WorldWideScience

Sample records for qcd analyses based

  1. QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S; Soper, Davison Eugene; Stirling, William James; Tapprogge, Stefan; Alekhin, S I; Aurenche, Patrick; Balázs, C; Ball, R D; Battistoni, G; Berger, E L; Binoth, T; Brock, R L; Casey, D; Corcella, Gennaro; Del Duca, V; Fabbro, A D; de Roeck, A; Ewerz, C; de Florian, D; Fontannaz, M; Frixione, Stefano; Giele, W T; Grazzini, Massimiliano; Guillet, J P; Marlen-Heinrich, G; Huston, J; Kalk, J; Kataev, A L; Kato, K; Keller, S; Klasen, M; Kosower, D A; Kulesza, A; Kunszt, Zoltán; Kupco, A; Ilyin, V A; Magnea, L; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Martin, A D; Mazumdar, K; Miné, P; Moretti, M; van Neerven, W L; Parente, G; Perret-Gallix, D; Pilon, E; Pukhov, A E; Puljak, I; Pumplin, Jon; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Roberts, R G; Salam, Gavin P; Seymour, Michael H; Skachkov, N B; Sidorov, A V; Stenzel, H; Stump, D R; Thorne, R S; Treleani, D; Tung, W K; Vogt, A; Webber, Bryan R; Werlen, M; Zmouchko, S; Mine, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss issues of QCD at the LHC including parton distributions, Monte Carlo event generators, the available next-to-leading order calculations, resummation, photon production, small x physics, double parton scattering, and backgrounds to Higgs production.

  2. QCD

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Basic Properties of QCD: the Lagrangian, the running coupling, asymptotic freedom and colour confinement. Examples of perturbative calculations in electron- positron physics (total cross sections and event) Parton branching approach will be used to derive the evolution equations for hadron structure functions Comarison with data on deep inelastic scattering and jet production will be for hadron structure functions and jet fragmentation functions

  3. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Katz, S.D.; Pappa, G.

    2003-01-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered (wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop

  4. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Papp, G.

    2002-09-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7 GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered(wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of QCD sum rule based on the maximum entropy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    QCD sum rule was developed about thirty years ago and has been used up to the present to calculate various physical quantities like hadrons. It has been, however, needed to assume 'pole + continuum' for the spectral function in the conventional analyses. Application of this method therefore came across with difficulties when the above assumption is not satisfied. In order to avoid this difficulty, analysis to make use of the maximum entropy method (MEM) has been developed by the present author. It is reported here how far this new method can be successfully applied. In the first section, the general feature of the QCD sum rule is introduced. In section 2, it is discussed why the analysis by the QCD sum rule based on the MEM is so effective. In section 3, the MEM analysis process is described, and in the subsection 3.1 likelihood function and prior probability are considered then in subsection 3.2 numerical analyses are picked up. In section 4, some cases of applications are described starting with ρ mesons, then charmoniums in the finite temperature and finally recent developments. Some figures of the spectral functions are shown. In section 5, summing up of the present analysis method and future view are given. (S. Funahashi)

  6. Pathway-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jack W

    2016-02-03

    New technologies for acquisition of genomic data, while offering unprecedented opportunities for genetic discovery, also impose severe burdens of interpretation and penalties for multiple testing. The Pathway-based Analyses Group of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) sought reduction of multiple-testing burden through various approaches to aggregation of highdimensional data in pathways informed by prior biological knowledge. Experimental methods testedincluded the use of "synthetic pathways" (random sets of genes) to estimate power and false-positive error rate of methods applied to simulated data; data reduction via independent components analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interaction, and use of gene sets to estimate genetic similarity; and general assessment of the efficacy of prior biological knowledge to reduce the dimensionality of complex genomic data. The work of this group explored several promising approaches to managing high-dimensional data, with the caveat that these methods are necessarily constrained by the quality of external bioinformatic annotation.

  7. QCD-based pion distribution amplitudes confronting experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.; Stefanis, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    We use QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates to recalculate more accurately the moments and their confidence intervals of the twist-2 pion distribution amplitude including radiative corrections. We are thus able to construct an admissible set of pion distribution amplitudes which define a reliability region in the a 2 , a 4 plane of the Gegenbauer polynomial expansion coefficients. We emphasize that models like that of Chernyak and Zhitnitsky, as well as the asymptotic solution, are excluded from this set. We show that the determined a 2 , a 4 region strongly overlaps with that extracted from the CLEO data by Schmedding and Yakovlev and that this region is also not far from the results of the first direct measurement of the pion valence quark momentum distribution by the Fermilab E791 collaboration. Comparisons with recent lattice calculations and instanton-based models are briefly discussed

  8. Lattice-QCD based Schwinger-Dyson approach for Chiral phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hideaki; Oka, Makoto; Suganuma, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking in QCD is studied with the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) formalism based on lattice QCD data, i.e., LQCD-based SD formalism. We extract the SD kernel function K(p 2 ) in an Ansatzindependent manner from the lattice data of the quark propagator in the Landau gauge. As remarkable features, we find infrared vanishing and intermediate enhancement of the SD kernel function K(p 2 ). We apply the LQCD-based SD equation to thermal QCD with the quark chemical potential μ q . We find chiral symmetry restoration at T c ∼100MeV for μ q =0. The real part of the quark mass function decreases as T and μ q . At finite density, there appears the imaginary part of the quark mass function, which would lead to the width broadening of hadrons

  9. Better than $1/Mflops substained: a scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Papp, G.

    2002-02-01

    We study the feasibility of a PC-based parallel computer for medium to large scale lattice QCD simulations. Our cluster built at the Eoetvoes Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7 GHz nodes with 512 MB RDRAM. The 32-bit, single precision sustained performance for dynamical QCD without communication is 1510 Mflops/node with Wilson and 970 Mflops/node with staggered fermions. This gives a total performance of 208 Gflops for Wilson and 133 Gflops for staggered QCD, respectively (for 64-bit applications the performance is approximately halved). The novel feature of our system is its communication architecture. In order to have a scalable, cost-effective machine we use Gigabit Ethernet cards for nearest-neighbor communications in a two-dimensional mesh. This type of communication is cost effective (only 30% of the hardware costs is spent on the communication). According to our benchmark measurements this type of communication results in around 40% communication time fraction for lattices upto 48 3 . 96 in full QCD simulations. The price/sustained-perfomance ratio for full QCD is better than $1/Mflops for Wilson (and around $1.5/Mflops for staggered) quarks for practically any lattice size, which can fit in our parallel computer. (orig.)

  10. QCD and string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a review of the connections between quantumchromodynamics (QCD) and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality

  11. QCD and hadronic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1989-01-01

    This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)

  12. A consistent analysis for the quark condensate in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zheng; Huang Tao

    1988-08-01

    The dynamical symmetry breaking in QCD is analysed based on the vacuum condensates. A self-consistent equation for the quark condensate (φ φ) is derived. A nontrivial solution for (φ φ) ≠ 0 is given in terms of the QCD scale parameter A

  13. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  14. Grid portal-based data management for lattice QCD data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronico, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.andronico@ct.infn.it; Barbera, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Falzone, A. [NICE SRL, via Marchesi di Roero 1, 14020 Cortanze (Italy)

    2004-11-21

    We describe here a case of the European Union DataGrid Project data management services by a Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) application to share the large amount of configurations generated and based on a solution developed from the International Lattice Data Grid Project using a XML dialect called QCDML. In order to allow the user to store, search and browse the lattice configurations described by QCDML in an uniform and transparent way, we have exploited the functionalities of the GENIUS Grid portal, jointly developed by INFN and NICE srl in the context of the Italian INFN Grid and EU DataGrid Projects.

  15. Grid portal-based data management for lattice QCD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronico, G.; Barbera, R.; Falzone, A.

    2004-01-01

    We describe here a case of the European Union DataGrid Project data management services by a Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) application to share the large amount of configurations generated and based on a solution developed from the International Lattice Data Grid Project using a XML dialect called QCDML. In order to allow the user to store, search and browse the lattice configurations described by QCDML in an uniform and transparent way, we have exploited the functionalities of the GENIUS Grid portal, jointly developed by INFN and NICE srl in the context of the Italian INFN Grid and EU DataGrid Projects

  16. Computers for Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, Norman H

    2000-01-01

    The architecture and capabilities of the computers currently in use for large-scale lattice QCD calculations are described and compared. Based on this present experience, possible future directions are discussed

  17. PC based uranium enrichment analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Gopalakrishana, K.R.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    It is important to measure enrichment of unirradiated nuclear fuel elements during production as a quality control measure. An IBM PC based system has recently been tested for enrichment measurements for Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad. As required by NFC, the system has ease of calibration. It is easy to switch the system from measuring enrichment of fuel elements to pellets and also automatically store the data and the results. The system uses an IBM PC plug in card to acquire data. The card incorporates programmable interval timers (8253-5). The counter/timer devices are executed by I/O mapped I/O's. A novel algorithm has been incorporated to make the system more reliable. The application software has been written in BASIC. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  18. Semihard QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results concerning the small x limit of parton distributions in perturbative QCD are reviewed. This includes in particular discussion of the bare Pomeron in perturbative QCD and of shadowing corrections. The minijet production processes and possible manifestation of semihard interactions in high energy pp-bar elastic scattering are also discussed. 46 refs., 8 figs. (author)

  19. QCD phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1979-01-01

    Selected topics in QCD phenomenology are reviewed: the development of an effective jet perturbation series with applications to factorization, energy flow analysis and photon physics; implications of non-perturbative phenomena for hard scattering processes and the pseudoscalar mass spectrum; resonance properties as extracted from the combined technologies of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  20. QCD analyses and determinations of $\\alpha_{s}$ in $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilation at energies between 35 and 189 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeifenschneider, P.; Movilla Fernandez, P.A.; Abbiendi, G.; Ackerstaff, K.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; Jade, The

    2000-01-01

    We employ data taken by the JADE and OPAL experiments for an integrated QCD study in hadronic e+e- annihilations at c.m.s. energies ranging from 35 GeV through 189 GeV. The study is based on jet-multiplicity related observables. The observables are obtained to high jet resolution scales with the JADE, Durham, Cambridge and cone jet finders, and compared with the predictions of various QCD and Monte Carlo models. The strong coupling strength, alpha_s, is determined at each energy by fits of O(alpha_s^2) calculations, as well as matched O(alpha_s^2) and NLLA predictions, to the data. Matching schemes are compared, and the dependence of the results on the choice of the renormalization scale is investigated. The combination of the results using matched predictions gives alpha_s(MZ)=0.1187+{0.0034}-{0.0019}. The strong coupling is also obtained, at lower precision, from O(alpha_s^2) fits of the c.m.s. energy evolution of some of the observables. A qualitative comparison is made between the data and a recent MLLA p...

  1. QCD analyses and determinations of αs in e+e- annihilation at energies between 35 and 189 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifenschneider, P.; Biebel, O.; Movilla Fernandez, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    We employ data taken by the JADE and OPAL experiments for an integrated QCD study in hadronic e + e - annihilations at c.m.s. energies ranging from 35 GeV through 189 GeV. The study is based on jet-multiplicity related observables. The observables are obtained to high jet resolution scales with the JADE, Durham, Cambridge and cone jet finders, and compared with the predictions of various QCD and Monte Carlo models. The strong coupling strength, α s , is determined at each energy by fits of O(α s 2 ) calculations, as well as matched O(α s 2 ) and NLLA predictions, to the data. Matching schemes are compared, and the dependence of the results on the choice of the renormalization scale is investigated. The combination of the results using matched predictions givesα s (M Z 0 )=0.1187 0.0034 0.0019 . The strong coupling is also obtained, at lower precision, from O(α s 2 ) fits of the c.m.s. energy evolution of some of the observables. A qualitative comparison is made between the data and a recent MLLA prediction for mean jet multiplicities. (orig.)

  2. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative β-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the β-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  3. Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents a general introduction to lattice gauge theories and discusses non-perturbative methods in the gauge sector. He then shows how the lattice works in obtaining the string tension in SU(2). Lattice QCD at finite physical temperature is discussed. Universality tests in SU(2) lattice QCD are presented. SU(3) pure gauge theory is briefly dealt with. Finally, fermions on the lattice are considered. (Auth.)

  4. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-01

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  5. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  6. TMD parton distributions based on three-body decay functions in NLL order of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Three-body decay functions in space-like parton branches are implemented to evaluate transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions in the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Interference contributions due to the next-to-leading-order terms are taken into account for the evaluation of the transverse momenta in initial state parton radiations. Some properties of the decay functions are also examined. As an example, the calculated results are compared with those evaluated by an algorithm proposed in [M. A. Kimber, A. D. Martin, and M. G. Ryskin, Eur. Phys. J. C 12, 655 (2000)], [M. A. Kimber, A. D. Martin, and M. G. Ryskin, Phys. Rev. D 63, 11402 (2001)], [G. Watt, A. D. Martin, and M. G. Ryskin, Eur. Phys. J. C 31, 73 (2003)], and [A. D. Martin, M. G. Ryskin, and G. Watt, Eur. Phys. J. C 66, 167 (2010)], in which the TMD parton distributions are defined based on the k t -factorization method with angular ordering conditions due to interference effects

  7. Parton distributions and lattice QCD calculations: A community white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huey-Wen; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Olness, Fred; Orginos, Kostas; Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Alexandrou, Constantia; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Bozzi, Giuseppe; Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Collins, Sara; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Constantinou, Martha; Del Debbio, Luigi; Engelhardt, Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gupta, Rajan; Harland-Lang, Lucian A.; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Kusina, Aleksander; Liu, Keh-Fei; Liuti, Simonetta; Monahan, Christopher; Nadolsky, Pavel; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Schienbein, Ingo; Schierholz, Gerrit; Thorne, Robert S.; Vogelsang, Werner; Wittig, Hartmut; Yuan, C.-P.; Zanotti, James

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), parton distribution functions (PDFs) quantify how the momentum and spin of a hadron are divided among its quark and gluon constituents. Two main approaches exist to determine PDFs. The first approach, based on QCD factorization theorems, realizes a QCD analysis of a suitable set of hard-scattering measurements, often using a variety of hadronic observables. The second approach, based on first-principle operator definitions of PDFs, uses lattice QCD to compute directly some PDF-related quantities, such as their moments. Motivated by recent progress in both approaches, in this document we present an overview of lattice-QCD and global-analysis techniques used to determine unpolarized and polarized proton PDFs and their moments. We provide benchmark numbers to validate present and future lattice-QCD calculations and we illustrate how they could be used to reduce the PDF uncertainties in current unpolarized and polarized global analyses. This document represents a first step towards establishing a common language between the two communities, to foster dialogue and to further improve our knowledge of PDFs.

  8. Baryons and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan Isgur

    1997-01-01

    The author presents an idiosyncratic view of baryons which calls for a marriage between quark-based and hadronic models of QCD. He advocates a treatment based on valence quark plus glue dominance of hadron structure, with the sea of q pairs (in the form of virtual hadron pairs) as important corrections

  9. Knot topology in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, L.P.; Zhang, P.M.; Pak, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider topological structure of classical vacuum solutions in quantum chromodynamics. Topologically non-equivalent vacuum configurations are classified by non-trivial second and third homotopy groups for coset of the color group SU(N) (N=2,3) under the action of maximal Abelian stability group. Starting with explicit vacuum knot configurations we study possible exact classical solutions. Exact analytic non-static knot solution in a simple CP 1 model in Euclidean space–time has been obtained. We construct an ansatz based on knot and monopole topological vacuum structure for searching new solutions in SU(2) and SU(3) QCD. We show that singular knot-like solutions in QCD in Minkowski space–time can be naturally obtained from knot solitons in integrable CP 1 models. A family of Skyrme type low energy effective theories of QCD admitting exact analytic solutions with non-vanishing Hopf charge is proposed

  10. Transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow: Hydrodynamics with QCD-based equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, M; Heinz, U

    2008-01-01

    We present a family of equations of state within a quasiparticle model adjusted to lattice QCD and study the impact on azimuthal flow anisotropies and transverse momentum spectra within hydrodynamic simulations for heavy-ion collisions at energies relevant for LHC.

  11. Delving into QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)

  12. Scaling violation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanski, W.

    1981-08-01

    The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)

  13. QCD-based relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations for identical quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Dey, M.; Le Tourneux, J.

    1985-12-01

    As was first pointed out by Witten, large number of colours (Nsub(c)) leads to a simplification in the theory of baryon masses in that the quarks may be assumed to move in a mean field which can be found self-consistently. The interquark potential in such a description can be borrowed from the meson sector phenomenology in the absence of an accurate evaluation of it from large Nsub(c) quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We have carried out this program with such a potential due to Richardson, used often by workers in the meson sector. This potential has the advantage of incorporating the two main features of QCD, namely confinement and asymptotic freedom. In view of the small number of parameters involved, the results agree surprisingly well with experiment for the case of three identical quarks. (author)

  14. Anomalous couplings in WZ production beyond NLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanario, Francisco; Roth, Robin; Zeppenfeld, Dieter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sapeta, Sebastian [CERN PH-TH, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We study WZ production with anomalous couplings (AC) at anti nNLO QCD using the LoopSim method in combination with the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Higher order corrections to WZ production are dominated by additional hard jet radiation. Those contributions are insensitive to AC and should thus be suppressed in analyses. We do this using a dynamical jet veto based on the transverse energy of the QCD and EW final state particles. This removes jet dominated events without introducing problematic logs like a fixed p{sub T} jet veto.

  15. 13. international QCD conference (QCD 06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference was organized around 5 sessions: 1) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at colliders, 2) CP-violation, Kaon decays and Chiral symmetry, 3) perturbative QCD, 4) physics of light and heavy hadrons, 5) confinement, thermodynamics QCD and axion searches. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  16. 13. international QCD conference (QCD 06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference was organized around 5 sessions: 1) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at colliders, 2) CP-violation, Kaon decays and Chiral symmetry, 3) perturbative QCD, 4) physics of light and heavy hadrons, 5) confinement, thermodynamics QCD and axion searches. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  17. Experimental status QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Slepchenko, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of experimental status of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been carried out. A short introduction into QCD is given. QCD sum rules are considered. Jets in e + e - annihilation and inclusive processes of lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering are considered. Effect of QCD corrections to perturbation theory on quark count is analyzed

  18. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  19. Electroweak Higgs production with HiggsPO at NLO QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greljo, Admir; Isidori, Gino; Zhang, Hantian; Lindert, Jonas M.; Marzocca, David

    2017-01-01

    We present the HiggsPO UFO model for Monte Carlo event generation of electroweak VH and VBF Higgs production processes at NLO in QCD in the formalism of Higgs pseudo-observables (PO). We illustrate the use of this tool by studying the QCD corrections, matched to a parton shower, for several benchmark points in the Higgs PO parameter space. We find that, while being sizable and thus important to be considered in realistic experimental analyses, the QCD higher-order corrections largely factorize. As an additional finding, based on the NLO results, we advocate to consider 2D distributions of the two-jet azimuthal-angle difference and the leading jet p T for new physics searches in VBF Higgs production. The HiggsPO UFO model is publicly available. (orig.)

  20. Electroweak Higgs production with HiggsPO at NLO QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greljo, Admir; Isidori, Gino; Lindert, Jonas M.; Marzocca, David; Zhang, Hantian

    2017-12-01

    We present the HiggsPO UFO model for Monte Carlo event generation of electroweak VH and VBF Higgs production processes at NLO in QCD in the formalism of Higgs pseudo-observables (PO). We illustrate the use of this tool by studying the QCD corrections, matched to a parton shower, for several benchmark points in the Higgs PO parameter space. We find that, while being sizable and thus important to be considered in realistic experimental analyses, the QCD higher-order corrections largely factorize. As an additional finding, based on the NLO results, we advocate to consider 2D distributions of the two-jet azimuthal-angle difference and the leading jet p_T for new physics searches in VBF Higgs production. The HiggsPO UFO model is publicly available.

  1. Electroweak Higgs production with HiggsPO at NLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greljo, Admir [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Science, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Isidori, Gino; Zhang, Hantian [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Lindert, Jonas M. [Durham University, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Marzocca, David [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); INFN, Sezione di Trieste(Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy)

    2017-12-15

    We present the HiggsPO UFO model for Monte Carlo event generation of electroweak VH and VBF Higgs production processes at NLO in QCD in the formalism of Higgs pseudo-observables (PO). We illustrate the use of this tool by studying the QCD corrections, matched to a parton shower, for several benchmark points in the Higgs PO parameter space. We find that, while being sizable and thus important to be considered in realistic experimental analyses, the QCD higher-order corrections largely factorize. As an additional finding, based on the NLO results, we advocate to consider 2D distributions of the two-jet azimuthal-angle difference and the leading jet p{sub T} for new physics searches in VBF Higgs production. The HiggsPO UFO model is publicly available. (orig.)

  2. The QCD Teraflops Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, S.

    1992-01-01

    Increased computer power is essential for future progress in lattice gauge theory and for other Grand challenge applications. We address the physics that can be done with a computer capable of sustaining 1 Teraflops for QCD and the technology that will make it possible to construct such a computer within the next three years. Our collaboration has proposed to build a computer based on the Thinking Machines CM5 communication network, but with nodes 10 times faster

  3. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, we demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . We then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when 'large' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions. (author)

  4. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Lebed

    1998-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, they demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . They then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when ''large'' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions

  5. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  6. Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Florian

    2012-08-20

    Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.

  7. Topology in dynamical lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory which describes the interaction between quarks and gluons, have reached a point were contact to experimental data can be made. The underlying mechanisms, like chiral symmetry breaking or the confinement of quarks, are however still not understood. This thesis focuses on topological structures in the QCD vacuum. Those are not only mathematically interesting but also closely related to chiral symmetry and confinement. We consider methods to identify these objects in lattice QCD simulations. Based on this, we explore the structures resulting from different discretizations and investigate the effect of a very strong electromagnetic field on the QCD vacuum.

  8. Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Irinel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)

  9. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant...... in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate....

  10. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region

  11. Theoretical analyses of superconductivity in iron based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the theoretical analysis of superconductivity in iron based superconductor Ba1−xKxFe2As2. After reviewing the current findings on this system, we suggest that phononexciton combined mechanism gives a right order of superconducting transition temperature (TC) for Ba1−xKxFe2As2 . By developing ...

  12. Jets and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Kramer, G.

    2010-12-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  13. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  14. Weak-interacting holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)

  15. Modeling the thermodynamics of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Thomas

    2010-07-26

    Strongly interacting (QCD) matter is expected to exhibit a multifaceted phase structure: a hadron gas at low temperatures, a quark-gluon plasma at very high temperatures, nuclear matter in the low-temperature and high-density region, color superconductors at asymptotically high densities. Most of the conjectured phases cannot yet be scrutinized by experiments. Much of the present picture - particularly concerning the intermediate temperature and density area of the phase diagram of QCD matter - is based on model calculations. Further insights come from Lattice-QCD computations. The present thesis elaborates a nonlocal covariant extension of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with built-in constraints from the running coupling of QCD at high-momentum and instanton physics at low-momentum scales. We present this model for two and three quark flavors (in the latter case paying particular attention to the axial anomaly). At finite temperatures and densities, gluon dynamics is incorporated through a gluonic background field, expressed in terms of the Polyakov loop (P). The thermodynamics of this nonlocal PNJL model accounts for both chiral and deconfinement transitions. We obtain results in mean-field approximation and beyond, including additional pionic and kaonic contributions to the chiral condensate, the pressure and other thermodynamic quantities. Finally, the nonlocal PNJL model is applied to the finite-density region of the QCD phase diagram; for three quark flavors we investigate, in particular, the dependence of the critical point appearing in the models on the axial anomaly. The thesis closes with a derivation of the nonlocal PNJL model from first principles of QCD. (orig.)

  16. When is a heavy quark not a parton? Charged Higgs production and heavy quark mass effects in the QCD-based parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.; Tung, Wu-Ki

    1989-10-01

    Applications of the QCD-based parton model to new physics processes involving heavy partons are illustrated using charged Higgs production. The naive parton model predictions are found to over-estimate the actual cross section by a factor of 2 to 5. The role of the top quark as a ''parton'' is examined, and the energy range over which heavy quarks (or other particles) should or should not be naturally treated as ''partons'' is delineated. 12 refs., 5 figs

  17. Hadronic τ decays and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the τ lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  18. Hadronic {tau} decays and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davier, M

    1999-12-01

    Hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton provide a clean source to study hadron dynamics in an energy regime dominated by resonances, with the interesting information captured in the spectral functions. Recent results on exclusive channels are reviewed. Inclusive spectral functions are the basis for QCD analyses, delivering an accurate determination of the strong coupling constant and quantitative information on nonperturbative contributions. Strange decays yield a determination of the strange quark mass. (author)

  19. Tests of hard and soft QCD with $e^{+}e^{-}$ Annihilation Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kluth, S

    2002-01-01

    Experimental tests of QCD predictions for event shape distributions combining contributions from hard and soft processes are discussed. The hard processes are predicted by perturbative QCD calculations. The soft processes cannot be calculated directly using perturbative QCD, they are treated by a power correction model based on the analysis of infrared renormalons. Furthermore, an analysis of the gauge structure of QCD is presented using fits of the colour factors within the same combined QCD predictions.

  20. Quark virtuality and QCD vacuum condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the 'rainbow' approximation, the authors investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, authors calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ u,d 2 =0.7 GeV 2 for u, d quarks, and λ s 2 =1.6 GeV 2 for s quark. The theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions

  1. QCD are we ready for the LHC?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The LHC energy regime poses a serious challenge to our capability of predicting QCD reactions to the level of accuracy necessary for a successful programme of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In these lectures, I'll introduce basic concepts in QCD, and present techniques based on perturbation theory, such as fixed-order and resummed computations, and Monte Carlo simulations. I'll discuss applications of these techniques to hadron-hadron processes, concentrating on recent trends in perturbative QCD aimed at improving our understanding of LHC phenomenology.

  2. Beyond QCD: Why and How

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparata, G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the necessity of going beyond Quantum chromodynamics is argued, and a new theory of Isotropic Chromodynamics (ICD) is introduced. The basic theoretical notions behind QCD--quarks, colors, and gauge theory are retained, but the conclusion that QCD must be the theory of hadrions is questioned. Two points of QCD are reviewed, gluons (including glueballs), and asymptotic freedom. It is suggested that much of this theory is wishful thinking. Beyond QCD, aspects which are puzzling in hadrodynamics are well understood in two-dimensional gauge theories (confinement, freedom at short distances etc). Anisotropic chromodynamics is proposed in the attempt to conjugate the basic pillars of hadrodynamics with the peculiar characteristics of two-dimensional gauge dynamics. In order to construct a gauge dynamics for the color field which is isomorphic to a two-dimensional gauge-theory base space must be enlarged to a seven dimension space-time structure, to be called Anisotropic Space-Time (AST). The ideas and present achievements of ICD are then reviewed

  3. Towards the chiral limit in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shailesh Chandrasekharan

    2006-01-01

    Computing hadronic observables by solving QCD from first principles with realistic quark masses is an important challenge in fundamental nuclear and particle physics research. Although lattice QCD provides a rigorous framework for such calculations many difficulties arise. Firstly, there are no good algorithms to solve lattice QCD with realistically light quark masses. Secondly, due to critical slowing down, Monte Carlo algorithms are able to access only small lattice sizes on coarse lattices. Finally, due to sign problems it is almost impossible to study the physics of finite baryon density. Lattice QCD contains roughly three mass scales: the cutoff (or inverse lattice spacing) a -1 , the confinement scale Λ QCD , and the pion mass m π . Most conventional Monte Carlo algorithms for QCD become inefficient in two regimes: when Λ QCD becomes small compared to a -1 and when m π becomes small compared to Λ QCD . The former can be largely controlled by perturbation theory thanks to asymptotic freedom. The latter is more difficult since chiral extrapolations are typically non-analytic and can be unreliable if the calculations are not done at sufficiently small quark masses. For this reason it has been difficult to compute quantities close to the chiral limit. The essential goal behind this proposal was to develop a new approach towards understanding QCD and QCD-like theories with sufficiently light quarks. The proposal was based on a novel cluster algorithm discovered in the strong coupling limit with staggered fermions [1]. This algorithm allowed us to explore the physics of exactly massless quarks and as well as light quarks. Thus, the hope was that this discovery would lead to the complete solution of at least a few strongly coupled QCD-like theories. The solution would be far better than those achievable through conventional methods and thus would be able to shed light on the chiral physics from a new direction. By the end of the funding period, the project led

  4. QCD roadshow rolls on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-10-15

    Is quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the ultimate theory of hadronic phenomena? Or, put more sceptically, can one tell QCD from a hole in the ground? This is the title of a new theory roadshow, which after a successful premiere at CERN went on to attract a large audience at Erice, Sicily, during the recent international school of subnuclear physics.

