierney, Lawrence M

    2010-03-01

    The concept of thresholds plays a vital role in decisions involving the initiation, continuation, and completion of diagnostic testing. Much research has focused on the development of explicit thresholds, in the form of practice guidelines and decision analyses. However, these tools are used infrequently; most medical decisions are made at the bedside, using implicit thresholds. Study of these thresholds can lead to a deeper understanding of clinical decision making. The authors examine some factors constituting individual clinicians' implicit thresholds. They propose a model for static thresholds using the concept of situational gravity to explain why some thresholds are high, and some low. Next, they consider the hypothetical effects of incorrect placement of thresholds (miscalibration) and changes to thresholds during diagnosis (manipulation). They demonstrate these concepts using common clinical scenarios. Through analysis of miscalibration of thresholds, the authors demonstrate some common maladaptive clinical behaviors, which are nevertheless internally consistent. They then explain how manipulation of thresholds gives rise to common cognitive heuristics including premature closure and anchoring. They also discuss the case where no threshold has been exceeded despite exhaustive collection of data, which commonly leads to application of the availability or representativeness heuristics. Awareness of implicit thresholds allows for a more effective understanding of the processes of medical decision making and, possibly, to the avoidance of detrimental heuristics and their associated medical errors. Research toward accurately defining these thresholds for individual physicians and toward determining their dynamic properties during the diagnostic process may yield valuable insights.

  7. The anti pp yields anti λ λ reaction near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, C.J.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements of differential and integrated cross sections as well as final state polarizations for the anti p p → anti Λ Λ reaction are presented. The reaction was studied at two incident antiproton momenta (1476.5 MeV/c and 1507.5 MeV/c) corresponding to total center of mass energies of 15.5 MeV and 26.4 MeV above the reaction threshold. The trajectories of charged decay products of the anti Λ and Λ were observed in a multiwire proportional chamber and in two sets of drift chambers. The data were analyzed with a computer program which reconstructed anti p p → anti Λ Λ → anti p π + pπ - events and performed kinematic fitting. The results are compared to several recent meson exchange calculations, and a one-gluon exchange calculation. The experiment was performed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. The data presented represent the first results of the PS185 collaboration's study of the threshold production of hyperon-antihyperon states

  8. A Bayesian decision approach to rainfall thresholds based flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. V. Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational real time flood forecasting systems generally require a hydrological model to run in real time as well as a series of hydro-informatics tools to transform the flood forecast into relatively simple and clear messages to the decision makers involved in flood defense. The scope of this paper is to set forth the possibility of providing flood warnings at given river sections based on the direct comparison of the quantitative precipitation forecast with critical rainfall threshold values, without the need of an on-line real time forecasting system. This approach leads to an extremely simplified alert system to be used by non technical stakeholders and could also be used to supplement the traditional flood forecasting systems in case of system failures. The critical rainfall threshold values, incorporating the soil moisture initial conditions, result from statistical analyses using long hydrological time series combined with a Bayesian utility function minimization. In the paper, results of an application of the proposed methodology to the Sieve river, a tributary of the Arno river in Italy, are given to exemplify its practical applicability.

  9. Critical Power: An Important Fatigue Threshold in Exercise Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, David C; Burnley, Mark; Vanhatalo, Anni; Rossiter, Harry B; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    : The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise, and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power [CP]) and the so-called W' (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles-respiratory, metabolic, and contractile-within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility. Rather than calibrating equivalent exercise intensities relative to metabolically distant parameters such as the lactate threshold or V˙O2max, setting the exercise intensity relative to CP unifies the profile of systemic and intramuscular responses and, if greater than CP, predicts the tolerable duration of exercise until W' is expended, V˙O2max is attained, and intolerance is manifested. CP may be regarded as a "fatigue threshold" in the sense that it separates exercise intensity domains within which the physiological responses to exercise can (CP) be stabilized. The CP concept therefore enables important insights into 1) the principal loci of fatigue development (central vs. peripheral) at different intensities of exercise and 2) mechanisms of cardiovascular and metabolic control and their modulation by factors such as O2 delivery. Practically, the CP concept has great potential application in optimizing athletic training programs and performance as well as improving the life quality for individuals enduring chronic disease.

  10. Thresholds and noise limitations of colour vision in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter

    2017-04-05

    Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Effects of threshold on the topology of gene co-expression networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Cynthia Martins Villar; Comin, César Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2017-09-26

    Several developments regarding the analysis of gene co-expression profiles using complex network theory have been reported recently. Such approaches usually start with the construction of an unweighted gene co-expression network, therefore requiring the selection of a suitable threshold defining which pairs of vertices will be connected. We aimed at addressing such an important problem by suggesting and comparing five different approaches for threshold selection. Each of the methods considers a respective biologically-motivated criterion for electing a potentially suitable threshold. A set of 21 microarray experiments from different biological groups was used to investigate the effect of applying the five proposed criteria to several biological situations. For each experiment, we used the Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the relationship between each gene pair, and the resulting weight matrices were thresholded considering several values, generating respective adjacency matrices (co-expression networks). Each of the five proposed criteria was then applied in order to select the respective threshold value. The effects of these thresholding approaches on the topology of the resulting networks were compared by using several measurements, and we verified that, depending on the database, the impact on the topological properties can be large. However, a group of databases was verified to be similarly affected by most of the considered criteria. Based on such results, it can be suggested that when the generated networks present similar measurements, the thresholding method can be chosen with greater freedom. If the generated networks are markedly different, the thresholding method that better suits the interests of each specific research study represents a reasonable choice.

  12. Validation and evaluation of epistemic uncertainty in rainfall thresholds for regional scale landslide forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Iovine, Giulio; Melillo, Massimo; Peruccacci, Silvia; Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Vennari, Carmela; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    has consequences in the ROC analysis. We applied the proposed procedure to a catalogue of rainfall conditions that have resulted in landslides, and to a set of rainfall events that - presumably - have not resulted in landslides, in Sicily, in the period 2002-2012. First, we determined regional event duration-cumulated event (ED) rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence using 200 rainfall conditions that have resulted in 223 shallow landslides in Sicily in the period 2002-2011. Next, we validated the thresholds using 29 rainfall conditions that have triggered 42 shallow landslides in Sicily in 2012, and 1250 rainfall events that presumably have not resulted in landslides in the same year. We performed a back analysis simulating the use of the thresholds in a hypothetical landslide warning system operating in 2012.

  13. Proposing an Empirically Justified Reference Threshold for Blood Culture Sampling Rates in Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Stefanie; Schwab, Frank; Geffers, Christine; Bongartz, Hannah; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Gastmeier, Petra; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.

    2014-01-01

    Early and appropriate blood culture sampling is recommended as a standard of care for patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSI) but is rarely taken into account when quality indicators for BSI are evaluated. To date, sampling of about 100 to 200 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days is recommended as the target range for blood culture rates. However, the empirical basis of this recommendation is not clear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association between blood culture rates and observed BSI rates and to derive a reference threshold for blood culture rates in intensive care units (ICUs). This study is based on data from 223 ICUs taking part in the German hospital infection surveillance system. We applied locally weighted regression and segmented Poisson regression to assess the association between blood culture rates and BSI rates. Below 80 to 90 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days, observed BSI rates increased with increasing blood culture rates, while there was no further increase above this threshold. Segmented Poisson regression located the threshold at 87 (95% confidence interval, 54 to 120) blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days. Only one-third of the investigated ICUs displayed blood culture rates above this threshold. We provided empirical justification for a blood culture target threshold in ICUs. In the majority of the studied ICUs, blood culture sampling rates were below this threshold. This suggests that a substantial fraction of BSI cases might remain undetected; reporting observed BSI rates as a quality indicator without sufficiently high blood culture rates might be misleading. PMID:25520442

  14. [Effects of Chinese herbal compound for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on actin, Cx43 expressions and gap junctional intercellular communication functions of myocardial cells in patients with Coxsackie virus B 3 viral myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-xue; He, Wei; Gu, Ping

    2010-08-01

    To observe the effect of Chinese herbal compound for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation (CHC) on the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) function of myocardial cells in patients with Coxsackie virus B 3 (CVB3) viral myocarditis. Expressions of actin and connexin43 (Cx43) in myocardial cells of patients arranged in three groups (the normal control group, the viral infected group and the CHC treated group) were detected by immunohistochemical method; the fluorescence photobleaching recovery rate of cells was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope. As compared with the viral infected group, the expressions of actin and Cx43 were increased and the GJIC function was improved in the CHC treated group. CHC could antagonize viral injury on skeleton protein, and repair the structure of gap junction channel to improve the GJIC function of myocardial cells after being attacked by CVB3.

  15. Multilevel Thresholding Segmentation Based on Harmony Search Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Oliva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multilevel thresholding (MT algorithm based on the harmony search algorithm (HSA is introduced. HSA is an evolutionary method which is inspired in musicians improvising new harmonies while playing. Different to other evolutionary algorithms, HSA exhibits interesting search capabilities still keeping a low computational overhead. The proposed algorithm encodes random samples from a feasible search space inside the image histogram as candidate solutions, whereas their quality is evaluated considering the objective functions that are employed by the Otsu’s or Kapur’s methods. Guided by these objective values, the set of candidate solutions are evolved through the HSA operators until an optimal solution is found. Experimental results demonstrate the high performance of the proposed method for the segmentation of digital images.

  16. Photoproduction of neutral kaons in the threshold region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    It is expected that γ + n → K 0 + Λ reaction provides important information to the study of strangeness creation mechanism. Neutral Kaon Spectrometer (NKS) has been constructed at Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, which was designed to measure pions with magnetic spectrometer after the K s 0 → π + π - decay to identify K 0 by reconstructing the reaction. Principle of the design of the spectrometer and experimental set up are described. Up to the present quasi-free reaction from carbon target has been successfully observed in the threshold energy region. K s 0 was clearly separated in the preliminary data analysis indicating that performance of NKS is high enough to the objective. Information of γ + n → K 0 + Λ reaction is expected to be obtained by further analysis. (S. Funahashi)

  17. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  18. Temperature threshold for burn injury: an oximeter safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Lawless, Mary Beth; Chew, Bradford B; Crone, Willem A; Fein, Michael E; Palmieri, Tina L

    2004-01-01

    Pulse oximeters have become essential devices for evaluating and monitoring patient oxygenation. The probe emits a small amount of heat into the skin in the process of signal detection. Regulations set by the Food and Drug Administration currently limit the maximum allowable temperature of an oximeter probe to 41 degrees C. As a result of the prolonged exposure of extremities to these devices, we sought to determine the actual temperature threshold for burn injury in patients. Eighteen patients undergoing surgery for removal of redundant skin (abdominoplasty, breast reduction) consented to the application of a temperature-controlled custom probe with four light-emitting diodes that had temperatures set randomly at the expected threshold for burn injury (42.5 degrees C, 43 degrees C, 43.5 degrees C, and 44 degrees C). The probe was left in place for 8 hours (or less if significant pain was noted). The sites covered by the probes were then checked for signs of injury. On the next day, the redundant skin was removed as a scheduled procedure, and histopathology was performed to detect the extent of burn injury. The study was approved by the local institutional research board. Two patients were excluded because of technical problems with the probe, one of whom had the probe turned off because of pain. The only observed sign of injury was either erythema or a superficial blister that was usually unobservable or slightly red at operation. These subtle signs of a burn were noted in one patient at 43 degrees C, four at 43.5 degrees C, and nine at 44 degrees C. No burns were noted in two patients. Minimal or no signs of injury frequently were noted by histopathology. Pulse oximeter probes are safe up to a temperature of 43 degrees C for at least 8 hours in well-perfused skin. Above that temperature, there is a risk of burn injury. Performing temperature threshold tests in redundant skin that is planned for excision is a potential method for testing the safety of devices or

  19. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2012-01-01

    The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite wi...

  20. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world’s population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  1. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Wafer plane inspection with soft resist thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carl; Shi, Rui-fang; Wihl, Mark; Xiong, Yalin; Pang, Song

    2008-10-01

    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is an inspection mode on the KLA-Tencor TeraScaTM platform that uses the high signalto- noise ratio images from the high numerical aperture microscope, and then models the entire lithographic process to enable defect detection on the wafer plane[1]. This technology meets the needs of some advanced mask manufacturers to identify the lithographically-significant defects while ignoring the other non-lithographically-significant defects. WPI accomplishes this goal by performing defect detection based on a modeled image of how the mask features would actually print in the photoresist. There are several advantages to this approach: (1) the high fidelity of the images provide a sensitivity advantage over competing approaches; (2) the ability to perform defect detection on the wafer plane allows one to only see those defects that have a printing impact on the wafer; (3) the use of modeling on the lithographic portion of the flow enables unprecedented flexibility to support arbitrary illumination profiles, process-window inspection in unit time, and combination modes to find both printing and non-printing defects. WPI is proving to be a valuable addition to the KLA-Tencor detection algorithm suite. The modeling portion of WPI uses a single resist threshold as the final step in the processing. This has been shown to be adequate on several advanced customer layers, but is not ideal for all layers. Actual resist chemistry has complicated processes including acid and base-diffusion and quench that are not consistently well-modeled with a single resist threshold. We have considered the use of an advanced resist model for WPI, but rejected it because the burdensome requirements for the calibration of the model were not practical for reticle inspection. This paper describes an alternative approach that allows for a "soft" resist threshold to be applied that provides a more robust solution for the most challenging processes. This approach is just

  3. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  4. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding

  5. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling systems with per-user threshold

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-05-01

    A multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme with per-user feedback threshold is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The conventional multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme uses a single feedback threshold for every user, where the threshold is a function of the average signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the users as well as the number of users involved in the scheduling process. The proposed scheme, however, constructs a sequence of feedback thresholds instead of a single feedback threshold such that each user compares its channel quality with the corresponding feedback threshold in the sequence. Numerical and simulation results show that thanks to the flexibility of threshold selection, where a potentially different threshold can be used for each user, the proposed scheme provides a higher system capacity than that for the conventional scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  6. Superstring threshold corrections to Yukawa couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    A general method of computing string corrections to the Kaehler metric and Yukawa couplings is developed at the one-loop level for a general compactification of the heterotic superstring theory. It also provides a direct determination of the so-called Green-Schwarz term. The matter metric has an infrared divergent part which reproduces the field-theoretical anomalous dimensions, and a moduli-dependent part which gives rise to threshold corrections in the physical Yukawa couplings. Explicit expressions are derived for symmetric orbifold compactifications. (author). 20 refs

  7. Double threshold discriminator for timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.R.; Oslopova, T.V.; Pestov, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    The new type of a discriminator is based on the idea of simultaneous time measurements at two different thresholds for each pulse. Instead of using two independent electronic TDC channels this discriminator produces an output pulse with the timing taking into account the information from two time measurements ''on-line''. The operation principle, analytical calculations and experimental results are presented. The time walk of the discriminator at the level of 10 ps in the range of the input pulse height of 0.2-1.5 V has been obtained. ((orig.))

  8. Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)

  9. Threshold quantum cryptograph based on Grover's algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jianzhong; Qin Sujuan; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a threshold quantum protocol based on Grover's operator and permutation operator on one two-qubit signal. The protocol is secure because the dishonest parties can only extract 2 bits from 3 bits information of operation on one two-qubit signal while they have to introduce error probability 3/8. The protocol includes a detection scheme to resist Trojan horse attack. With probability 1/2, the detection scheme can detect a multi-qubit signal that is used to replace a single-qubit signal, while it makes every legitimate qubit invariant

  10. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...

  11. Tunable femtosecond lasers with low pump thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppo, Karen

    The work in this thesis is concerned with the development of tunable, femtosecond laser systems, exhibiting low pump threshold powers. The main motive for this work was the development of a low threshold, self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser in order to replace the conventional large-frame argon-ion pump laser with a more compact and efficient all-solid-state alternative. Results are also presented for an all-solid-state, self-modelocked Cr:LiSAF laser, however most of this work is concerned with self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser systems. In chapter 2, the operation of a regeneratively-initiated, and a hard-aperture self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser, pumped by an argon-ion laser, is discussed. Continuous- wave oscillation thresholds as low as 160mW have been demonstrated, along with self-modelocked threshold powers as low as 500mW. The measurement and suppression of phase noise on modelocked lasers is discussed in chapter 3. This is followed by a comparison of the phase noise characteristics of the regeneratively-initiated, and hard-aperture self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 lasers. The use of a synchronously-operating, high resolution electron-optical streak camera in the evaluation of timing jitter is also presented. In chapter 4, the construction and self-modelocked operation of an all-solid-state Ti:Al2O3 laser is described. The all-solid-state alternative to the conventional argon-ion pump laser was a continuous-wave, intracavity-frequency doubled, diode-laser pumped Nd:YLF ring laser. At a total diode-laser pump power of 10W, this minilaser was capable of producing a single frequency output of 1W, at 523.5nm in a TEM00 beam. The remainder of this thesis looks at the operation of a self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser generating ultrashort pulses at wavelengths as long as 1053nm. The motive for this work was the development of an all-solid-state, self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser operating at 1053nm, for use as a master oscillator in a Nd:glass power chain.

  12. Identification of ecological thresholds from variations in phytoplankton communities among lakes: contribution to the definition of environmental standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubeix, Vincent; Danis, Pierre-Alain; Feret, Thibaut; Baudoin, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, the identification of ecological thresholds may be useful for managers as it can help to diagnose ecosystem health and to identify key levers to enable the success of preservation and restoration measures. A recent statistical method, gradient forest, based on random forests, was used to detect thresholds of phytoplankton community change in lakes along different environmental gradients. It performs exploratory analyses of multivariate biological and environmental data to estimate the location and importance of community thresholds along gradients. The method was applied to a data set of 224 French lakes which were characterized by 29 environmental variables and the mean abundances of 196 phytoplankton species. Results showed the high importance of geographic variables for the prediction of species abundances at the scale of the study. A second analysis was performed on a subset of lakes defined by geographic thresholds and presenting a higher biological homogeneity. Community thresholds were identified for the most important physico-chemical variables including water transparency, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrates, and dissolved organic carbon. Gradient forest appeared as a powerful method at a first exploratory step, to detect ecological thresholds at large spatial scale. The thresholds that were identified here must be reinforced by the separate analysis of other aquatic communities and may be used then to set protective environmental standards after consideration of natural variability among lakes.

  13. Response of algal metrics to nutrients and physical factors and identification of nutrient thresholds in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R.W.; Moran, P.W.; Frankforter, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Many streams within the United States are impaired due to nutrient enrichment, particularly in agricultural settings. The present study examines the response of benthic algal communities in agricultural and minimally disturbed sites from across the western United States to a suite of environmental factors, including nutrients, collected at multiple scales. The first objective was to identify the relative importance of nutrients, habitat and watershed features, and macroinvertebrate trophic structure to explain algal metrics derived from deposition and erosion habitats. The second objective was to determine if thresholds in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) related to algal metrics could be identified and how these thresholds varied across metrics and habitats. Nutrient concentrations within the agricultural areas were elevated and greater than published threshold values. All algal metrics examined responded to nutrients as hypothesized. Although nutrients typically were the most important variables in explaining the variation in each of the algal metrics, environmental factors operating at multiple scales also were important. Calculated thresholds for TN or TP based on the algal metrics generated from samples collected from erosion and deposition habitats were not significantly different. Little variability in threshold values for each metric for TN and TP was observed. The consistency of the threshold values measured across multiple metrics and habitats suggest that the thresholds identified in this study are ecologically relevant. Additional work to characterize the relationship between algal metrics, physical and chemical features, and nuisance algal growth would be of benefit to the development of nutrient thresholds and criteria. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  14. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability among Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. Method: The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. Results: In noisy settings, listeners focus their…

  15. Statistical Algorithm for the Adaptation of Detection Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Many event detection mechanisms in spark ignition automotive engines are based on the comparison of the engine signals to the detection threshold values. Different signal qualities for new and aged engines necessitate the development of an adaptation algorithm for the detection thresholds...... remains constant regardless of engine age and changing detection threshold values. This, in turn, guarantees the same event detection performance for new and aged engines/sensors. Adaptation of the engine knock detection threshold is given as an example. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  16. When Do Price Thresholds Matter in Retail Categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Pauwels; Shuba Srinivasan; Philip Hans Franses

    2007-01-01

    Marketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is found for 76% ...

  17. When do price thresholds matter in retail categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauwels, Koen; Srinivasan, Shuba; Franses, Philip Hans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMarketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is fo...

  18. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Townsend; Amy R. Hofer; Silvia Lin Hanick; Korey Brunetti

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fift...

  19. Estimating the Threshold Level of Inflation for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jiranyakul, Komain

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This paper analyzes the relationship between inflation and economic growth in Thailand using annual dataset during 1990 and 2015. The threshold model is estimated for different levels of threshold inflation rate. The results suggest that the threshold level of inflation above which inflation significantly slow growth is estimated at 3 percent. The negative relationship between inflation and growth is apparent above this threshold level of inflation. In other words, the inflation rat...

  20. Small-threshold behaviour of two-loop self-energy diagrams: two-particle thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, F.A.; Davydychev, A.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow; Smirnov, V.A.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of two-loop two-point diagrams at non-zero thresholds corresponding to two-particle cuts is analyzed. The masses involved in a cut and the external momentum are assumed to be small as compared to some of the other masses of the diagram. By employing general formulae of asymptotic expansions of Feynman diagrams in momenta and masses, we construct an algorithm to derive analytic approximations to the diagrams. In such a way, we calculate several first coefficients of the expansion. Since no conditions on relative values of the small masses and the external momentum are imposed, the threshold irregularities are described analytically. Numerical examples, using diagrams occurring in the standard model, illustrate the convergence of the expansion below the first large threshold. (orig.)

  1. Impacts of DEM resolution and area threshold value uncertainty on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that DEM resolution influences the selected flow accumulation threshold value; the suitable flow accumulation threshold value increases as the DEM resolution increases, and shows greater variability for basins with lower drainage densities. The link between drainage area threshold value and stream network extraction ...

  2. Circuit and method for controlling the threshold voltage of transistors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A control unit, for controlling a threshold voltage of a circuit unit having transistor devices, includes a reference circuit and a measuring unit. The measuring unit is configured to measure a threshold voltage of at least one sensing transistor of the circuit unit, and to measure a threshold

  3. Is action potential threshold lowest in the axon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2008-01-01

    Action potential threshold is thought to be lowest in the axon, but when measured using conventional techniques, we found that action potential voltage threshold of rat cortical pyramidal neurons was higher in the axon than at other neuronal locations. In contrast, both current threshold and voltage

  4. Nonclassicality threshold for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertesi, Tamas; Pal, Karoly F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    The nonclassical properties of the noisy three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, {rho}{sub v}=v|GHZ>setting Mermin inequality, {rho}{sub v} is nonclassical for the parameter range 1/2settings would allow to lower the threshold visibility. Here we report on Bell inequalities giving a threshold value smaller than v=1/2. This rules out the possibility of a local hidden variable model in the limit of v=1/2. In particular, the lowest threshold visibility we found is v=0.496 057, attainable with 5x5x5 settings, whereas the most economical one in number of settings corresponds to 3x3x4 settings. The method which enabled us to obtain these results, and in particular the about 10 000 tight Bell inequalities giving v<1/2, are also discussed in detail.

  5. Gauge threshold corrections for local orientifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Palti, Eran

    2009-01-01

    We study gauge threshold corrections for systems of fractional branes at local orientifold singularities and compare with the general Kaplunovsky-Louis expression for locally supersymmetric N = 1 gauge theories. We focus on branes at orientifolds of the C 3 /Z 4 , C 3 /Z 6 and C 3 /Z 6 ' singularities. We provide a CFT construction of these theories and compute the threshold corrections. Gauge coupling running undergoes two phases: one phase running from the bulk winding scale to the string scale, and a second phase running from the string scale to the infrared. The first phase is associated to the contribution of N = 2 sectors to the IR β functions and the second phase to the contribution of both N = 1 and N = 2 sectors. In contrast, naive application of the Kaplunovsky-Louis formula gives single running from the bulk winding mode scale. The discrepancy is resolved through 1-loop non-universality of the holomorphic gauge couplings at the singularity, induced by a 1-loop redefinition of the twisted blow-up moduli which couple differently to different gauge nodes. We also study the physics of anomalous and non-anomalous U(1)s and give a CFT description of how masses for non-anomalous U(1)s depend on the global properties of cycles.

  6. Transient threshold shift after gunshot noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, B; Ghasemi, M; Motiee, M; Mojtahed, M; Safavi, A

    2013-01-01

    Many people, such as soldiers, are routinely exposed to gunshot noise during target practice. It is suspected that this high-intensity noise may affect audition through repeated Transient Threshold Shifts (TTS); it can also mechanically alter auditory components such as waves. This study investigates the scope of gunshot noise from the AK-47 rifle (Kalashnikov) and the impact on the shooters' audition. Forty soldiers (80 ears) were recruited in this study. They were all young and being exposed to gunshot noise for the first time. Gunshot characteristics were measured before exposure. The soldiers underwent auditory evaluation with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE) once before exposure and immediately (less than one hour) after exposure. The AK-47 gunshot noise pressure level varied between L(AIm) = 73.7 dBA to L(AIm) = 111.4 dBA. Fourteen participants had subclinical hearing impairment in their pre-exposure evaluation; this number increased to 16 after the exposure. Six months post-exposure and later, the number of cases with impairment had fallen to eight (improvement in 50%). Both pre- and post-exposure OAE results were within normal values, while PTA results indicated a significant threshold alteration only at 6 kHz. The results of this study confirm that exposure to gunshot noise with no ear protection can represent a significant hazard for auditory function, especially at higher frequencies.