  5. QCD and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1989-01-01

    To apply QCD to nuclear physics one needs methods of long-distance QCD. A new method, method of Confining Background Fields, CBF, which incorporates confinement, is presented with applications to heavy and light quarks, both in mesons and baryons. Spin-dependent forces are calculated for light and heavy quarks. The quark potential model in some limiting case is derived. 25 refs

  6. QCD roadshow rolls on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Is quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the ultimate theory of hadronic phenomena? Or, put more sceptically, can one tell QCD from a hole in the ground? This is the title of a new theory roadshow, which after a successful premiere at CERN went on to attract a large audience at Erice, Sicily, during the recent international school of subnuclear physics

  7. How do we model continuum QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwall, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The nonperturbative aspects of continuum QCD are so complex that one can only hope to approach them through well-motivated models. The author reviews the general properties that any such model must have, based on the understanding of the gluon condensate in the QCD vacuum. A specific, practical model is proposed motivated by a picture of the condensate as made of thick vortex sheets self-consistently constructed from dynamically massive gluons. (author)

  8. Light relativistic bound states in high temperature QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, Ismail

    1991-01-01

    The nonperturbative structure of high temperature QCD is combined with generalized sum-rules arguments to analyse gauge invariant correlation functions in real time. It is shown that for a plausible choice of condensates, QCD at high temperature exhibits color singlet excitations as opposed to merely screened quarks and gluons. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Towards understanding Regge trajectories in holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cata, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    We reassess a work done by Migdal on the spectrum of low-energy vector mesons in QCD in the light of the anti-de Sitter (AdS)-QCD correspondence. Recently, a tantalizing parallelism was suggested between Migdal's work and a family of holographic duals of QCD. Despite the intriguing similarities, both approaches face a major drawback: the spectrum is in conflict with well-tested Regge scaling. However, it has recently been shown that holographic duals can be modified to accommodate Regge behavior. Therefore, it is interesting to understand whether Regge behavior can also be achieved in Migdal's approach. In this paper we investigate this issue. We find that Migdal's approach, which is based on a modified Pade approximant, is closely related to the issue of quark-hadron duality breakdown in QCD

  10. Combination of the inclusive DIS e"±p cross sections from HERA, QCD and EW analyses and the need for low-Q"2 higher-twist corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myronenko, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    A combination of the inclusive lepton-proton cross sections from the ZEUS and H1 experiments is presented. The data are combined taking into account correlations of the systematic uncertainties of the measurements. The resulting combined inclusive neutral- and charged-current e"±p cross sections derived from ∝1 fb"-"1 of data, cover the kinematic region of 0.045≤Q"2≤50000 GeV"2 and 6.10"-"7≤x_B_j≤0.65. The combined data is an unique legacy of the HERA collider and the core of any parton-density-function extraction. The parton distribution functions are essential ingredients in the evaluation of QCD predictions for the high-energy processes, studied at modern proton colliders. The methodology of HERAPDF fits is used as an ansatz for the global QCD fit. The charm- and beauty-quark mass parameters in the analyses at next-next-to-leading order were found to be M"o"p"t_c=1.43 GeV and M"o"p"t_b=4.5 GeV, respectively. HERAPDF2.0 sets give reasonable DIS data description. The effect of higher-twist corrections on the DIS structure functions was studied. The twist-4 corrections were introduced to the F_2 and F_L structure functions. A minimal improvement in the data description was found for the F_2 correction. The introduction of a higher-twist correction to the F_L structure function improved the QCD fit quality by up to Δχ"2=47, predominantly affecting the low-x_B_j and low-Q"2 regions. The twist-4 correction causes an unphysical rise of the predicted F_L in the low x_B_j region. The results indicate a need for further investigations. The electroweak parameters and PDFs are determined simultaneously using the HERA inclusive cross sections together with information on the lepton beam polarisation. The vector- and axial-vector couplings of the u- and d-type quarks to the Z"0 boson are determined simultaneously. The u-type quark couplings were found to be a_u=0.532"+"0"."1"0"7_-_0_._0_6_3, v_u.144"+"0"."0"6"6_-_0_._0_5_8, which are the most precise measurements

  11. Combination of the inclusive DIS e{sup ±}p cross sections from HERA, QCD and EW analyses and the need for low-Q{sup 2} higher-twist corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronenko, Volodymyr

    2017-01-15

    A combination of the inclusive lepton-proton cross sections from the ZEUS and H1 experiments is presented. The data are combined taking into account correlations of the systematic uncertainties of the measurements. The resulting combined inclusive neutral- and charged-current e{sup ±}p cross sections derived from ∝1 fb{sup -1} of data, cover the kinematic region of 0.045≤Q{sup 2}≤50000 GeV{sup 2} and 6.10{sup -7}≤x{sub Bj}≤0.65. The combined data is an unique legacy of the HERA collider and the core of any parton-density-function extraction. The parton distribution functions are essential ingredients in the evaluation of QCD predictions for the high-energy processes, studied at modern proton colliders. The methodology of HERAPDF fits is used as an ansatz for the global QCD fit. The charm- and beauty-quark mass parameters in the analyses at next-next-to-leading order were found to be M{sup opt}{sub c}=1.43 GeV and M{sup opt}{sub b}=4.5 GeV, respectively. HERAPDF2.0 sets give reasonable DIS data description. The effect of higher-twist corrections on the DIS structure functions was studied. The twist-4 corrections were introduced to the F{sub 2} and F{sub L} structure functions. A minimal improvement in the data description was found for the F{sub 2} correction. The introduction of a higher-twist correction to the F{sub L} structure function improved the QCD fit quality by up to Δχ{sup 2}=47, predominantly affecting the low-x{sub Bj} and low-Q{sup 2} regions. The twist-4 correction causes an unphysical rise of the predicted F{sub L} in the low x{sub Bj} region. The results indicate a need for further investigations. The electroweak parameters and PDFs are determined simultaneously using the HERA inclusive cross sections together with information on the lepton beam polarisation. The vector- and axial-vector couplings of the u- and d-type quarks to the Z{sup 0} boson are determined simultaneously. The u-type quark couplings were found to be a{sub u}=0

  12. Excited QCD 2017

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This edition is the ninth in a series of workshops that had been previously organised in Poland (2009), Slovakia (2010 and 2015), France (2011), Portugal (2012 and 2016) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013 and 2014). In the year 2017 the workshop goes to the beautiful Sintra near Lisbon, Portugal. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, new resonances, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-gluon plasma, holography, colour-glass condensate, compact stars, applications to astrophysics.

  13. Predictive Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the quantum field theory describing the strong interactions of quarks bound inside hadrons. It is marvelous theory, which works (mathematically) at all distance scales. Indeed, for thirty years, theorists have known how to calculate short-distance properties of QCD, thanks to the (Nobel-worthy) idea of asymptotic freedom. More recently, numerical techniques applied to the strong-coupling regime of QCD have enabled us to compute long-distance bound-state properties. In this colloquium, we review these achievements and show how the new-found methods of calculation will influence high-energy physics.

  14. DESY: QCD workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelman, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The traditional annual DESY Theory Workshop highlights a topical theory sector. The most recent was under the motto 'Quantum Chromo-Dynamics' - QCD, the field theory of quarks and gluons. The organizers had arranged a programme covering most aspects of current QCD research. This time the workshop was followed by a topical meeting on 'QCD at HERA' to look at the electron-proton scattering experiments now in operation at DESY's new HERA collider

  15. QED, QCD en pratique

    OpenAIRE

    Aurenche , P; Guillet , J.-Ph; Pilon , E

    2016-01-01

    3rd cycle; Ces notes sont une introduction à l'application de l'électrodynamique quantique (QED) et de la chromodynamiques quantique (QCD) aux réactions de diffusion à hautes énergies. Le premier thème abordé est celui des divergences ultraviolettes et de la renormalisation à une boucle, avec comme conséquence pour QCD la liberté asymptotique. Le deuxième thème est celui des divergences infrarouges et colinéaires qui dans QCD sont traitées dans le cadre du modèle des partons avec l'introducti...

  16. HERAFitter, Open Source QCD Fit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S.; Belov, P.; Borroni, S.; Botje, M.; Britzger, D.; Camarda, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Daum, K.; Diaconu, C.; Feltesse, J.; Gizhko, A.; Glazov, A.; Guffanti, A.; Guzzi, M.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, A.; Jung, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kusina, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lohwasser, K.; Luszczak, A.; Malaescu, B.; McNulty, R.; Myronenko, V.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nowak, K.; Olness, F.; Perez, E.; Pirumov, H.; Plačakytė, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Radescu, V.; Sadykov, R.; Salam, G.P.; Sapronov, A.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Shushkevich, S.; Slominski, W.; Spiesberger, H.; Starovoitov, P.; Sutton, M.; Tomaszewska, J.; Turkot, O.; Vargas, A.; Watt, G.; Wichmann, K.

    2015-07-02

    HERAFitter is an open-source package that provides a framework for the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton and for many different kinds of analyses in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It encodes results from a wide range of experimental measurements in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton (proton-antiproton) collisions at hadron colliders. These are complemented with a variety of theoretical options for calculating PDF-dependent cross section predictions corresponding to the measurements. The framework covers a large number of the existing methods and schemes used for PDF determination. The data and theoretical predictions are brought together through numerous methodological options for carrying out PDF fits and plotting tools to help visualise the results. While primarily based on the approach of collinear factorisation, HERAFitter also provides facilities for fits of dipole models and transverse-momentum dependent PDFs. The package can be used to study t...

  17. QCD and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    I give a brief and selective overview of QCD as it pertains to determining hadron structure, and the relevant directions in this field for nuclear theory. This document is intended to start discussion about priorities, not end it

  18. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  19. Gluonium spectrum in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C.A.

    1987-02-01

    The scalar (0 ++ ) and the tensor (2 ++ ) gluonium spectrum is analyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules. Stable eigenvalue solutions, consistent with duality and low energy theorems, are obtained for the mass and width of these glueballs. (orig.)

  20. Resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015 (Fig.~1). A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions; what is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD?; where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers?; and what experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus.This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  1. Perturbative QCD and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    A brief review of some of the recent progress in perturbative QCD is given (heavy quark production, small-x physics, minijets and related topics, classical simulations in high energy reactions, coherence and the string effect)

  2. QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Keiji

    1983-01-01

    The varidity of the perturbation method in the high temperature QCD is discussed. The skeleton expansion method takes account of plasmon effects and eliminates the electric infrared singularity but not the magnetic one. A possibility of eliminating the latter, which was recently proposed, is examined by a gauge invariant skeleton expansion. The magnetic singularity is unable to be eliminated by the perturbation method. This implies that some non-perturbative approaches must be incorporated in the high temperature QCD. (author)

  3. Aspects of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The QCD factorization approach provides the theoretical basis for a systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes of B mesons in the heavy-quark limit. After recalling the basic ideas underlying this formalism, several tests of QCD factorization in the decays B→D (*) L, B→K * γ, and B→πK, ππ are discussed. It is then illustrated how factorization can be used to obtain new constraints on the parameters of the unitarity triangle

  4. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  5. Components of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivers, D.

    1979-10-01

    Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z 0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments

  6. QCD for Collider Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Skands, Peter

    2011-01-01

    These lectures are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as it is used in collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into four main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) perturbative QCD, ...

  7. ARIADNE 3. A Monte Carlo for QCD cascades in the colour dipole formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif.

    1989-06-01

    A Monte Carlo program for generating QCD cascades, based on the colour dipole approximation is presented. The program is an extension of the program ARIADNE 2, including gluon splitting in the colour dipole formulation of QCD. (author)

  8. Non-perturbative Aspects of QCD and Parameterized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ding-An; ZHOU Li-Juan; ZENG Ya-Guang; GU Yun-Ting; CAO Hui; MA Wei-Xing; MENG Cheng-Ju; PAN Ji-Huan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Global Color Symmetry Model, the non-perturbative QCD vacuum is investigated in theparameterized fully dressed quark propagator. Our theoretical predictions for various quantities characterized the QCD vacuum are in agreement with those predicted by many other phenomenological QCD inspired models. The successful predictions clearly indicate the extensive validity of our parameterized quark propagator used here. A detailed discussion on the arbitrariness in determining the integration cut-off parameter of# in calculating QCD vacuum condensates and a good method, which avoided the dependence of calculating results on the cut-off parameter is also strongly recommended to readers.

  9. In service monitoring based on fatigue analyses, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, S.; Binder, F.

    2004-01-01

    German LWR reactors are equipped with monitoring systems which are to enable a comparison of real transients with load case catalogues and fatigue catalogues for fatigue analyses. The information accuracy depends on the accuracy of measurements, on the consideration of parameters influencing fatigue (medium, component surface, component size, etc.), and on the accuracy of the load analyses. The contribution attempts a critical evaluation, also inview of the fact that real fatigue damage often are impossible to quantify on the basis of fatigue analyses at a later stage. The effects of the consideration or non-consideration of various influencing factors are discussed, as well as the consequences of the scatter of material characteristics on which the analyses are based. Possible measures to be taken in operational monitoring are derived. (orig.) [de

  10. Resolution of ambiguities in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakkagawa, Hisao; Niegawa, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    In the perturbative QCD analyses of the deeply inelastic processes, the coupling constant depends on at least two mass-scales, the renormalization scale and the factorization scale. By integrating the coupled renormalization group equations with respect to these two mass-scales, the running coupling constant is defined. A perturbative approximation then introduces a new ambiguity, the integration-path dependence, into the theory. We show that the problem of this new ambiguity is resolved by imposing Stevenson's principle of minimal sensitivity. Together with the analogous analysis of the operator matrix element or the cut vertex, we can completely solve the problem of getting an unambiguous perturbative QCD prediction. (author)

  11. A bromine-based dichroic X-ray polarization analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, S P; Brown, S D; Thompson, P

    2001-01-01

    We have demonstrated the advantages offered by dichroic X-ray polarization filters for linear polarization analysis, and describe such a device, based on a dibromoalkane/urea inclusion compound. The polarizer has been successfully tested by analysing the polarization of magnetic diffraction from holmium.

  12. Phases of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-04-09

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  13. Phases of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  14. QCD machines - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of the currently working and nearly working dedicated QCD machines is reviewed and proposals for future machines are discussed with particular emphasis on the QCD Teraflop Project in the US. (orig.)

  15. QCD as a topologically ordered system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2013-01-01

    We argue that QCD belongs to a topologically ordered phase similar to many well-known condensed matter systems with a gap such as topological insulators or superconductors. Our arguments are based on an analysis of the so-called “deformed QCD” which is a weakly coupled gauge theory, but nevertheless preserves all the crucial elements of strongly interacting QCD, including confinement, nontrivial θ dependence, degeneracy of the topological sectors, etc. Specifically, we construct the so-called topological “BF” action which reproduces the well known infrared features of the theory such as non-dispersive contribution to the topological susceptibility which cannot be associated with any propagating degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we interpret the well known resolution of the celebrated U(1) A problem where the would be η ′ Goldstone boson generates its mass as a result of mixing of the Goldstone field with a topological auxiliary field characterizing the system. We then identify the non-propagating auxiliary topological field of the BF formulation in deformed QCD with the Veneziano ghost (which plays the crucial role in resolution of the U(1) A problem). Finally, we elaborate on relation between “string-net” condensation in topologically ordered condensed matter systems and long range coherent configurations, the “skeletons”, studied in QCD lattice simulations. -- Highlights: •QCD may belong to a topologically ordered phase similar to condensed matter (CM) systems. •We identify the non-propagating topological field in deformed QCD with the Veneziano ghost. •Relation between “string-net” condensates in CM systems and the “skeletons” in QCD lattice simulations is studied

  16. Instantons in the QCD vacuum and in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, F.

    1999-01-01

    We give a brief status report on our on-going investigation of the prospects to discover QCD instantons in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at HERA. A recent high-quality lattice study of the topological structure of the QCD vacuum is exploited to provide crucial support of our predictions for DIS, based on instanton perturbation theory

  17. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-01-01

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (<100 μm), whilst quantitative phase and attenuation information can be extracted using just two images when the approximations of geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser

  18. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-07-21

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser.

  19. Lattice QCD for cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Kampert, K.H.; Fodor, Z.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest

    2016-06-01

    We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to the MeV scale we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (χ) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and χ, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.

  20. Resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Matthias F.M., E-mail: m.lutz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lange, Jens Sören, E-mail: Soeren.Lange@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Pennington, Michael, E-mail: michaelp@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bettoni, Diego [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Brambilla, Nora [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Crede, Volker [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Eidelman, Simon [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Budker Istitute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gillitzer, Albrecht [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lang, Christian B. [Institut für Physik, Universität Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Metag, Volker [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Nakano, Takashi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); and others

    2016-04-15

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting ‘Resonances in QCD’, which took place at GSI October 12–14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: • What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? • Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? • What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy–light and heavy–heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  1. Model-based Recursive Partitioning for Subgroup Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Seibold, Heidi; Zeileis, Achim; Hothorn, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patient subgroups with differential treatment effects is the first step towards individualised treatments. A current draft guideline by the EMA discusses potentials and problems in subgroup analyses and formulated challenges to the development of appropriate statistical procedures for the data-driven identification of patient subgroups. We introduce model-based recursive partitioning as a procedure for the automated detection of patient subgroups that are identifiable by...

  2. Novel QCD Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions

  3. Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J J

    2016-01-01

    A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented. (paper)

  4. Quark model and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.

    1989-06-01

    Using the language of the quarks and gluons for description of the soft hadron physics it is necessary to take into account two characteristic phenomena which prevent one from usage of QCD Lagrangian in the straightforward way, chiral symmetry breaking, and confinement of colour particles. The topics discussed in this context are: QCD in the domain of soft processes, phenomenological Lagrangian for soft processes and exotic mesons, spectroscopy of low-lying hadrons (mesons, baryons and mesons with heavy quarks - c,b -), confinement forces, spectral integration over quark masses. (author) 3 refs.; 19 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindler, A.

    2007-07-01

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Experimental tests of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansl-Kozanecka, T.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenological aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) are examined which are relevant for lepton-hadron, electron-positron and hadron-hadron collisions. In deep inelastic scattering the virtual γ or W/Z is used as a probe of the nucleon structure. The strong coupling constant (α s ) measurements via deep inelastic scattering and e + e - annihilation are discussed. Parton-parton collisions (e.g., hard hadron-hadron collisions) are examined as the third regime for QCD tests. (K.A.) 122 refs., 84 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Phases of Holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.

  8. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative metagenomic analyses based on average genome size normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Jeremy Alexander; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2011-01-01

    provide not just a census of the community members but direct information on metabolic capabilities and potential interactions among community members. Here we introduce a method for the quantitative characterization and comparison of microbial communities based on the normalization of metagenomic data...... marine sources using both conventional small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene analyses and our quantitative method to calculate the proportion of genomes in each sample that are capable of a particular metabolic trait. With both environments, to determine what proportion of each community they make up and how......). These analyses demonstrate how genome proportionality compares to SSU rRNA gene relative abundance and how factors such as average genome size and SSU rRNA gene copy number affect sampling probability and therefore both types of community analysis....

  10. Process for carrying out analyses based on concurrent reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J S; Shepherd, B P

    1980-01-03

    The invention refers to a process for carrying out analyses based on concurrent reactions. A part of a compound to be analysed is subjected with a standard quantity of this compound in a labelled form to a common reaction with a standard quantity of a reagent, which must be less than the sum of the two parts of the reacting compound. The parts of the marked reaction compound and the labelled final compound resulting from the concurrence are separated in a tube (e.g. by centrifuging) after forced phase change (precipitation, absorption etc.) and the radio-activity of both phases in contact is measured separately. The shielded measuring device developed for this and suitable for centrifuge tubes of known dimensions is also included in the patent claims. The insulin concentration of a defined serum is measured as an example of the applications of the method (Radioimmunoassay).

  11. QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.

  12. QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.

  13. QCD and Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  14. QCD and collider physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, William James

    1991-12-01

    1. Some basic theory. 2. Two important applications: - e+ e- annihilation (LEPSLS) ; deep inelastic scattering (HERA). 3. Other applications..., large Pt jets, W and Z, heavy quark production..., (pp- colliders). In this lecture: some basic theory. 1. QCD as a non abelian gauge field theory. 2. Asymptotic freedom. 3. Beyond leading order - renormalisation schemes. 4. MS.

  15. Renormalization of Hamiltonian QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.; Taylor, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We study to one-loop order the renormalization of QCD in the Coulomb gauge using the Hamiltonian formalism. Divergences occur which might require counter-terms outside the Hamiltonian formalism, but they can be cancelled by a redefinition of the Yang-Mills electric field.

  16. Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R.

    2005-08-01

    This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.

  17. Hadronic laws from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of progress in deriving the effective action for hadronic physics, S[π, ρ, ω, .., anti N, N, ..], from the fundamental defining action of QCD, S[anti q, q, A μ a ]. This is a problem in quantum field theory and the most success so far has been achieved using functional integral calculus (FIC) techniques. This formulates the problem as an exercise in changing the variables of integration in the functional integrals, from those of the quark and gluon fields to those of the (bare) meson and baryon fields. The appropriate variables are determined by the dynamics of QCD, and the final hadronic variables (essentially the 'normal modes' of QCD) are local fields describing the 'centre-of-mass' motion of extended bound states of quarks. The quarks are extensively dressed by the gluons, and the detailed aspects of the hidden chiral symmetry emerge naturally from the formalism. Particular attention is given to covariant integral equations which determine bare nucleon structure (i.e. in the quenched approximation). These equations, which arise from the closed double-helix diagrams of the FIC analysis, describe the baryons in terms of quark-diquark structure, in the form of Faddeev equations. This hadronisation of QCD also generates the dressing of these baryons by the pions, and the non-local πNN coupling. (orig.)

  18. Observables of QCD diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-03-01

    A new combinatorial vector space measurement model is introduced for soft QCD diffraction. The model independent mathematical construction resolves experimental complications; the theoretical framework of the approach includes the Good-Walker view of diffraction, Regge phenomenology together with AGK cutting rules and random fluctuations.

  19. QCD at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Several preliminary QCD results from e+e- interactions at LEP are reported. These include studies of event shape variables, which are used to determine alpha_s and for studies of the validity of power corrections. Further, a study of color reconnection effects in 3-jet Z decays is reported.

  20. Explaining jet quenching with perturbative QCD alone

    CERN Document Server

    Zapp, Korinna C; Wiedemann, Urs A

    2011-01-01

    We present a new formulation of jet quenching in perturbative QCD beyond the eikonal approximation. Multiple scattering in the medium is modelled through infra-red-continued (2 -> 2) scattering matrix elements in QCD and the parton shower describing further emissions. The interplay between these processes is arranged in terms of a formation time constraint such that coherent emissions can be treated consistently. Emerging partons are hadronised by the Lund string model, tuned to describe LEP data in conjunction with the parton shower. Based on this picture we obtain a good description of the nuclear modification factor R_AA at RHIC and LHC.

  1. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Conformal Aspects of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2003-11-19

    Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.

  3. Vocational Teachers and Professionalism - A Model Based on Empirical Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, Henriette Skjærbæk; Andreasen, Karen E

    Vocational Teachers and Professionalism - A Model Based on Empirical Analyses Several theorists has developed models to illustrate the processes of adult learning and professional development (e.g. Illeris, Argyris, Engeström; Wahlgren & Aarkorg, Kolb and Wenger). Models can sometimes be criticized...... emphasis on the adult employee, the organization, its surroundings as well as other contextual factors. Our concern is adult vocational teachers attending a pedagogical course and teaching at vocational colleges. The aim of the paper is to discuss different models and develop a model concerning teachers...... at vocational colleges based on empirical data in a specific context, vocational teacher-training course in Denmark. By offering a basis and concepts for analysis of practice such model is meant to support the development of vocational teachers’ professionalism at courses and in organizational contexts...

  4. Feynman integrals in QCD made simple

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A key insight is that important properties of these functions can be predicted by inspecting the singularity structure of the Feynman integrand. Combined with the differential equations technique, this gives a powerful method for computing the necessary Feynman integrals. I will review these ideas, based on Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 25, and present recent new results relevant for QCD scattering amplitudes.

  5. A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)

  6. A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-11-01

    ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)

  7. Parametric form of QCD travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Peschanski, R.

    2005-01-01

    We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.

  8. Introduction to finite temperature and finite density QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    It has been pointed out that QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) in the circumstances of medium at finite temperature and density shows numbers of phenomena similar to the characteristics of solid state physics, e.g. phase transitions. In the past ten years, the very high temperature and density matter came to be observed experimentally at the heavy ion collisions. At the same time, the numerical QCD analysis at finite temperature and density attained quantitative level analysis possible owing to the remarkable progress of computers. In this summer school lecture, it has been set out to give not only the recent results, but also the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry, the fundamental theory of finite temperature and further expositions as in the following four sections. The first section is titled as 'Introduction to Finite Temperature and Density QCD' with subsections of 1.1 standard model and QCD, 1.2 phase transition and phase structure of QCD, 1.3 lattice QCD and thermodynamic quantity, 1.4 heavy ion collision experiments, and 1.5 neutron stars. The second one is 'Equilibrium State' with subsections of 2.1 chiral symmetry, 2.2 vacuum state: BCS theory, 2.3 NJL (Nambu-Jona-Lasinio) model, and 2.4 color superconductivity. The third one is 'Static fluctuations' with subsections of 3.1 fluctuations, 3.2 moment and cumulant, 3.3 increase of fluctuations at critical points, 3.4 analysis of fluctuations by lattice QCD and Taylor expansion, and 3.5 experimental exploration of QCD phase structure. The fourth one is 'Dynamical Structure' with 4.1 linear response theory, 4.2 spectral functions, 4.3 Matsubara function, and 4.4 analyses of dynamical structure by lattice QCD. (S. Funahashi)

  9. Hadron physics from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    propagate a three quark state simply three such Greens functions have to be convoluted. As we discussed, the unwanted heavy hadronic states, the so-called ''excited states'' get exponentially suppressed by the propagation in imaginary time. However, in parallel the signal of interest is also reduced, which faces any Lattice QCD practitioner with a serious optimization problem: If he chooses a very strong exponential suppression of unwanted states also the signal is lost, if he chooses a weak suppression, his signal is distorted by excited state artifacts. Therefore, many ingenious ideas were developed to improve this filtering process. One of the most efficient ones is to increase the overlap of source and sink with the hadron of interest by a process called ''smearing''. In practice, to cope with this problem, the careful analysis of many different statistical ensembles using a multitude of analysis strategies, e.g. different smearing prescriptions, is needed to obtain a realistic systematic uncertainties for all analyzed quantities. To perform such analyses for a large selection of hadronic observables was the purpose of this project. Some of these were already discussed in last years report. Therefore, we are concentrating here on some new ones. As the theoretical challenges are very similar for all of them, many applications are equally well suited for such a demonstration.

  10. QCD tests at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1996-02-01

    We present results for the inclusive jet cross section and the dijet mass distribution. The inclusive cross section and dijet mass both exhibit significant deviations from the predictions of NLO QCD for jets with E T >200 GeV, or dijet masses > 400 GeV/c 2 . We show that it is possible, within a global QCD analysis that includes the CDF inclusive jet data, to modify the gluon distribution at high x. The resulting increase in the jet cross-section predictions is 25-35%. Owing to the presence of k T smearing effects, the direct photon data does not provide as strong a constraint on the gluon distribution as previously thought. A comparison of the CDF and UA2 jet data, which have a common range in x, is plagued by theoretical and experimental uncertainties, and cannot at present confirm the CDF excess or the modified gluon distribution

  11. The QCD Effective String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.

    2003-01-01

    QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)

  12. QCD and RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharzeev, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk I discuss recent advances in Quantum Chromo-Dynamics, in particular the progress in understanding the collective dynamics of the theory. I emphasise the significance of the RHIC program for establishing the properties of hot and dense QCD matter and for understanding the dynamics of the theory at the high parton density, strong color field frontier. Hopes and expectations for the future are discussed as well

  13. WORKSHOP QCD at 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1992-01-01

    The modern theory of strong interactions - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), where quarks and gluons carrying the 'colour' quantum number play the essential role, is twenty years old. This birthday was duly celebrated at RWTH Aachen from 9-13 June, where recurring themes were - what has been achieved in the past twenty years?, where do we stand?, and what are the perspectives for the future?

  14. Future directions for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC

  15. String dynamics in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)

  16. Introduction to QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Skands, Peter

    2012-01-01

    These lectures were originally given at TASI and are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), focusing on collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into five main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) fixed-order pertu...

  17. Dual QCD: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.; Ball, J.S.; Zachariasen, F.

    1991-01-01

    We review the attempts to use dual (electric) vector potentials rather than the standard magnetic vector potentials to describe QCD, particularly in the infrared regime. The use of dual potentials is motivated by the fact that in classical electrodynamics, in a medium with a dielectric constant vanishing at small momenta (as is believed to be the case in QCD), electric potentials provide a far more convenient language than do magnetic potentials. To begin with, we outline attempts to construct the QCD Lagrangian in terms of dual potentials and describe the various possibilities, their shortcomings and advantages, which so far exist. We then proceed to use the most attractive (albeit consistent as a field theory only at the tree level) of these Lagrangians in a number of applications. We show that it describes a non-Abelian dual superconductor (so that it automatically confines color), derive the static quark-antiquark potential, and various temperature dependent effects, such as deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  18. QCD: Renormalization for the practitioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, P.; Tarrach, R.

    1984-01-01

    These notes correspond to a GIFT (Grupo Interuniversitario de Fisica Teorica) course which was given by us in autumn 1983 at the University of Barcelona. Their main subject is renormalization in perturbative QCD and only the last chapter goes beyond perturbation theory. They are essentially self contained and their aim is to teach the student the techniques of perturbative QCD and the QCD sum rules. (orig./HSI)

  19. Tevatron-for-LHC Report of the QCD Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, Michael G.; Begel, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Campanelli, M.; Chlebana, F.; De Roeck, A.; Dittmann, J.R.; Ellis, S.D.; Field, B.; Field, R.; Gallinaro, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The experiments at Run 2 of the Tevatron have each accumulated over 1 fb{sup -1} of high-transverse momentum data. Such a dataset allows for the first precision (i.e. comparisons between theory and experiment at the few percent level) tests of QCD at a hadron collider. While the Large Hadron Collider has been designed as a discovery machine, basic QCD analyses will still need to be performed to understand the working environment. The Tevatron-for-LHC workshop was conceived as a communication link to pass on the expertise of the Tevatron and to test new analysis ideas coming from the LHC community. The TeV4LHC QCD Working Group focused on important aspects of QCD at hadron colliders: jet definitions, extraction and use of Parton Distribution Functions, the underlying event, Monte Carlo tunes, and diffractive physics. This report summarizes some of the results achieved during this workshop.

  20. Recent QCD results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed studies of a wide range of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-QCD measurements include studies of underlying event and vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high-order QCD predictions and provide input for determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated inclusive and di-photons cross sections for high transverse momentum photons test theoretical predictions of perturbative QCD and constrain parton density functions. An overview of these results is given.