  7. A threshold model of investor psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod; Grinfeld, Michael; Lamba, Harbir; Seaman, Tim

    2005-08-01

    We introduce a class of agent-based market models founded upon simple descriptions of investor psychology. Agents are subject to various psychological tensions induced by market conditions and endowed with a minimal ‘personality’. This personality consists of a threshold level for each of the tensions being modeled, and the agent reacts whenever a tension threshold is reached. This paper considers an elementary model including just two such tensions. The first is ‘cowardice’, which is the stress caused by remaining in a minority position with respect to overall market sentiment and leads to herding-type behavior. The second is ‘inaction’, which is the increasing desire to act or re-evaluate one's investment position. There is no inductive learning by agents and they are only coupled via the global market price and overall market sentiment. Even incorporating just these two psychological tensions, important stylized facts of real market data, including fat-tails, excess kurtosis, uncorrelated price returns and clustered volatility over the timescale of a few days are reproduced. By then introducing an additional parameter that amplifies the effect of externally generated market noise during times of extreme market sentiment, long-time volatility correlations can also be recovered.

  8. Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Peñuelas, Josep; McDowell, Nathan G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2018-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in ecosystems are cause for concern and will likelyintensify under global change (Scheffer et al., 2001). The terms‘thresho lds’, ‘tipping points’, and ‘critical transitions’ have beenused interchangeably to refer to sudden changes in the integrityor state of an ecosystem caused by environmental drivers(Holling, 1973; May, 1977). Threshold-based concepts havesignific antly aided our capacity to predict the controls overecosystem structure and functioning (Schwinning et al., 2004;Peters et al., 2007) and have become a framework to guide themanagement of natural resources (Glick et al., 2010; Allen et al.,2011). However, our unders tanding of how biotic and abioticdrivers interact to regulate ecosystem responses and of ways toforecast th e impending responses remain limited. Terrestrialecosystems, in particular, are already responding to globalchange in ways that are both transformati onal and difficult topredict due to strong heterogeneity across temporal and spatialscales (Pe~nuelas & Filella, 2001; McDowell et al., 2011;Munson, 2013; Reed et al., 2016). Comparing approaches formeasuring ecosystem performance in response to changingenvironme ntal conditions and for detecting stress and thresholdresponses can improve tradition al tests of resilience and provideearly warning signs of ecosystem transitions. Similarly, com-paring responses across ecosystems can offer insight into themechanisms that underlie variation in threshold responses.

  9. Updated LPI Thresholds for the Nike Laser*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Manka, C.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.

    2009-11-01

    Advanced implosion designs for direct drive inertial confinement fusion use high laser intensities (10^15-10^16 W/cm^2) to achieve gain (g>100) with a reduction in total laser energy (ENike laser at NRL are an attractive choice due to their combination of short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1-2 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence but the potential threat from laser-plasma instabilities (LPI) needs to be assessed. The 2008 LPI campaign at Nike yielded threshold intensities above 10^15 W/cm^2 for the two-plasmon instability, a value higher than reported for 351 nm glass lasers. The experiments used a planar geometry, solid polystyrene targets, and a subset of beams (E<200 J) with a reduced focal spot (d<125 μm). The 2009 campaign extended the shot parameters to higher laser energies (E<1 kJ) and larger spot sizes (d<300 μm). Spectrally-resolved and time-resolved measurements of x-rays and emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2φo harmonics of the laser wavelength show threshold intensities consistent with the 2008 results. *Work supported by DoE/NNSA

  10. OPTIMAL PRE-MERGER NOTIFICATION THRESHOLDS: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ITALIAN DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Buccirossi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a theoretical framework to define the optimal notification thresholds so as to minimize the sum of Type I and Type II error costs. Results suggest that, when the notification rule takes into account in a cumulative way both the aggregate turnover of the merging parties and their individual turnover, the optimal values of these turnovers are interdependent. The model is then applied to the Italian case. The value of the threshold for the aggregate turnover has been obtained by benchmarking the rules set in the EU Member States through a simple econometric exercise. The value of the threshold for the individual turnover is then calculated applying the theoretical framework and the estimated costs of Type I and Type II errors.

  11. Multi-thresholds for fault isolation in the presence of uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Youcef; Mellal, Mohamed Arezki; Benazzouz, Djamel

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring of the faults is an important task in mechatronics. It involves the detection and isolation of faults which are performed by using the residuals. These residuals represent numerical values that define certain intervals called thresholds. In fact, the fault is detected if the residuals exceed the thresholds. In addition, each considered fault must activate a unique set of residuals to be isolated. However, in the presence of uncertainties, false decisions can occur due to the low sensitivity of certain residuals towards faults. In this paper, an efficient approach to make decision on fault isolation in the presence of uncertainties is proposed. Based on the bond graph tool, the approach is developed in order to generate systematically the relations between residuals and faults. The generated relations allow the estimation of the minimum detectable and isolable fault values. The latter is used to calculate the thresholds of isolation for each residual. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adhoc: an R package to calculate ad hoc distance thresholds for DNA barcoding identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontran Sonet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification by DNA barcoding is more likely to be erroneous when it is based on a large distance between the query (the barcode sequence of the specimen to identify and its best match in a reference barcode library. The number of such false positive identifications can be decreased by setting a distance threshold above which identification has to be rejected. To this end, we proposed recently to use an ad hoc distance threshold producing identifications with an estimated relative error probability that can be fixed by the user (e.g. 5%. Here we introduce two R functions that automate the calculation of ad hoc distance thresholds for reference libraries of DNA barcodes. The scripts of both functions, a user manual and an example file are available on the JEMU website (http://jemu.myspecies.info/computer-programs as well as on the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN, http://cran.r-project.org.

  13. Climate change, population immunity, and hyperendemicity in the transmission threshold of dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Oki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the probability of dengue epidemics could increase because of climate change. The probability of epidemics is most commonly evaluated by the basic reproductive number (R(0, and in mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito density (the number of female mosquitoes per person [MPP] is the critical determinant of the R(0 value. In dengue-endemic areas, 4 different serotypes of dengue virus coexist-a state known as hyperendemicity-and a certain proportion of the population is immune to one or more of these serotypes. Nevertheless, these factors are not included in the calculation of R(0. We aimed to investigate the effects of temperature change, population immunity, and hyperendemicity on the threshold MPP that triggers an epidemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We designed a mathematical model of dengue transmission dynamics. An epidemic was defined as a 10% increase in seroprevalence in a year, and the MPP that triggered an epidemic was defined as the threshold MPP. Simulations were conducted in Singapore based on the recorded temperatures from 1980 to 2009 The threshold MPP was estimated with the effect of (1 temperature only; (2 temperature and fluctuation of population immunity; and (3 temperature, fluctuation of immunity, and hyperendemicity. When only the effect of temperature was considered, the threshold MPP was estimated to be 0.53 in the 1980s and 0.46 in the 2000s, a decrease of 13.2%. When the fluctuation of population immunity and hyperendemicity were considered in the model, the threshold MPP decreased by 38.7%, from 0.93 to 0.57, from the 1980s to the 2000s. CONCLUSIONS: The threshold MPP was underestimated if population immunity was not considered and overestimated if hyperendemicity was not included in the simulations. In addition to temperature, these factors are particularly important when quantifying the threshold MPP for the purpose of setting goals for vector control in dengue-endemic areas.

  14. Climate change, population immunity, and hyperendemicity in the transmission threshold of dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Mika; Yamamoto, Taro

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that the probability of dengue epidemics could increase because of climate change. The probability of epidemics is most commonly evaluated by the basic reproductive number (R(0)), and in mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito density (the number of female mosquitoes per person [MPP]) is the critical determinant of the R(0) value. In dengue-endemic areas, 4 different serotypes of dengue virus coexist-a state known as hyperendemicity-and a certain proportion of the population is immune to one or more of these serotypes. Nevertheless, these factors are not included in the calculation of R(0). We aimed to investigate the effects of temperature change, population immunity, and hyperendemicity on the threshold MPP that triggers an epidemic. We designed a mathematical model of dengue transmission dynamics. An epidemic was defined as a 10% increase in seroprevalence in a year, and the MPP that triggered an epidemic was defined as the threshold MPP. Simulations were conducted in Singapore based on the recorded temperatures from 1980 to 2009 The threshold MPP was estimated with the effect of (1) temperature only; (2) temperature and fluctuation of population immunity; and (3) temperature, fluctuation of immunity, and hyperendemicity. When only the effect of temperature was considered, the threshold MPP was estimated to be 0.53 in the 1980s and 0.46 in the 2000s, a decrease of 13.2%. When the fluctuation of population immunity and hyperendemicity were considered in the model, the threshold MPP decreased by 38.7%, from 0.93 to 0.57, from the 1980s to the 2000s. The threshold MPP was underestimated if population immunity was not considered and overestimated if hyperendemicity was not included in the simulations. In addition to temperature, these factors are particularly important when quantifying the threshold MPP for the purpose of setting goals for vector control in dengue-endemic areas.

  15. Threshold Based Opportunistic Scheduling of Secondary Users in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Yao

    2011-12-01

    In underlay cognitive radio networks, secondary users can share the spectrum with primary users as long as the interference caused by the secondary users to primary users is below a certain predetermined threshold. It is reasonable to assume that there is always a large pool of secondary users trying to access the channel, which can be occupied by only one secondary user at a given time. As a result, a multi-user scheduling problem arises among the secondary users. In this thesis, by manipulating basic schemes based on selective multi-user diversity, normalized thresholding, transmission power control, and opportunistic round robin, we propose and analyze eight scheduling schemes of secondary users in an underlay cognitive radio set-up. The system performance of these schemes is quantified by using various performance metrics such as the average system capacity, normalized average feedback load, scheduling outage probability, and system fairness of access. In our proposed schemes, the best user out of all the secondary users in the system is picked to transmit at each given time slot in order to maximize the average system capacity. Two thresholds are used in the two rounds of the selection process to determine the best user. The first threshold is raised by the power constraint from the primary user. The second threshold, which can be adjusted by us, is introduced to reduce the feedback load. The overall system performance is therefore dependent on the choice of these two thresholds and the number of users in the system given the channel conditions for all the users. In this thesis, by deriving analytical formulas and presenting numerical examples, we try to provide insights of the relationship between the performance metrics and the involved parameters including two selection thresholds and the number of active users in the system, in an effort to maximize the average system capacity as well as satisfy the requirements of scheduling outage probability and

  16. Threshold-driven optimization for reference-based auto-planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Troy; Chen, Mingli; Jiang, Steve; Lu, Weiguo

    2018-02-01

    We study threshold-driven optimization methodology for automatically generating a treatment plan that is motivated by a reference DVH for IMRT treatment planning. We present a framework for threshold-driven optimization for reference-based auto-planning (TORA). Commonly used voxel-based quadratic penalties have two components for penalizing under- and over-dosing of voxels: a reference dose threshold and associated penalty weight. Conventional manual- and auto-planning using such a function involves iteratively updating the preference weights while keeping the thresholds constant, an unintuitive and often inconsistent method for planning toward some reference DVH. However, driving a dose distribution by threshold values instead of preference weights can achieve similar plans with less computational effort. The proposed methodology spatially assigns reference DVH information to threshold values, and iteratively improves the quality of that assignment. The methodology effectively handles both sub-optimal and infeasible DVHs. TORA was applied to a prostate case and a liver case as a proof-of-concept. Reference DVHs were generated using a conventional voxel-based objective, then altered to be either infeasible or easy-to-achieve. TORA was able to closely recreate reference DVHs in 5-15 iterations of solving a simple convex sub-problem. TORA has the potential to be effective for auto-planning based on reference DVHs. As dose prediction and knowledge-based planning becomes more prevalent in the clinical setting, incorporating such data into the treatment planning model in a clear, efficient way will be crucial for automated planning. A threshold-focused objective tuning should be explored over conventional methods of updating preference weights for DVH-guided treatment planning.

  17. Hybrid Compensatory-Noncompensatory Choice Sets in Semicompensatory Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shiftan, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Semicompensatory models represent a choice process consisting of an elimination-based choice set formation on satisfaction of criterion thresholds and a utility-based choice. Current semicompensatory models assume a purely noncompensatory choice set formation and therefore do not support multinom...

  18. Some considerations regarding the creep crack growth threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouless, M.D.; Evans, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The preceding analysis reveals that the existence of a threshold determined by the sintering stress does not influence the post threshold crack velocity. Considerations of the sintering stress can thus be conveniently excluded from analysis of the post threshold crack velocity. The presence of a crack growth threshold has been predicted, based on the existence of cavity nucleation controlled crack growth. A preliminary analysis of cavity nucleation rates within the damage zone reveals that this threshold is relatively abrupt, in accord with experimental observations. Consequently, at stress intensities below K /SUB th/ growth becomes nucleation limited and crack blunting occurs in preference to crack growth

  19. Application of Improved Wavelet Thresholding Function in Image Denoising Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qi Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet analysis is a time – frequency analysis method, time-frequency localization problems are well solved, this paper analyzes the basic principles of the wavelet transform and the relationship between the signal singularity Lipschitz exponent and the local maxima of the wavelet transform coefficients mold, the principles of wavelet transform in image denoising are analyzed, the disadvantages of traditional wavelet thresholding function are studied, wavelet threshold function, the discontinuity of hard threshold and constant deviation of soft threshold are improved, image is denoised through using the improved threshold function.

  20. Impact of Thresholds and Load Patterns when Executing HPC Applications with Cloud Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Facco Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is one of the most known capabilities related to cloud computing, being largely deployed reactively using thresholds. In this way, maximum and minimum limits are used to drive resource allocation and deallocation actions, leading to the following problem statements: How can cloud users set the threshold values to enable elasticity in their cloud applications? And what is the impact of the application’s load pattern in the elasticity? This article tries to answer these questions for iterative high performance computing applications, showing the impact of both thresholds and load patterns on application performance and resource consumption. To accomplish this, we developed a reactive and PaaS-based elasticity model called AutoElastic and employed it over a private cloud to execute a numerical integration application. Here, we are presenting an analysis of best practices and possible optimizations regarding the elasticity and HPC pair. Considering the results, we observed that the maximum threshold influences the application time more than the minimum one. We concluded that threshold values close to 100% of CPU load are directly related to a weaker reactivity, postponing resource reconfiguration when its activation in advance could be pertinent for reducing the application runtime.

  1. Single event upset threshold estimation based on local laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, A.I.; Egorov, A.N.; Mavritsky, O.B.; Yanenko, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    An approach for estimation of ion-induced SEU threshold based on local laser irradiation is presented. Comparative experiment and software simulation research were performed at various pulse duration and spot size. Correlation of single event threshold LET to upset threshold laser energy under local irradiation was found. The computer analysis of local laser irradiation of IC structures was developed for SEU threshold LET estimation. The correlation of local laser threshold energy with SEU threshold LET was shown. Two estimation techniques were suggested. The first one is based on the determination of local laser threshold dose taking into account the relation of sensitive area to local irradiated area. The second technique uses the photocurrent peak value instead of this relation. The agreement between the predicted and experimental results demonstrates the applicability of this approach. (authors)

  2. Forward elastic scattering above the physical threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica; Menon, M.J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2006-07-01

    Making use of the 'extended derivative dispersion relations', recently introduced by Avila and Menon, we analyze forward elastic proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering at any energy above the physical threshold ({radical}s=2m{sub p} {approx} 1,88 GeV). The analysis is based on an analytical parametrization for the total cross section with leading triple pole pomeron (high energies) and full nondegenerated secondary reggeons (intermediate and low energies). Experimental data on total cross section and the ratio r between the real and imaginary parts of the forward amplitude are simultaneously fitted with the CERN-Minuit code and energy cutoff at 4 GeV. We show that, the results are exactly the same as those obtained through standard integral dispersion relations. Physical implications of the results in the pomeron-reggeon context are also discussed. (author)

  3. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...

  4. Analysis of threshold curves for superconducting interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.L.; Hamilton, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold curves for multijunction superconducting interferometers have been calculated previously, showing general agreement with observed features, especially in symmetric cases. We here add some more details to the analysis, paying particular attention to the effects of asymmetries in coupling, inductance, or critical currents. Feed-loop inductance and flux quantization in the feed loop can be important. A changing lobe pattern over many periods, asymmetries within a period, shifting patterns between runs spanning a warm-up, and sudden changes in pattern because of noise in the environment are all quantitatively explainable on the basis of this model. By use of a single ''calibration curve'', the inductance for symmetric two- or three-junction interferometers can be obtained immediately

  5. Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Zumbro, J.D.; Lee, K.S.; Baghaei, H.; Churchwell, S.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.; Peterson, G.A.; Wang, K.; Bosted, P.E.; Spengos, M.; Frois, B.; Martino, J.; Platchkov, S.; Hotta, A.

    1997-01-01

    Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0 to 3 MeV and from 0 to 10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4 fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0--3 MeV and 0--10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson-exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range

  7. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  8. Threshold-based Adaptive Detection for WSN

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-01-06

    Efficient receiver designs for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly important. Cooperative WSNs communicated with the use of L sensors. As the receiver is constrained, it can only process U out of L sensors. Channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix. In this work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm and our proposed threshold selection criteria. This receiver structure assists in determining the optimal Uopt. It also provides the freedom to choose U

  9. Heavy quark threshold dynamics in higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piclum, J.H.

    2007-05-15

    In this work we discuss an important building block for the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order corrections to the pair production of top quarks at threshold. Specifically, we explain the calculation of the third order strong corrections to the matching coefficient of the vector current in non-relativistic Quantum Chromodynamics and provide the result for the fermionic part, containing at least one loop of massless quarks. As a byproduct, we obtain the matching coefficients of the axial-vector, pseudo-scalar and scalar current at the same order. Furthermore, we calculate the three-loop corrections to the quark renormalisation constants in the on-shell scheme in the framework of dimensional regularisation and dimensional reduction. Finally, we compute the third order strong corrections to the chromomagnetic interaction in Heavy Quark Effective Theory. The calculational methods are discussed in detail and results for the master integrals are given. (orig.)

  10. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  11. Magnetic monopoles near the black hole threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, A.; Weinberg, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present new analytic and numerical results for self-gravitating SU(2)-Higgs magnetic monopoles approaching the black hole threshold. Our investigation extends to large Higgs self-coupling, λ, a regime heretofore unexplored. When λ is small, the critical solution where a horizon first appears is extremal Reissner-Nordstroem outside the horizon but has a nonsingular interior. When λ is large, the critical solution is an extremal black hole with non-Abelian hair and a mass less than the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem value. The transition between these two regimes is reminiscent of a first-order phase transition. We analyze in detail the approach to these critical solutions as the Higgs expectation value is varied, and compare this analysis with the numerical results. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  13. Threshold-based Adaptive Detection for WSN

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.; Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Efficient receiver designs for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly important. Cooperative WSNs communicated with the use of L sensors. As the receiver is constrained, it can only process U out of L sensors. Channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix. In this work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm and our proposed threshold selection criteria. This receiver structure assists in determining the optimal Uopt. It also provides the freedom to choose U

  14. Calibration of the neutron scintillation counter threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calibrating the threshold of a neutron counter in the form of a 10x10x40 cm plastic scintillator is described. The method is based on the evaluation of the Compton boundary of γ-spectrum from the discrimination curve of counter loading. The results of calibration using 60 Co and 24 Na γ-sources are given. In order to eValuate the Compton edge rapidly, linear extrapolation of the linear part of the discrimination curve towards its intersection with the X axis is recommended. Special measurements have shown that the calibration results do not practically depend on the distance between the cathode of a photomultiplier and the place where collimated γ-radiation of the calibration source reaches the scintillator

  15. Gauge threshold corrections for local string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    We study gauge threshold corrections for local brane models embedded in a large compact space. A large bulk volume gives important contributions to the Konishi and super-Weyl anomalies and the effective field theory analysis implies the unification scale should be enhanced in a model-independent way from M s to RM s . For local D3/D3 models this result is supported by the explicit string computations. In this case the scale RM s comes from the necessity of global cancellation of RR tadpoles sourced by the local model. We also study D3/D7 models and discuss discrepancies with the effective field theory analysis. We comment on phenomenological implications for gauge coupling unification and for the GUT scale.

  16. Thresholds of allergenic proteins in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Knulst, Andre C.

    2005-01-01

    Threshold doses or Estimated Eliciting Doses (EEDs) represent an important new field of research in food allergy. Clinicians and regulators have embraced some toxicological concepts such as LOAEL and NOAEL and applied them to an area of significant clinical uncertainty and interest. The impact of intrinsic human factors (e.g., asthma and exercise) and extrinsic event factors (e.g., season, location and especially dose of allergen) on a future allergic reaction in the community needs to be considered carefully when interpreting results of clinical and research low-dose food challenges. The ongoing cooperation of food allergy research groups in medicine, food science and government will surely deliver results of the highest importance to the wider communities of allergology, food science and technology and the increasing number of allergic consumers

  17. Dynamic multiple thresholding breast boundary detection algorithm for mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Zhou Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Daly, Caroline Plowden; Douglas, Julie A.; Zhang Yiheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Shi Jiazheng; Wei Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Automated detection of breast boundary is one of the fundamental steps for computer-aided analysis of mammograms. In this study, the authors developed a new dynamic multiple thresholding based breast boundary (MTBB) detection method for digitized mammograms. Methods: A large data set of 716 screen-film mammograms (442 CC view and 274 MLO view) obtained from consecutive cases of an Institutional Review Board approved project were used. An experienced breast radiologist manually traced the breast boundary on each digitized image using a graphical interface to provide a reference standard. The initial breast boundary (MTBB-Initial) was obtained by dynamically adapting the threshold to the gray level range in local regions of the breast periphery. The initial breast boundary was then refined by using gradient information from horizontal and vertical Sobel filtering to obtain the final breast boundary (MTBB-Final). The accuracy of the breast boundary detection algorithm was evaluated by comparison with the reference standard using three performance metrics: The Hausdorff distance (HDist), the average minimum Euclidean distance (AMinDist), and the area overlap measure (AOM). Results: In comparison with the authors' previously developed gradient-based breast boundary (GBB) algorithm, it was found that 68%, 85%, and 94% of images had HDist errors less than 6 pixels (4.8 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 89%, 90%, and 96% of images had AMinDist errors less than 1.5 pixels (1.2 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 96%, 98%, and 99% of images had AOM values larger than 0.9 for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. The improvement by the MTBB-Final method was statistically significant for all the evaluation measures by the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: The MTBB approach that combined dynamic multiple thresholding and gradient information provided better performance than the breast boundary

  18. Overview of L-H power threshold studies in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Biewer, T.M.; Kaye, S.M.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mueller, D.; Stevenson, T.A.; Wilson, J.R.; Chang, C.S.; Park, G-Y.; Meyer, H.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A summary of results from recent L-H power threshold (P LH ) experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is presented. First P LH (normalized linearly by plasma density) was found to be a minimum in double-null configuration, tending to increase as the plasma was shifted more strongly towards lower- or upper-single null configuration with either neutral beam or rf heating. The measured P LH /n e was comparable with neutral beam or rf heating, suggesting that rotation was not playing a dominant role in setting the value of P LH . The role of triangularity (δ bot ) in setting P LH /n e is less clear: while 50% less auxiliary heating power was required to access H-mode at low δ bot than at high δ bot , the high δ bot discharges had lower ohmic heating and higher dW/dt, leading to comparable loss of power over a range of δ bot . In addition, the dependences of P LH on the density, species (helium versus deuterium), plasma current, applied non-axisymmetric error fields and lithium wall conditioning are summarized.

  19. Threshold Games and Cooperation on Multiplayer Graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare B Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect on cooperation in multiplayer games, when the population from which all individuals are drawn is structured-i.e. when a given individual is only competing with a small subset of the entire population.To optimize the focus on multiplayer effects, a class of games were chosen for which the payoff depends nonlinearly on the number of cooperators-this ensures that the game cannot be represented as a sum of pair-wise interactions, and increases the likelihood of observing behaviour different from that seen in two-player games. The chosen class of games are named "threshold games", and are defined by a threshold, M > 0, which describes the minimal number of cooperators in a given match required for all the participants to receive a benefit. The model was studied primarily through numerical simulations of large populations of individuals, each with interaction neighbourhoods described by various classes of networks.When comparing the level of cooperation in a structured population to the mean-field model, we find that most types of structure lead to a decrease in cooperation. This is both interesting and novel, simply due to the generality and breadth of relevance of the model-it is likely that any model with similar payoff structure exhibits related behaviour. More importantly, we find that the details of the behaviour depends to a large extent on the size of the immediate neighbourhoods of the individuals, as dictated by the network structure. In effect, the players behave as if they are part of a much smaller, fully mixed, population, which we suggest an expression for.