  1. Renormalization of Extended QCD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamura, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD), proposed by Kaplan [D. B. Kaplan, arXiv:1306.5818], is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of 2D (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of a large number of colors N c , to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low-energy region

  2. Hadron structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Some elements and current developments of lattice QCD are reviewed, with special emphasis on hadron structure observables. In principle, high precision experimental and lattice data provide nowadays a very detailled picture of the internal structure of hadrons. However, to relate both, a very good controle of perturbative QCD is needed in many cases. Finally chiral perturbation theory is extremely helpful to boost the precision of lattice calculations. The mutual need and benefit of all four elements: experiment, lattice QCD, perturbative QCD and chiral perturbation theory is the main topic of this review

  3. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as

  4. Novel QCD Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-08-12

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such 'direct' processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed x{sub T} = 2p{sub T}/{radical}s, as well as the 'baryon anomaly', the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, the soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line, lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. Eliminating the renormalization scale ambiguity greatly improves the precision of QCD predictions and increases the sensitivity of

  5. Lattice QCD for Baryon Rich Matter – Beyond Taylor Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Boyda, D. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Nakamura, A. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Nikolaev, A. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Zakharov, V.I. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Moscow Inst Phys & Technol, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss our study for exploring the QCD phase diagram based on the lattice QCD. To go beyond the Taylor expansion and to reach higher density regions, we employ the canonical approach. In order to produce lattice data which meet experimental situation as much as possible, we propose a canonical approach with the charge and baryon number. We present our lattice QCD GPU code for this project which employs the clover improved Wilson fermions and Iwasaki gauge action to investigate pure imaginary chemical potential.

  6. Lattice QCD for Baryon Rich Matter – Beyond Taylor Expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.; Boyda, D.; Goy, V.; Molochkov, A.; Nakamura, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Zakharov, V.I.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss our study for exploring the QCD phase diagram based on the lattice QCD. To go beyond the Taylor expansion and to reach higher density regions, we employ the canonical approach. In order to produce lattice data which meet experimental situation as much as possible, we propose a canonical approach with the charge and baryon number. We present our lattice QCD GPU code for this project which employs the clover improved Wilson fermions and Iwasaki gauge action to investigate pure imaginary chemical potential.

  7. Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomeit Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hard and soft QCD results using proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported. Charged-particle distributions and forward-backward correlations have been studied in low-luminosity minimum bias data taken at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. Recent measurements on underlying event characteristics using charged-particle jets are also presented. The results are tested against various phenomenological soft QCD models implemented in Monte-Carlo generators. A summary of hard QCD measurements involving high transverse momentum jets is also given. Inclusive jet and dijet cross-sections have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and are compared to expectations based on NLO pQCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects as well as to NLO Monte Carlo predictions. Recent studies exploiting jet substructure techniques to identify hadronic decays of boosted massive particles are reported.

  8. Large Nc QCD at nonzero chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    The general issue of large N c QCD at nonzero chemical potential is considered with a focus on understanding the difference between large N c QCD with an isospin chemical potential and large N c QCD with a baryon chemical potential. A simple diagrammatic analysis analogous to 't Hooft's analysis at μ=0 implies that the free energy with a given baryon chemical potential is equal to the free energy with an isospin chemical potential of the same value plus 1/N c corrections. Phenomenologically, these two systems behave quite differently. A scenario to explain this difference in light of the diagrammatic analysis is explored. This scenario is based on a phase transition associated with pion condensation when the isospin chemical potential exceeds m π /2; associated with this transition there is breakdown of the 1/N c expansion--in the pion condensed phase there is a distinct 1/N c expansion including a larger set of diagrams. While this scenario is natural, there are a number of theoretical issues which at least superficially challenge it. Most of these can be accommodated. However, the behavior of quenched QCD which raises a number of apparently analogous issues cannot be easily understood completely in terms of an analogous scenario. Thus, the overall issue remains open

  9. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  10. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized

  11. Nonperturbative QCD and elastic processes at CEBAF energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, A.V. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)]|[Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The author outlines how one can approach nonperturbative aspects of the QCD dynamics studying elastic processes at energies accessible at upgraded CEBAF. The author`s point is that, in the absence of a complete theory of the nonperturbative effects, a possible way out is based on a systematic use of the QCD factorization procedure which separates theoretically understood ({open_quotes}known{close_quotes}) short-distance effects and nonperturbative ({open_quotes}unknown{close_quotes}) long-distance ones. The latter include hadronic distribution amplitudes, soft components of hadronic form factors etc. Incorporating the QCD sum rule version of the QCD factorization approach, one can relate these nonperturbative functions to more fundamental objects, vacuum condensates, which accumulate information about the nonperturbative structure of the QCD vacuum. The emerging QCD sum rule picture of hadronic form factors is characterized by a dominant role of essentially nonperturbative effects in the few GeV region, with perturbative mechanisms starting to show up for momentum transfers Q{sup 2} closer to 10 GeV{sup 2} and higher. Thus, increasing CEBAF energy provides a unique opportunity for a precision study of interplay between the perturbative and nonperturbative phenomena in the QCD description of elastic processes.

  12. Nonperturbative QCD and elastic processes at CEBAF energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The author outlines how one can approach nonperturbative aspects of the QCD dynamics studying elastic processes at energies accessible at upgraded CEBAF. The author's point is that, in the absence of a complete theory of the nonperturbative effects, a possible way out is based on a systematic use of the QCD factorization procedure which separates theoretically understood (open-quotes knownclose quotes) short-distance effects and nonperturbative (open-quotes unknownclose quotes) long-distance ones. The latter include hadronic distribution amplitudes, soft components of hadronic form factors etc. Incorporating the QCD sum rule version of the QCD factorization approach, one can relate these nonperturbative functions to more fundamental objects, vacuum condensates, which accumulate information about the nonperturbative structure of the QCD vacuum. The emerging QCD sum rule picture of hadronic form factors is characterized by a dominant role of essentially nonperturbative effects in the few GeV region, with perturbative mechanisms starting to show up for momentum transfers Q 2 closer to 10 GeV 2 and higher. Thus, increasing CEBAF energy provides a unique opportunity for a precision study of interplay between the perturbative and nonperturbative phenomena in the QCD description of elastic processes

  13. Conducting Meta-Analyses Based on p Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aert, Robbie C. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of overwhelming evidence of publication bias in psychology, techniques to correct meta-analytic estimates for such bias are greatly needed. The methodology on which the p-uniform and p-curve methods are based has great promise for providing accurate meta-analytic estimates in the presence of publication bias. However, in this article, we show that in some situations, p-curve behaves erratically, whereas p-uniform may yield implausible estimates of negative effect size. Moreover, we show that (and explain why) p-curve and p-uniform result in overestimation of effect size under moderate-to-large heterogeneity and may yield unpredictable bias when researchers employ p-hacking. We offer hands-on recommendations on applying and interpreting results of meta-analyses in general and p-uniform and p-curve in particular. Both methods as well as traditional methods are applied to a meta-analysis on the effect of weight on judgments of importance. We offer guidance for applying p-uniform or p-curve using R and a user-friendly web application for applying p-uniform. PMID:27694466

  14. PC based 8K multichannel analyser for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.; Gupta, J.D.; Suman Kumari, B.

    1989-01-01

    An IBM-PC based 8K multichannel analyser(MCA) has been developed which incorporates all the features of an advanced system like very high throughput for data acquisition in PHA as well as MCS modes, fast real-time display, extensive display manipulation facilities, various present controls and concurrent data processing. The compact system hardware consists of a 2 bit wide NIM module and a PC add-on card. Because of external acquisition hardware, the system after initial programming by PC can acquire data independently allowing the PC to be switched off. To attain very high throughput, the most desirable feature of an MCA, a dual-port memory architecture has been used. The asymmetric dual-port RAM, housed in the NIM module offers 24 bit parallel access to the ADC and 8 bit wide access to PC which results in fast real-time histogramic display on the monitor. PC emulation software is menu driven and user friendly. It integrates a comprehensive set of commonly required application routines for concurrent data processing. After the transfer of know-how to the Electronic Corporation of India Ltd. (ECIL), this system is bein g produced at ECIL. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suortti, Pekka; Keyriläinen, Jani; Thomlinson, William

    2013-01-01

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment. (paper)

  16. Progress Report on Computational Analyses of Water-Based NSTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraus, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lisowski, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nunez, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    CFD analysis has been focused on important component-level phenomena using STARCCM+ to supplement the system analysis of integral system behavior. A notable area of interest was the cavity region. This area is of particular interest for CFD analysis due to the multi-dimensional flow and complex heat transfer (thermal radiation heat transfer and natural convection), which are not simulated directly by RELAP5. CFD simulations allow for the estimation of the boundary heat flux distribution along the riser tubes, which is needed in the RELAP5 simulations. The CFD results can also provide additional data to help establish what level of modeling detail is necessary in RELAP5. It was found that the flow profiles in the cavity region are simpler for the water-based concept than for the air-cooled concept. The local heat flux noticeably increases axially, and is higher in the fins than in the riser tubes. These results were utilized in RELAP5 simulations as boundary conditions, to provide better temperature predictions in the system level analyses. It was also determined that temperatures were higher in the fins than the riser tubes, but within design limits for thermal stresses. Higher temperature predictions were identified in the edge fins, in part due to additional thermal radiation from the side cavity walls.

  17. Model-Based Recursive Partitioning for Subgroup Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Heidi; Zeileis, Achim; Hothorn, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    The identification of patient subgroups with differential treatment effects is the first step towards individualised treatments. A current draft guideline by the EMA discusses potentials and problems in subgroup analyses and formulated challenges to the development of appropriate statistical procedures for the data-driven identification of patient subgroups. We introduce model-based recursive partitioning as a procedure for the automated detection of patient subgroups that are identifiable by predictive factors. The method starts with a model for the overall treatment effect as defined for the primary analysis in the study protocol and uses measures for detecting parameter instabilities in this treatment effect. The procedure produces a segmented model with differential treatment parameters corresponding to each patient subgroup. The subgroups are linked to predictive factors by means of a decision tree. The method is applied to the search for subgroups of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that differ with respect to their Riluzole treatment effect, the only currently approved drug for this disease.

  18. A transverse lattice QCD model for mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Apoorva D.; Ratabole, Raghunath

    2004-03-01

    QCD is analysed with two light-front continuum dimensions and two transverse lattice dimensions. In the limit of large number of colours and strong transverse gauge coupling, the contributions of light-front and transverse directions factorise in the dynamics, and the theory can be analytically solved in a closed form. An integral equation is obtained, describing the properties of mesons, which generalises the 't Hooft equation by including spin degrees of freedom. The meson spectrum, light-front wavefunctions and form factors can be obtained by solving this equation numerically. These results would be a good starting point to model QCD observables which only weakly depend on transverse directions, e.g. deep inelastic scattering structure functions.

  19. QCD studies at the hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugher, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two hadron collider experiments are actively pursuing QCD jet analyses. They are CDF, with a √s = 1800 GeV, and UA2, with a √s = 630 GeV. Recent results from these collaborations are discussed. The inclusive jet spectrum, dijet mass and angular distribution are compared to QCD predictions and used to set limits on quark substructure. Data from both experiments are compared to the O(α s 3 ) calculations for the inclusive jet cross section. Studies of 3-jet, 4-jet and 5-jet events are described. A limit is set on the cross section for double parton scattering from the UA2 4-jet analysis. The inclusive photon cross section has been measured by both CDF and UA2 and is compared to theoretical predictions. 13 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  20. The effective QCD theory at low energy; La theorie effective de QCD a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1995-12-31

    Quantum chromodynamics is studied here in the range of low energies. The Chiral perturbation theory is presented, this theory is based on a thorough study of QCD symmetry, of general field theory principles and of S-matrices. Ward identities are defined within the scope of current algebras and by using functional method. Their consequences on Chiral structure of QCD emptiness and on strong interaction at low energies are studied. The pion-pion diffusion at low energies is treated as an example. (A.C.) 70 refs.

  1. Assuming Regge trajectories in holographic QCD: from OPE to Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, Luigi; Greynat, David

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Wall model in holographic QCD has Regge trajectories but wrong operator product expansion (OPE) for the two-point vectorial QCD Green function. We correct analytically this problem and describe the axial sector and chiral symmetry breaking. The low energy chiral parameters, $F_{\\pi}$ and $L_{10}$ , are well described analytically by the model in terms of Regge spacing and QCD condensates. The model nicely supports and extends previous theoretical analyses advocating Digamma function to study QCD two-point functions in different momentum regions.

  2. QCD: Questions, challenges, and dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.

    1996-11-01

    An introduction to some outstanding issues in QCD is presented, with emphasis on work by Diakonov and co-workers on the influence of the instanton vacuum on low-energy QCD observables. This includes the calculation of input valence-parton distributions for deep-inelastic scattering. 35 refs., 3 figs

  3. Perturbative QCD (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Perturbative QCD is the general theoretical framework for describing hard scattering processes yielding multiparticle production at hadron colliders. In these lectures, we shall introduce fundamental features of perturbative QCD and describe its application to several high energy collider processes, including jet production in electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic scattering, Higgs boson and gauge boson production at the LHC.

  4. Experimental Summary Moriond QCD 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Rolandi, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    More than 90 speakers gave a presentation at this years Moriond QCD conference and more than 60 talks reported the experimental status and perspectives on Standard Model, especially QCD, search for new physics, quark spectroscopy and Heavy Ions physics. I summarize what I consider the highlights of these presentations.

  5. Nuclear properties from perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.; Roberts, R.G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Two apparently different descriptions of quark distributions in a nucleus may in fact be connected. A ''duality'' between the QCD approach and the conventional model of nucleon binding leads to nuclear properties being simply related to the anomalous dimensions of QCD. (orig.)

  6. Quarklei: nuclear physics from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulties posed for nuclear physics by either recognizing or ignoring QCD, are discussed. A QCD model for nuclei is described. A crude approximation is shown to qualitatively reproduce saturation of nuclear binding energies and the EMC effect. The model is applied seriously to small nuclei, and to hypernuclei

  7. Light-Front QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.

    2004-11-30

    In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, including light-front statistical physics. Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. Given the LFWFs, one can compute form factors, heavy hadron decay amplitudes, hadron distribution amplitudes, and the generalized parton distributions underlying deeply virtual Compton scattering. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffractive dissociation, and hidden-color components of nuclear wavefunctions. A new test of hidden color in deuteron photodisintegration is proposed. The origin of leading-twist phenomena such as the diffractive component of deep inelastic scattering, single-spin asymmetries, nuclear shadowing and antishadowing is also discussed; these phenomena cannot be described by light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Part of the anomalous NuTeV results for the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents.

  8. HERAFitter. Open source QCD fit project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Behnke, O.; Belov, P.

    2014-11-01

    HERAFitter is an open-source package that provides a framework for the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton and for many different kinds of analyses in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It encodes results from a wide range of experimental measurements in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton (proton-antiproton) collisions at hadron colliders. These are complemented with a variety of theoretical options for calculating PDF-dependent cross section predictions corresponding to the measurements. The framework covers a large number of the existing methods and schemes used for PDF determination. The data and theoretical predictions are brought together through numerous methodological options for carrying out PDF fits and plotting tools to help visualise the results. While primarily based on the approach of collinear factorisation, HERAFitter also provides facilities for fits of dipole models and transverse-momentum dependent PDFs. The package can be used to study the impact of new precise measurements from hadron colliders. This paper describes the general structure of HERAFitter and its wide choice of options.

  9. Composite operators in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidenori

    1992-01-01

    We give a formula for the derivatives of a correlation function of composite operators with respect to the parameters (i.e. the strong fine structure constant and the quark mass) of QCD in four- dimensional euclidean space. The formula is given as spatial integration of the operator conjugate to a parameter. The operator product of a composite operator and a conjugate operator has an unintegrable part, and the formula requires divergent subtractions. By imposing consistency conditions we drive a relation between the anomalous dimensions of the composite operators and the unintegrable part of the operator product coefficients. (orig.)

  10. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  11. QCD jets from coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curci, G [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Greco, M; Srivastava, Y [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1979-11-19

    A recently proposed approach to the problem of infrared and mass singularities in QCD based on the formalism of coherent states, is extended to discuss massless quark and gluon jets. The present results include all leading (ln delta) terms as well as finite terms in the energy loss epsilon, in addition to the usual ln epsilon associated with ln delta. The formulae agree with explicit perturbative calculations, whenever available. Explicit expressions for the total Ksub(T) distributions are given which take into account transverse-momentum conservation. Predictions are also made for the Q/sup 2/ dependence of the mean Ksub(T)/sup 2/ for quark and gluon jets. The jet ksub(T) distributions are extrapolated for low ksub(T) and shown to describe with good accuracy the data for eanti e..-->..qanti q..-->.. hadrons. Numerical predictions are also presented for the forthcoming PETRA, PEP and LEP machines.

  12. First Monte Carlo Global Analysis of Nucleon Transversity with Lattice QCD Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.-W.; Melnitchouk, W.; Prokudin, A.; Sato, N.; Shows, H.; Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum JAM Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We report on the first global QCD analysis of the quark transversity distributions in the nucleon from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS), using a new Monte Carlo method based on nested sampling and constraints on the isovector tensor charge gT from lattice QCD. A simultaneous fit to the available SIDIS Collins asymmetry data is compatible with gT values extracted from a comprehensive reanalysis of existing lattice simulations, in contrast to previous analyses, which found significantly smaller gT values. The contributions to the nucleon tensor charge from u and d quarks are found to be δ u =0.3 (2 ) and δ d =-0.7 (2 ) at a scale Q2=2 GeV2.

  13. Recent progress on perturbative QCD fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.

    1995-05-01

    The recent development of perturbative QCD (PQCD) fragmentation functions has strong impact on quarkonium production. I shall summarize B c meson production based on these PQCD fragmentation functions, as well as, the highlights of some recent activities on applying these PQCD fragmentation functions to explain anomalous J/ψ and ψ' production at the Tevatron. Finally, I discuss a fragmentation model based on the PQCD fragmentation functions for heavy quarks fragmenting into heavy-light mesons

  14. Factorization method for simulating QCD at finite density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new method for simulating QCD at finite density. The method is based on a general factorization property of distribution functions of observables, and it is therefore applicable to any system with a complex action. The so-called overlap problem is completely eliminated by the use of constrained simulations. We test this method in a Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where we are able to reproduce the exact results for the quark number density. (author)

  15. OpenQ∗D simulation code for QCD+QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Isabel; Fritzsch, Patrick; Hansen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The openQ∗D code for the simulation of QCD+QED with C∗ boundary conditions is presented. This code is based on openQCD-1.6, from which it inherits the core features that ensure its efficiency: the locally-deflated SAP-preconditioned GCR solver, the twisted-mass frequency splitting of the fermion....... An alpha version of this code is publicly available and can be downloaded from http://rcstar.web.cern.ch/....

  16. Pomeron in perturbative QCD - its elementary theory and possible phenomenology at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1992-04-01

    Theoretical ideas concerning the Pomeron in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The Lipatov equation with asymptotic freedom effects taken into account is recalled and the corresponding spectrum of eigenvalues controlling the bare Pomeron intercept analysed. Possible phenomenological implications of the perturbative QCD Pomeron for deep inelastic scattering at the HERA ep collider are briefly discussed. 9 figs., 49 refs. (author)

  17. Relevant energy scale of color confinement from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new lattice framework to extract the relevant gluonic energy scale of QCD phenomena which is based on a 'cut' on link variables in momentum space. This framework is expected to be broadly applicable to all lattice QCD calculations. Using this framework, we quantitatively determine the relevant energy scale of color confinement, through the analyses of the quark-antiquark potential and meson masses. The relevant energy scale of color confinement is found to be below 1.5 GeV in the Landau gauge. In fact, the string tension is almost unchanged even after cutting off the high-momentum gluon component above 1.5 GeV. When the relevant low-energy region is cut, the quark-antiquark potential is approximately reduced to a Coulomb-like potential, and each meson becomes a quasifree quark pair. As an analytical model calculation, we also investigate the dependence of the Richardson potential on the cut, and find the consistent behavior with the lattice result.

  18. Massively Parallel QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results

  19. Simulation-based Investigations of Electrostatic Beam Energy Analysers

    CERN Document Server

    Pahl, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    An energy analyser is needed to measure the beam energy profile behind the REX-EBIS at ISOLDE. The device should be able to operate with an accuracy of 1 V at voltages up to 30 kV. In order to find a working concept for an electrostatic energy analyser different designs were evaluated with simulations. A spherical device and its design issues are presented. The potential deformation effects of grids at high voltages and their influence on the energy resolution were investigated. First tests were made with a grid-free ring electrode device and show promising results.

  20. Early Run 2 Hard QCD Results from the ATLAS Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of hard QCD results based on data collected with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collision at √s = 13 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. The production of high transverse momentum jets, photons and photon-pairs were studied; the inclusive jet cross section is found to agree well with the prediction of perturbative QCD calculations performed at next-to-leading accuracy. The production cross sections for W and Z bosons in their e and μ decays was measured; in general, agreement is found with the expectation of next-to-next-to leading order QCD calculations and interesting sensitivities to the proton structure functions are already observed. The top production cross sections were measured in different top decay channels and found to agree with the state of the art QCD predictions.

  1. Academic Training: QCD: are we ready for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 4, 5, 6, 7 December, from 11:00 to 12:00 4, 5, 6 December - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500, 7 December - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 - 3-006 QCD: are we ready for the LHC S. FRIXIONE / INFN, Genoa, Italy The LHC energy regime poses a serious challenge to our capability of predicting QCD reactions to the level of accuracy necessary for a successful programme of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In these lectures, I'll introduce basic concepts in QCD, and present techniques based on perturbation theory, such as fixed-order and resummed computations, and Monte Carlo simulations. I'll discuss applications of these techniques to hadron-hadron processes, concentrating on recent trends in perturbative QCD aimed at improving our understanding of LHC phenomenology.

  2. Techniques for Scaling Up Analyses Based on Pre-interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick; Henriksen, Kim Steen; Banda, Gourinath

    2005-01-01

    a variety of analyses, both generic (such as mode analysis) and program-specific (with respect to a type describing some particular property of interest). Previous work demonstrated the approach using pre-interpretations over small domains. In this paper we present techniques that allow the method...

  3. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear QCD dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2004-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections are computed taking into account different phenomenological implementations of the nonlinear QCD dynamics. Based on the color dipole framework, the results for the saturation model supplemented by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as well as for the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism in the geometric scaling regime are presented. They are contrasted with recent calculations using next-to-leading order DGLAP and unified BFKL-DGLAP formalisms

  4. A Web-based Tool Combining Different Type Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2006-01-01

    of both, and they can be goal-dependent or goal-independent. We describe a prototype tool that can be accessed from a web browser, allowing various type analyses to be run. The first goal of the tool is to allow the analysis results to be examined conveniently by clicking on points in the original program...... the minimal "domain model" of the program with respect to the corresponding pre-interpretation, which can give more precise information than the original descriptive type....

  5. Heavy flavor production in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a brief survey is given of the status of heavy quark hadroproduction in QCD. The next-to-leading order calculation allows an estimate of the theoretical uncertainties to be made. They are manageable for top, but considerable for charm. The data on charm continues to show an excess of events at large x F , compared to QCD expectations. This may be linked to the measured anomalous A-dependence of the cross section on nuclear targets, also present at large x F . QCD models for the diffractive production of heavy quarks remain to be tested experimentally

  6. Graphic-based musculoskeletal model for biomechanical analyses and animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Edmund Y S

    2003-04-01

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the 'Virtual Human' reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. This paper details the design, capabilities, and features of the VIMS development at Johns Hopkins University, an effort possible only through academic and commercial collaborations. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of this unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system will impact on medical education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal diseases, trauma, and rehabilitation.

  7. Datagrids for lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechner, O. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lippert, Th. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Melkumyan, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Orth, B. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Pleiter, D. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: dirk.pleiter@desy.de; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wegner, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wollny, S. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-01

    As the need for computing resources to carry out numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) formulated on a lattice has increased significantly, efficient use of the generated data has become a major concern. To improve on this, groups plan to share their configurations on a worldwide level within the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG). Doing so requires standardized description of the configurations, standards on binary file formats and common middleware interfaces. We describe the requirements and problems, and discuss solutions. Furthermore, an overview is given on the implementation of the LatFor DataGrid [http://www-zeuthen.desy.de/latfor/ldg], a France/German/Italian grid that will be one of the regional grids within the ILDG grid-of-grids concept.

  8. Vacuum structure and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of QCD is given, and some of the dynamical issues that arise in attempts to solve this theory are discussed. In particular, attention is focused on the problems that appear in attempts to discuss the structure of low-lying hadrons, e.g. nucleons, on the basis of a color gauge theory of quarks. The picture of hadronic structure developed by Callan, Dashen, and Gross is reviewed; this picture maintains that it presents the qualitative features of hadronic structure emerging in a direct way from first principles. Finally, the relevance of the emerging understanding of the structure of hadrons to the question of what hadronic matter (nuclear or quark matter) might look like at high densities is discussed

  9. An Apple II -based bidimensional pulse height analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Flesher, A.C.; Honeyman, R.N.; Pritchard, T.E.; Price, W.P.R.

    1984-06-01

    The implementation of a pulse height analyser function in an Apple II microcomputer using minimal purpose built hardware is described. Except for a small interface module the system consists of two suites of software, one giving a conventional one dimensional analysis on a span of 1024 channels, and the other a two dimensional analysis on a 128 x 128 image format. Using the recently introduced ACCELERATOR coprocessor card the system performs with a dead time per event of less than 50 μS. Full software facilities are provided for display, storage and processing of the data using standard Applesoft BASIC. (author)

  10. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    methods, such as PCA, MAF or MNF. We therefore investigated the applicability of kernel based versions of these transformation. This meant implementing the kernel based methods and developing new theory, since kernel based MAF and MNF is not described in the literature yet. The traditional methods only...... have two factors that are useful for segmentation and none of them can be used to segment the two types of meat. The kernel based methods have a lot of useful factors and they are able to capture the subtle differences in the images. This is illustrated in Figure 1. You can see a comparison of the most...... useful factor of PCA and kernel based PCA respectively in Figure 2. The factor of the kernel based PCA turned out to be able to segment the two types of meat and in general that factor is much more distinct, compared to the traditional factor. After the orthogonal transformation a simple thresholding...

  11. International Meeting: Excited QCD 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Malek, Magdalena; Marinkovic, Marina; Parganlija, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Excited QCD 2014 will take place on the beautiful Bjelasnica mountain located in the vicinity of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Bjelasnica was a venue of the XIV Winter Olympic Games and it is situated only 30 kilometers from Sarajevo International Airport. The workshop program will start on February 2 and finish on February 8, 2014, with scientific lectures taking place from February 3 to 7. Workshop participants will be accomodated in Hotel Marsal, only couple of minutes by foot from the Olympic ski slopes. ABOUT THE WORKSHOP This edition is the sixth in a series of workshops that were previously organised in Poland, Slovakia, France and Portugal. Following the succesful meeting in 2013, the Workshop is returning to Sarajevo Olympic mountains in 2014, exactly thirty years after the Games. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-...

  12. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses in aging risk-based prioritizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.; Uryas'ev, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Aging risk evaluations of nuclear power plants using Probabilistic Risk Analyses (PRAs) involve assessments of the impact of aging structures, systems, and components (SSCs) on plant core damage frequency (CDF). These assessments can be used to prioritize the contributors to aging risk reflecting the relative risk potential of the SSCs. Aging prioritizations are important for identifying the SSCs contributing most to plant risk and can provide a systematic basis on which aging risk control and management strategies for a plant can be developed. However, these prioritizations are subject to variabilities arising from uncertainties in data, and/or from various modeling assumptions. The objective of this paper is to present an evaluation of the sensitivity of aging prioritizations of active components to uncertainties in aging risk quantifications. Approaches for robust prioritization of SSCs also are presented which are less susceptible to the uncertainties

  13. Evaluation of an optoacoustic based gas analysing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markmann, Janine; Lange, Birgit; Theisen-Kunde, Dirk; Danicke, Veit; Mayorov, Fedor; Eckert, Sebastian; Kettmann, Pascal; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    The relative occurrence of volatile organic compounds in the human respiratory gas is disease-specific (ppb range). A prototype of a gas analysing device using two tuneable laser systems, an OPO-laser (2.5 to 10 μm) and a CO2-laser (9 to 11 μm), and an optoacoustic measurement cell was developed to detect concentrations in the ppb range. The sensitivity and resolution of the system was determined by test gas measurements, measuring ethylene and sulfur hexafluoride with the CO2-laser and butane with the OPO-laser. System sensitivity found to be 13 ppb for sulfur hexafluoride, 17 ppb for ethylene and Respiratory gas samples of 8 healthy volunteers were investigated by irradiation with 17 laser lines of the CO2-laser. Several of those lines overlap with strong absorption bands of ammonia. As it is known that ammonia concentration increases by age a separation of people 35 was striven for. To evaluate the data the first seven gas samples were used to train a discriminant analysis algorithm. The eighth subject was then assigned correctly to the group >35 years with the age of 49 years.

  14. A Fuzzy Logic Based Method for Analysing Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Vinh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Network operators must perform many tasks to ensure smooth operation of the network, such as planning, monitoring, etc. Among those tasks, regular testing of network performance, network errors and troubleshooting is very important. Meaningful test results will allow the operators to evaluate network performanceof any shortcomings and to better plan for network upgrade. Due to the diverse and mainly unquantifiable nature of network testing results, there is a needs to develop a method for systematically and rigorously analysing these results. In this paper, we present STAM (System Test-result Analysis Method which employs a bottom-up hierarchical processing approach using Fuzzy logic. STAM is capable of combining all test results into a quantitative description of the network performance in terms of network stability, the significance of various network erros, performance of each function blocks within the network. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated in assisting the testing of a VoIP system at the Research Instiute of Post and Telecoms in Vietnam. The paper is organized as follows. The first section gives an overview of fuzzy logic theory the concepts of which will be used in the development of STAM. The next section describes STAM. The last section, demonstrating STAM’s capability, presents a success story in which STAM is successfully applied.