  20. Bi-criteria travelling salesman subtour problem with time threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Thenepalle, Jayanth; Singamsetty, Purusotham

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the bi-criteria travelling salesman subtour problem with time threshold (BTSSP-T), which comes from the family of the travelling salesman problem (TSP) and is NP-hard in the strong sense. The problem arises in several application domains, mainly in routing and scheduling contexts. Here, the model focuses on two criteria: total travel distance and gains attained. The BTSSP-T aims to determine a subtour that starts and ends at the same city and visits a subset of cities at a minimum travel distance with maximum gains, such that the time spent on the tour does not exceed the predefined time threshold. A zero-one integer-programming problem is adopted to formulate this model with all practical constraints, and it includes a finite set of feasible solutions (one for each tour). Two algorithms, namely, the Lexi-Search Algorithm (LSA) and the Tabu Search (TS) algorithm have been developed to solve the BTSSP-T problem. The proposed LSA implicitly enumerates the feasible patterns and provides an efficient solution with backtracking, whereas the TS, which is metaheuristic, will give the better approximate solution. A numerical example is demonstrated in order to understand the search mechanism of the LSA. Numerical experiments are carried out in the MATLAB environment, on the different benchmark instances available in the TSPLIB domain as well as on randomly generated test instances. The experimental results show that the proposed LSA works better than the TS algorithm in terms of solution quality and, computationally, both LSA and TS are competitive.

  1. Economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness thresholds: signals to firms and implications for R & D investment and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Goldberg, Robert; Golec, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe how reimbursement cost-effectiveness thresholds, per unit of health benefit, whether set explicitly or observed implicitly via historical reimbursement decisions, serve as a signal to firms about the commercial viability of their R&D projects (including candidate products for in-licensing). Traditional finance methods for R&D project valuations, such as net present value analyses (NPV), incorporate information from these payer reimbursement signals to help determine which R&D projects should be continued and which should be terminated (in the case of the latter because they yield an NPV important for reimbursement thresholds to reflect the economic value of the unit of health benefit being considered for reimbursement. Thresholds set too low (below the economic value of the health benefit) will result in R&D investment levels that are too low relative to the economic value of R&D (on the margin). Similarly, thresholds set too high (above the economic value of the health benefit) will result in inefficiently high levels of R&D spending. The US in particular, which represents approximately half of the global pharmaceutical market (based on sales), and which seems poised to begin undertaking cost effectiveness in a systematic way, needs to exert caution in setting policies that explicitly or implicitly establish cost-effectiveness reimbursement thresholds for healthcare products and technologies, such as pharmaceuticals.

  2. Empirical gradient threshold technique for automated segmentation across image modalities and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, J; Majurski, M; Peskin, A; Breen, C; Bajcsy, P; Brady, M

    2015-10-01

    New microscopy technologies are enabling image acquisition of terabyte-sized data sets consisting of hundreds of thousands of images. In order to retrieve and analyze the biological information in these large data sets, segmentation is needed to detect the regions containing cells or cell colonies. Our work with hundreds of large images (each 21,000×21,000 pixels) requires a segmentation method that: (1) yields high segmentation accuracy, (2) is applicable to multiple cell lines with various densities of cells and cell colonies, and several imaging modalities, (3) can process large data sets in a timely manner, (4) has a low memory footprint and (5) has a small number of user-set parameters that do not require adjustment during the segmentation of large image sets. None of the currently available segmentation methods meet all these requirements. Segmentation based on image gradient thresholding is fast and has a low memory footprint. However, existing techniques that automate the selection of the gradient image threshold do not work across image modalities, multiple cell lines, and a wide range of foreground/background densities (requirement 2) and all failed the requirement for robust parameters that do not require re-adjustment with time (requirement 5). We present a novel and empirically derived image gradient threshold selection method for separating foreground and background pixels in an image that meets all the requirements listed above. We quantify the difference between our approach and existing ones in terms of accuracy, execution speed, memory usage and number of adjustable parameters on a reference data set. This reference data set consists of 501 validation images with manually determined segmentations and image sizes ranging from 0.36 Megapixels to 850 Megapixels. It includes four different cell lines and two image modalities: phase contrast and fluorescent. Our new technique, called Empirical Gradient Threshold (EGT), is derived from this reference

  3. Speech-in-Noise Tests and Supra-threshold Auditory Evoked Potentials as Metrics for Noise Damage and Clinical Trial Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-09-01

    In humans, the accepted clinical standards for detecting hearing loss are the behavioral audiogram, based on the absolute detection threshold of pure-tones, and the threshold auditory brainstem response (ABR). The audiogram and the threshold ABR are reliable and sensitive measures of hearing thresholds in human listeners. However, recent results from noise-exposed animals demonstrate that noise exposure can cause substantial neurodegeneration in the peripheral auditory system without degrading pure-tone audiometric thresholds. It has been suggested that clinical measures of auditory performance conducted with stimuli presented above the detection threshold may be more sensitive than the behavioral audiogram in detecting early-stage noise-induced hearing loss in listeners with audiometric thresholds within normal limits. Supra-threshold speech-in-noise testing and supra-threshold ABR responses are reviewed here, given that they may be useful supplements to the behavioral audiogram for assessment of possible neurodegeneration in noise-exposed listeners. Supra-threshold tests may be useful for assessing the effects of noise on the human inner ear, and the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent noise trauma. The current state of the science does not necessarily allow us to define a single set of best practice protocols. Nonetheless, we encourage investigators to incorporate these metrics into test batteries when feasible, with an effort to standardize procedures to the greatest extent possible as new reports emerge.

  4. Inertial cavitation threshold of nested microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, N; Dicker, S; Lewin, Peter; Wrenn, S P

    2015-04-01

    Cavitation of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) promotes both beneficial and detrimental bioeffects in vivo (Radhakrishnan et al., 2013) [1]. The ability to determine the inertial cavitation threshold of UCA microbubbles has potential application in contrast imaging, development of therapeutic agents, and evaluation of localized effects on the body (Ammi et al., 2006) [2]. This study evaluates a novel UCA and its inertial cavitation behavior as determined by a home built cavitation detection system. Two 2.25 MHz transducers are placed at a 90° angle to one another where one transducer is driven by a high voltage pulser and the other transducer receives the signal from the oscillating microbubble. The sample chamber is placed in the overlap of the focal region of the two transducers where the microbubbles are exposed to a pulser signal consisting of 600 pulse trains per experiment at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz where each train has four pulses of four cycles. The formulation being analyzed is comprised of an SF6 microbubble coated by a DSPC PEG-3000 monolayer nested within a poly-lactic acid (PLA) spherical shell. The effect of varying shell diameters and microbubble concentration on cavitation threshold profile for peak negative pressures ranging from 50 kPa to 2 MPa are presented and discussed in this paper. The nesting shell decreases inertial cavitation events from 97.96% for an un-nested microbubble to 19.09% for the same microbubbles nested within a 2.53 μm shell. As shell diameter decreases, the percentage of inertially cavitating microbubbles also decreases. For nesting formulations with average outer capsule diameters of 20.52, 14.95, 9.95, 5.55, 2.53, and 1.95 μm, the percentage of sample destroyed at 1 MPa was 51.02, 38.94, 33.25, 25.27, 19.09, and 5.37% respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.

  6. Dental age estimation: the role of probability estimates at the 10 year threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Roberts, Graham

    2014-08-01

    The use of probability at the 18 year threshold has simplified the reporting of dental age estimates for emerging adults. The availability of simple to use widely available software has enabled the development of the probability threshold for individual teeth in growing children. Tooth development stage data from a previous study at the 10 year threshold were reused to estimate the probability of developing teeth being above or below the 10 year thresh-hold using the NORMDIST Function in Microsoft Excel. The probabilities within an individual subject are averaged to give a single probability that a subject is above or below 10 years old. To test the validity of this approach dental panoramic radiographs of 50 female and 50 male children within 2 years of the chronological age were assessed with the chronological age masked. Once the whole validation set of 100 radiographs had been assessed the masking was removed and the chronological age and dental age compared. The dental age was compared with chronological age to determine whether the dental age correctly or incorrectly identified a validation subject as above or below the 10 year threshold. The probability estimates correctly identified children as above or below on 94% of occasions. Only 2% of the validation group with a chronological age of less than 10 years were assigned to the over 10 year group. This study indicates the very high accuracy of assignment at the 10 year threshold. Further work at other legally important age thresholds is needed to explore the value of this approach to the technique of age estimation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Differential reconstructed gene interaction networks for deriving toxicity threshold in chemical risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi; Maxwell, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Nan; Perkins, Edward J; Zhang, Chaoyang; Gong, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathway alterations reflected as changes in gene expression regulation and gene interaction can result from cellular exposure to toxicants. Such information is often used to elucidate toxicological modes of action. From a risk assessment perspective, alterations in biological pathways are a rich resource for setting toxicant thresholds, which may be more sensitive and mechanism-informed than traditional toxicity endpoints. Here we developed a novel differential networks (DNs) appro...

  8. Towards a unifying basis of auditory thresholds: binaural summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Absolute auditory threshold decreases with increasing sound duration, a phenomenon explainable by the assumptions that the sound evokes neural events whose probabilities of occurrence are proportional to the sound's amplitude raised to an exponent of about 3 and that a constant number of events are required for threshold (Heil and Neubauer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6151-6156, 2003). Based on this probabilistic model and on the assumption of perfect binaural summation, an equation is derived here that provides an explicit expression of the binaural threshold as a function of the two monaural thresholds, irrespective of whether they are equal or unequal, and of the exponent in the model. For exponents >0, the predicted binaural advantage is largest when the two monaural thresholds are equal and decreases towards zero as the monaural threshold difference increases. This equation is tested and the exponent derived by comparing binaural thresholds with those predicted on the basis of the two monaural thresholds for different values of the exponent. The thresholds, measured in a large sample of human subjects with equal and unequal monaural thresholds and for stimuli with different temporal envelopes, are compatible only with an exponent close to 3. An exponent of 3 predicts a binaural advantage of 2 dB when the two ears are equally sensitive. Thus, listening with two (equally sensitive) ears rather than one has the same effect on absolute threshold as doubling duration. The data suggest that perfect binaural summation occurs at threshold and that peripheral neural signals are governed by an exponent close to 3. They might also shed new light on mechanisms underlying binaural summation of loudness.

  9. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Guo; Kang-He Xie; Yue-Bao Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1) the flow with the threshold gradie...

  10. Development of threshold action criteria for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.; Baldewicz, W.L.

    1982-06-01

    A survey of recently threshold criteria for regulatory action on LWRs is presented together with some commentary. This is followed by a new proposal for threshold action criteria which includes some different risk attributes than are found in previous criteria. Some preliminary risk values are suggested for the criteria and then evaluated in terms of a few hypothetical accident scenarios. Finally, several licensing issues are examined in terms of various threshold action criteria

  11. Simplified Threshold RSA with Adaptive and Proactive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almansa Guerra, Jesus Fernando; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2006-01-01

    We present the currently simplest, most efficient, optimally resilient, adaptively secure, and proactive threshold RSA scheme. A main technical contribution is a new rewinding strategy for analysing threshold signature schemes. This new rewinding strategy allows to prove adaptive security...... of a proactive threshold signature scheme which was previously assumed to be only statically secure. As a separate contribution we prove that our protocol is secure in the UC framework....

  12. Synergistic effects in threshold models on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Jonas S.; Porter, Mason A.

    2018-01-01

    Network structure can have a significant impact on the propagation of diseases, memes, and information on social networks. Different types of spreading processes (and other dynamical processes) are affected by network architecture in different ways, and it is important to develop tractable models of spreading processes on networks to explore such issues. In this paper, we incorporate the idea of synergy into a two-state ("active" or "passive") threshold model of social influence on networks. Our model's update rule is deterministic, and the influence of each meme-carrying (i.e., active) neighbor can—depending on a parameter—either be enhanced or inhibited by an amount that depends on the number of active neighbors of a node. Such a synergistic system models social behavior in which the willingness to adopt either accelerates or saturates in a way that depends on the number of neighbors who have adopted that behavior. We illustrate that our model's synergy parameter has a crucial effect on system dynamics, as it determines whether degree-k nodes are possible or impossible to activate. We simulate synergistic meme spreading on both random-graph models and networks constructed from empirical data. Using a heterogeneous mean-field approximation, which we derive under the assumption that a network is locally tree-like, we are able to determine which synergy-parameter values allow degree-k nodes to be activated for many networks and for a broad family of synergistic models.