  15. Visualizing Confidence in Cluster-Based Ensemble Weather Forecast Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpf, Alexander; Tost, Bianca; Baumgart, Marlene; Riemer, Michael; Westermann, Rudiger; Rautenhaus, Marc

    2018-01-01

    In meteorology, cluster analysis is frequently used to determine representative trends in ensemble weather predictions in a selected spatio-temporal region, e.g., to reduce a set of ensemble members to simplify and improve their analysis. Identified clusters (i.e., groups of similar members), however, can be very sensitive to small changes of the selected region, so that clustering results can be misleading and bias subsequent analyses. In this article, we - a team of visualization scientists and meteorologists-deliver visual analytics solutions to analyze the sensitivity of clustering results with respect to changes of a selected region. We propose an interactive visual interface that enables simultaneous visualization of a) the variation in composition of identified clusters (i.e., their robustness), b) the variability in cluster membership for individual ensemble members, and c) the uncertainty in the spatial locations of identified trends. We demonstrate that our solution shows meteorologists how representative a clustering result is, and with respect to which changes in the selected region it becomes unstable. Furthermore, our solution helps to identify those ensemble members which stably belong to a given cluster and can thus be considered similar. In a real-world application case we show how our approach is used to analyze the clustering behavior of different regions in a forecast of "Tropical Cyclone Karl", guiding the user towards the cluster robustness information required for subsequent ensemble analysis.

  16. A Cyber-Attack Detection Model Based on Multivariate Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuto; Rinsaka, Koichiro; Dohi, Tadashi

    In the present paper, we propose a novel cyber-attack detection model based on two multivariate-analysis methods to the audit data observed on a host machine. The statistical techniques used here are the well-known Hayashi's quantification method IV and cluster analysis method. We quantify the observed qualitative audit event sequence via the quantification method IV, and collect similar audit event sequence in the same groups based on the cluster analysis. It is shown in simulation experiments that our model can improve the cyber-attack detection accuracy in some realistic cases where both normal and attack activities are intermingled.

  17. The running QCD coupling in the pre-asymptotic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgio, G.; Di Renzo, F.; Parrinello, C.; Pittori, C

    1999-03-01

    We study deviations from the perturbative asymptotic behaviour in the running QCD coupling by analysing non-perturbative measurements of {alpha}{sub s}(p) at low momenta (p {approx} 2 GeV) as obtained from the lattice three-gluon vertex. Our exploratory study provides some evidence for power corrections to the perturbative running proportional to 1/p{sup 2}.

  18. Multiplicity and event shape in the perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesima, K.

    1995-01-01

    The multiple hadroproduction in the perturbative QCD is briefly reviewed. There are a number of quantities which can be analysed with the use of the high-luminosity TRISTAN data. The analysis will contribute to clarifying some unsolved questions, and to the deeper understanding of the jet physics. (author)

  19. ALEPH Tau Spectral Functions and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Zhang, Z; Davier, Michel; Hoecker, Andreas; Zhang, Zhiqing

    2007-01-01

    Hadronic $\\tau$ decays provide a clean laboratory for the precise study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Observables based on the spectral functions of hadronic $\\tau$ decays can be related to QCD quark-level calculations to determine fundamental quantities like the strong coupling constant, quark and gluon condensates. Using the ALEPH spectral functions and branching ratios, complemented by some other available measurements, and a revisited analysis of the theoretical framework, the value $\\asm = 0.345 \\pm 0.004_{\\rm exp} \\pm 0.009_{\\rm th}$ is obtained. Taken together with the determination of \\asZ from the global electroweak fit, this result leads to the most accurate test of asymptotic freedom: the value of the logarithmic slope of $\\alpha_s^{-1}(s)$ is found to agree with QCD at a precision of 4%. The value of \\asZ obtained from $\\tau$ decays is $\\asZ = 0.1215 \\pm 0.0004_{\\rm exp} \\pm 0.0010_{\\rm th} \\pm 0.0005_{\\rm evol} = 0.1215 \\pm 0.0012$.

  20. A bayesian approach to QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    QCD sum rules are analyzed with the help of the Maximum Entropy Method. We develop a new technique based on the Bayesion inference theory, which allows us to directly obtain the spectral function of a given correlator from the results of the operator product expansion given in the deep euclidean 4-momentum region. The most important advantage of this approach is that one does not have to make any a priori assumptions about the functional form of the spectral function, such as the 'pole + continuum' ansatz that has been widely used in QCD sum rule studies, but only needs to specify the asymptotic values of the spectral function at high and low energies as an input. As a first test of the applicability of this method, we have analyzed the sum rules of the ρ-meson, a case where the sum rules are known to work well. Our results show a clear peak structure in the region of the experimental mass of the ρ-meson. We thus demonstrate that the Maximum Entropy Method is successfully applied and that it is an efficient tool in the analysis of QCD sum rules. (author)

  1. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiss, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs

  2. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiss, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  3. Analysing co-articulation using frame-based feature trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate several approaches aimed at a more detailed understanding of co-articulation in spoken utterances. They find that the Euclidean difference between instantaneous frame-based feature values and the mean values of these features...

  4. PCR and RFLP analyses based on the ribosomal protein operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas have been primarily based on the highly conserved 16Sr RNA gene. RFLP analysis of 16Sr RNA gene sequences has identified 31 16Sr RNA (16Sr) groups and more than 100 16Sr subgroups. Classification of phytoplasma strains can however, become more refin...

  5. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-07-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  6. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  7. Deep-learning top taggers or the end of QCD?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasieczka, Gregor [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zürich,Otto-Stern-Weg 5, Zürich (Switzerland); Plehn, Tilman [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, Heidelberg (Germany); Russell, Michael [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow G12 8QQ, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Schell, Torben [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-05-02

    Machine learning based on convolutional neural networks can be used to study jet images from the LHC. Top tagging in fat jets offers a well-defined framework to establish our DeepTop approach and compare its performance to QCD-based top taggers. We first optimize a network architecture to identify top quarks in Monte Carlo simulations of the Standard Model production channel. Using standard fat jets we then compare its performance to a multivariate QCD-based top tagger. We find that both approaches lead to comparable performance, establishing convolutional networks as a promising new approach for multivariate hypothesis-based top tagging.

  8. Deep-learning top taggers or the end of QCD?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasieczka, Gregor; Plehn, Tilman; Russell, Michael; Schell, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning based on convolutional neural networks can be used to study jet images from the LHC. Top tagging in fat jets offers a well-defined framework to establish our DeepTop approach and compare its performance to QCD-based top taggers. We first optimize a network architecture to identify top quarks in Monte Carlo simulations of the Standard Model production channel. Using standard fat jets we then compare its performance to a multivariate QCD-based top tagger. We find that both approaches lead to comparable performance, establishing convolutional networks as a promising new approach for multivariate hypothesis-based top tagging.

  9. Analysing Leontiev Tube Capabilities in the Space-based Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Shchegolev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications dedicated to the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device (the Leontief tube and shows main factors affecting its efficiency. Describes an experimental installation, which is used to obtain data on the value of energy separation in the air to prove this device the operability.The assumption that there is an optimal relationship between the flow velocities in the subsonic and supersonic channels of the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device is experimentally confirmed.The paper conducts analysis of possible ways to raise the efficiency of power plants of various (including space basing, and shows that, currently, a mainstream of increasing efficiency of their operation is to complicate design solutions.A scheme of the closed gas-turbine space-based plant using a mixture of inert gases (helium-xenon one for operation is proposed. What differs it from the simplest variants is a lack of the cooler-radiator and integration into gas-dynamic temperature stratification device and heat compressor.Based on the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics, it is shown that the total pressure restorability when removing heat in a thermal compressor determines operating capability of this scheme. The exploratory study of creating a heat compressor is performed, and it is shown that when operating on gases with a Prandtl number close to 1, the total pressure does not increase.The operating capability conditions of the heat compressor are operation on gases with a low value of the Prandtl number (helium-xenon mixture at high supersonic velocities and with a longitudinal pressure gradient available.It is shown that there is a region of the low values of the Prandtl number (Pr <0.3 for which, with the longitudinal pressure gradient available in the supersonic flows of a viscous gas, the total pressure can be restored.

  10. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  11. Economic evaluation of algae biodiesel based on meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Liu, Xiaowei; White, Mark A.; Colosi, Lisa M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the economic viability of algae-to-energy systems at a large scale, by developing a meta-analysis of five previously published economic evaluations of systems producing algae biodiesel. Data from original studies were harmonised into a standardised framework using financial and technical assumptions. Results suggest that the selling price of algae biodiesel under the base case would be 5.00-10.31/gal, higher than the selected benchmarks: 3.77/gal for petroleum diesel, and 4.21/gal for commercial biodiesel (B100) from conventional vegetable oil or animal fat. However, the projected selling price of algal biodiesel (2.76-4.92/gal), following anticipated improvements, would be competitive. A scenario-based sensitivity analysis reveals that the price of algae biodiesel is most sensitive to algae biomass productivity, algae oil content, and algae cultivation cost. This indicates that the improvements in the yield, quality, and cost of algae feedstock could be the key factors to make algae-derived biodiesel economically viable.

  12. Lattice QCD at finite temperature with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The subatomic world is governed by the strong interactions of quarks and gluons, described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks experience confinement into colour-less objects, i.e. they can not be observed as free particles. Under extreme conditions such as high temperature or high density, this constraint softens and a transition to a phase where quarks and gluons are quasi-free particles (Quark-Gluon-Plasma) can occur. This environment resembles the conditions prevailing during the early stages of the universe shortly after the Big Bang. The phase diagram of QCD is under investigation in current and future collider experiments, for example at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) or at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Due to the strength of the strong interactions in the energy regime of interest, analytic methods can not be applied rigorously. The only tool to study QCD from first principles is given by simulations of its discretised version, Lattice QCD (LQCD). These simulations are in the high-performance computing area, hence, the numerical aspects of LQCD are a vital part in this field of research. In recent years, Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) have been incorporated in these simulations as they are a standard tool for general purpose calculations today. In the course of this thesis, the LQCD application CL 2 QCD has been developed, which allows for simulations on GPUs as well as on traditional CPUs, as it is based on OpenCL. CL 2 QCD constitutes the first application for Wilson type fermions in OpenCL. It provides excellent performance and has been applied in physics studies presented in this thesis. The investigation of the QCD phase diagram is hampered by the notorious sign-problem, which restricts current simulation algorithms to small values of the chemical potential. Theoretically, studying unphysical parameter ranges allows for constraints on the phase diagram. Of utmost importance is the clarification of the order of the finite

  13. QCD teraflops computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Architectural enhancements are described to increase the performance of the arithmetic accelerator and memory of the nodes in the CM-5 for QCD and a broad range of general problems while maintaining compatibility with existing software, compilers, communications network and I/O subsystems. A factor of 10 increase in performance is obtained by increasing the number of floating point processors by a factor of 4, extending the vector instruction set for dual execution of single-precision arithmetic, and increasing the clock rate from 32 to 40 MHz. The required memory bandwidth is obtained by using synchronous DRAMs and 4 floating point processors are packaged into a multichip module which occupies the same area as a present processor package. The proposed 2048 node machine will provide 2.6 Teraflops peak, 0.5 - 1.5 Teraflops sustained on lattices of 32 2 x 64 - 128 3 x 256, will have 256 Gigabytes of memory, 1 Terabyte of disk, an estimated cost of approximately $40 million, and can be built in 2.5 years. (orig.)

  14. Induced QCD I: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-University of Frankfurt,60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany); Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-11-14

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N{sub b} auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N{sub b} can be as small as N{sub c}. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N{sub c}) to SU(N{sub c}), (ii) derive refined bounds on N{sub b} for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.

  15. Evidence for Endothermy in Pterosaurs Based on Flight Capability Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Pratson, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Previous attempts to constrain flight capability in pterosaurs have relied heavily on the fossil record, using bone articulation and apparent muscle allocation to evaluate flight potential (Frey et al., 1997; Padian, 1983; Bramwell, 1974). However, broad definitions of the physical parameters necessary for flight in pterosaurs remain loosely defined and few systematic approaches to constraining flight capability have been synthesized (Templin, 2000; Padian, 1983). Here we present a new method to assess flight capability in pterosaurs as a function of humerus length and flight velocity. By creating an energy-balance model to evaluate the power required for flight against the power available to the animal, we derive a `U'-shaped power curve and infer optimal flight speeds and maximal wingspan lengths for pterosaurs Quetzalcoatlus northropi and Pteranodon ingens. Our model corroborates empirically derived power curves for the modern black-billed magpie ( Pica Pica) and accurately reproduces the mechanical power curve for modern cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus) (Tobalske et al., 2003). When we adjust our model to include an endothermic metabolic rate for pterosaurs, we find a maximal wingspan length of 18 meters for Q. northropi. Model runs using an exothermic metabolism derive maximal wingspans of 6-8 meters. As estimates based on fossil evidence show total wingspan lengths reaching up to 15 meters for Q. northropi, we conclude that large pterosaurs may have been endothermic and therefore more metabolically similar to birds than to reptiles.

  16. The generalized scheme-independent Crewther relation in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Ming; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2017-07-01

    The Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to set the renormalization scales order-by-order for any perturbative QCD calculable processes. The resulting predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a requirement of renormalization group invariance. The Crewther relation, which was originally derived as a consequence of conformally invariant field theory, provides a remarkable connection between two observables when the β function vanishes: one can show that the product of the Bjorken sum rule for spin-dependent deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering times the Adler function, defined from the cross section for electron-positron annihilation into hadrons, has no pQCD radiative corrections. The ;Generalized Crewther Relation; relates these two observables for physical QCD with nonzero β function; specifically, it connects the non-singlet Adler function (Dns) to the Bjorken sum rule coefficient for polarized deep-inelastic electron scattering (CBjp) at leading twist. A scheme-dependent ΔCSB-term appears in the analysis in order to compensate for the conformal symmetry breaking (CSB) terms from perturbative QCD. In conventional analyses, this normally leads to unphysical dependence in both the choice of the renormalization scheme and the choice of the initial scale at any finite order. However, by applying PMC scale-setting, we can fix the scales of the QCD coupling unambiguously at every order of pQCD. The result is that both Dns and the inverse coefficient CBjp-1 have identical pQCD coefficients, which also exactly match the coefficients of the corresponding conformal theory. Thus one obtains a new generalized Crewther relation for QCD which connects two effective charges, αˆd (Q) =∑i≥1 αˆg1 i (Qi), at their respective physical scales. This identity is independent of the choice of the renormalization scheme at any finite order, and the dependence on the choice of the initial scale is negligible. Similar

  17. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1: Scientific Bases and Analyses, Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, David

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S and ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S and ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23 013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054] [DIRS 124754]). By making the large amount of information developed on Yucca Mountain available in stages, the DOE intends to provide the public and interested parties with time to review the available materials and to formulate

  18. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Stirling, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses: fundamentals of perturbative QCD; QCD in e + e - → hadrons; deep inelastic scattering and parton distributions; the QCD parton model in hadron-hadron collisions; large p T jet production in hadron-hadron collisions; the production of vector bosons in hadronic collisions; and the production of heavy quarks

  19. Theoretical summary talk of QCD 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rahul

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks on QCD, not including QCD at finite temperature or density (which are discussed elsewhere) presented at the QCD 2002 meeting held at IIT, Kanpur. I have attempted to give only an overview of the talks since the details may be found in the individual contributions. (author)

  20. Recent QCD results from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we report recent QCD analysis with the new data taken from CDF detector. CDF recorded an integrated luminosity of 4.4 nb -1 during the 1988--1989 run at center of mass system (CMS) energy of 1.8 TeV. The major topics of this report are inclusive jet, dijet, trijet and direct photon analysis. These measurements are compared of QCD predictions. For the inclusive jet an dijet analysis, tests of quark compositeness are emphasized. 11 refs., 6 figs

  1. The supercritical pomeron in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Deep-inelastic diffractive scaling violations have provided fundamental insight into the QCD pomeron, suggesting a single gluon inner structure rather than that of a perturbative two-gluon bound state. This talk outlines a derivation of a high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, confining solution of QCD. The pomeron, in first approximation, is a single reggeized gluon plus a ''wee parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a super-critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory

  2. Simulating QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this review, I recall the nature and the inevitability of the "sign problem" which plagues attempts to simulate lattice QCD at finite baryon density. I present the main approaches used to circumvent the sign problem at small chemical potential. I sketch how one can predict analytically the severity of the sign problem, as well as the numerically accessible range of baryon densities. I review progress towards the determination of the pseudo-critical temperature T_c(mu), and towards the identification of a possible QCD critical point. Some promising advances with non-standard approaches are reviewed.

  3. The first lap in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1980-07-01

    The idea that quantum chromodynamics is Nature's choice for the theory of quark interactions and that desirable phenomena, such as quark confinement, are consequences of it are considered. The lecture is presented under the headings: (1) Why do we believe that quarks have colour. (2) A rapid summary of the parton model in deep inelastic scattering. (3) Non Abelian theories: the vertices. (4) Hyperfine splitting of hadrons: more evidence for colour. (5) Renormalisation. (6) Alpha(Q 2 ). (7) The renormalisation group equations. (8) QCD, the renormalisation group equation and deep inelastic data. (9) Higher order corrections in QCD. (U.K.)

  4. Neutron star structure from QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Eduardo S; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  5. Quark mass effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper recent studies of invariant QCD coupling anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with account of fermionic mass effects are summarized. The main results are: An explicit expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with accurate account of heavy quark masses. A quantitative analysis on the basis of the above-mentioned expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) of the energy dependence of the scale QCD parameter ν and the conclusion about its inadequacy in the modern energy range

  6. Lattice QCD: Status and Prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A brief review is given of the current status and near-future prospect of lattice QCD studies of the Standard Model. After summarizing a bit of history, we describe current attempts toward inclusion of dynamical up, down and strange quarks. Recent results on the light hadron mass spectrum as well as those on the heavy quark quantities are described. Recent work on lattice pentaquark search is summarized. We touch upon the PACS-CS Project for building our next machine for lattice QCD, and conclude with a summary of computer situation and the physics possibilities over the next several years

  7. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  8. Archeology and evolution of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A.

    2017-01-01

    These are excerpts from the closing talk at the "XIIth Conference on Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum", which took place last Summer in Thessaloniki --an excellent place to enjoy an interest in archeology. A more complete personal view of the early days of QCD and the rest of the Standard Model is given in [1]. Here I discuss a few of the points which --to my judgement-- illustrate well the QCD evolution (in time), both from a scientific and a sociological point of view.

  9. The dual description of long-distance QCD (Dual QCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.

    1990-01-01

    We construct and solve a local field theory which describes in terms of dual variables a system having an A μ propagator behaving like M 2 /q 4 in the infrared and discuss how this theory can be used as a starting point for describing long-distance QCD. 3 refs

  10. Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    order by order in $\\Delta_f$. We then compute $\\gamma_*$ through $O(\\Delta_f^2)$ for supersymmetric QCD in the $\\overline{\\text{DR}}$ scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that $\\gamma_*$ is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level...

  11. Hadron properties in QCD with two dynamical quark flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, M.

    2011-01-01

    I present the essential results of my doctoral thesis, which was done in the field of lattice QCD. This work can be seen as one of the cornerstones of a long-ranging project, started already at the beginning of the year 2000. Since then, several groups, associated in the Bern-Graz-Regensburg(BGR) collaboration, continuously worked on that project. In this report I will discuss results on various sectors of lattice QCD. There,seven sets of gauge field configurations with a lattice size of 16 3 x 32 and a spatial extent of about 2.2 fm have been created; the pion masses are ranging from 602 MeV down to 257 MeV. The configurations include two mass degenerate dynamical light quarks; the Luescher-Weisz gauge action and the Chirally Improved Dirac operator have been used. In each set 200 or 300 uncorrelated configurations are available for analyses.The results are located in three different fields. An analysis of low energy parameters was done, to be more precise, the axial Ward-identity mass and (the pion and kaon) decay constants have been investigated. The experimentally accessible value for the ratio of these decay constants is in full agreement with the value obtained here. The second area of research was concerning the angular momentum decomposition of the vector meson rho. In our approach it could be shown that the first excited state of the rho meson is not a pure S wave state, which is contrary to the quark model. The main focus of this work was based on hadron spectroscopy. This task was done using the variational method. A broad spectrum of baryons and mesons could be covered here. Also hadrons including strange quarks have been analyzed, however, the strange quark being a partially quenched strange quark. Generally speaking, the studied hadron channels compare nicely to the experimental values. (author) [de

  12. Valence QCD: Connecting QCD to the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.; Dong, S.J.; Draper, T.; Sloan, J.; Leinweber, D.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A valence QCD theory is developed to study the valence quark properties of hadrons. To keep only the valence degrees of freedom, the pair creation through the Z graphs is deleted in the connected insertions, whereas the sea quarks are eliminated in the disconnected insertions. This is achieved with a new 'valence QCD' Lagrangian where the action in the time direction is modified so that the particle and antiparticle decouple. It is shown in this valence version of QCD that the ratios of isovector to isoscalar matrix elements (e.g., F A /D A and F S /D S ratios) in the nucleon reproduce the SU(6) quark model predictions in a lattice QCD calculation. We also consider how the hadron masses are affected on the lattice and discover new insights into the origin of dynamical mass generation. It is found that, within statistical errors, the nucleon and the Δ become degenerate for the quark masses we have studied (ranging from 1 to 4 times the strange mass). The π and ρ become nearly degenerate in this range. It is shown that valence QCD has the C, P, T symmetries. The lattice version is reflection positive. It also has the vector and axial symmetries. The latter leads to a modified partially conserved axial Ward identity. As a result, the theory has a U(2N F ) symmetry in the particle-antiparticle space. Through lattice simulation, it appears that this is dynamically broken down to U q (N F )xU bar q (N F ). Furthermore, the lattice simulation reveals spin degeneracy in the hadron masses and various matrix elements. This leads to an approximate U q (2N F )xU bar q (2N F ) symmetry which is the basis for the valence quark model. In addition, we find that the masses of N, Δ,ρ,π,a 1 , and a 0 all drop precipitously compared to their counterparts in the quenched QCD calculation. This is interpreted as due to the disappearance of the 'constituent' quark mass which is dynamically generated through tadpole diagrams. The origin of the hyperfine splitting in the baryon is

  13. Status of the theory of QCD plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    There is mounting evidence, based on many theoretical approaches, that color is deconfined and chiral symmetry is restored at temperatures greater than about 200 MeV. Reasonable estimates of the energy density to be expected in high energy heavy ion collisions suggest that QCD plasma may be formed in the laboratory. Proposed experimental signals may allow us to infer such quantities as the temperature, the quark dispersion relation, the space-time evolution and, perhaps, even the order of the phase transition. 52 references

  14. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Stathopoulos, Andreas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Yoon, Boram [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  15. Perturbative QCD effects in heavy meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szezepaniak, A.; Henley, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The amplitude for the exclusive nonleptonic decay of a heavy meson into two light pseudoscalar mesons is analyzed using the factorization formalism of perturbative QCD for exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. We calculate the form factor b → u transition and compare it to the old quark model calculation and the new one based on the light cone formulation of the full quark model wave function. The new results we obtain are smaller by a factor of 2 - 3 as compared to the old value. (orig.)

  16. Perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Perlt, H. [Leipzig Univ. (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization of composite operators in lattice QCD restricting ourselves to operators that are bilinear in the quark fields (quark-antiquark operators). These include operators which are relevant to the calculation of moments of hadronic structure functions. The nonperturbative computations are based on Monte Carlo simulations with two flavors of clover fermions and utilize the Rome-Southampton method also known as the RI-MOM scheme. We compare the results of this approach with various estimates from lattice perturbation theory, in particular with recent two-loop calculations. (orig.)

  17. Chiral models of low energy QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, G.

    1993-01-01

    Two processes may be distinguished when a hadron propagates in a dense baryonic medium. The polarization of the medium and the change in the quark structure of the hadron. The polarization of the medium is better described in terms of colorless mesons and nucleons while the intrinsic change of the hadron is better described by quark models. It is shown how to couple the two processes. The scaling of effective Lagrangians, is related to changes in the quark constituent masses, based on the QCD scale anomaly. (author) 62 refs

  18. Tests of QCD using jets, bosons plus jets, and top quark production at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Cossutti, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is actively studied at present collidersusing several physics signatures as probes. Results from measurementsdone at LHC, but also from the legacy analyses of Tevatron and HERAdata, are discussed. Jets are the main tool for such investigation, asexperimental evidence for emission of gluons or quark production inQCD-dominated processes. Jet production in multijet events or inassociation with vector bosons is discussed. The investigation of theproduction of heavy quarks, and in particular of the top quark, is ofspecial importance both for the physics implications in the search fornew phenomena and for its unique characteristics from the QCD point ofview.

  19. Exposing the QCD Splitting Function with CMS Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew; Marzani, Simone; Thaler, Jesse; Tripathee, Aashish; Xue, Wei

    2017-09-29

    The splitting function is a universal property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which describes how energy is shared between partons. Despite its ubiquitous appearance in many QCD calculations, the splitting function cannot be measured directly, since it always appears multiplied by a collinear singularity factor. Recently, however, a new jet substructure observable was introduced which asymptotes to the splitting function for sufficiently high jet energies. This provides a way to expose the splitting function through jet substructure measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. In this Letter, we use public data released by the CMS experiment to study the two-prong substructure of jets and test the 1→2 splitting function of QCD. To our knowledge, this is the first ever physics analysis based on the CMS Open Data.

  20. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs

  1. Current issues in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1994-12-01

    This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets

  2. New results in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Three topics in perturbative QCD important for Super-collider physics are reviewed. The topics are: 1. (2 → 2) jet phenomena calculated in O(αs 3 ). 2. New techniques for the calculation of tree graphs. 3. Color coherence in jet phenomena. 31 references, 6 figures

  3. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S

    2008-02-15

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W{sup {+-}}/Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  4. Hard QCD at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.

    2008-02-01

    We review the status of QCD at hadron colliders with emphasis on precision predictions and the latest theoretical developments for cross sections calculations to higher orders. We include an overview of our current information on parton distributions and discuss various Standard Model reactions such as W ± /Z-boson, Higgs boson or top quark production. (orig.)

  5. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e + e - annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics

  6. Reggeon interactions in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1994-08-01

    We study the pairwise interaction of reggeized gluons and quarks in the Regge limit of perturbative QCD. The interactions are represented as integral kernels in the transverse momentum space and as operators in the impact parameter space. We observe conformal symmetry and holomorphic factorization in all cases. (orig.)

  7. LHC physics: challenges for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Frixione, S.

    2003-01-01

    I review the status of the comparisons between a few measurements at hadronic colliders and perturbative QCD predictions, which emphasize the need for improving the current computations. Such improvements will be mandatory for a satisfactory understanding of high-energy collisions at the LHC

  8. An overview of lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshyn, R.M.

    1988-03-01

    The basic concepts of the Lagrangian formulation of lattice field theory are discussed. The Wilson and staggered schemes for dealing with fermions on the lattice are described. Some recent results for hadron masses and vector and axial vector current matrix elements in lattice QCD are reviewed. (Author) (118 refs., 16 figs.)

  9. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  10. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is...

  11. Multiplicity distributions in QCD cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.

    1992-03-01

    Multiplicity distributions for hadrons and for jets are studied in QCD parton cascades. The colour dipole formalism is used and earlier results in the double log approximation are generalized to include terms which are suppressed by colour factors or factors of ln s. The result is a set of coupled differential equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions

  12. Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1979-04-01

    The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant

  13. A classical primer for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyasu, K.

    1981-01-01

    A basic primer for QCD is presented using a semiclassical approach to the colour Maxwell equations. The non-Abelian nature of colour symmetry and the violation of superposition by colour fields is compared with QED. A simple discussion of asymptotic freedom is also presented. (author)

  14. Orbitrap-based mass analyser for in-situ characterization of asteroids: ILMA, Ion Laser Mass Analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briois, C.; Cotti, H.; Thirkell, L.; Space Orbitrap Consortium[K. Aradj, French; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Carrasco, N.; Chalumeau, G.; Chapelon, O.; Colin, F.; Coll, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Kukui, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Pennanech, C.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Vuitton, V.; Zapf], P.; Makarov, A.

    2014-07-01

    Since about a decade the boundaries between comets and carbonaceous asteroids are fading [1,2]. No doubt that the Rosetta mission should bring a new wealth of data on the composition of comets. But as promising as it may look, the mass resolving power of the mass spectrometers onboard (so far the best on a space mission) will only be able to partially account for the diversity of chemical structures present. ILMA (Ion-Laser Mass Analyser) is a new generation high mass resolution LDI-MS (Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometer) instrument concept using the Orbitrap technique, which has been developed in the frame of the two Marco Polo & Marco Polo-R proposals to the ESA Cosmic Vision program. Flagged by ESA as an instrument concept of interest for the mission in 2012, it has been under study for a few years in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme between 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) [3,4], partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. A prototype is under development at LPC2E and a mass resolution (m/Δm FWHM) of 100,000 as been obtained at m/z = 150 for a background pressure of 10^{-8} mbar. ILMA would be a key instrument to measure the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of objects such as carbonaceous asteroids, comets, or other bodies devoid of atmosphere such as the surface of an icy satellite, the Moon, or Mercury.

  15. A BHLS model based moment analysis of muon g-2, and its use for lattice QCD evaluations of ahadμ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, M.; DelBuono, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present an up-to-date analysis of muon g-2 evaluations in terms of Mellin-Barnes moments as they might be useful for lattice QCD calculations of a μ . The moments up to 4th order are evaluated directly in terms of e + e - -annihilation data and improved within the Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) Model, supplied with appropriate symmetry breaking mechanisms. The model provides a reliable Effective Lagrangian (BHLS) estimate of the two-body channels plus the πππ channel up to 1.05 GeV, just including the φ resonance. The HLS piece accounts for 80% of the contribution to a μ . The missing pieces are evaluated in the standard way directly in terms of the data. We find that the moment expansion converges well in terms of a few moments. The two types of moments which show up in the Mellin-Barnes representation are calculated in terms of hadronic cross-section data in the timelike region and in terms of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) function in the spacelike region which is accessible to lattice QCD (LQCD). In the Euclidean the first type of moments are the usual Taylor coefficients of the HVP and we show that the second type of moments may be obtained as integrals over the appropriately Taylor truncated HVP function. Specific results for the isovector part of a had μ are determined by means of HLS model predictions in close relation to τ-decay spectra.

  16. Fermion determinants in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Christopher Andrew

    2001-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis concerns efficient algorithms for the calculation of determinants of the kind of matrix typically encountered in lattice QCD. In particular an efficient method for calculating the fermion determinant is described. Such a calculation is useful to illustrate the effects of light dynamical (virtual) quarks. The methods employed in this thesis are stochastic methods, based on the Lanczos algorithm, which is used for the solution of large, sparse matrix problems via a partial tridiagonalisation of the matrix. Here an implementation is explored which requires less exhaustive treatment of the matrix than previous Lanczos methods. This technique exploits the analogy between the Lanczos tridiagonalisation algorithm and Gaussian quadrature in order to calculate the fermion determinant. A technique for determining a number of the eigenvalues of the matrix is also presented. A demonstration is then given of how one can improve upon this estimate considerably using variance reduction techniques, reducing the variance by a factor of order 100 with a further, equal amount of work. The variance reduction method is a two-stage process, involving a Chebyshev approximation to the quantity in question and then the subtraction of traceless operators. The method is applied to the fermion determinant for non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions on a 16 3 x 32 lattice. It is also applicable to a wider class of matrix operators. Finally we discuss how dynamical quark effects may be simulated in a Monte Carlo process with an effective partitioning of low and high eigenmodes. This may be done via selective updating of a trial configuration which highlights the physically relevant effects of light quark modes. (author)

  17. Motivations for AdS/QCD from 10D supergravity solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paula, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some attempts for the construction of gravity duals of QCD-like theories. It is analysed some properties of solutions of 10D Type IIB supergravity theory that attempt to be dual to N= 1 gauge theories, in particular the solutions that belong to Papadoulos-Tseytlin ansatz. We argue that one could obtain 5D effective theories from 10d solutions and it motivates the use of phenomenological AdS/QCD models. (paper)

  18. QCD at low Q2 - a correspondence relation for moments of structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Schrempp, F.

    1980-01-01

    The precocious validity of QCD predictions in deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering and e + e - annihilation is interpreted as a signal for an underlying 'correspondence principle' relating perturbative and nonperturbative physics on the Q 2 average. Correspondence relations for nonsinglet moments of deep inelastic structure functions are formulated, discussed and successfully tested against experiment. The relations provide an independent determination of the QCD Λ-parameter from low Q 2 data in perfect agreement with results from large Q 2 analyses. (author)

  19. QCD analysis of structure functions in terms of Jacobi polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhizhin, V.G.; Kurlovich, S.P.; Savin, I.A.; Sidorov, A.V.; Skachkov, N.B.; Sanadze, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A new method of QCD-analysis of singlet and nonsinglet structure functions based on their expansion in orthogonal Jacobi polynomials is proposed. An accuracy of the method is studied and its application is demonstrated using the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) obtained by the EMC Collaboration from measurements with an iron target. (orig.)

  20. Renormalisaton of composite operators in lattice QCD. Perturbative versus nonperturbative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M.; Nakamura, Y. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The perturbative and nonperturbative renormalisation of quark-antiquark operators in lattice QCD with two flavours of clover fermions is investigated within the research programme of the QCDSF collaboration. Operators with up to three derivatives are considered. The nonperturbative results based on the RI-MOM scheme are compared with estimates from one- and two-loop lattice perturbation theory. (orig.)

  1. QCD Sum Rule External Field Approach and Vacuum Susceptibilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; CHANG Chao-His; WANG Fan; ZHAO En-Guang

    2002-01-01

    Based on QCD sum rule three-point and two-point external field formulas respectively, the vector vacuumsusceptibilities are calculated at the mean-field level in the framework of the global color symmetry model. It is shownthat the above two approaches of determination of the vector vacuum susceptibility may lead to different results. Thereason of this contradiction is discussed.

  2. Testing the supersymmetric QCD Yukawa coupling in a combined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    843–847. Testing the supersymmetric QCD Yukawa coupling ... we will only consider a scenario where the mass difference m˜g − m˜qL is sufficiently large to .... Based on the simulations for squark production at the LHC and the ILC presented.

  3. A BHLS model based moment analysis of muon g-2, and its use for lattice QCD evaluations of a{sup had}{sub μ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benayoun, M.; DelBuono, L. [Paris VI et Paris VII Univs. (France). LPNHE; David, P. [Paris VI et Paris VII Univs. (France). LPNHE; Paris-Diderot Univ. (France). LIED; Jegerlehner, F. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    We present an up-to-date analysis of muon g-2 evaluations in terms of Mellin-Barnes moments as they might be useful for lattice QCD calculations of a{sub μ}. The moments up to 4th order are evaluated directly in terms of e{sup +}e{sup -}-annihilation data and improved within the Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) Model, supplied with appropriate symmetry breaking mechanisms. The model provides a reliable Effective Lagrangian (BHLS) estimate of the two-body channels plus the πππ channel up to 1.05 GeV, just including the φ resonance. The HLS piece accounts for 80% of the contribution to a{sub μ}. The missing pieces are evaluated in the standard way directly in terms of the data. We find that the moment expansion converges well in terms of a few moments. The two types of moments which show up in the Mellin-Barnes representation are calculated in terms of hadronic cross-section data in the timelike region and in terms of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) function in the spacelike region which is accessible to lattice QCD (LQCD). In the Euclidean the first type of moments are the usual Taylor coefficients of the HVP and we show that the second type of moments may be obtained as integrals over the appropriately Taylor truncated HVP function. Specific results for the isovector part of a{sup had}{sub μ} are determined by means of HLS model predictions in close relation to τ-decay spectra.

  4. Complementary Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the French WISC-V: Analyses Based on the Standardization Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Thierry; Canivez, Gary L

    2017-12-28

    Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (French WISC-V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC-V factorial structure was established exclusively through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). However, as recommended by Carroll (1995); Reise (2012), and Brown (2015), factorial structure should derive from both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA. The first goal of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the French WISC-V using EFA. The 15 French WISC-V primary and secondary subtest scaled scores intercorrelation matrix was used and factor extraction criteria suggested from 1 to 4 factors. To disentangle the contribution of first- and second-order factors, the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization transformation (SLT) was applied. Overall, no EFA evidence for 5 factors was found. Results indicated that the g factor accounted for about 67% of the common variance and that the contributions of the first-order factors were weak (3.6 to 11.9%). CFA was used to test numerous alternative models. Results indicated that bifactor models produced better fit to these data than higher-order models. Consistent with previous studies, findings suggested dominance of the general intelligence factor and that users should thus emphasize the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when interpreting the French WISC-V. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. QCD sum rule for nucleon in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav

    2010-01-01

    We consider the two-point function of nucleon current in nuclear matter and write a QCD sum rule to analyse the residue of the nucleon pole as a function of nuclear density. The nucleon self-energy needed for the sum rule is taken as input from calculations using phenomenological N N potential. Our result shows a decrease in the residue with increasing nuclear density, as is known to be the case with similar quantities. (orig.)

  6. QCD on the connection machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this talk I give a brief introduction to the standard model of particle interactions and illustrate why analytical methods fail to solve QCD. I then give some details of our implementation of the high performance QCD code on the CM2 and highlight the important lessons learned. The sustained speed of the code at the time of this conference is 5.2 Gigaflops (scaled to a full 64K machine). Since this is a conference dedicated to computing in the 21st century, I will tailor my expectations (somewhat idiosyncratic) of the physics objectives to reflect what we will be able to do in 10 years time, extrapolating from where we stand today. This work is being done under a joint LANL-TMC collaboration consisting of C. Baillie, R. Brickner, D. Daniel, G. Kilcup, L. Johnson, A. Patel. S. Sharpe and myself. 5 refs

  7. QCD on the light cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1992-09-01

    The quantization of gauge theory at fixed light-cone time τ = t - z/c provides new perspectives for solving non-perturbative problems in quantum chromodynamics. The light-cone Fock state expansion provides both a precise definition of the relativistic wavefunctions of hadrons as bound-states of quarks and gluons and a general calculus for predicting QCD processes at the amplitude level. Applications to exclusive processes and weak decay amplitudes are discussed. The problem of computing the hadronic spectrum and the corresponding light-cone wavefunctions of QCD in one space and one time dimension has been successfully reduced to the diagonalization of a discrete representation of the light-cone Hamiltonian. The problems confronting the solution of gauge theories in 3 + 1 dimensions in the light-cone quantization formalism,, including zero modes and non-perturbative renormalization, are reviewed

  8. Innovations in lattice QCD algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orginos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    Lattice QCD calculations demand a substantial amount of computing power in order to achieve the high precision results needed to better understand the nature of strong interactions, assist experiment to discover new physics, and predict the behavior of a diverse set of physical systems ranging from the proton itself to astrophysical objects such as neutron stars. However, computer power alone is clearly not enough to tackle the calculations we need to be doing today. A steady stream of recent algorithmic developments has made an important impact on the kinds of calculations we can currently perform. In this talk I am reviewing these algorithms and their impact on the nature of lattice QCD calculations performed today

  9. Baryon physics in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pomarol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In a simple holographic model for QCD in which the Chern–Simons term is incorporated to take into account the QCD chiral anomaly, we show that baryons arise as stable solitons which are the 5D analogs of 4D skyrmions. Contrary to 4D skyrmions and previously considered holographic scenarios, these solitons have sizes larger than the inverse cut-off of the model, and therefore they are predictable within our effective field theory approach. We perform a numerical determination of several static properties of the nucleons and find a satisfactory agreement with data. We also calculate the amplitudes of “anomalous” processes induced by the Chern–Simons term in the meson sector, such as ω→πγ and ω→3π. A combined fit to baryonic and mesonic observables leads to an agreement with experiments within 16%.

  10. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  11. QCD in the δ-regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Rakow, P.E.L.

    2011-03-01

    The δ-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the δ-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M R π , which has been computed to the third order in the δ-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the δ-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M R π have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the δ-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l 3 . (orig.)

  12. Possible future HERA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  13. Testing QCD with current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Spontaneously broken chiral symmetry fixes the low energy structure of QCD to a large extent. I show how to determine the Green's functions to first nonleading order in a simultaneous expansion in powers of the momenta and of the u- and d-quark masses. In particular, I discuss the corrections of order M π 2 to the low energy theorems for ππ scattering. 19 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  14. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrand, T.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and α s (M z ), and B-anti B mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs

  15. Scale setting in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.

  16. The status of perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.

    1988-10-01

    The advances in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The status of determinations of the coupling constant α/sub S/ and the parton distribution functions is presented. New theoretical results on the spin dependent structure functions of the proton are also reviewed. The theoretical description of the production of vector bosons, jets and heavy quarks is outlined with special emphasis on new results. Expected rates for top quark production at hadronic colliders are presented. 111 refs., 8 figs

  17. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.

  18. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-11-13

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.

  19. ADS/CFT and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2007-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation

  20. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a 2 ) discretization effects.

  1. Scale setting in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2014-02-15

    The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.

  2. QCD contributions to vacuum polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.; Rubinstein, H.R.; Yazaki, S.

    1980-01-01

    We have computed to lowest non-trivial order the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the vacuum polarization from all currents up to and including spin 2 ++ . These expressions are important, for example to evaluate QCD sum rules for heavy and light quark systems as shown by Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov. Most of the known ones are verified, one slightly changed, and many new ones are displayed. (orig.)

  3. Perturbative QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-03-01

    We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks

  4. Perturbative QCD and exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.; Hawes, F.; Zhao, M.; Zyla, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss perturbation theory as applied to particle physics calculations. In particle physics one is generally interested in the scattering amplitude for a system going from some initial state to a final state. The intermediate state or states are unknown. To get the scattering amplitude it is necessary to sum the contributions from processes which pass through all possible intermediate states. Intermediate states involve the exchange of intermediate vector bosons between the particles, and with this interaction is associated a coupling constant α. Each additional boson exchange involves an additional contribution of α to the coupling. If α is less than 1, one can see that the relative contribution of higher order processes is less and less important as α falls. In QCD the gluons serve as the intermediate vector bosons exchanged by quarks and gluons, and the interaction constant is not really a constant, but depends upon the distance between the particles. At short distances the coupling is small, and one can assume perturbative expansions may converge rapidly. Exclusive scattering processes, as opposed to inclusive, are those in which all of the final state products are detected. The authors then discuss the application of perturbative QCD to the deuteron. The issues of chiral conservation and color transparancy are also discussed, in the scheme of large Q 2 interations, where perturbative QCD should be applicable

  5. QCD as a Theory of Hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narison, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    About Stephan Narison; Outline of the book; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. General Introduction: 1. A short flash on particle physics; 2. The pre-QCD era; 3. The QCD story; 4. Field theory ingredients; Part II. QCD Gauge Theory: 5. Lagrangian and gauge invariance; 6. Quantization using path integral; 7. QCD and its global invariance; Part III. MS scheme for QCD and QED: Introduction; 8. Dimensional regularization; 9. The MS renormalization scheme; 10. Renormalization of operators using the background field method; 11. The renormalization group; 12. Other renormalization schemes; 13. MS scheme for QED; 14. High-precision low-energy QED tests; Part IV. Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hadron Colliders: 15. OPE for deep inelastic scattering; 16. Unpolarized lepton-hadron scattering; 17. The Altarelli-Parisi equation; 18. More on unpolarized deep inelastic scatterings; 19. Polarized deep-inelastic processes; 20. Drell-Yan process; 21. One 'prompt photon' inclusive production; Part V. Hard Processes in e+e- Collisions: Introduction; 22. One hadron inclusive production; 23. gg scatterings and the 'spin' of the photon; 24. QCD jets; 25. Total inclusive hadron productions; Part VI. Summary of QCD Tests and as Measurements; Part VII. Power Corrections in QCD: 26. Introduction; 27. The SVZ expansion; 28. Technologies for evaluating Wilson coefficients; 29. Renormalons; 30. Beyond the SVZ expansion; Part VIII. QCD Two-Point Functions: 31. References guide to original works; 32. (Pseudo)scalar correlators; 33. (Axial-)vector two-point functions; 34. Tensor-quark correlator; 35. Baryonic correlators; 36. Four-quark correlators; 37. Gluonia correlators; 38. Hybrid correlators; 39. Correlators in x-space; Part IX. QCD Non-Perturbative Methods: 40. Introduction; 41. Lattice gauge theory; 42. Chiral perturbation theory; 43. Models of the QCD effective action; 44. Heavy quark effective theory; 45. Potential approaches to quarkonia; 46. On monopole and confinement; Part X. QCD

  6. QCD probes at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silveira, G. Gil

    2018-01-01

    The LHC experiments have reported new results with respect to the dynamics of the strong interactions in $pp$, $p$A, and AA collisions over the past years. In proton-proton collisions, the data analyses have focused in exploring the nature of underlying events and double parton scattering at high energies. For large systems, the heavy-ion collisions have provided new insights on physics aspects related to azimuthal correlations, jet quenching, and particle production, such as antiprotons. This Letter reports the recent results from the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb Collaborations on these various topics and highlights its relevant findings for the high-energy community.

  7. Advanced exergy-based analyses applied to a system including LNG regasification and electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosuk, Tatiana; Tsatsaronis, George; Boyano, Alicia; Gantiva, Camilo [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) will contribute more in the future than in the past to the overall energy supply in the world. The paper discusses the application of advanced exergy-based analyses to a recently developed LNG-based cogeneration system. These analyses include advanced exergetic, advanced exergoeconomic, and advanced exergoenvironmental analyses in which thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction), costs, and environmental impacts have been split into avoidable and unavoidable parts. With the aid of these analyses, the potentials for improving the thermodynamic efficiency and for reducing the overall cost and the overall environmental impact are revealed. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate (a) the potential for generating electricity while regasifying LNG and (b) some of the capabilities associated with advanced exergy-based methods. The most important subsystems and components are identified, and suggestions for improving them are made. (orig.)

  8. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  9. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  10. Higher order QCD corrections in exclusive charmless B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.

    2006-10-01

    We discuss exclusive charmless B decays within the Standard Model of particle physics. These decays play a central role in the on-going process to constrain the parameters of the CKM matrix and to clarify the nature of CP violation. In order to exploit the rich source of data that is currently being collected at the experiments, a systematic theoretical treatment of the complicated hadronic dynamics is strongly desired. QCD Factorization represents a model-independent framework to compute hadronic matrix elements from first principles. It is based on a power expansion in Λ QCD /m b and allows for the systematic implementation of perturbative corrections. In particular, we consider hadronic two-body decays as B → ππ and perform a conceptual analysis of heavy-to-light form factors which encode the strong interaction effects in semi-leptonic decays as B → πlν. Concerning the hadronic decays we compute NNLO QCD corrections which are particularly important with respect to strong interaction phases and hence direct CP asymmetries. On the technical level, we perform a 2-loop calculation which is based on an automatized reduction algorithm and apply sophisticated techniques for the calculation of loop-integrals. We indeed find that the considered quantities are well-defined as predicted by QCD Factorization, which is the result of a highly complicated subtraction procedure. We present results for the imaginary part of the topological tree amplitudes and observe that the considered corrections are substantial. The calculation of the real part of the amplitudes is far more complicated and we present a preliminary result which is based on certain simplifications. Our calculation is one part of the full NNLO analysis of nonleptonic B decays within QCD Factorization which is currently pursued by various groups. In our conceptual analysis of the QCD dynamics in heavy-to-light transitions we consider form factors between non-relativistic bound states which can be

  11. Higher order QCD corrections in exclusive charmless B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.

    2006-10-15

    We discuss exclusive charmless B decays within the Standard Model of particle physics. These decays play a central role in the on-going process to constrain the parameters of the CKM matrix and to clarify the nature of CP violation. In order to exploit the rich source of data that is currently being collected at the experiments, a systematic theoretical treatment of the complicated hadronic dynamics is strongly desired. QCD Factorization represents a model-independent framework to compute hadronic matrix elements from first principles. It is based on a power expansion in {lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b} and allows for the systematic implementation of perturbative corrections. In particular, we consider hadronic two-body decays as B {yields} {pi}{pi} and perform a conceptual analysis of heavy-to-light form factors which encode the strong interaction effects in semi-leptonic decays as B {yields} {pi}l{nu}. Concerning the hadronic decays we compute NNLO QCD corrections which are particularly important with respect to strong interaction phases and hence direct CP asymmetries. On the technical level, we perform a 2-loop calculation which is based on an automatized reduction algorithm and apply sophisticated techniques for the calculation of loop-integrals. We indeed find that the considered quantities are well-defined as predicted by QCD Factorization, which is the result of a highly complicated subtraction procedure. We present results for the imaginary part of the topological tree amplitudes and observe that the considered corrections are substantial. The calculation of the real part of the amplitudes is far more complicated and we present a preliminary result which is based on certain simplifications. Our calculation is one part of the full NNLO analysis of nonleptonic B decays within QCD Factorization which is currently pursued by various groups. In our conceptual analysis of the QCD dynamics in heavy-to-light transitions we consider form factors between non

  12. Perturbative QCD Lagrangian at large distances and stochastic dimensionality reduction. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, M.

    1986-11-01

    Using the method of stochastic dimensional reduction, we derive a four-dimensional quantum effective Lagrangian for the classical Yang-Mills system coupled to the Gaussian white noise. It is found that the Lagrangian coincides with the perturbative QCD at large distances constructed in our previous paper. That formalism is based on the local covariant operator formalism which maintains the unitarity of the S-matrix. Furthermore, we show the non-perturbative equivalence between super-Lorentz invariant sectors of the effective Lagrangian and two dimensional QCD coupled to the adjoint pseudo-scalars. This implies that stochastic dimensionality reduction by two is approximately operative in QCD at large distances. (orig.)

  13. Finite temperature and chemical potential in lattice QCD and its critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a method to study lattice QCD at finite temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ). We compare the method with direct results and with the Glasgow method by using n f =4 QCD at Im(μ)≠0. We locate the critical endpoint (E) of QCD on the Re(μ)-T plane. We use n f =2+1 dynamical staggered quarks with semi-realistic masses on L t =4 lattices. Our results are based on O(10 3 - 10 4 ) configurations. (orig.)

  14. Academic training: QCD: are we ready for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 4, 5, 6, 7 December, from 11:00 to 12:00 4, 5, 6 December - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500, 7 December - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 - 3-006 QCD: are we ready for the LHC S. FRIXIONE / INFN, Genoa, Italy The LHC energy regime poses a serious challenge to our capability of predicting QCD reactions to the level of accuracy necessary for a successful programme of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In these lectures, I'll introduce basic concepts in QCD, and present techniques based on perturbation theory, such as fixed-order and resummed computations, and Monte Carlo simulations. I'll discuss applications of these techniques to hadron-hadron processes, concentrating on recent trends in perturbative QCD aimed at improving our understanding of LHC phenomenology. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply ...

  15. Gold-plated mode of CP-violation in decays of B{sub c} meson from QCD sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, V V [Russian State Research Center, ' Institute for High Energy Physics' , Protvino, Moscow Region, 142281 (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-01

    A model-independent method based on the triangle ideology is implemented to extract the CKM-matrix angle {gamma} in the decays of the doubly heavy long-lived meson B{sub c}. We analyse a colour structure of diagrams and conditions to reconstruct two reference triangles by tagging the flavour and CP eigenstates of D{sup 0} - D{sup 0}bar mesons in the fixed exclusive channels. The characteristic branching ratios are evaluated in the framework of QCD sum rules.

  16. New QCD sum rules for nucleon axial-vector coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, F.X.; Leinweber, D.B.; Jin, X.

    1997-01-01

    Two new sets of QCD sum rules for the nucleon axial-vector coupling constants are derived using the external-field technique and generalized interpolating fields. An in-depth study of the predicative ability of these sum rules is carried out using a Monte Carlo based uncertainty analysis. The results show that the standard implementation of the QCD sum rule method has only marginal predicative power for the nucleon axial-vector coupling constants, as the relative errors are large. The errors range from approximately 50% to 100% compared to the nucleon mass obtained from the same method, which has only a 10%- 25% error. The origin of the large errors is examined. Previous analyses of these coupling constants are based on sum rules that have poor operator product expansion convergence and large continuum contributions. Preferred sum rules are identified and their predictions are obtained. We also investigate the new sum rules with an alternative treatment of the problematic transitions which are not exponentially suppressed in the standard treatment. The alternative treatment provides exponential suppression of their contributions relative to the ground state. Implications for other nucleon current matrix elements are also discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. GIS-based Approaches to Catchment Area Analyses of Mass Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Catchment area analyses of stops or stations are used to investigate potential number of travelers to public transportation. These analyses are considered a strong decision tool in the planning process of mass transit especially railroads. Catchment area analyses are GIS-based buffer and overlay...... analyses with different approaches depending on the desired level of detail. A simple but straightforward approach to implement is the Circular Buffer Approach where catchment areas are circular. A more detailed approach is the Service Area Approach where catchment areas are determined by a street network...... search to simulate the actual walking distances. A refinement of the Service Area Approach is to implement additional time resistance in the network search to simulate obstacles in the walking environment. This paper reviews and compares the different GIS-based catchment area approaches, their level...

  18. Meta-Analyses of Human Cell-Based Cardiac Regeneration Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Navarese, Eliano P

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to multiple publication-based meta-analyses involving clinical cardiac regeneration therapy in patients with recent myocardial infarction, a recently published meta-analysis based on individual patient data reported no effect of cell therapy on left ventricular function or clinical...

  19. Precision Light Flavor Physics from Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    In this thesis we present three distinct contributions to the study of light flavor physics using the techniques of lattice QCD. These results are arranged into four self-contained papers. The first two papers concern global fits of the quark mass, lattice spacing, and finite volume dependence of the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants, computed in a series of lattice QCD simulations, to partially quenched SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory (chiPT). These fits determine a subset of the low energy constants of chiral perturbation theory -- in some cases with increased precision, and in other cases for the first time -- which, once determined, can be used to compute other observables and amplitudes in chiPT. We also use our formalism to self-consistently probe the behavior of the (asymptotic) chiral expansion as a function of the quark masses by repeating the fits with different subsets of the data. The third paper concerns the first lattice QCD calculation of the semileptonic K0 → pi-l +nul ( Kl3) form factor at vanishing momentum transfer, f+Kpi(0), with physical mass domain wall quarks. The value of this form factor can be combined with a Standard Model analysis of the experimentally measured K0 → pi -l+nu l decay rate to extract a precise value of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element Vus, and to test unitarity of the CKM matrix. We also discuss lattice calculations of the pion and kaon decay constants, which can be used to extract Vud through an analogous Standard Model analysis of experimental constraints on leptonic pion and kaon decays. The final paper explores the recently proposed exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA). This algorithm has been shown to drastically reduce the memory footprint required to simulate single quark flavors on the lattice relative to the widely used rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, while also offering modest O(20%) speed-ups. We independently derive the exact one flavor action, explore its

  20. Lattice QCD. A critical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Karl

    2008-10-15

    The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)

  1. Lattice QCD. A critical status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl

    2008-10-01

    The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)

  2. Fractal structures and intermittency in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta.

    1990-04-01

    New results are presented for fractal structures and intermittency in QCD parton showers. A geometrical interpretation of the anomalous dimension in QCD is given. It is shown that model predications for factorial moments in the PEP-PETRA energy range are increased. if the properties of directly produced pions are more carefully taken into account

  3. HERA results on QCD and EW physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnecki, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Selected HERA results on QCD and EW interactions are presented. They include the measurement of the proton structure function and its analysis in terms of the QCD evolution, as well as results concerning deep inelastic scattering at very low and very high Q 2 . Selected HERA limits on new physics and parameters which extend the standard model are also presented. (author)

  4. Color-magnetic permeability of QCD vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-03-01

    In the very strong background gauge field the QCD true vacuum has been shown to have lower energy than the ''perturbative vacuum.'' The color-magnetic permeability of the QCD true vacuum is then calculated to be 1/2 within the quark-one-loop approximation.

  5. Recent developments in QCD for LHC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, C.

    2006-01-01

    We will review recent theoretical developments in QCD, attempting to assess the phenomenological impact of new theoretical results and to identify potentially useful directions for the future. A part of the talk will be devoted to new imaginative ideas which are rapidly changing the traditional approach to QCD computations, and surprising theoretical discoveries from perturbative calculations on the structure of gauge theories. (author)

  6. Understanding of QCD through solvable models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, G.

    1980-07-01

    Various aspects of strong interaction physics are discussed. It is shown that several nontrivial features arise from non-perturbative 'solutions' of QCD-like models in (1+1) dimensions. An attempt is made to bring these features in (3+1) dimensional semiclassical treatments of QCD.

  7. Academic Training Lectures - QCD for Postgraduates

    CERN Multimedia

    Maureen Prola-Tessaur

    2010-01-01

    by Giulia Zanderighi (University of Oxford) Monday 12 to Friday 16 April 2010 From 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Monday 12 - Modern QCD - Lecture 1 Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we will revisit some basic QCD concepts and derive fundamental properties like gauge invariance and isospin symmetry and will discuss the Feynman rules of the theory. We will then focus on the gauge group of QCD and derive the Casimirs CF and CA and some useful color identities. Tuesday 13 - Modern QCD - Lecture 2 We will start discussing the matter content of the theory and revisit the experimental measurements that led to the discovery of quarks. We will then consider a classic QCD observable, the R-ratio, and use it to illustrate the appearance of UV divergences and the need to renormalize the coupling constant of QCD. We will then discuss asymptotic freedom and confinement. Finally, we will examine a case where soft and collinear infrared divergences appear, will discuss the soft approximation in QCD ...

  8. Solving QCD via multi-Regge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    A high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, solution of QCD is outlined. Regge pole and single gluon properties of the pomeron are directly related to the confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of the hadron spectrum. This solution, which corresponds to a supercritical phase of Reggeon Field Theory, may only be applicable to QCD with a very special quark content

  9. Solvable models and hidden symmetries in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Hess, P. O.; Szczepaniak, A.; Civitarese, O.; Lerma H., S.

    2010-01-01

    We show that QCD Hamiltonians at low energy exhibit an SU(2) structure, when only few orbital levels are considered. In case many orbital levels are taken into account we also find a semi-analytic solution for the energy levels of the dominant part of the QCD Hamiltonian. The findings are important to propose the structure of phenomenological models.

  10. How is the charmonium splitting in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    Using the SVZ moment procedure to predict resonance masses within QCD the author has calculated exponential moments as a limit of the QCD formulae given by Reinders, Rubinstein and Yazaki. Applied to charmonium their results (besides 3 P 0 ) are reproduced very well. (Auth.)

  11. Quantum properties of QCD string fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorova-Nová Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple quantization concept for a 3-dim QCD string is used to derive properties of QCD flux tube from the mass spectrum of light mesons and to predict observable quantum effects in correlations between adjacent hadrons. The quantized fragmentation model is presented and compared with experimental observations.

  12. Deep-learning Top Taggers or The End of QCD?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.08784 Machine learning based on convolutional neural networks can be used to study jet images from the LHC. Top tagging in fat jets offers a well-defined framework to establish our DeepTop approach and compare its performance to QCD-based top taggers. We first optimize a network architecture to identify top quarks in Monte Carlo simulations of the Standard Model production channel. Using standard fat jets we then compare its performance to a multivariate QCD-based top tagger. We find that both approaches lead to comparable performance, establishing convolutional networks as a promising new approach for multivariate hypothesis-based top tagging.

  13. QCD pairing in primordial nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    We analyze the problem of boiling and surface evaporation of quark nuggets in the cosmological quark-hadron transition. Recently, it has been shown that QCD pairing modifies the stability properties of strange quark matter. More specifically, strange quark matter in a color-flavor locked state was found to be absolutely stable for a much wider range of the parameters than ordinary unpaired strange quark matter (G. Lugones and J. E. Horvath, Phys. Rev. D, 66, 074017 (2002)). Assuming that primordial quark nuggets are actually formed we analyze the consequences of pairing on the rates of boiling and surface evaporation in order to determine whether they could have survived.