  13. Threshold nonlinear absorption in Zeeman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Andal; Hazra, Abheera; Sandhya, S N

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the absorption spectroscopy from a collection of gaseous 87 Rb atoms at room temperature irradiated with three fields. Two of these fields are in a pump-probe saturation absorption configuration. The third field co-propagates with the pump field. The three fields address Zeeman degenerate transitions between hyperfine levels 5S 1/2 , F = 1 and 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 around the D2 line. We find a sub-natural absorption resonance in the counter-propagating probe field for equal detunings of all three fields. This absorption arises in conjunction with the appearance of increased transmission due to electro-magnetically induced transparency in the co-propagating fields. The novel feature of this absorption is its onset only for the blue of 5P 3/2 , F = 0, as the laser frequency is scanned through the excited states 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 and F = 2. The absorption rapidly rises to near maximum values within a narrow band of frequency near 5P 3/2 , F = 0. Our experimental results are compared with a dressed atom model. We find the threshold absorption to be a result of coherent interaction between the dressed states of our system.

  14. Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers, and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates with different species traits, using a wide range of microplastic concentrations. Standardized 28 days single species bioassays were performed under environmentally relevant exposure conditions using polystyrene microplastics (20–500 μm) mixed with sediment at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% sediment dry weight (dw). Microplastics caused no effects on the survival of Gammarus pulex, Hyalella azteca, Asellus aquaticus, Sphaerium corneum, and Tubifex spp. and no effects were found on the reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus. No significant differences in growth were found for H. azteca, A. aquaticus, S. corneum, L. variegatus, and Tubifex spp. However, G. pulex showed a significant reduction in growth (EC10 = 1.07% sediment dw) and microplastic uptake was proportional with microplastic concentrations in sediment. These results indicate that although the risks of environmentally realistic concentrations of microplastics may be low, they still may affect the biodiversity and the functioning of aquatic communities which after all also depend on the sensitive species. PMID:29337537

  15. Nuclear threshold countries in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the nuclear-technological capacities and the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation in the six nuclear threshold countries: Argentina, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Israel and South Africa. All six states have developed sensitive nuclear facilities that are not covered by IAEA-safeguards. The risk of nuclear proliferation in Argentina and Brazil is considered at present as non-existent. The economic and especially the nuclear cooperation between the two states and the mutual visits of the unsafeguarded nuclear facilities has promoted a process of confidence building and political detente between them. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation in the Middle East is considered high. It is estimated that Israel already has built up a nuclear weapons arsenal. The growing political influence of nationalistic groups in India and Pakistan, that favour a course of confrontation between the two states, have augmented the risk of nuclear proliferation in both states. South Africa is economically and militarily clearly dominating its black ruled neighbours. The Apartheid-regime is at present negociating with the nuclear weapons states about its adherence to the NPT, but demands political, economic and military concessions in exchange for its adherence to the treaty. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. MOS Current Mode Logic Near Threshold Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shapiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Near threshold circuits (NTC are an attractive and promising technology that provides significant power savings with some delay penalty. The combination of NTC technology with MOS current mode logic (MCML is examined in this work. By combining MCML with NTC, the constant power consumption of MCML is reduced to leakage power levels that can be tolerated in certain modern applications. Additionally, the speed of NTC is improved due to the high speed nature of MCML technology. A 14 nm Fin field effect transistor (FinFET technology is used to evaluate these combined circuit techniques. A 32-bit Kogge Stone adder is chosen as a demonstration vehicle for feasibility analysis. MCML with NTC is shown to yield enhanced power efficiency when operated above 1 GHz with a 100% activity factor as compared to standard CMOS. MCML with NTC is more power efficient than standard CMOS beyond 9 GHz over a wide range of activity factors. MCML with NTC also exhibits significantly lower noise levels as compared to standard CMOS. The results of the analysis demonstrate that pairing NTC and MCML is efficient when operating at high frequencies and activity factors.

  17. Some threshold spectral problems of Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, X.

    2009-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with some spectral problems of the Schroedinger operators. We first consider the semi-classical limit of the number of bound states of unique two-cluster N-body Schroedinger operator. Then we use Dirichlet-Neumann bracket to get semi-classical limit of Riesz means of the discrete eigenvalues of N-body Schroedinger operator. The effective potential of N-body Schroedinger operator with Coulomb potential is also considered and we find that the effective potential has critical decay at infinity. Thus, the Schroedinger operator with critical potential is studied in this thesis. We study the coupling constant threshold of Schroedinger operator with critical potential and the asymptotic expansion of resolvent of Schroedinger operator with critical potential. We use that expansion to study low-energy asymptotics of derivative of spectral shift function for perturbation with critical decay. After that, we use this result and the known result for high-energy asymptotic expansion of spectral shift function to obtain the Levinson theorem. (author)

  18. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  19. Threshold states in /sup 26/Al revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, A E; McDonald, A B; Wang, T F; Howard, A J; Magnus, P V; Parker, P D

    1986-03-31

    Threshold states in /sup 26/Al have been re-examined using the /sup 27/Al(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 26/Al and /sup 25/Mg(/sup 3/He,d..gamma..)/sup 26/Al reactions in order to resolve apparent ambiguities in some of the previously reported properties of these states. In particular, the s-wave resonance strength reported at E=37 keV is now found to be located at E/sub c.m./=57.54 keV, and the proton width for the 374 keV resonance has been revised to GAMMA/sub p/=0.82 eV. These results have been used to calculate a new resonance strength of ..omega gamma..= 1.6 x 10/sup -13/ eV for the 57.54 keV resonance. As a result, the stellar production rate for /sup 26/Al is increased by a factor approx.=3-38 for temperatures T/sub 9/=0.05-0.1.

  20. Thresholds for Coral Bleaching: Are Synergistic Factors and Shifting Thresholds Changing the Landscape for Management? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, C.; Donner, S. D.; Logan, C. A.; Gledhill, D. K.; Liu, G.; Heron, S. F.; Christensen, T.; Rauenzahn, J.; Morgan, J.; Parker, B. A.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Skirving, W. J.; Strong, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    As carbon dioxide rises in the atmosphere, climate change and ocean acidification are modifying important physical and chemical parameters in the oceans with resulting impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Rising CO2 is warming the world’s oceans and causing corals to bleach, with both alarming frequency and severity. The frequent return of stressful temperatures has already resulted in major damage to many of the world’s coral reefs and is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. Warmer oceans also have contributed to a rise in coral infectious diseases. Both bleaching and infectious disease can result in coral mortality and threaten one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and the important ecosystem services they provide. Additionally, ocean acidification from rising CO2 is reducing the availability of carbonate ions needed by corals to build their skeletons and perhaps depressing the threshold for bleaching. While thresholds vary among species and locations, it is clear that corals around the world are already experiencing anomalous temperatures that are too high, too often, and that warming is exceeding the rate at which corals can adapt. This is despite a complex adaptive capacity that involves both the coral host and the zooxanthellae, including changes in the relative abundance of the latter in their coral hosts. The safe upper limit for atmospheric CO2 is probably somewhere below 350ppm, a level we passed decades ago, and for temperature is a sustained global temperature increase of less than 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. How much can corals acclimate and/or adapt to the unprecedented fast changing environmental conditions? Any change in the threshold for coral bleaching as the result of acclimation and/or adaption may help corals to survive in the future but adaptation to one stress may be maladaptive to another. There also is evidence that ocean acidification and nutrient enrichment modify this threshold. What do shifting thresholds mean

  1. Determinants of Change in the Cost-effectiveness Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulden, Mike; O'Mahony, James; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    The cost-effectiveness threshold in health care systems with a constrained budget should be determined by the cost-effectiveness of displacing health care services to fund new interventions. Using comparative statics, we review some potential determinants of the threshold, including the budget for health care, the demand for existing health care interventions, the technical efficiency of existing interventions, and the development of new health technologies. We consider the anticipated direction of impact that would affect the threshold following a change in each of these determinants. Where the health care system is technically efficient, an increase in the health care budget unambiguously raises the threshold, whereas an increase in the demand for existing, non-marginal health interventions unambiguously lowers the threshold. Improvements in the technical efficiency of existing interventions may raise or lower the threshold, depending on the cause of the improvement in efficiency, whether the intervention is already funded, and, if so, whether it is marginal. New technologies may also raise or lower the threshold, depending on whether the new technology is a substitute for an existing technology and, again, whether the existing technology is marginal. Our analysis permits health economists and decision makers to assess if and in what direction the threshold may change over time. This matters, as threshold changes impact the cost-effectiveness of interventions that require decisions now but have costs and effects that fall in future periods.

  2. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding the user with the highest channel quality within the minimal number of mini-slots by adjusting the threshold every mini-slot, optimizing the threshold is of paramount importance. Hence, in this paper we first discuss how to compute the optimal threshold along with two tight approximations for the optimal threshold. Closed-form expressions are provided for those approximations for simple calculations. Then, we consider linear quantization of the threshold to take the limited number of bits for signaling messages in practical systems into consideration. Due to the limited granularity for the quantized threshold value, an irreducible scheduling outage floor is observed. The numerical results show that the two approximations offer lower scheduling outage probability floors compared to the conventional algorithm when the threshold is quantized. © 2006 IEEE.

  3. Low heat pain thresholds in migraineurs between attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Zuniga, Leslie; Chong, Catherine D

    2015-06-01

    Between attacks, migraine is associated with hypersensitivities to sensory stimuli. The objective of this study was to investigate hypersensitivity to pain in migraineurs between attacks. Cutaneous heat pain thresholds were measured in 112 migraineurs, migraine free for ≥ 48 hours, and 75 healthy controls. Pain thresholds at the head and at the arm were compared between migraineurs and controls using two-tailed t-tests. Among migraineurs, correlations between heat pain thresholds and headache frequency, allodynia symptom severity, and time interval until next headache were calculated. Migraineurs had lower pain thresholds than controls at the head (43.9 ℃ ± 3.2 ℃ vs. 45.1 ℃ ± 3.0 ℃, p = 0.015) and arm (43.2 ℃ ± 3.4 ℃ vs. 44.8 ℃ ± 3.3 ℃, p pain thresholds and headache frequency or allodynia symptom severity. For the 41 migraineurs for whom time to next headache was known, there were positive correlations between time to next headache and pain thresholds at the head (r = 0.352, p = 0.024) and arm (r = 0.312, p = 0.047). This study provides evidence that migraineurs have low heat pain thresholds between migraine attacks. Mechanisms underlying these lower pain thresholds could also predispose migraineurs to their next migraine attack, a hypothesis supported by finding positive correlations between pain thresholds and time to next migraine attack. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9952 and acceptable recovery of 91.8%–104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%, indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM.

  5. Turbidity Threshold sampling in watershed research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand Eads; Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - When monitoring suspended sediment for watershed research, reliable and accurate results may be a higher priority than in other settings. Timing and frequency of data collection are the most important factors influencing the accuracy of suspended sediment load estimates, and, in most watersheds, suspended sediment transport is dominated by a few, large...

  6. Hexavalent chrome: threshold concept for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R E

    1990-03-01

    Certain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds when administered via inhalation at high doses have the potential to induce lung tumors in humans and experimental animals. Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential human and animal nutrient at levels of 50 to 200 micrograms/day. Recent data have shown that the human body is able to reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+. This reduction occurs in bodily fluids such as gastric juice, epithelial lining fluid of the respiratory tract, blood, and other fluids. Secondary reduction occurs at the cellular level by the cytosol, mitochondria, and microsomes. Thus, at low levels of exposure hexavalent chromium ions are reduced before the 6+ ions can interact with DNA unless the dose is sufficient to overwhelm the body's reduction capacity. This paper summarizes the available data concerning the reducing ability of the body and formulates the steps in the mechanism of cancer induction. These steps include: (1) only certain Cr6+ compounds have the capacity to interact with cellular components; (2) Cr6+ is reduced by body fluids and excess Cr6+ enters the cell (Cr3+ is poorly absorbed across membranes); (3) cellular organelles and the cytoplasm reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+; (4) excess Cr6+ can enter the nucleus; (5) Cr6+ reduction through 5+ and 4+ to 3+ has a potential to interact with the DNA molecule; and (6) if unrepaired, this DNA damage can lead to cancer induction. On the basis of current evidence Cr6+ has a threshold for carcinogenic potential in humans that is greater than the current TLV.