  14. Hard QCD Measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pasztor, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    The rich proton-proton collision data of the LHC allow to study QCD processes in a previously unexplored region with ever improving precision. This paper summarises recent results of the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb Collaborations using primarily multi-jet and vector boson plus jet data collected at $\\sqrt s$ = 8 and 13 TeV. Comparisons to higher-order theoretical calculations and sophisticated Monte Carlo predictions are presented, as well as the impact of the data on the determination of the parton distribution functions and the measurement of the strong coupling constant, $\\alpha_s$.

  15. Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)

  16. Softly broken N=2 QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, M; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Distler, Jacques; Kounnas, Costas; Marino, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the possible soft breaking of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with and without matter flavour preserving the analyticity properties of the Seiberg-Witten solution. For small supersymmetry breaking parameter with respect to the dynamical scale of the theory we obtain an exact expression for the effective potential. We describe in detail the onset of the confinement transition and some of the patterns of chiral symmetry breaking. If we extrapolate the results to the limit where supersymmetry decouples, we obtain hints indicating that perhaps a description of the QCD vacuum will require the use of Lagrangians containing simultaneously mutually non-local degrees of freedom (monopoles and dyons).

  17. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  18. The QCD phase diagram from analytic continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bellwied

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the crossover line between the quark gluon plasma and the hadron gas phases for small real chemical potentials. First we determine the effect of imaginary values of the chemical potential on the transition temperature using lattice QCD simulations. Then we use various formulas to perform an analytic continuation to real values of the baryo-chemical potential. Our data set maintains strangeness neutrality to match the conditions of heavy ion physics. The systematic errors are under control up to μB≈300 MeV. For the curvature of the transition line we find that there is an approximate agreement between values from three different observables: the chiral susceptibility, chiral condensate and strange quark susceptibility. The continuum extrapolation is based on Nt=10, 12 and 16 lattices. By combining the analysis for these three observables we find, for the curvature, the value κ=0.0149±0.0021.

  19. QCD-instantons at LHC. Theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petermann, M.

    2007-06-01

    Instantons are nonperturbative, topologically nontrivial field configurations, which occur in every nonabelian gauge theory. They can be understood as tunneling processes between topologically distinct vacua. Although being a basic theoretical aspect of the Standard Model, a direct experimental verification of instanton processes is still lacking. In this thesis the general discovery potential for QCD-instantons at the LHC is studied in detail by means of instanton perturbation theory. In this context the close correspondence between the leading instanton induced processes at HERA and at LHC becomes important. Essential aspects and differences to deep inelastic scattering can already be revealed by studying the simplest process. Based on these results inclusive cross sections are calculated including the emission of final state gluons. Compared to deep inelastic scattering, a large enhancement of the cross section is found. (orig.)

  20. Meson Spectroscopy from QCD - Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-04-17

    Highlights of the research include: the determination of the form of the lowest energy gluonic excitation within QCD and the spectrum of hybrid hadrons which follows; the first calculation of the spectrum of hybrid baryons within a first-principles approach to QCD; a detailed mapping out of the phase-shift of elastic ππ scattering featuring the ρ resonance at two values of the light quark mass within lattice QCD; the first (and to date, only) determinations of coupled-channel meson-meson scattering within first-principles QCD; the first (and to date, only) determinations of the radiative coupling of a resonant state, the ρ appearing in πγ→ππ; the first (and to date, only) determination of the properties of the broad σ resonance in elastic ππ scattering within QCD without unjustified approximations.

  1. A convergent reformulation of perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.J.G.

    2000-10-01

    We present and explore a new formulation of perturbative QCD based not on the renormalised coupling but on the dimensional transmutation parameter of the theory and the property of asymptotic scaling. The approach yields a continued function, the iterated function being that involved in the solution of the two-loop β-function equation. In the so-called large-b limit the continued function reduces to a continued fraction and the successive approximants are diagonal Pade approximants. We investigate numerically the convergence of successive approximants using the leading-b approximation, motivated by renormalons, to model the all-orders result. We consider the Adler D-function of vacuum polarisation, the Polarised Bjorken and Gross-LIewellyn Smith sum rules, the (unpolarised) Bjorken sum rule, and the Minkowskian quantities R τ and the R-ratio of e + e - annihilation. In contrast to diagonal Pade approximants the truncated continued function method gives remarkably stable large-order approximants in cases where infrared renormalon effects are important. We also use the new approach to determine the QCD fundamental parameters from the R τ and the R-ratio measurements, where we find Λ-tilde (3)/MS = 516 ± 48 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m τ ) = 0.360 -0.020 +0.021 ), and Λ-tilde (5)/MS = 299 -7 +6 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.1218 ± 0.0004), respectively. The evolution of the former value to the m z 0 energy results in α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.123 ± 0.002. These values are in line with other determinations available in the literature. We implement the Complete Renormalisation Group Improvement (CORGI) scheme throughout all the calculations. We report on how the mathematical concept of Stieltjes series can be used to assess the convergence of Pade approximants of perturbative series. We find that the combinations of UV renormalons which occur in perturbative QCD may or may not be Stieltjes series depending on the renormalisation scheme used. (author)

  2. Applications of high lateral and energy resolution imaging XPS with a double hemispherical analyser based spectromicroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, M.; Winkler, K.; Renault, O.; Barrett, N.

    2010-01-01

    The design and applications of an instrument for imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are reviewed. The instrument is based on a photoelectron microscope and a double hemispherical analyser whose symmetric configuration avoids the spherical aberration (α 2 -term) inherent for standard analysers. The analyser allows high transmission imaging without sacrificing the lateral and energy resolution of the instrument. The importance of high transmission, especially for highest resolution imaging XPS with monochromated laboratory X-ray sources, is outlined and the close interrelation of energy resolution, lateral resolution and analyser transmission is illustrated. Chemical imaging applications using a monochromatic laboratory Al Kα-source are shown, with a lateral resolution of 610 nm. Examples of measurements made using synchrotron and laboratory ultra-violet light show the broad field of applications from imaging of core level electrons with chemical shift identification, high resolution threshold photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), work function imaging and band structure imaging.

  3. Determination of baryon and baryonic resonance masses from QCD sum rules. Strange baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.M.; Ioffe, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The mass differences in baryonic octet Jsup(P)=1/2sup(+), decuplet Jsup(P)=3/2sup(+) and in octet Jsup(P)=3/2sup(-) are calculated basing on the QCD sum rules. The mass differences are expressed through two QCD parameters: the strange current qUark mass and the value of the quark condensate. At the properly chosen values of these parameters all of the mass differences are in a good agreement with experiment

  4. When semantics turns to substance: reformulating QCD analysis of F2{γ}(x,Q2)}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, J.

    2000-01-01

    QCD analysis of F 2 {γ} (x,Q 2 ) is revisited. It is emphasized that the presence of the inhomogeneous term in the evolution equations for quark distribution functions of the photon implies important difference in the way factorization mechanism works in photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as compared to the hadronic ones. Moreover, a careful definitions of the very concepts of the ''leading order'' and ''next-to-leading order'' QCD analysis of F 2 {γ} are needed in order to separate genuine QCD effects from those of pure QED origin. After presenting such definitions, I show that all existing allegedly LO, as well as NLO analyses of F 2 {γ} (x,Q 2 ) are incomplete. The source of this incompleteness of the conventional approach is traced back to the lack of clear identification of QCD effects and to the misinterpretation of the behaviour of q {γ} (x,M) as a function of /α s (M). Complete LO and NLO QCD analyses of F 2 {γ} (x,Q 2 ) are shown to differ substantially from the conventional ones. Whereas complete NLO analysis requires the knowledge of two so far uncalculated quantities, a complete LO one is currently possible, but compared to the conventional formulation requires the inclusion of four known, but in the existing LO analyses unused quantities. The arguments recently advanced in favour of the conventional approach are analyzed and shown to contain a serious flaw. If corrected, they actually lend support to my claim. (author)

  5. QCD studies in ep collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F 2 , which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q 2 regimes are discussed. The low Q 2 transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure α s , and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs

  6. QCD studies in ep collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Physics Dept.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F{sub 2}, which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q{sup 2} regimes are discussed. The low Q{sup 2} transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure {alpha}{sub s}, and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs.

  7. Towards the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe

    2006-01-01

    We summarize our recent results on the phase diagram of QCD with N_f=2+1 quark flavors, as a function of temperature T and quark chemical potential \\mu. Using staggered fermions, lattices with temporal extent N_t=4, and the exact RHMC algorithm, we first determine the critical line in the quark mass plane (m_{u,d},m_s) where the finite temperature transition at \\mu=0 is second order. We confirm that the physical point lies on the crossover side of this line. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at (m_{u,d},m_s) = (0,\\sim 500) MeV. Then, using an imaginary chemical potential, we determine in which direction this second-order line moves as the chemical potential is turned on. Contrary to standard expectations, we find that the region of first-order transitions shrinks in the presence of a chemical potential, which is inconsistent with the presence of a QCD critical point at small chemical potential. The emphasis is put on clarifying the translation of our results from lattice to physical units, and ...

  8. Theta dependence in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigazzi, Francesco [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bolognesi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Cotrone, Aldo L. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Manenti, Andrea [Institute of Physics, EPFL,Rte de la Sorge, BSP 728, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-02-07

    We study the effects of the CP-breaking topological θ-term in the large N{sub c} QCD model by Witten, Sakai and Sugimoto with N{sub f} degenerate light flavors. We first compute the ground state energy density, the topological susceptibility and the masses of the lowest lying mesons, finding agreement with expectations from the QCD chiral effective action. Then, focusing on the N{sub f}=2 case, we consider the baryonic sector and determine, to leading order in the small θ regime, the related holographic instantonic soliton solutions. We find that while the baryon spectrum does not receive O(θ) corrections, this is not the case for observables like the electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons. In particular, it exhibits a dipole term, which turns out to be vector-meson dominated. The resulting neutron electric dipole moment, which is exactly the opposite as that of the proton, is of the same order of magnitude of previous estimates in the literature. Finally, we compute the CP-violating pion-nucleon coupling constant ḡ{sub πNN}, finding that it is zero to leading order in the large N{sub c} limit.

  9. Cluster computing for lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddington, P.D.; Williams, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    main application is lattice QCD calculations. We have a number of programs for generating and analysing lattice QCD configurations. These programs are written in a data parallel style using Fortran 90 array syntax. Initially they were run on the CM-5 by using CM Fortran compiler directives for specifying data distribution among the processors of the parallel machine. It was a simple task to convert these codes to use the equivalent directives for High Performance Fortran (HPF), which is a standard, portable data parallel language that can be used on clusters. We have used the Portland Group HPF compiler (PGHPF), which offers good support for cluster computing. We benchmarked our codes on a number of different types of machine, before eventually deciding to purchase a large cluster from Sun Microsystems, which was installed at Adelaide University in June 2000. With a peak performance of 144 GFlops, it is currently the fastest computer in Australia. The machine is a new product from Sun, known as a Sun Technical Compute Farm (TCF). It consists of a cluster of Sun E420R workstations, each of which has four 450MHz UltraSPARC II processors, with a peak speed of 3.6 GFlops per workstation. The NCFLGT cluster consists of 40 E420R workstations, giving a total of 160 processors, 160 GBytes of memory, 640 MBytes of cache memory, and 720 GBytes of disk. The standard Sun TCF product comes with either Fast or Gigabit Ethernet, with an option for using a very high-bandwidth, low-latency SCI network targeted at parallel computing applications. For most parallel lattice QCD codes, Ethernet does not offer a low enough communications latency, while SCI is very expensive and is overkill for our applications. We therefore decided upon a third-party solution for the network, and will soon be installing a high-speed Myrinet 2000 network. Currently we only have very preliminary performance results for our lattice QCD codes, which look quite promising. We will present detailed performance

  10. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, both experimental and theoretical advances have brought the need for strong coupling techniques in the analysis of deconfined QCD matter and heavy ion collisions to the forefront. As a consequence, a fruitful interplay has developed between analyses of strongly-coupled non-abelian plasmas via the gauge/string duality (also referred to as the AdS/CFT correspondence) and the phenomenology of heavy ion collisions. We review some of the main insights gained from this interplay to date. To establish a common language, we start with an introduction to heavy ion phenomenology and finite-temperature QCD, and a corresponding introduction to important concepts and techniques in the gauge/string duality. These introductory sections are written for nonspecialists, with the goal of bringing readers ranging from beginning graduate students to experienced practitioners of either QCD or gauge/string duality to the point that they understand enough about both fields that they can then appreciate their in...

  12. Lattice QCD inputs to the CKM unitarity triangle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiho, Jack; Lunghi, E.; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle using the latest experimental and theoretical constraints. Our emphasis is on the hadronic weak matrix elements that enter the analysis, which must be computed using lattice QCD or other nonperturbative methods. Realistic lattice QCD calculations which include the effects of the dynamical up, down, and strange quarks are now available for all of the standard inputs to the global fit. We therefore present lattice averages for all of the necessary hadronic weak matrix elements. We attempt to account for correlations between lattice QCD results in a reasonable but conservative manner: whenever there are reasons to believe that an error is correlated between two lattice calculations, we take the degree of correlation to be 100%. These averages are suitable for use as inputs both in the global Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle fit and other phenomenological analyses. In order to illustrate the impact of the lattice averages, we make standard model predictions for the parameters B-circumflex K , |V cb |, and |V ub |/|V cb |. We find a (2-3)σ tension in the unitarity triangle, depending upon whether we use the inclusive or exclusive determination of |V cb |. If we interpret the tension as a sign of new physics in either neutral kaon or B mixing, we find that the scenario with new physics in kaon mixing is preferred by present data.

  13. Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.

    2018-04-01

    The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lighter hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This article reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. The challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.

  14. PCA-based algorithm for calibration of spectrophotometric analysers of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawski, Roman Z; Miekina, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysers of food, being instruments for determination of the composition of food products and ingredients, are today of growing importance for food industry, as well as for food distributors and consumers. Their metrological performance significantly depends of the numerical performance of available means for spectrophotometric data processing; in particular – the means for calibration of analysers. In this paper, a new algorithm for this purpose is proposed, viz. the algorithm using principal components analysis (PCA). It is almost as efficient as PLS-based algorithms of calibration, but much simpler

  15. A Server-Client-Based Graphical Development Environment for Physics Analyses (VISPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, H-P; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Hinzmann, A; Klingebiel, D; Komm, M; Müller, G; Rieger, M; Steffens, J; Steggemann, J; Urban, M; Winchen, T

    2012-01-01

    The Visual Physics Analysis (VISPA) project provides a graphical development environment for data analysis. It addresses the typical development cycle of (re-)designing, executing, and verifying an analysis. We present the new server-client-based web application of the VISPA project to perform physics analyses via a standard internet browser. This enables individual scientists to work with a large variety of devices including touch screens, and teams of scientists to share, develop, and execute analyses on a server via the web interface.

  16. Automatic image-based analyses using a coupled quadtree-SBFEM/SCM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenkamp, Hauke; Duczek, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    Quadtree-based domain decomposition algorithms offer an efficient option to create meshes for automatic image-based analyses. Without introducing hanging nodes the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) can directly operate on such meshes by only discretizing the edges of each subdomain. However, the convergence of a numerical method that relies on a quadtree-based geometry approximation is often suboptimal due to the inaccurate representation of the boundary. To overcome this problem a combination of the SBFEM with the spectral cell method (SCM) is proposed. The basic idea is to treat each uncut quadtree cell as an SBFEM polygon, while all cut quadtree cells are computed employing the SCM. This methodology not only reduces the required number of degrees of freedom but also avoids a two-dimensional quadrature in all uncut quadtree cells. Numerical examples including static, harmonic, modal and transient analyses of complex geometries are studied, highlighting the performance of this novel approach.

  17. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  18. The nucleon axial charge in full lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.G.; Richards, D.G.; Fleming, G.T.; Haegler, P.; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Orginos, K.; College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA; Renner, D.B.; Schroers, W.

    2005-10-01

    The nucleon axial charge is calculated as a function of the pion mass in full QCD. Using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks, we present the first calculation with pion masses as light as 354 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm) 3 . We show that finite volume effects are small for our volumes and that a constrained fit based on finite volume chiral perturbation theory agrees with experiment within 7% statistical errors. (orig.)

  19. Determination of resonance parameters in QCD by functional analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciulli, S.; Geniet, F.; Papadopoulos, N.A.; Schilcher, K.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematically rigorous method based on functional analysis is used to determine resonance parameters of an amplitude from its given asymptotic expression in the space-like region. This method is checked on a model amplitude where both the asymptotic expression and the exact function are known. This method is then applied to the determination of the mass and the width of the ρ-meson from the corresponding space-like asymptotic QCD expression. (orig.)

  20. The QCD Critical Point and Related Observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, Marlene

    2016-12-15

    The search for the critical point of QCD in heavy-ion collision experiments has sparked enormous interest with the completion of phase I of the RHIC beam energy scan. Here, I review the basics of the thermodynamics of the QCD phase transition and its implications for experimental multiplicity fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Several sources of noncritical fluctuations impact the observables and need to be understood in addition to the critical phenomena. Recent progress has been made in dynamical modeling of critical fluctuations, which ultimately is indispensable to understand potential signals of the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collision.

  1. QCD Results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have performed a wide range of studies of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-­QCD measurements include studies of the underlying event, double parton interactions and vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high­-order QCD predictions and provide input for the determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated, inclusive and di­-photon cross sections for high-pT photons test various theoretical predictions and further constrain PDFs. An overview of these results is given.


  2. Dynamical effects of QCD vacuum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Erasmo

    1994-01-01

    The role of the QCD vacuum structure in the determination of the properties of states and processes occurring in the confinement regime of QCD is reviewed. The finite range of the vacuum correlations is discussed, and an analytical form is suggested for the correlation functions. The role of the vacuum quantum numbers in the phenomenology of high-energy scattering is reviewed. The vacuum correlation model of non-perturbative QCD is mentioned as a bridge between the fundamental theory and the description of the experiments. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig

  3. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  4. Coalescent-based genome analyses resolve the early branches of the euarchontoglires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    Full Text Available Despite numerous large-scale phylogenomic studies, certain parts of the mammalian tree are extraordinarily difficult to resolve. We used the coding regions from 19 completely sequenced genomes to study the relationships within the super-clade Euarchontoglires (Primates, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Dermoptera and Scandentia because the placement of Scandentia within this clade is controversial. The difficulty in resolving this issue is due to the short time spans between the early divergences of Euarchontoglires, which may cause incongruent gene trees. The conflict in the data can be depicted by network analyses and the contentious relationships are best reconstructed by coalescent-based analyses. This method is expected to be superior to analyses of concatenated data in reconstructing a species tree from numerous gene trees. The total concatenated dataset used to study the relationships in this group comprises 5,875 protein-coding genes (9,799,170 nucleotides from all orders except Dermoptera (flying lemurs. Reconstruction of the species tree from 1,006 gene trees using coalescent models placed Scandentia as sister group to the primates, which is in agreement with maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequence data. Additionally, both analytical approaches favoured the Tarsier to be sister taxon to Anthropoidea, thus belonging to the Haplorrhine clade. When divergence times are short such as in radiations over periods of a few million years, even genome scale analyses struggle to resolve phylogenetic relationships. On these short branches processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and possibly hybridization occur and make it preferable to base phylogenomic analyses on coalescent methods.

  5. THE GOAL OF VALUE-BASED MEDICINE ANALYSES: COMPARABILITY. THE CASE FOR NEOVASCULAR MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gary C.; Brown, Melissa M.; Brown, Heidi C.; Kindermann, Sylvia; Sharma, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the comparability of articles in the peer-reviewed literature assessing the (1) patient value and (2) cost-utility (cost-effectiveness) associated with interventions for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods A search was performed in the National Library of Medicine database of 16 million peer-reviewed articles using the key words cost-utility, cost-effectiveness, value, verteporfin, pegaptanib, laser photocoagulation, ranibizumab, and therapy. All articles that used an outcome of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were studied in regard to (1) percent improvement in quality of life, (2) utility methodology, (3) utility respondents, (4) types of costs included (eg, direct healthcare, direct nonhealthcare, indirect), (5) cost bases (eg, Medicare, National Health Service in the United Kingdom), and (6) study cost perspective (eg, government, societal, third-party insurer). To qualify as a value-based medicine analysis, the patient value had to be measured using the outcome of the QALYs conferred by respective interventions. As with value-based medicine analyses, patient-based time tradeoff utility analysis had to be utilized, patient utility respondents were necessary, and direct medical costs were used. Results Among 21 cost-utility analyses performed on interventions for neovascular macular degeneration, 15 (71%) met value-based medicine criteria. The 6 others (29%) were not comparable owing to (1) varying utility methodology, (2) varying utility respondents, (3) differing costs utilized, (4) differing cost bases, and (5) varying study perspectives. Among value-based medicine studies, laser photocoagulation confers a 4.4% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for the treatment of classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization. Intravitreal pegaptanib confers a 5.9% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for classic, minimally classic, and occult subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, and photodynamic therapy

  6. The goal of value-based medicine analyses: comparability. The case for neovascular macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Heidi C; Kindermann, Sylvia; Sharma, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the comparability of articles in the peer-reviewed literature assessing the (1) patient value and (2) cost-utility (cost-effectiveness) associated with interventions for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). A search was performed in the National Library of Medicine database of 16 million peer-reviewed articles using the key words cost-utility, cost-effectiveness, value, verteporfin, pegaptanib, laser photocoagulation, ranibizumab, and therapy. All articles that used an outcome of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were studied in regard to (1) percent improvement in quality of life, (2) utility methodology, (3) utility respondents, (4) types of costs included (eg, direct healthcare, direct nonhealthcare, indirect), (5) cost bases (eg, Medicare, National Health Service in the United Kingdom), and (6) study cost perspective (eg, government, societal, third-party insurer). To qualify as a value-based medicine analysis, the patient value had to be measured using the outcome of the QALYs conferred by respective interventions. As with value-based medicine analyses, patient-based time tradeoff utility analysis had to be utilized, patient utility respondents were necessary, and direct medical costs were used. Among 21 cost-utility analyses performed on interventions for neovascular macular degeneration, 15 (71%) met value-based medicine criteria. The 6 others (29%) were not comparable owing to (1) varying utility methodology, (2) varying utility respondents, (3) differing costs utilized, (4) differing cost bases, and (5) varying study perspectives. Among value-based medicine studies, laser photocoagulation confers a 4.4% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for the treatment of classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization. Intravitreal pegaptanib confers a 5.9% value gain (improvement in quality of life) for classic, minimally classic, and occult subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin confers

  7. Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Madduri, Ravi K; Sotomayor, Borja; Chard, Kyle; Lacinski, Lukasz; Dave, Utpal J; Li, Jianqiang; Liu, Chunchen; Foster, Ian T

    2014-06-01

    Due to the upcoming data deluge of genome data, the need for storing and processing large-scale genome data, easy access to biomedical analyses tools, efficient data sharing and retrieval has presented significant challenges. The variability in data volume results in variable computing and storage requirements, therefore biomedical researchers are pursuing more reliable, dynamic and convenient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes a Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses, which enables reliable and highly scalable execution of sequencing analyses workflows in a fully automated manner. Our platform extends the existing Galaxy workflow system by adding data management capabilities for transferring large quantities of data efficiently and reliably (via Globus Transfer), domain-specific analyses tools preconfigured for immediate use by researchers (via user-specific tools integration), automatic deployment on Cloud for on-demand resource allocation and pay-as-you-go pricing (via Globus Provision), a Cloud provisioning tool for auto-scaling (via HTCondor scheduler), and the support for validating the correctness of workflows (via semantic verification tools). Two bioinformatics workflow use cases as well as performance evaluation are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Versatile Software Package for Inter-subject Correlation Based Analyses of fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka-Pekka eKauppi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the inter-subject correlation (ISC based analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, the extent of shared processing across subjects during the experiment is determined by calculating correlation coefficients between the fMRI time series of the subjects in the corresponding brain locations. This implies that ISC can be used to analyze fMRI data without explicitly modelling the stimulus and thus ISC is a potential method to analyze fMRI data acquired under complex naturalistic stimuli. Despite of the suitability of ISC based approach to analyze complex fMRI data, no generic software tools have been made available for this purpose, limiting a widespread use of ISC based analysis techniques among neuroimaging community. In this paper, we present a graphical user interface (GUI based software package, ISC Toolbox, implemented in Matlab for computing various ISC based analyses. Many advanced computations such as comparison of ISCs between different stimuli, time window ISC, and inter-subject phase synchronization are supported by the toolbox. The analyses are coupled with re-sampling based statistical inference. The ISC based analyses are data and computation intensive and the ISC toolbox is equipped with mechanisms to execute the parallel computations in a cluster environment automatically and with an automatic detection of the cluster environment in use. Currently, SGE-based (Oracle Grid Engine, Son of a Grid Engine or Open Grid Scheduler and Slurm environments are supported. In this paper, we present a detailed account on the methods behind the ISC Toolbox, the implementation of the toolbox and demonstrate the possible use of the toolbox by summarizing selected example applications. We also report the computation time experiments both using a single desktop computer and two grid environments demonstrating that parallelization effectively reduces the computing time. The ISC Toolbox is available in https://code.google.com/p/isc-toolbox/.

  9. A versatile software package for inter-subject correlation based analyses of fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    In the inter-subject correlation (ISC) based analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, the extent of shared processing across subjects during the experiment is determined by calculating correlation coefficients between the fMRI time series of the subjects in the corresponding brain locations. This implies that ISC can be used to analyze fMRI data without explicitly modeling the stimulus and thus ISC is a potential method to analyze fMRI data acquired under complex naturalistic stimuli. Despite of the suitability of ISC based approach to analyze complex fMRI data, no generic software tools have been made available for this purpose, limiting a widespread use of ISC based analysis techniques among neuroimaging community. In this paper, we present a graphical user interface (GUI) based software package, ISC Toolbox, implemented in Matlab for computing various ISC based analyses. Many advanced computations such as comparison of ISCs between different stimuli, time window ISC, and inter-subject phase synchronization are supported by the toolbox. The analyses are coupled with re-sampling based statistical inference. The ISC based analyses are data and computation intensive and the ISC toolbox is equipped with mechanisms to execute the parallel computations in a cluster environment automatically and with an automatic detection of the cluster environment in use. Currently, SGE-based (Oracle Grid Engine, Son of a Grid Engine, or Open Grid Scheduler) and Slurm environments are supported. In this paper, we present a detailed account on the methods behind the ISC Toolbox, the implementation of the toolbox and demonstrate the possible use of the toolbox by summarizing selected example applications. We also report the computation time experiments both using a single desktop computer and two grid environments demonstrating that parallelization effectively reduces the computing time. The ISC Toolbox is available in https://code.google.com/p/isc-toolbox/

  10. Nucleon-nucleon interactions via Lattice QCD: Methodology. HAL QCD approach to extract hadronic interactions in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya

    2013-07-01

    We review the potential method in lattice QCD, which has recently been proposed to extract nucleon-nucleon interactions via numerical simulations. We focus on the methodology of this approach by emphasizing the strategy of the potential method, the theoretical foundation behind it, and special numerical techniques. We compare the potential method with the standard finite volume method in lattice QCD, in order to make pros and cons of the approach clear. We also present several numerical results for nucleon-nucleon potentials.

  11. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  12. Pion structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadi Motaghi, Narjes

    2015-05-12

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute the second Mellin moments of pion generalized parton distributions and pion electromagnetic form factors. For our calculations we are able to analyze a large set of gauge configurations with 2 dynamical flavours using non-perturbatively the improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermionic action pion masses ranging down to 151 MeV. By employing improved smearing we were able to suppress excited state contamination. However, our data in the physical quark mass limit show that some excited state contamination remains. We show the non-zero sink momentum is optimal for the computation of the electromagnetic form factors and generalized form factors at finite momenta.

  13. Colour singlets in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassetto, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the axial gauge and at the leading log level, a definite and consistent picture seems to emerge of a parton decay into states in which many partons are found just before confinement should take place. They are grouped into colourless clusters in a number sufficient to exhaust the ''final'' state, still possessing a finite average mass. This result is peculiar of QCD, in particular of its non-abelian nature. Large transverse momenta or more generally average invariant quantities of partons are mainly due to the multiplicities involved in the branching processes. If eventually confinement would convert these clusters into hadrons (and this is of course the main issue which has still to be proven) without a large rearrangement of the colour lines, the picture we have found for colour singlets could apply to the real hadronic world. (author)

  14. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, Edmond [IPhT, Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  15. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry

  16. QCD string in the baryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefediev, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    The QCD-motivated constituent string model is extended to consider the baryon. The system of three quarks propagating in the confining background field is studied in the Wilson loop approach, and the effective action is obtained. The resulting Lagrangian at large interquark distances corresponds to the Mercedes Benz string configuration. Assuming the quarks to be heavy enough to allow the adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion and using the hyperspherical expansion for the quark subsystem we write out and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction. We quantize the motion of the junction and demonstrate that the account of these modes leads to the effective swelling of baryon in comparison with standard potential picture. The effects of finite gluonic correlation length which do not affect the excited states but appear to be substantial for the baryonic ground state, reducing the swelling considerably is discussed

  17. Baryon structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent lattice results on the baryon spectrum, nucleon electromagnetic and axial form factors, nucleon to Δ transition form factors as well as the Δ electromagnetic form factors. The masses of the low lying baryons and the nucleon form factors are calculated using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions down to pion mass of about 270 MeV. We compare to the results of other collaborations. The nucleon to Δ transition and Δ form factors are calculated in a hybrid scheme, which uses staggered sea quarks and domain wall valence quarks. The dominant magnetic dipole nucleon to Δ transition form factor is also evaluated using dynamical domain wall fermions. The transverse density distributions of the Δ in the infinite momentum frame are extracted using the form factors determined from lattice QCD. (author)

  18. Lattice QCD for nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities.  The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics.  A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...

  19. Particle states of lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoyannis, A.S.; Panagiotou, A.D. [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Faculty of Physics, Athens (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    We determine the degeneracy factor and the average particle mass of particles that produce the lattice QCD pressure and specific entropy at zero baryon chemical potential. The number of states of the gluons and the quarks are found to converge above T = 230 MeV to almost constant values, close to the number of states of an ideal quark-gluon phase, while their assigned masses retain high values. The number of states and the average mass of a system containing quarks in interaction with gluons are found to decrease steeply with increase of temperature between T ∝ 150 and 160 MeV, a region contained within the region of the chiral transition. The minimum value of the number of states within this temperature interval indicates that the states are of hadronic nature. (orig.)

  20. Charm production and QCD analysis at HERA and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenaiev, Oleksandr

    2015-03-01

    In this thesis the study of charm production in ep and pp collisions is presented. The heavy-quark masses provide a hard scale, allowing the application of perturbative QCD. A measurement of D + -meson production in deep inelastic scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA is presented. The analysis was performed using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 354 pb -1 . Differential cross sections were measured as a function of virtuality Q 2 , inelasticity y, transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the D + mesons. Lifetime information was used to reduce the combinatorial background significantly. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions in the fixed-flavour-number scheme were compared to the data. This measurement was combined with other H1 and ZEUS measurements of charm production. The combination was performed at inclusive level for the reduced charm cross sections, which were obtained from the measured visible cross sections, extrapolated to the full phase space using the shape of the theoretical predictions in the fixed-flavour-number scheme. The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different datasets, thus allowing cross calibration of different measurements. The combined charm data were compared to QCD predictions in various heavy-flavour schemes and used together with the inclusive production data at HERA as input for QCD analyses to determine the charm running mass in the MS renormalisation scheme and the optimal values of the charm-quark mass parameters in other heavy-flavour schemes. An additional combination of the H1 and ZEUS D *+ visible cross sections was performed to provide the combined cross sections without theory-related uncertainties from the extrapolation procedure. This combination also provides differential cross sections as a function of the D *+ kinematic variables. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions in the fixed-flavour-number scheme were compared to the combined D *+ cross

  1. QCD and QGP: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    The aim of high energy nuclear collisions is to study strong interaction thermodynamics in the laboratory; we want to explore colour deconfinement and the resulting new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. Phenomenological models have done much to form the concepts of the field, but today QCD provides the theoretical basis for our understanding of hot and dense matter and for the tools to probe it. I will therefore begin by summarizing recent results from finite temperature lattice QCD and then turn to the study of colour deconfinement using hard probes; here the recently reported anomalous J/ψ suppression represents a particularly promising signal. Similarly, the observed low mass dilepton enhancement has focussed our attention on the properties of hadrons near chiral symmetry restoration. The hadrosynthesis at freeze-out is yet another region of much present activity to be addressed in the final part of this summary. All aspects were covered here in a variety of excellent plenary talks and contributions; I hope the speakers will forgive me for concentrating on the progress in physics as I see it, rather than on individual talks. The field of high energy nuclear collisions is very many-faceted, and moreover I had to select what I could coherently summarize in the given time. I therefore also apologize to all those whose contributions to this meeting are covered insufficiently or not at all. In particular, I shall review neither the developments in astrophysics nor the search for disoriented chiral condensates, simply because of my lack of competence in these areas. (author)

  2. Recent QCD Results from SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, David

    1999-01-01

    We present selected results on strong interaction physics from the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider. We report on several new studies of 3- and 4-jet hadronic Z 0 decays, in which jets are identified as quark, antiquark or gluon. The 3-jet Z 0 --> b anti-bg rate is sensitive to the b-quark mass; prospects for measuring m b are discussed. The gluon energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range, providing an improved test of QCD and limits on anomalous b anti-bg couplings. The parity violation in Z 0 --> b anti-bg decays is consistent with electroweak theory plus QCD. New tests of T- and CP-conservation at the bbg vertex are performed. A new measurement of the rate of gluon splitting into b anti-b pairs yields g b anti-b = 0.0031 ± 0.0007 (stat.)± 0.0006 (syst.) (Preliminary). We also present a number of new results on jet fragmentation into identified hadrons. The B hadron energy spectrum is measured over the full kinematic range using a new, inclusive technique, allowing stringent tests of predictions for its shape and a precise measurement of (xB) = 0.714 ± 0.005(stat.) ± 0.007(syst.) (Preliminary). A detailed study of correlations in rapidity y between pairs of identified pi ± , K ± and p/anti-p confirms that strangeness and baryon number are conserved locally, and shows local charge conservation between meson-baryon and strange-nonstrange pairs. Flavor-dependent long-range correlations are observed for all combinations of these hadron species, yielding new information on leading particle production. The first study of correlations using rapidities signed such that y > 0 corresponds to the quark direction provides additional new insights into fragmentation, including the first direct observation of baryon number ordering along the q anti-q axis

  3. Unified chiral analysis of the vector meson spectrum from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wes Armour; Chris Allton; Derek Leinweber; Anthony Thomas; Ross Young

    2005-10-13

    The chiral extrapolation of the vector meson mass calculated in partially-quenched lattice simulations is investigated. The leading one-loop corrections to the vector meson mass are derived for partially-quenched QCD. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. To incorporate the effect of the opening decay channel as the chiral limit is approached, the extrapolation is studied using a necessary phenomenological extension of chiral effective field theory. This chiral analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite-volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of $M_\\rho$ in excellent agreement with experiment. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are much less enlightening.

  4. An analysis of the nucleon spectrum from lattice partially-quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, W. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Allton, C. R. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Leinweber, Derek B. [Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Thomas, Anthony W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Young, Ross D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The chiral extrapolation of the nucleon mass, Mn, is investigated using data coming from 2-flavour partially-quenched lattice simulations. The leading one-loop corrections to the nucleon mass are derived for partially-quenched QCD. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. The extrapolation is studied using finite range regularised chiral perturbation theory. The analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite-volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of Mn in agreement with experiment. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are less encouraging.

  5. The gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Phiala A. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    I discuss recent lattice QCD studies of the gluon structure of hadrons and light nuclei. After very briefly highlighting new determinations of the gluon contributions to the nucleon's momentum and spin, presented by several collaborations over the last year, I describe first calculations of gluon generalised form factors. The generalised transversity gluon distributions are of particular interest since they are purely gluonic; they do not mix with quark distributions at leading twist. In light nuclei they moreover provide a clean signature of non-nucleonic gluon degrees of freedom, and I present the first evidence for such effects, based on lattice QCD calculations. The planned Electron-Ion Collider, designed to access gluon structure quantities, will have the capability to test this prediction, and measure a range of gluon observables including generalised gluon distributions and transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions, within the next decade.

  6. openQ*D simulation code for QCD+QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Isabel; Fritzsch, Patrick; Hansen, Martin; Krstić Marinković, Marina; Patella, Agostino; Ramos, Alberto; Tantalo, Nazario

    2018-03-01

    The openQ*D code for the simulation of QCD+QED with C* boundary conditions is presented. This code is based on openQCD-1.6, from which it inherits the core features that ensure its efficiency: the locally-deflated SAP-preconditioned GCR solver, the twisted-mass frequency splitting of the fermion action, the multilevel integrator, the 4th order OMF integrator, the SSE/AVX intrinsics, etc. The photon field is treated as fully dynamical and C* boundary conditions can be chosen in the spatial directions. We discuss the main features of openQ*D, and we show basic test results and performance analysis. An alpha version of this code is publicly available and can be downloaded from http://rcstar.web.cern.ch/.

  7. Entropic information of dynamical AdS/QCD holographic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex E., E-mail: alexeb@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, PO Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-11-10

    The Shannon based conditional entropy that underlies five-dimensional Einstein–Hilbert gravity coupled to a dilaton field is investigated in the context of dynamical holographic AdS/QCD models. Considering the UV and IR dominance limits of such AdS/QCD models, the conditional entropy is shown to shed some light onto the meson classification schemes, which corroborate with the existence of light-flavor mesons of lower spins in Nature. Our analysis is supported by a correspondence between statistical mechanics and information entropy which establishes the physical grounds to the Shannon information entropy, also in the context of statistical mechanics, and provides some specificities for accurately extending the entropic discussion to continuous modes of physical systems. From entropic informational grounds, the conditional entropy allows one to identify the lower experimental/phenomenological occurrence of higher spin mesons in Nature. Moreover, it introduces a quantitative theoretical apparatus for studying the instability of high spin light-flavor mesons.

  8. The gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Phiala

    2018-03-01

    I discuss recent lattice QCD studies of the gluon structure of hadrons and light nuclei. After very briefly highlighting new determinations of the gluon contributions to the nucleon's momentum and spin, presented by several collaborations over the last year, I describe first calculations of gluon generalised form factors. The generalised transversity gluon distributions are of particular interest since they are purely gluonic; they do not mix with quark distributions at leading twist. In light nuclei they moreover provide a clean signature of non-nucleonic gluon degrees of freedom, and I present the first evidence for such effects, based on lattice QCD calculations. The planned Electron-Ion Collider, designed to access gluon structure quantities, will have the capability to test this prediction, and measure a range of gluon observables including generalised gluon distributions and transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions, within the next decade.

  9. QCD phenomenology of parton distribution functions at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Wu-Ki

    1990-09-01

    The small x behavior of parton distributions is studied phenomenologically by examining in detail a series of QCD-evolved distribution sets obtained in a new global analysis of deep inelastic scattering and lepton-pair production experiments. The importance of 2-loop evolution is discussed. The main features and results of the global analysis are described. The range of small x behavior consistent with next-to-leading order QCD and current data is delineated. The extrapolated small x behavior is parameterized by effective Q-dependent power- and logarithmic-law parameters. Intriguing features of the evolution of these parameters with Q are presented. Alternative parametrizations based on the analytic solution for small x is also explored. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Transverse momentum distributions inside the nucleon from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musch, Bernhard Ulrich

    2009-05-29

    Nucleons, i.e., protons and neutrons, are composed of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), part of the standard model of particle physics. This work applies lattice QCD to compute quark momentum distributions in the nucleon. The calculations make use of lattice data generated on supercomputers that has already been successfully employed in lattice studies of spatial quark distributions (''nucleon tomography''). In order to be able to analyze transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, this thesis explores a novel approach based on non-local operators. One interesting observation is that the transverse momentum dependent density of polarized quarks in a polarized nucleon is visibly deformed. A more elaborate operator geometry is required to enable a quantitative comparison to high energy scattering experiments. First steps in this direction are encouraging. (orig.)

  11. Analysing task design and students' responses to context-based problems through different analytical frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-05-01

    Background:Context-based learning approaches are used to enhance students' interest in, and knowledge about, science. According to different empirical studies, students' interest is improved by applying these more non-conventional approaches, while effects on learning outcomes are less coherent. Hence, further insights are needed into the structure of context-based problems in comparison to traditional problems, and into students' problem-solving strategies. Therefore, a suitable framework is necessary, both for the analysis of tasks and strategies. Purpose:The aim of this paper is to explore traditional and context-based tasks as well as students' responses to exemplary tasks to identify a suitable framework for future design and analyses of context-based problems. The paper discusses different established frameworks and applies the Higher-Order Cognitive Skills/Lower-Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS/LOCS) taxonomy and the Model of Hierarchical Complexity in Chemistry (MHC-C) to analyse traditional tasks and students' responses. Sample:Upper secondary students (n=236) at the Natural Science Programme, i.e. possible future scientists, are investigated to explore learning outcomes when they solve chemistry tasks, both more conventional as well as context-based chemistry problems. Design and methods:A typical chemistry examination test has been analysed, first the test items in themselves (n=36), and thereafter 236 students' responses to one representative context-based problem. Content analysis using HOCS/LOCS and MHC-C frameworks has been applied to analyse both quantitative and qualitative data, allowing us to describe different problem-solving strategies. Results:The empirical results show that both frameworks are suitable to identify students' strategies, mainly focusing on recall of memorized facts when solving chemistry test items. Almost all test items were also assessing lower order thinking. The combination of frameworks with the chemistry syllabus has been

  12. A protein relational database and protein family knowledge bases to facilitate structure-based design analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine

    2010-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.

  13. Estimation of effective block conductivities based on discrete network analyses using data from the Aespoe site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, P.R.; Wallmann, P.; Follin, S.

    1995-09-01

    Numerical continuum codes may be used for assessing the role of regional groundwater flow in far-field safety analyses of a nuclear waste repository at depth. The focus of this project is to develop and evaluate one method based on Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models to estimate block-scale permeability values for continuum codes. Data from the Aespoe HRL and surrounding area are used. 57 refs, 76 figs, 15 tabs

  14. Strange Baryon Physics in Full Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey-Wen Lin

    2007-01-01

    Strange baryon spectra and form factors are key probes to study excited nuclear matter. The use of lattice QCD allows us to test the strength of the Standard Model by calculating strange baryon quantities from first principles

  15. Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)

  16. A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

  17. Two-color QCD via dimensional reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, T.; Brauner, Tomáš; Kurkela, A.; Vuorinen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 139 (2012), s. 1-16 ISSN 1126-6708 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : thermal field theory * QCD * confinement Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012

  18. QCD Effective Field Theories for Heavy Quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Nora

    2006-01-01

    QCD nonrelativistic effective field theories (NREFT) are the modern and most suitable frame to describe heavy quarkonium properties. Here I summarize few relevant concepts and some of the interesting physical applications (spectrum, decays, production) of NREFT

  19. Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.

    2003-09-01

    We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E, Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC. (orig.)

  20. Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.; Wittig, H.

    2004-01-01

    We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E; Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC

  1. The time development of QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneschi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The time development of jets in perturbative QCD is studied. In spite of the fact that the total time for the jet to develop increases indefinitely with increasing energy, quark antiquark pairs remain unscreened only an infinitesimal time. (author)

  2. Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Oliver

    2010-07-21

    The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Challenges for QCD theory: some personal reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjöstrand, T

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC all processes are QCD ones, whether ‘signal’ or ‘background’. In this review the frontiers of current QCD research are addressed, towards increased understanding, improved calculational precision, and role in potential future discoveries. Issues raised include: - the limits of perturbative QCD calculations and parton distribution usage,; - the nature of multiparton interactions,; - the impact of colour reconnection on physical observables,; - the need for progress on hadronization modelling,; - the improvements of parton showers and their combination with the matrix-element description,; - the use of QCD concepts in Beyond-the-Standard-Model scenarios and; - the key position of event generators and other software in the successful exploration of LHC physics. On the way, several questions are posed, where further studies are needed. (paper)

  4. Opportunities, Challenges, and Fantasies in Lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Some important problems in quantitative QCD will certainly yield to hard work and adequate investment of resources, others appear difficult but may be accessible, and still others will require essentially new ideas. Here I identify several examples in each class.

  5. Automated NLO QCD corrections with WHIZARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Christian; Siegen Univ.; Chokoufe Nejad, Bijan; Reuter, Juergen; Kilian, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    We briefly discuss the current status of NLO QCD automation in the Monte Carlo event generator WHIZARD. The functionality is presented for the explicit study of off-shell top quark production with associated backgrounds at a lepton collider.

  6. Dual QCD thermodynamics and quark–gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, H.C.; Punetha, Garima; Dehnen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Using grand canonical ensemble formulation of a multi-particle statistical system, the thermodynamical description of dual QCD based on magnetic symmetry has been presented and analyzed for the quark–gluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. The dual QCD based bag construction has been shown to lead to the radial pressure on bag surface in terms of the vector glueball masses of magnetically condensed QCD vacuum. Constructing the grand canonical partition function, the energy density and plasma pressure have been derived and used to compute the critical temperatures for QGP–hadron phase transition along with its dynamics. A comparison of the values of critical temperatures for QGP–hadron phase transition with those obtained for the deconfinement-phase transition, has been shown to lead to either the relaxation of the system via a mixed phase of QGP and hot hadron gas or go through a crossover. The associated profiles of the normalized energy density and specific heat have been shown to lead to a large latent heat generation and indicate the onset of a first-order QGP phase transition which turns into a rapid crossover for the case of temperature dependent bag parameter. The squared speed of sound has been shown to act as a physical measure of large thermodynamical fluctuations near transition point. The possible implications of trace anomaly and conformal measure on QGP formation have also been discussed.

  7. Reality of the fundamental topological structure in the QCD vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horvath, Ivan; Zhang Jianbo

    2005-01-01

    Long-range order of a specific kind has recently been found directly in configurations dominating the regularized QCD path integral. In particular, a low-dimensional global structure was identified in typical space-time distributions of topological charge defined via the overlap Dirac matrix. The presence of the order has been concluded from the fact that the structure disappears after random permutation of position coordinates in measured densities. Here we complete the argument for the reality of this structure (namely the conjecture that its existence is a consequence of QCD dynamics and not an artifact of the overlap-based definition of lattice topological field) by showing that the structure ceases to exist after randomizing the space-time coordinates of the underlying gauge field. This implies that the long-range order present in the overlap-based topological density is indeed a manifestation of the QCD vacuum, and that the notion of the fundamental structure (structure involving relevant features at all scales) is viable

  8. The structure of gluon radiation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parke, S.; Mangano, M.

    1989-08-01

    For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processes. Also, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Charge correlations as definitive tests of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Certain weighted charge correlations are defined and it is shown how they can be used to measure properties of the gluon jet in the e + e - 3-jet final state. Properties are suggested which are indicative of the form of the QCD matrix element, the running coupling constant and value of Λ, and hence constitute definitive tests of QCD. The recent near tenfold increase in luminosity at PETRA should make such experimental tests possible in the near future. (author)

  10. Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)

  11. Some New/Old Approaches to QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D. J.

    1992-11-01

    In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD.

  12. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  13. Recent QCD Studies at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Robert Craig

    2008-04-01

    Since the beginning of Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron the QCD physics groups of the CDF and D0 experiments have worked to reach unprecedented levels of precision for many QCD observables. Thanks to the large dataset--over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity recorded by each experiment--important new measurements have recently been made public and will be summarized in this paper.

  14. QCD angular correlations for muon pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.; Raitio, R.; Lindfors, J.

    1978-01-01

    Angular distributions of muons are discussed in the framework of a QCD treatment of muon pair production in hadron-hadron collisions. The predicted angular effects are independent of the infrared behavior of QCD. Measuring them will permit one to determine whether the origin of the large transverse momentum of the pair is in the quark transverse momenta or in a constituent-constituent subprocess. (author)

  15. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  16. Understanding Theoretical Uncertainties in Perturbative QCD Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenniches, Laura Katharina

    effective field theories and perturbative QCD to predict the effect of New Physics on measurements at the LHC and at other future colliders. We use heavy-quark, heavy-scalar and soft-collinear effective theory to calculate a three-body cascade decay at NLO QCD in the expansion-by-regions formalism...... discuss an extension of the Cacciari-Houdeau approach to observables with hadrons in the initial state....

  17. The structure of gluon radiation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parke, S.; Mangano, M.

    1990-01-01

    For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. Here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processess. Finally, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD

  18. A new perturbative approach to QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.; Kallies, W.; Sarikov, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    For the description of bound states in QED and QCD the physical perturbation theory on the spatial components of the vector over the exact solution, defined by the time one, is proposed. It is shown this perturbation theory in QCD can be redefined so that it reproduces the main elements of hadron physics: confinement, spectroscopy of light and heavy quarkonia, dual-resonance amplitudes, chiral Lagrangians and the parton model

  19. Some new/old approaches to QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD.

  20. Some new/old approaches to QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD

  1. QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, Michael G.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    As an introduction to QCD at the LHC I given an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q 2 frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors I discuss high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. I introduce the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420 m downstream of ATLAS and CMS

  2. Search for the QCD ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Wetterich, C.

    1994-05-01

    Within the Euclidean effective action approach we propose criteria for the ground state of QCD. Despite a nonvanishing field strength the ground state should be invariant with respect to modified Poincare transformations consisting of a combination of translations and rotations with suitable gauge transformations. We have found candidate states for QCD with four or more colours. The formation of gluon condensates shows similarities with the Higgs phenomenon. (orig.)

  3. Unambiguity of renormalization group calculations in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the reduction of ambiguities determined by an arbitrary renormalization scheme is presented for the renormalization group calculations of physical quantities in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Some basic formulas concerning the renormalization-scheme dependence of Green's and renormalization group functions are given. A massless asymptotically free theory with one coupling constant g is considered. In conclusion, several rules for renormalization group calculations in QCD are formulated

  4. On microscopic structure of the QCD vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D. G.; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new class of regular stationary axially symmetric solutions in a pure QCD which correspond to monopole-antimonopole pairs at macroscopic scale. The solutions represent vacuum field configurations which are locally stable against quantum gluon fluctuations in any small space-time vicinity. This implies that the monopole-antimonopole pair can serve as a structural element in microscopic description of QCD vacuum formation.

  5. Configurational entropy and ρ and ϕ mesons production in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, G.

    2018-06-01

    In the present work the electroproduction for diffractive ρ and ϕ mesons by considering AdS/QCD correspondence and Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approximation are studied with respect to the associated dipole cross section, whose parameters are studied and analysed in the framework of the configurational entropy. Our results suggest different quantum states of the nuclear matter, showing that the extremal points of the nuclear configurational entropy is able to reflect a true description of the ρ and ϕ mesons production, using current data concerning light quark masses. During the computations parameters, obtained in fitting procedure, coincide to the experimental within ∼ 0.1%.

  6. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A; Leppaemaeki, E; Koponen, P; Levander, J; Tapola, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  7. A New Optimization Method for Centrifugal Compressors Based on 1D Calculations and Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yuan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization design method for centrifugal compressors based on one-dimensional calculations and analyses. It consists of two parts: (1 centrifugal compressor geometry optimization based on one-dimensional calculations and (2 matching optimization of the vaned diffuser with an impeller based on the required throat area. A low pressure stage centrifugal compressor in a MW level gas turbine is optimized by this method. One-dimensional calculation results show that D3/D2 is too large in the original design, resulting in the low efficiency of the entire stage. Based on the one-dimensional optimization results, the geometry of the diffuser has been redesigned. The outlet diameter of the vaneless diffuser has been reduced, and the original single stage diffuser has been replaced by a tandem vaned diffuser. After optimization, the entire stage pressure ratio is increased by approximately 4%, and the efficiency is increased by approximately 2%.

  8. Consideration of the vacuum of QCD in a composite quark model. Strange hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kochelev, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    The method of inclusion of QCD vacuum condensates within the quark composite model is generalized to the case of hadrons containing strange quarks. The mass formula for such hadrons is obtained. The mass of strange quark is defined by analysing the energy spectrum of hadron ground states. The mixing angles of pseudoscalar mesons are estimated

  9. Recent results on QCD at the Tevatron (CDF and D0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschi, E.

    1993-11-01

    In the last run the Tevatron collider delivered an integrated luminosity of 29.9 pb -1 to CDF and D0. We describe here some preliminary result from analyses of relevant QCD processes in the 1992--1993 data from the two experiments

  10. Search for ({lambda}{sup 2})/p{sup 2} corrections to the QCD running coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgio, G.; Di Renzo, F.; Parrinello, C.; Pittori, C

    1999-03-01

    We investigate the occurrence of power terms ({lambda}{sup 2})/p>{sup 2} in the running QCD coupling by analysing non-perturbative measurements of {alpha}{sub s}(p) at quite low momenta obtained from the lattice three-gluon vertex. Our study provides some evidence for such a contribution. The phenomenological implications of such a presence are reviewed.

  11. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S and ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S and ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754

  12. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1,Scientific Bases and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David

    2001-05-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754

  13. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ghezzi, Margherita; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of the SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale μ s which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold

  14. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton, DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano, E-mail: Stefano.Forte@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghezzi, Margherita [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma,Italy (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of the SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale μ{sub s} which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold.

  15. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ghezzi, Margherita; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed, using softcollinear effective theory (SCET), in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of this SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale μ s which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold.

  16. Recent soft QCD and jet physics results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Boerner, Daniela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed studies of a wide range of QCD phenomena. Recent soft-QCD measurements include studies of track-based measurement of underlying event and particle production properties at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV. Final states with jets and photons provide a unique opportunity for tests of perturbative QCD predictions. In this talk, the latest results on the measurement of the prompt isolated photon production and the inclusive jet and dijet production at a center of mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV are presented. The 8 TeV dataset was also used to measure the photon+jet and diphoton production, differential in a wide range of kinematic variables describing the photon+jet production dynamic. Colour-coherence effects were investigated in events with a photon accompanied by two jets. Furthermore, we will discuss the measurement of multijet production cross sections, where multijet event shape variables have been used to extract the strong coupling constant. The talk concludes with a report on the observ...

  17. The scale of soft resummation in SCET vs perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano [Milano Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Milano (Italy); Ghezzi, Margherita [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Genova (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    We summarize and extend previous results on the comparison of threshold resummation, performed, using softcollinear effective theory (SCET), in the Becher-Neubert approach, to the standard perturbative QCD formalism based on factorization and resummation of Mellin moments of partonic cross sections. We show that the logarithmic accuracy of this SCET result can be extended by half a logarithmic order, thereby bringing it in full agreement with the standard QCD result if a suitable choice is made for the soft scale {mu}{sub s} which characterizes the SCET result. We provide a master formula relating the two approaches for other scale choices. We then show that with the Becher-Neubert scale choice the Landau pole, which in the perturbative QCD approach is usually removed through power- or exponentially suppressed terms, in the SCET approach is removed by logarithmically subleading terms which break factorization. Such terms may become leading for generic choices of parton distributions, and are always leading when resummation is used far enough from the hadronic threshold.

  18. An Anderson-like model of the QCD chiral transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Matteo; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    We study the problems of chiral symmetry breaking and eigenmode localisation in finite-temperature QCD by looking at the lattice Dirac operator as a random Hamiltonian. We recast the staggered Dirac operator into an unconventional three-dimensional Anderson Hamiltonian (“Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian”) carrying internal degrees of freedom, with disorder provided by the fluctuations of the gauge links. In this framework, we identify the features relevant to chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes in the ordering of the local Polyakov lines, and in the related correlation between spatial links across time slices, thus tying the two phenomena to the deconfinement transition. We then build a toy model based on QCD and on the Dirac-Anderson approach, replacing the Polyakov lines with spin variables and simplifying the dynamics of the spatial gauge links, but preserving the above-mentioned relevant dynamical features. Our toy model successfully reproduces the main features of the QCD spectrum and of the Dirac eigenmodes concerning chiral symmetry breaking and localisation, both in the ordered (deconfined) and disordered (confined) phases. Moreover, it allows us to study separately the roles played in the two phenomena by the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms of the Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian. Our results support our expectation that chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low modes are closely related, and that both are triggered by the deconfinement transition.

  19. N-jettiness Subtractions for NNLO QCD calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J.; Walsh, Jonathan R.; California Univ., CA

    2015-05-01

    We present a subtraction method utilizing the N-jettiness observable, Τ N , to perform QCD calculations for arbitrary processes at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Our method employs soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) to determine the IR singular contributions of N-jet cross sections for Τ N → 0, and uses these to construct suitable Τ N -subtractions. The construction is systematic and economic, due to being based on a physical observable. The resulting NNLO calculation is fully differential and in a form directly suitable for combining with resummation and parton showers. We explain in detail the application to processes with an arbitrary number of massless partons at lepton and hadron colliders together with the required external inputs in the form of QCD amplitudes and lower-order calculations. We provide explicit expressions for the Τ N -subtractions at NLO and NNLO. The required ingredients are fully known at NLO, and at NNLO for processes with two external QCD partons. The remaining NNLO ingredient for three or more external partons can be obtained numerically with existing NNLO techniques. As an example, we employ our method to obtain the NNLO rapidity spectrum for Drell-Yan and gluon-fusion Higgs production. We discuss aspects of numerical accuracy and convergence and the practical implementation. We also discuss and comment on possible extensions, such as more-differential subtractions, necessary steps for going to N 3 LO, and the treatment of massive quarks.

  20. Issues and approaches in risk-based aging analyses of passive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryasev, S.P.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    In previous NRC-sponsored work a general methodology was developed to quantify the risk contributions from aging components at nuclear plants. The methodology allowed Probabilistic Risk Analyses (PRAs) to be modified to incorporate the age-dependent component failure rates and also aging maintenance models to evaluate and prioritize the aging contributions from active components using the linear aging failure rate model and empirical components aging rates. In the present paper, this methodology is extended to passive components (for example, the pipes, heat exchangers, and the vessel). The analyses of passive components bring in issues different from active components. Here, we specifically focus on three aspects that need to be addressed in risk-based aging prioritization of passive components

  1. DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mur Dueñas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.

  2. Integrated approach for fusion multi-physics coupled analyses based on hybrid CAD and mesh geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yuefeng, E-mail: yuefeng.qiu@kit.edu; Lu, Lei; Fischer, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Integrated approach for neutronics, thermal and structural analyses was developed. • MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4 were coupled with CFX, Fluent and ANSYS Workbench. • A novel meshing approach has been proposed for describing MC geometry. - Abstract: Coupled multi-physics analyses on fusion reactor devices require high-fidelity neutronic models, and flexible, accurate data exchanging between various calculation codes. An integrated coupling approach has been developed to enable the conversion of CAD, mesh, or hybrid geometries for Monte Carlo (MC) codes MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4, and translation of nuclear heating data for CFD codes Fluent, CFX and structural mechanical software ANSYS Workbench. The coupling approach has been implemented based on SALOME platform with CAD modeling, mesh generation and data visualization capabilities. A novel meshing approach has been developed for generating suitable meshes for MC geometry descriptions. The coupling approach has been concluded to be reliable and efficient after verification calculations of several application cases.