  7. Objective threshold for distinguishing complicated tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the likelihood of human error in a reliable manner is really important for enhancing the safety of a large process control system such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In this regard, from the point of view of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), various kinds of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods have been used for several decades in order to systematically evaluate the effect of human error on the safety of NPPs. However, one of the recurrence issues is to determine the level of an important Performance Shaping Factor (PSF) by using a clear and objective manner with respect to the context of a given task. Unfortunately, there is no such criterion for a certain PSF such as the complexity of a task. For this reason, in this study, an objective criterion that is helpful for identifying a complicated task is suggested based on the Task Complexity (TACOM) measure. To this end, subjective difficulty scores rated by high speed train drivers are collected. After that, subjective difficulty scores are compared with the associated TACOM scores being quantified based on tasks to be conducted by high speed train drivers. As a result, it is expected that high speed train drivers feel a significant difficulty when they are faced with tasks of which the TACOM scores are greater than 4.2. Since TACOM measure is a kind of general tool to quantify the complexity of tasks to be done by human operators, it is promising to conclude that this value can be regarded as a common threshold representing what a complicated task is.

  8. Top-quark pair production near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Y.; Fujii, K.; Hagiwara, K.; Murayama, H.; Ng, C.

    1993-01-01

    We present a novel formalism to calculate the total and the differential cross sections for heavy unstable top-quark pair production near threshold. Within the context of the nonrelativistic quark model, we introduce the running toponium width Γ FTHETA (E,p) in the Schroedinger equation for the three-point Green's function that governs the t bar t contribution to the e + e- annihilation process. The effect of the running of the width is found to be significant in two aspects: (i) it takes account of the phase-space volume for the decay process t bar t→bW + bar bW- and provides a consistent framework for calculating the differential cross sections; and (ii) it reduces the widths of the low-lying resonances to considerably less than 2Γ t (m t 2 ). Furthermore, the running of the width causes the total cross section to decrease significantly at c.m. energies below the first ''resonance'' enhancement, whereas it makes the ''peak'' cross section more distinct than is obtained in the fixed toponium width approximation. We use the two-loop-improved QCD potential in our calculation, and the α s (m Z ) Mbar S dependences of the total and differential cross sections are studied quantitatively, where M bar S denotes the modified minimal subtraction scheme. We find that the correlations in the α s and m t measurements are opposite in the total and differential cross sections, and the simultaneous measurements would lead to an accurate determination of both parameters

  9. Critical thresholds in flocking hydrodynamics with non-local alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Eitan; Tan, Changhui

    2014-11-13

    We study the large-time behaviour of Eulerian systems augmented with non-local alignment. Such systems arise as hydrodynamic descriptions of agent-based models for self-organized dynamics, e.g. Cucker & Smale (2007 IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 52, 852-862. (doi:10.1109/TAC.2007.895842)) and Motsch & Tadmor (2011 J. Stat. Phys. 144, 923-947. (doi:10.1007/s10955-011-0285-9)) models. We prove that, in analogy with the agent-based models, the presence of non-local alignment enforces strong solutions to self-organize into a macroscopic flock. This then raises the question of existence of such strong solutions. We address this question in one- and two-dimensional set-ups, proving global regularity for subcritical initial data. Indeed, we show that there exist critical thresholds in the phase space of the initial configuration which dictate the global regularity versus a finite-time blow-up. In particular, we explore the regularity of non-local alignment in the presence of vacuum. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical Power: An Important Fatigue Threshold in Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, David C.; Burnley, Mark; Vanhatalo, Anni; Rossiter, Harry B.; Jones, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power, CP) and the so-called W′ (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles - respiratory, metabolic and contractile - within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility. Rather than calibrating equivalent exercise intensities relative to metabolically distant parameters such as the lactate threshold or V̇O2 max, setting the exercise intensity relative to CP unifies the profile of systemic and intramuscular responses and, if greater than CP, predicts the tolerable duration of exercise until W′ is expended, V̇O2 max is attained, and intolerance is manifested. CP may be regarded as a ‘fatigue threshold’ in the sense that it separates exercise intensity domains within which the physiological responses to exercise can (CP) be stabilized. The CP concept therefore enables important insights into 1) the principal loci of fatigue development (central vs. peripheral) at different intensities of exercise, and 2) mechanisms of cardiovascular and metabolic control and their modulation by factors such as O2 delivery. Practically, the CP concept has great potential application in optimizing athletic training programs and performance as well as improving the life quality for individuals enduring chronic disease. PMID:27031742

  11. Influence of uncertain identification of triggering rainfall on the assessment of landslide early warning thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, David J.; Cancelliere, Antonino; Greco, Roberto; Bogaard, Thom A.

    2018-03-01

    Uncertainty in rainfall datasets and landslide inventories is known to have negative impacts on the assessment of landslide-triggering thresholds. In this paper, we perform a quantitative analysis of the impacts of uncertain knowledge of landslide initiation instants on the assessment of rainfall intensity-duration landslide early warning thresholds. The analysis is based on a synthetic database of rainfall and landslide information, generated by coupling a stochastic rainfall generator and a physically based hydrological and slope stability model, and is therefore error-free in terms of knowledge of triggering instants. This dataset is then perturbed according to hypothetical reporting scenarios that allow simulation of possible errors in landslide-triggering instants as retrieved from historical archives. The impact of these errors is analysed jointly using different criteria to single out rainfall events from a continuous series and two typical temporal aggregations of rainfall (hourly and daily). The analysis shows that the impacts of the above uncertainty sources can be significant, especially when errors exceed 1 day or the actual instants follow the erroneous ones. Errors generally lead to underestimated thresholds, i.e. lower than those that would be obtained from an error-free dataset. Potentially, the amount of the underestimation can be enough to induce an excessive number of false positives, hence limiting possible landslide mitigation benefits. Moreover, the uncertain knowledge of triggering rainfall limits the possibility to set up links between thresholds and physio-geographical factors.

  12. Influence of uncertain identification of triggering rainfall on the assessment of landslide early warning thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Peres

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in rainfall datasets and landslide inventories is known to have negative impacts on the assessment of landslide-triggering thresholds. In this paper, we perform a quantitative analysis of the impacts of uncertain knowledge of landslide initiation instants on the assessment of rainfall intensity–duration landslide early warning thresholds. The analysis is based on a synthetic database of rainfall and landslide information, generated by coupling a stochastic rainfall generator and a physically based hydrological and slope stability model, and is therefore error-free in terms of knowledge of triggering instants. This dataset is then perturbed according to hypothetical reporting scenarios that allow simulation of possible errors in landslide-triggering instants as retrieved from historical archives. The impact of these errors is analysed jointly using different criteria to single out rainfall events from a continuous series and two typical temporal aggregations of rainfall (hourly and daily. The analysis shows that the impacts of the above uncertainty sources can be significant, especially when errors exceed 1 day or the actual instants follow the erroneous ones. Errors generally lead to underestimated thresholds, i.e. lower than those that would be obtained from an error-free dataset. Potentially, the amount of the underestimation can be enough to induce an excessive number of false positives, hence limiting possible landslide mitigation benefits. Moreover, the uncertain knowledge of triggering rainfall limits the possibility to set up links between thresholds and physio-geographical factors.

  13. Reference hearing threshold levels for short duration signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Legarth, Søren Vase

    2008-01-01

    for the determination of reference hearing threshold levels. The results are given as peak-to-peak equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (peETSPL). The results are in good agreement with other sparse results from literature and are part of the basis for the ISO 389-6 standard from 2007....

  14. Eigen's Error Threshold and Mutational Meltdown in a Quasispecies Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnoli, F.; Bezzi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a toy model for interacting populations connected by mutations and limited by a shared resource. We study the presence of Eigen's error threshold and mutational meltdown. The phase diagram of the system shows that the extinction of the whole population due to mutational meltdown can occur well before an eventual error threshold transition.

  15. Model Threshold untuk Pembelajaran Memproduksi Pantun Kelas XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Nura Murti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The learning pantun method in schools provided less opportunity to develop the students’ creativity in producing pantun. This situation was supported by the result of the observation conducted on eleventh graders at SMAN 2 Bondowoso. It showed that the students tend to plagiarize their pantun. The general objective of this research and development is to develop Threshold Pantun model for learning to produce pantun for elevent graders. The product was presented in guidance book for teachers entitled “Pembelajaran Memproduksi Pantun Menggunakan Model Threshold Pantun untuk Kelas XI”. This study adapted design method of Borg-Gall’s R&D procedure. The result of this study showed that Threshold Pantun model was appropriate to be implemented for learning to produce pantun. Key Words: Threshold Pantun model, produce pantun Abstrak: Pembelajaran pantun di sekolah selama ini kurang mengembangkan kreativitas siswa dalam memproduksi pantun. Hal tersebut dikuatkan oleh hasil observasi siswa kelas XI SMAN 2 Bondowoso yang menunjukkan adanya kecenderungan produk siswa bersifat plagiat. Tujuan penelitian dan pengembangan ini secara umum adalah mengembangkan model Threshold Pantun untuk pembelajaran memproduksi pantun kelas XI..Produk disajikan dalam bentuk buku panduan bagi guru dengan judul “Pembelajaran Memproduksi Pantun Menggunakan Model Threshold Pantun untuk Kelas XI”. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian yang diadaptasi dari prosedur penelitian dan pengembangan Borg dan Gall. Berdasarkan hasil validasi model Threshold Pantun untuk pembelajaran memproduksi pantun layak diimplementasikan. Kata kunci: model Threshold Pantun, memproduksi pantun

  16. Weight, Mass, and Gravity: Threshold Concepts in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary

    2016-01-01

    Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…

  17. 20 CFR 418.1105 - What is the threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the threshold? 418.1105 Section 418.1105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part B Income... in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest $1,000. CMS will publish the threshold amounts...

  18. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  19. On the threshold sensitivity of low background photoneutron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, G.M.; Ponomarchuk, V.A.; Filippov, E.M.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical substantiation is given of determining the sensitivity threshold for a number of photoneutron devices used in practice (Berill-2, Berill-4 etc.). It is shown that, considering various effects and a real time of measurements, the sensitivity threshold of the photoneutron devices waries within the range of 1.3x10 -3 % (Berill-3) to 2.2x10 -5 %

  20. A curve of thresholds governs plague epizootics in Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Davis, Stephen; Begon, Mike

    2012-01-01

    , it is common to assume a threshold defined by the ratio of vector and host abundances. Here, we show in contrast, both from field data and model simulations, that for plague (Yersinia pestis) in Kazakhstan, the invasion threshold quantity is based on the product of its host (Rhombomys opimus) and vector...

  1. 49 CFR 38.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.99 Section 38.99 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.99 Floors, steps and thresholds...

  2. thresholds of gully erosion in the coastal plains sands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    estimating thresholds for gully initiation and sustenance. The entire 413. Km2 Ikpa River basin was covered with grids 1km2 and random number table was used to select 15% of the target population in the basin. The pair-wise correlation technique was employed to establish the threshold values of vegetation cover, organic ...

  3. When do price thresholds matter in retail categories?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Pauwels (Koen); S. Srinivasan (Shuba); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMarketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This

  4. Effects of data resolution and stream delineation threshold area on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also indicate that peak flow and slope of the hydrograph rising limb obtained from the SRTM DEM at different threshold areas (ranging from 0.25% to 3%) are greater than that for the TOPO DEM. Investigating the effects of stream network delineation threshold area on the simulated peak flow shows that the ...

  5. Optimal threshold functions for fault detection and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Cour-Harbo, A. la

    2003-01-01

    Fault diagnosis systems usually comprises two parts: a filtering part and a decision part, the latter typically based on threshold functions. In this paper, systematic ways to choose the threshold values are proposed. Two different test functions for the filtered signals are discussed and a method...

  6. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  7. Estimating the optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to estimate an optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for Zimbabwe. The public debt threshold is estimated by assessing the relationship between public debt and economic growth. The analysis is undertaken to determine the tipping point beyond which increases in public debt adversely affect ...

  8. SETS reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) is used to achieve the symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations. Symbolic manipulation involves changing equations from their original forms into more useful forms - particularly by applying Boolean identities. The SETS program is an interpreter which reads, interprets, and executes SETS user programs. The user writes a SETS user program specifying the processing to be achieved and submits it, along with the required data, for execution by SETS. Because of the general nature of SETS, i.e., the capability to manipulate Boolean equations regardless of their origin, the program has been used for many different kinds of analysis

  9. A critical experimental study of the classical tactile threshold theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Leonel E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tactile sense is being used in a variety of applications involving tactile human-machine interfaces. In a significant number of publications the classical threshold concept plays a central role in modelling and explaining psychophysical experimental results such as in stochastic resonance (SR phenomena. In SR, noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli and the phenomenon is explained stating that the required amplitude to exceed the sensory threshold barrier can be reached by adding noise to a sub-threshold stimulus. We designed an experiment to test the validity of the classical vibrotactile threshold. Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as the classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance level. Nevertheless, our experimental results are above that chance level contradicting the definition of the classical tactile threshold. Results We performed a three alternative forced choice detection experiment on 6 subjects asking them first and second choices. In each trial, only one of the intervals contained a stimulus and the others contained only noise. According to the classical threshold assumptions, a correct second choice response corresponds to a guess attempt with a statistical frequency of 50%. Results show an average of 67.35% (STD = 1.41% for the second choice response that is not explained by the classical threshold definition. Additionally, for low stimulus amplitudes, second choice correct detection is above chance level for any detectability level. Conclusions Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as a classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance

  10. The Irish Cost-Effectiveness Threshold: Does it Support Rational Rationing or Might it Lead to Unintended Harm to Ireland's Health System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, James F; Coughlan, Diarmuid

    2016-01-01

    Ireland is one of the few countries worldwide to have an explicit cost-effectiveness threshold. In 2012, an agreement between government and the pharmaceutical industry that provided substantial savings on existing medications set the threshold at €45,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). This replaced a previously unofficial threshold of €20,000/QALY. According to the agreement, drugs within the threshold will be granted reimbursement, whereas those exceeding it may still be approved following further negotiation. A number of drugs far exceeding the threshold have been approved recently. The agreement only applies to pharmaceuticals. There are four reasons for concern regarding Ireland's threshold. The absence of an explicit threshold for non-drug interventions leaves it unclear if there is parity in willingness to pay across all interventions. As the threshold resembles a price floor rather than a ceiling, in principle it only offers a weak barrier to cost-ineffective interventions. It has no empirical basis. Finally, it is probably too high given recent estimates of a threshold for the UK based on the cost effectiveness of services forgone of approximately £13,000/QALY. An excessive threshold risks causing the Irish health system unintended harm. The lack of an empirically informed threshold means the policy recommendations of cost-effectiveness analysis cannot be considered as fully evidence- based rational rationing. Policy makers should consider these issues and recent Irish legislation that defined cost effectiveness in terms of the opportunity cost of services forgone when choosing what threshold to apply once the current industry agreement expires at the end of 2015

  11. Perioperative transfusion threshold and ambulation after hip revision surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Johansson, Pär I; Dahl, Benny

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion with red blood cells (RBC) may be needed during hip revision surgery but the appropriate haemoglobin concentration (Hb) threshold for transfusion has not been well established. We hypothesized that a higher transfusion threshold would improve ambulation after hip revision...... surgery. METHODS: The trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT00906295). Sixty-six patients aged 18 years or older undergoing hip revision surgery were randomized to receive RBC at a Hb threshold of either 7.3 g/dL (restrictive group) or 8.9 g/dL (liberal group). Postoperative ambulation...... received RBC. CONCLUSIONS: A Hb transfusion threshold of 8.9 g/dL was associated with a statistically significantly faster TUG after hip revision surgery compared to a threshold of 7.3 g/dL but the clinical importance is questionable and the groups did not differ in Hb at the time of testing....

  12. Testing for a Debt-Threshold Effect on Output Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sokbae; Park, Hyunmin; Seo, Myung Hwan; Shin, Youngki

    2017-12-01

    Using the Reinhart-Rogoff dataset, we find a debt threshold not around 90 per cent but around 30 per cent, above which the median real gross domestic product (GDP) growth falls abruptly. Our work is the first to formally test for threshold effects in the relationship between public debt and median real GDP growth. The null hypothesis of no threshold effect is rejected at the 5 per cent significance level for most cases. While we find no evidence of a threshold around 90 per cent, our findings from the post-war sample suggest that the debt threshold for economic growth may exist around a relatively small debt-to-GDP ratio of 30 per cent. Furthermore, countries with debt-to-GDP ratios above 30 per cent have GDP growth that is 1 percentage point lower at the median.

  13. 64 x 64 thresholding photodetector array for optical pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Shaw, Timothy; Yu, Jeffrey W.

    1993-10-01

    A high performance 32 X 32 peak detector array is introduced. This detector consists of a 32 X 32 array of thresholding photo-transistor cells, manufactured with a standard MOSIS digital 2-micron CMOS process. A built-in thresholding function that is able to perform 1024 thresholding operations in parallel strongly distinguishes this chip from available CCD detectors. This high speed detector offers responses from one to 10 milliseconds that is much higher than the commercially available CCD detectors operating at a TV frame rate. The parallel multiple peaks thresholding detection capability makes it particularly suitable for optical correlator and optoelectronically implemented neural networks. The principle of operation, circuit design and the performance characteristics are described. Experimental demonstration of correlation peak detection is also provided. Recently, we have also designed and built an advanced version of a 64 X 64 thresholding photodetector array chip. Experimental investigation of using this chip for pattern recognition is ongoing.

  14. Threshold Considerations and Wetland Reclamation in Alberta's Mineable Oil Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Foote

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil sand extraction in Alberta, Canada is a multibillion dollar industry operating over 143 km² of open pit mining and 4600 km² of other bitumen strata in northern boreal forests. Oil production contributes to Canada-wide GDP, creates socio-cultural problems, provides energy exports and employment, and carries environmental risks regarding long-term reclamation uncertainties. Of particular concern are the implications for wetlands and water supply management. Mining of oil sands is very attractive because proven reserves of known quality occur in an accessible, politically stable environment with existing infrastructure and an estimated 5.5 billion extractable barrels to be mined over the next five decades. Extraction occurs under a set of limiting factors or thresholds including: limited social tolerance at local to international levels for externalities of oil sand production; water demands > availability; limited natural gas supplies for oil processing leading to proposals for hydroelectric dams and nuclear reactors to be constructed; difficulties in reclaiming sufficient habitat area to replace those lost. Replacement of the 85 km² of peat-forming wetlands forecast to be destroyed appears unlikely. Over 840 billion liters of toxic fluid byproducts are currently held in 170 km² of open reservoirs without any known process to purify this water in meaningful time frames even as some of it leaches into adjacent lands and rivers. Costs for wetland reclamation are high with estimates of $4 to $13 billion, or about 6% of the net profits generated from mining those sites. This raises a social equity question of how much reclamation is appropriate. Time frames for economic, political, and ecological actions are not well aligned. Local people on or near mine sites have had to change their area use for decades and have been affected by industrial development. Examining mining effects to estimate thresholds of biophysical realities, time scales

  15. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search low ionization-threshold experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu Thakur, Ritoban [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over 80 years ago we discovered the presence of Dark Matter in our universe. Endeavors in astronomy and cosmology are in consensus with ever improving precision that Dark Matter constitutes an essential 27% of our universe. The Standard Model of Particle Physics does not provide any answers to the Dark Matter problem. It is imperative that we understand Dark Matter and discover its fundamental nature. This is because, alongside other important factors, Dark Matter is responsible for formation of structure in our universe. The very construct in which we sit is defined by its abundance. The Milky Way galaxy, hence life, wouldn't have formed if small over densities of Dark Matter had not caused sufficient accretion of stellar material. Marvelous experiments have been designed based on basic notions to directly and in-directly study Dark Matter, and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment has been a pioneer and forerunner in the direct detection field. Generations of the CDMS experiment were designed with advanced scientific upgrades to detect Dark Matter particles of mass O(100) GeV/c2. This mass-scale was set primarily by predictions from Super Symmetry. Around 2013 the canonical SUSY predictions were losing some ground and several observations (rather hints of signals) from various experiments indicated to the possibility of lighter Dark Matter of mass O(10) GeV/c2. While the SuperCDMS experiment was probing the regular parameter space, the CDMSlite experiment was conceived to dedicatedly search for light Dark Matter using a novel technology. "CDMSlite" stands for CDMS - low ionization threshold experiment. Here we utilize a unique electron phonon coupling mechanism to measure ionization generated by scattering of light particles. Typically signals from such low energy recoils would be washed under instrumental noise. In CDMSlite via generation of Luke-Neganov phonons we can detect the small ionization energies, amplified in

  16. Is the diagnostic threshold for bulimia nervosa clinically meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Danielle A N; Bohrer, Brittany K; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2018-01-01

    The DSM-5 differentiates full- and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN) according to average weekly frequencies of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. This study was the first to evaluate the modified frequency criterion for BN published in the DSM-5. The purpose of this study was to test whether community-recruited adults (N=125; 83.2% women) with current full-threshold (n=77) or sub-threshold BN (n=48) differed in comorbid psychopathology and eating disorder (ED) illness duration, symptom severity, and clinical impairment. Participants completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment and participated in semi-structured clinical interviews of ED- and non-ED psychopathology. Differences between the sub- and full-threshold BN groups were assessed using MANOVA and Chi-square analyses. ED illness duration, age-of-onset, body mass index (BMI), alcohol and drug misuse, and the presence of current and lifetime mood or anxiety disorders did not differ between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN. Participants with full-threshold BN had higher levels of clinical impairment and weight concern than those with sub-threshold BN. However, minimal clinically important difference analyses suggested that statistically significant differences between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN on clinical impairment and weight concern were not clinically significant. In conclusion, sub-threshold BN did not differ from full-threshold BN in clinically meaningful ways. Future studies are needed to identify an improved frequency criterion for BN that better distinguishes individuals in ways that will more validly inform prognosis and effective treatment planning for BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ECG signal performance de-noising assessment based on threshold tuning of dual-tree wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El B'charri, Oussama; Latif, Rachid; Elmansouri, Khalifa; Abenaou, Abdenbi; Jenkal, Wissam

    2017-02-07

    Since the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal has a low frequency and a weak amplitude, it is sensitive to miscellaneous mixed noises, which may reduce the diagnostic accuracy and hinder the physician's correct decision on patients. The dual tree wavelet transform (DT-WT) is one of the most recent enhanced versions of discrete wavelet transform. However, threshold tuning on this method for noise removal from ECG signal has not been investigated yet. In this work, we shall provide a comprehensive study on the impact of the choice of threshold algorithm, threshold value, and the appropriate wavelet decomposition level to evaluate the ECG signal de-noising performance. A set of simulations is performed on both synthetic and real ECG signals to achieve the promised results. First, the synthetic ECG signal is used to observe the algorithm response. The evaluation results of synthetic ECG signal corrupted by various types of noise has showed that the modified unified threshold and wavelet hyperbolic threshold de-noising method is better in realistic and colored noises. The tuned threshold is then used on real ECG signals from the MIT-BIH database. The results has shown that the proposed method achieves higher performance than the ordinary dual tree wavelet transform into all kinds of noise removal from ECG signal. The simulation results indicate that the algorithm is robust for all kinds of noises with varying degrees of input noise, providing a high quality clean signal. Moreover, the algorithm is quite simple and can be used in real time ECG monitoring.

  18. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young

  19. Segment and fit thresholding: a new method for image analysis applied to microarray and immunofluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Elliot; Sinha, Jessica; Sinha, Arkadeep; Tang, Huiyuan; Calderone, Heather M; Hostetter, Galen; Winter, Jordan; Cherba, David; Brand, Randall E; Allen, Peter J; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Haab, Brian B

    2015-10-06

    Experiments involving the high-throughput quantification of image data require algorithms for automation. A challenge in the development of such algorithms is to properly interpret signals over a broad range of image characteristics, without the need for manual adjustment of parameters. Here we present a new approach for locating signals in image data, called Segment and Fit Thresholding (SFT). The method assesses statistical characteristics of small segments of the image and determines the best-fit trends between the statistics. Based on the relationships, SFT identifies segments belonging to background regions; analyzes the background to determine optimal thresholds; and analyzes all segments to identify signal pixels. We optimized the initial settings for locating background and signal in antibody microarray and immunofluorescence data and found that SFT performed well over multiple, diverse image characteristics without readjustment of settings. When used for the automated analysis of multicolor, tissue-microarray images, SFT correctly found the overlap of markers with known subcellular localization, and it performed better than a fixed threshold and Otsu's method for selected images. SFT promises to advance the goal of full automation in image analysis.

  20. An iterative two-threshold analysis for single-subject functional MRI of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Tibor; Schweizer, Renate; Frahm, Jens [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Current thresholding strategies for the analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) datasets may suffer from specific limitations (e.g. with respect to the required smoothness) or lead to reduced performance for a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Although a previously proposed two-threshold (TT) method offers a promising solution to these problems, the use of preset settings limits its performance. This work presents an optimised TT approach that estimates the required parameters in an iterative manner. The iterative TT (iTT) method is compared with the original TT method, as well as other established voxel-based and cluster-based thresholding approaches and spatial mixture modelling (SMM) for both simulated data and fMRI of a hometown walking task at different experimental settings (spatial resolution, filtering and SNR). In general, the iTT method presents with remarkable sensitivity and good specificity that outperforms all conventional approaches tested except for SMM in a few cases. This also holds true for challenging conditions such as high spatial resolution, the absence of filtering, high noise level, or a low number of task repetitions. Thus, iTT emerges as a good candidate for both scientific fMRI studies at high spatial resolution and more routine applications for clinical purposes. (orig.)