  3. Tracing common origins of Genomic Islands in prokaryotes based on genome signature analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Passel, Mark Wj

    2011-09-01

    Horizontal gene transfer constitutes a powerful and innovative force in evolution, but often little is known about the actual origins of transferred genes. Sequence alignments are generally of limited use in tracking the original donor, since still only a small fraction of the total genetic diversity is thought to be uncovered. Alternatively, approaches based on similarities in the genome specific relative oligonucleotide frequencies do not require alignments. Even though the exact origins of horizontally transferred genes may still not be established using these compositional analyses, it does suggest that compositionally very similar regions are likely to have had a common origin. These analyses have shown that up to a third of large acquired gene clusters that reside in the same genome are compositionally very similar, indicative of a shared origin. This brings us closer to uncovering the original donors of horizontally transferred genes, and could help in elucidating possible regulatory interactions between previously unlinked sequences.

  4. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrowatka, Ania; Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-26

    Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however, some features performed better than

  5. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however

  6. Method of analytic continuation by duality in QCD: Beyond QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.; Nasrallah, N.F.; Papadopoulos, N.A.; Schilcher, K.

    1986-01-01

    We present the method of analytic continuation by duality which allows the approximate continuation of QCD amplitudes to small values of the momentum variables where direct perturbative calculations are not possible. This allows a substantial extension of the domain of applications of hadronic QCD phenomenology. The method is illustrated by a simple example which shows its essential features

  7. A web-based endpoint adjudication system for interim analyses in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Tracy L; Dimmick, Bill F; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Kendrick, Amy S; Sable, Carole; Ngai, Angela; Wallace, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    A data monitoring committee (DMC) is often employed to assess trial progress and review safety data and efficacy endpoints throughout a trail. Interim analyses performed for the DMC should use data that are as complete and verified as possible. Such analyses are complicated when data verification involves subjective study endpoints or requires clinical expertise to determine each subject's status with respect to the study endpoint. Therefore, procedures are needed to obtain adjudicated data for interim analyses in an efficient manner. In the past, methods for handling such data included using locally reported results as surrogate endpoints, adjusting analysis methods for unadjudicated data, or simply performing the adjudication as rapidly as possible. These methods all have inadequacies that make their sole usage suboptimal. For a study of prophylaxis for invasive candidiasis, adjudication of both study eligibility criteria and clinical endpoints prior to two interim analyses was required. Because the study was expected to enroll at a moderate rate and the sponsor required adjudicated endpoints to be used for interim analyses, an efficient process for adjudication was required. We created a web-based endpoint adjudication system (WebEAS) that allows for expedited review by the endpoint adjudication committee (EAC). This system automatically identifies when a subject's data are complete, creates a subject profile from the study data, and assigns EAC reviewers. The reviewers use the WebEAS to review the subject profile and submit their completed review form. The WebEAS then compares the reviews, assigns an additional review as a tiebreaker if needed, and stores the adjudicated data. The study for which this system was originally built was administratively closed after 10 months with only 38 subjects enrolled. The adjudication process was finalized and the WebEAS system activated prior to study closure. Some website accessibility issues presented initially. However

  8. Bridging a gap between continuum-QCD and ab initio predictions of hadron observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binosi, Daniele [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas - ECT* and Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Villa Tambosi, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, I-38123 Villazzano (Italy); Chang, Lei [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Papavassiliou, Joannis [Department of Theoretical Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia and CSIC, E-46100, Valencia (Spain); Roberts, Craig D., E-mail: cdroberts@anl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-03-06

    Within contemporary hadron physics there are two common methods for determining the momentum-dependence of the interaction between quarks: the top-down approach, which works toward an ab initio computation of the interaction via direct analysis of the gauge-sector gap equations; and the bottom-up scheme, which aims to infer the interaction by fitting data within a well-defined truncation of those equations in the matter sector that are relevant to bound-state properties. We unite these two approaches by demonstrating that the renormalisation-group-invariant running-interaction predicted by contemporary analyses of QCD's gauge sector coincides with that required in order to describe ground-state hadron observables using a nonperturbative truncation of QCD's Dyson–Schwinger equations in the matter sector. This bridges a gap that had lain between nonperturbative continuum-QCD and the ab initio prediction of bound-state properties.

  9. Determination of the spatial response of neutron based analysers using a Monte Carlo based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James

    2000-01-01

    One of the principal advantages of using thermal neutron capture (TNC, also called prompt gamma neutron activation analysis or PGNAA) or neutron inelastic scattering (NIS) techniques for measuring elemental composition is the high penetrating power of both the incident neutrons and the resultant gamma-rays, which means that large sample volumes can be interrogated. Gauges based on these techniques are widely used in the mineral industry for on-line determination of the composition of bulk samples. However, attenuation of both neutrons and gamma-rays in the sample and geometric (source/detector distance) effects typically result in certain parts of the sample contributing more to the measured composition than others. In turn, this introduces errors in the determination of the composition of inhomogeneous samples. This paper discusses a combined Monte Carlo/analytical method for estimating the spatial response of a neutron gauge. Neutron propagation is handled using a Monte Carlo technique which allows an arbitrarily complex neutron source and gauge geometry to be specified. Gamma-ray production and detection is calculated analytically which leads to a dramatic increase in the efficiency of the method. As an example, the method is used to study ways of reducing the spatial sensitivity of on-belt composition measurements of cement raw meal

  10. QCD-instantons at LHC. Theoretical aspects; QCD-Instantonen am LHC. Theoretische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, M.

    2007-06-15

    Instantons are nonperturbative, topologically nontrivial field configurations, which occur in every nonabelian gauge theory. They can be understood as tunneling processes between topologically distinct vacua. Although being a basic theoretical aspect of the Standard Model, a direct experimental verification of instanton processes is still lacking. In this thesis the general discovery potential for QCD-instantons at the LHC is studied in detail by means of instanton perturbation theory. In this context the close correspondence between the leading instanton induced processes at HERA and at LHC becomes important. Essential aspects and differences to deep inelastic scattering can already be revealed by studying the simplest process. Based on these results inclusive cross sections are calculated including the emission of final state gluons. Compared to deep inelastic scattering, a large enhancement of the cross section is found. (orig.)

  11. Standard model group, QCD subgroup - dynamics isolating and testing the elementary QCD subprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    QCD to an experimentalist is the theory of interactions of quarks and gluons. Experimentalists like QCD because QCD is analogous to QED. Thus, following Drell and others who have for many years studied the validity of QED, one has a ready-made menu for tests of QCD. There are the static and long distance tests. These topics are covered by Peter LePage in the static properties group. In this report, dynamic and short distance tests of QCD will be discussed, primarily via reactions with large transverse momenta. This report is an introduction and overview of the subject, to serve as a framework for other reports from the subgroup. In the last two sections, the author has taken the opportunity to discuss his own ideas and opinions

  12. Study of the structure of the QCD vacuum by means of overlap fermions; Untersuchung der Struktur des QCD-Vakuums mit Hilfe von Overlap-Fermionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Volker

    2008-12-15

    In this thesis the structure of the QCD vacuum and the nature of the chiral phase transition were studied by means of overlap fermions. The main topic of the theiss lies in the study of the infrared long-range aspects shown by the low-lying eigenmodes of the overlap operator. For the characterization of the structure and dimension of an arbitray density embedded in the four-dimensional space-time diverse analysis tools were developed. These are applied both at low temperature (T=0) in the valence-quark approximation of QCD and in the environment of the high-temperature phase transition of the full QCD for the description of the structure of the modes and the topological density, as well as for the analysis of the local self-duality of the basing gauge fields.

  13. CrusView: a Java-based visualization platform for comparative genomics analyses in Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-09-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/.

  14. A Game-based Corpus for Analysing the Interplay between Game Context and Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Asteriadis, Stylianos

    2011-01-01

    present dierent types of information that have been extracted from game context, player preferences and perception of the game, as well as user features, automatically extracted from video recordings.We run a number of initial experiments to analyse players' behavior while playing video games as a case......Recognizing players' aective state while playing video games has been the focus of many recent research studies. In this paper we describe the process that has been followed to build a corpus based on game events and recorded video sessions from human players while playing Super Mario Bros. We...

  15. How distributed processing produces false negatives in voxel-based lesion-deficit analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; Lorca-Puls, Diego L; Crinion, Jennifer T; White, Jitrachote; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alex P; Hope, Thomas M H; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Green, David W; Bowman, Howard; Price, Cathy J

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that if the same deficit can be caused by damage to one or another part of a distributed neural system, then voxel-based analyses might miss critical lesion sites because preservation of each site will not be consistently associated with preserved function. The first part of our investigation used voxel-based multiple regression analyses of data from 359 right-handed stroke survivors to identify brain regions where lesion load is associated with picture naming abilities after factoring out variance related to object recognition, semantics and speech articulation so as to focus on deficits arising at the word retrieval level. A highly significant lesion-deficit relationship was identified in left temporal and frontal/premotor regions. Post-hoc analyses showed that damage to either of these sites caused the deficit of interest in less than half the affected patients (76/162 = 47%). After excluding all patients with damage to one or both of the identified regions, our second analysis revealed a new region, in the anterior part of the left putamen, which had not been previously detected because many patients had the deficit of interest after temporal or frontal damage that preserved the left putamen. The results illustrate how (i) false negative results arise when the same deficit can be caused by different lesion sites; (ii) some of the missed effects can be unveiled by adopting an iterative approach that systematically excludes patients with lesions to the areas identified in previous analyses, (iii) statistically significant voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings can be driven by a subset of patients; (iv) focal lesions to the identified regions are needed to determine whether the deficit of interest is the consequence of focal damage or much more extensive damage that includes the identified region; and, finally, (v) univariate voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings cannot, in isolation, be used to predict outcome in other patients

  16. Hadronic and nuclear interactions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Despite the evidence that QCD - or something close to it - gives a correct description of the structure of hadrons and their interactions, it seems paradoxical that the theory has thus far had very little impact in nuclear physics. One reason for this is that the application of QCD to distances larger than 1 fm involves coherent, non-perturbative dynamics which is beyond present calculational techniques. For example, in QCD the nuclear force can evidently be ascribed to quark interchange and gluon exchange processes. These, however, are as complicated to analyze from a fundamental point of view as is the analogous covalent bond in molecular physics. Since a detailed description of quark-quark interactions and the structure of hadronic wavefunctions is not yet well-understood in QCD, it is evident that a quantitative first-principle description of the nuclear force will require a great deal of theoretical effort. Another reason for the limited impact of QCD in nuclear physics has been the conventional assumption that nuclear interactions can for the most part be analyzed in terms of an effective meson-nucleon field theory or potential model in isolation from the details of short distance quark and gluon structure of hadrons. These lectures, argue that this view is untenable: in fact, there is no correspondence principle which yields traditional nuclear physics as a rigorous large-distance or non-relativistic limit of QCD dynamics. On the other hand, the distinctions between standard nuclear physics dynamics and QCD at nuclear dimensions are extremely interesting and illuminating for both particle and nuclear physics

  17. Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors

  18. Lattice QCD on fine lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [DESY (Germany). Neumann Inst. for Computing

    2016-11-01

    These configurations are currently in use in many on-going projects carried out by researchers throughout Europe. In particular this data will serve as an essential input into the computation of the coupling constant of QCD, where some of the simulations are still on-going. But also projects computing the masses of hadrons and investigating their structure are underway as well as activities in the physics of heavy quarks. As this initial project of gauge field generation has been successful, it is worthwhile to extend the currently available ensembles with further points in parameter space. These will allow to further study and control systematic effects like the ones introduced by the finite volume, the non-physical quark masses and the finite lattice spacing. In particular certain compromises have still been made in the region where pion masses and lattice spacing are both small. This is because physical pion masses require larger lattices to keep the effects of the finite volume under control. At light pion masses, a precise control of the continuum extrapolation is therefore difficult, but certainly a main goal of future simulations. To reach this goal, algorithmic developments as well as faster hardware will be needed.

  19. Aspects of the QCD cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Magnus.

    1993-02-01

    A model is proposed for the production of transverse jets from diffractively excited protons. We propose that transverse jets can be obtained from gluonic bremsstrahlung in a way similar to the emission in DIS. Qualitative agreement is obtained between the model and the uncorrected data published by the UA8 collaboration. Perturbative QCD in the MLLA approximation is applied to multiple jet production in e + e - -annihilation. We propose modified evolution equations for deriving the jet cross sections, defined in the 'k t ' or 'Durham' algorithm. The mean number of jets as a function of the jet resolution is studied, and analytical predictions are compared to the results of MC simulations. We also study a set of differential-difference equations for multiplicity distributions in e + e - -annihilations, supplemented with appropriate boundary conditions. These equations take into account nonsingular terms in the GLAP splitting functions as well as kinematical constraints related to recoil effects. The presence of retarded terms imply that the cascade develops more slowly and reduces the fluctuations. The solutions agree well with MC simulations and experimental data. (authors)

  20. QCD@LHC International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The particle physics groups of UZH and ETH will host the QCD@LHC2016 conference (22.8.-26.8., UZH downtown campus), which is part of an annual conference series bringing together theorists and experimentalists working on hard scattering processes at the CERN LHC, ranging from precision studies of Standard Model processes to searches for new particles and phenomena. The format of the conference is a combination of plenary review talks and parallel sessions, with the latter providing a particularly good opportunity for junior researchers to present their results. The conference will take place shortly after the release of the new data taken by the LHC in sping 2016 at a collision energy of 13TeV, expected to more than double the currently available data set. It will be one of the first opportunities to discuss these data in a broader context, and we expect the conference to become a very lively forum at the interface of phenomenology and experiment.

  1. SOCR Analyses - an Instructional Java Web-based Statistical Analysis Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Annie; Cui, Jenny; Dinov, Ivo D

    2009-03-01

    The Statistical Online Computational Resource (SOCR) designs web-based tools for educational use in a variety of undergraduate courses (Dinov 2006). Several studies have demonstrated that these resources significantly improve students' motivation and learning experiences (Dinov et al. 2008). SOCR Analyses is a new component that concentrates on data modeling and analysis using parametric and non-parametric techniques supported with graphical model diagnostics. Currently implemented analyses include commonly used models in undergraduate statistics courses like linear models (Simple Linear Regression, Multiple Linear Regression, One-Way and Two-Way ANOVA). In addition, we implemented tests for sample comparisons, such as t-test in the parametric category; and Wilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman's test, in the non-parametric category. SOCR Analyses also include several hypothesis test models, such as Contingency tables, Friedman's test and Fisher's exact test.The code itself is open source (http://socr.googlecode.com/), hoping to contribute to the efforts of the statistical computing community. The code includes functionality for each specific analysis model and it has general utilities that can be applied in various statistical computing tasks. For example, concrete methods with API (Application Programming Interface) have been implemented in statistical summary, least square solutions of general linear models, rank calculations, etc. HTML interfaces, tutorials, source code, activities, and data are freely available via the web (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). Code examples for developers and demos for educators are provided on the SOCR Wiki website.In this article, the pedagogical utilization of the SOCR Analyses is discussed, as well as the underlying design framework. As the SOCR project is on-going and more functions and tools are being added to it, these resources are constantly improved. The reader is strongly encouraged to check the SOCR site for most

  2. Individual-based analyses reveal limited functional overlap in a coral reef fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Simon J; Bellwood, David R

    2014-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of a species' functional niche is crucial for the study of ecological communities and processes. The extent of niche overlap, functional redundancy and functional complementarity is of particular importance if we are to understand ecosystem processes and their vulnerability to disturbances. Coral reefs are among the most threatened marine systems, and anthropogenic activity is changing the functional composition of reefs. The loss of herbivorous fishes is particularly concerning as the removal of algae is crucial for the growth and survival of corals. Yet, the foraging patterns of the various herbivorous fish species are poorly understood. Using a multidimensional framework, we present novel individual-based analyses of species' realized functional niches, which we apply to a herbivorous coral reef fish community. In calculating niche volumes for 21 species, based on their microhabitat utilization patterns during foraging, and computing functional overlaps, we provide a measurement of functional redundancy or complementarity. Complementarity is the inverse of redundancy and is defined as less than 50% overlap in niche volumes. The analyses reveal extensive complementarity with an average functional overlap of just 15.2%. Furthermore, the analyses divide herbivorous reef fishes into two broad groups. The first group (predominantly surgeonfishes and parrotfishes) comprises species feeding on exposed surfaces and predominantly open reef matrix or sandy substrata, resulting in small niche volumes and extensive complementarity. In contrast, the second group consists of species (predominantly rabbitfishes) that feed over a wider range of microhabitats, penetrating the reef matrix to exploit concealed surfaces of various substratum types. These species show high variation among individuals, leading to large niche volumes, more overlap and less complementarity. These results may have crucial consequences for our understanding of herbivorous processes on

  3. Genome-based comparative analyses of Antarctic and temperate species of Paenibacillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dsouza

    Full Text Available Antarctic soils represent a unique environment characterised by extremes of temperature, salinity, elevated UV radiation, low nutrient and low water content. Despite the harshness of this environment, members of 15 bacterial phyla have been identified in soils of the Ross Sea Region (RSR. However, the survival mechanisms and ecological roles of these phyla are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether strains of Paenibacillus darwinianus owe their resilience to substantial genomic changes. For this, genome-based comparative analyses were performed on three P. darwinianus strains, isolated from gamma-irradiated RSR soils, together with nine temperate, soil-dwelling Paenibacillus spp. The genome of each strain was sequenced to over 1,000-fold coverage, then assembled into contigs totalling approximately 3 Mbp per genome. Based on the occurrence of essential, single-copy genes, genome completeness was estimated at approximately 88%. Genome analysis revealed between 3,043-3,091 protein-coding sequences (CDSs, primarily associated with two-component systems, sigma factors, transporters, sporulation and genes induced by cold-shock, oxidative and osmotic stresses. These comparative analyses provide an insight into the metabolic potential of P. darwinianus, revealing potential adaptive mechanisms for survival in Antarctic soils. However, a large proportion of these mechanisms were also identified in temperate Paenibacillus spp., suggesting that these mechanisms are beneficial for growth and survival in a range of soil environments. These analyses have also revealed that the P. darwinianus genomes contain significantly fewer CDSs and have a lower paralogous content. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the assemblies, the large differences in genome sizes, determined by the number of genes in paralogous clusters and the CDS content, are indicative of genome content scaling. Finally, these sequences are a resource for further

  4. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED SHOTGUN LIPIDOMICS AND NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR LIPIDOMIC ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianlin; Yang, Kui; Gross, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Since our last comprehensive review on multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (Mass Spectrom. Rev. 24 (2005), 367), many new developments in the field of lipidomics have occurred. These developments include new strategies and refinements for shotgun lipidomic approaches that use direct infusion, including novel fragmentation strategies, identification of multiple new informative dimensions for mass spectrometric interrogation, and the development of new bioinformatic approaches for enhanced identification and quantitation of the individual molecular constituents that comprise each cell’s lipidome. Concurrently, advances in liquid chromatography-based platforms and novel strategies for quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for lipidomic analyses have been developed. Through the synergistic use of this repertoire of new mass spectrometric approaches, the power and scope of lipidomics has been greatly expanded to accelerate progress toward the comprehensive understanding of the pleiotropic roles of lipids in biological systems. PMID:21755525

  5. An Integrated Software Suite for Surface-based Analyses of Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, David C.; Drury, Heather A.; Dickson, James; Harwell, John; Hanlon, Donna; Anderson, Charles H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database. PMID:11522765

  6. An integrated software suite for surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Dickson, J.; Harwell, J.; Hanlon, D.; Anderson, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database.

  7. The Seismic Reliability of Offshore Structures Based on Nonlinear Time History Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Karimiyani, Somayyeh; Ghafooripour, Amin; Jabbarzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2008-01-01

    Regarding the past earthquakes damages to offshore structures, as vital structures in the oil and gas industries, it is important that their seismic design is performed by very high reliability. Accepting the Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA) as the most reliable seismic analysis method, in this paper an offshore platform of jacket type with the height of 304 feet, having a deck of 96 feet by 94 feet, and weighing 290 million pounds has been studied. At first, some Push-Over Analyses (POA) have been preformed to recognize the more critical members of the jacket, based on the range of their plastic deformations. Then NLTHA have been performed by using the 3-components accelerograms of 100 earthquakes, covering a wide range of frequency content, and normalized to three Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.3 g, 0.65 g, and 1.0 g. By using the results of NLTHA the damage and rupture probabilities of critical member have been studied to assess the reliability of the jacket structure. Regarding that different structural members of the jacket have different effects on the stability of the platform, an ''importance factor'' has been considered for each critical member based on its location and orientation in the structure, and then the reliability of the whole structure has been obtained by combining the reliability of the critical members, each having its specific importance factor

  8. Analyses of criticality and reactivity for TRACY experiments based on JENDL-3.3 data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sono, Hiroki; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The parameters on criticality and reactivity employed for computational simulations of the TRACY supercritical experiments were analyzed using a recently revised nuclear data library, JENDL-3.3. The parameters based on the JENDL-3.3 library were compared to those based on two former-used libraries, JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. In the analyses computational codes, MVP, MCNP version 4C and TWOTRAN, were used. The following conclusions were obtained from the analyses: (1) The computational biases of the effective neutron multiplication factor attributable to the nuclear data libraries and to the computational codes do not depend the TRACY experimental conditions such as fuel conditions. (2) The fractional discrepancies in the kinetic parameters and coefficients of reactivity are within ∼5% between the three libraries. By comparison between calculations and measurements of the parameters, the JENDL-3.3 library is expected to give closer values to the measurements than the JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI libraries. (3) While the reactivity worth of transient rods expressed in the $ unit shows ∼5% discrepancy between the three libraries according to their respective β eff values, there is little discrepancy in that expressed in the Δk/k unit. (author)

  9. Novel citation-based search method for scientific literature: application to meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A Cecile J W; Gwinn, M

    2015-10-13

    Finding eligible studies for meta-analysis and systematic reviews relies on keyword-based searching as the gold standard, despite its inefficiency. Searching based on direct citations is not sufficiently comprehensive. We propose a novel strategy that ranks articles on their degree of co-citation with one or more "known" articles before reviewing their eligibility. In two independent studies, we aimed to reproduce the results of literature searches for sets of published meta-analyses (n = 10 and n = 42). For each meta-analysis, we extracted co-citations for the randomly selected 'known' articles from the Web of Science database, counted their frequencies and screened all articles with a score above a selection threshold. In the second study, we extended the method by retrieving direct citations for all selected articles. In the first study, we retrieved 82% of the studies included in the meta-analyses while screening only 11% as many articles as were screened for the original publications. Articles that we missed were published in non-English languages, published before 1975, published very recently, or available only as conference abstracts. In the second study, we retrieved 79% of included studies while screening half the original number of articles. Citation searching appears to be an efficient and reasonably accurate method for finding articles similar to one or more articles of interest for meta-analysis and reviews.

  10. Benefits of Exercise Training For Computer-Based Staff: A Meta Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothna Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Office workers sit down to work for approximately 8 hours a day and, as a result, many of them do not have enough time for any form of physical exercise. This can lead to musculoskeletal discomforts, especially low back pain and recently, many researchers focused on home/office-based exercise training for prevention/treatment of low back pain among this population. Objective: This Meta analyses paper tried to discuss about the latest suggested exercises for the office workers based on the mechanisms and theories behind low back pain among office workers. Method: In this Meta analyses the author tried to collect relevant papers which were published previously on the subject. Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed were used as sources to find the articles. Only articles that were published using the same methodology, including office workers, musculoskeletal discomforts, low back pain, and exercise training keywords, were selected. Studies that failed to report sufficient sample statistics, or lacked a substantial review of past academic scholarship and/or clear methodologies, were excluded. Results: Limited evidence regarding the prevention of, and treatment methods for, musculoskeletal discomfort, especially those in the low back, among office workers, is available. The findings showed that training exercises had a significant effect (p<0.05 on low back pain discomfort scores and decreased pain levels in response to office-based exercise training. Conclusion: Office-based exercise training can affect pain/discomfort scores among office workers through positive effects on flexibility and strength of muscles. As such, it should be suggested to occupational therapists as a practical way for the treatment/prevention of low back pain among office workers.

  11. Infrared problems in QCD and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1981-08-01

    This thesis is based in six works. The first is presented in the Introduction in order to justify the philosophical part of the above title and to develop a concept of Reality. In Chapter 1 the presence of Infrared Divergence in QCD is discovered. It is studied in the reaction q + q → #betta#* + q + q + soft gluons, where q is the quark, #betta#* is a virtual photon. The quarks are taken each to be colour (and spin) averaged. This gives a cancellation of the leading IR divergences. The uncancelled IR divergences change the Born cross section and dimensional IR regularisation with d = 4 + eta is used. The original work had errors which produced a cancellation in such a way that did not alter the final answer. At high energies this result is proportional to (1-#betta#) ln (1-#betta#). This means that at #betta# → 1 this IR divergence effect is expected to disappear. In Chapter two, the same reaction is studied but with a gluon instead of a quark. Collinear divergence also appears. Chapter 3 is about the solution of one-loop integrals using hypergeometric functions. The solutions obtained are exact. Chapter 4 criticizes the way to predict the nature of the divergence through the Power Counting Method (NPC). (author)

  12. QCD sum rules in a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A novel technique is developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. The main advantage of this approach lies in its ability of directly generating the spectral function of a given operator. This is done without the need of making an assumption about the specific functional form of the spectral function, such as in the 'pole + continuum' ansatz that is frequently used in QCD sum rule studies. Therefore, with this method it should in principle be possible to distinguish narrow pole structures form continuum states. To check whether meaningful results can be extracted within this approach, we have first investigated the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results exhibit a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which agrees with earlier QCD sum rules studies and shows that the Maximum Entropy Method is a useful tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

  13. Nonperturbation aspects of QCD. Monte Carlo and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezin, E.; Morel, A.; Marinari, E.; Couchot, F.; Narison, S.; Richard, J.M.; Blaizot, J.P.; Souillard, B.

    1986-01-01

    Phase transitions; lattice QCD; numerical simulation of lattice gauge theories; experimental research on gluonic mesons; QCD-duality sum rules; the bag model, potentials, and hadron spectra; and efficient Lagrangian functions and the Skyrme model are introduced [fr

  14. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2011-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino cross section is a crucial ingredient in the calculation of the event rate in high energy neutrino telescopes. Currently there are several approaches which predict different behaviors for its magnitude for ultrahigh energies. In this contribution is presented a summary of current predictions based on the non-linear QCD evolution equations, the so-called perturbative saturation physics. In particular, predictions are shown based on the parton saturation approaches and the consequences of geometric scaling property at high energies are discussed. The scaling property allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization. (author)

  15. Reviewing PSA-based analyses to modify technical specifications at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Vesely, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    Changes to Technical Specifications (TSs) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) require review and approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Currently, many requests for changes to TSs use analyses that are based on a plant's probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). This report presents an approach to reviewing such PSA-based submittals for changes to TSs. We discuss the basic objectives of reviewing a PSA-based submittal to modify NPP TSs; the methodology of reviewing a TS submittal, and the differing roles of a PSA review, a PSA Computer Code review, and a review of a TS submittal. To illustrate this approach, we discuss our review of changes to allowed outage time (AOT) and surveillance test interval (STI) in the TS for the South Texas Project Nuclear Generating Station. Based on this experience gained, a check-list of items is given for future reviewers; it can be used to verify that the submittal contains sufficient information, and also that the review has addressed the relevant issues. Finally, recommended steps in the review process and the expected findings of each step are discussed

  16. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  17. QCD Structure of Nuclear Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-05-25

    This dissertation investigated selected processes involving baryons and nuclei in hard scattering reactions. Through these processes, this work explored the constituent structure of baryons and the mechanisms through which the interactions between these constituents ultimately control the selected reactions. First, hard nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering was studied considering the quark exchange (QE) between the nucleons to be the dominant mechanism of interaction in the constituent picture. It was found that an angular asymmetry exhibited by proton-neutron (pn) elastic scattering data is explained within this framework if a quark-diquark picture dominates the nucleon's structure instead of a more traditional SU(6) model. The latter yields an asymmetry around 90 deg center of mass scattering with a sign opposite to what is experimentally observed. The second process is the hard breakup by a photon of a nucleon-nucleon system in light nuclei. Proton-proton (pp) and pn breakup in 3He, and double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup were analyzed in the hard rescattering model (HRM), which in conjunction with the QE mechanism provides a QCD description of the reaction. Cross sections for both channels in 3He photodisintegration were computed without the need of a fitting parameter. The results presented here for pp breakup show excellent agreement with recent experimental data. In double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup, HRM angular distributions for the two double Δ channels were compared to the pn channel and to each other. An important prediction from this study is that the Δ++ Δ- channel consistently dominates Δ+Δ0, which is in contrast with models that unlike the HRM consider a double Δ system in the initial state of the interaction. For such models both channels should have the same strength.

  18. The search for QCD exotica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierba, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the open questions in non-perturbative QCD has to do with the existence of meson states predicted by the theory other than qq states. These include four-quark states (q 2 q 2 or molecules like KK), states of pure glue (glueballs: gg or ggg) and mixed or hybrid states (qqg). The prima facie candidate for a non-qq state would be one possessing exotic quantum numbers, J PC , not consistent with a qq combination. Examples include J PC =0 +- , 0-- , -+ ,hor-ellipsis Remarkably, states with exotic quantum numbers have not been found despite intensive searches. The case for a possible sighting of an exotic J Jc = 1 -+ state decaying into ηπ O , made a few years ago, seems to be dissolving. Yet, the evidence for non-qq states is clearly present. Conventional qq nonets are over-subscribed, states have been found with decay modes or production characteristics peculiar for qq. The experimental lesson we have learned is that information from a number of complementary processes must be brought together in order to understand the meson spectrum. Information has come from e + e - ,γγ, γγ, and pp collisions, from vector meson decays and from peripheral and central hadroproduction. This talk will review the status of the experimental search. I will especially point out how new technology is being brought to bear on the re-visit of the light quark sector. New instrumentation allows for sophisticated and selective triggers. The recent explosion in computing power allows us to analyze data with unprecedented statistics. Preliminary results from a recently completed, ultra-high statistics experiment using the Multiparticle Spectrometer at Brookhaven Lab will be presented. I will also describe the extension of the search to CEBAF, where an approved experiment there will study the sub-structure of scalar mesons via the radiative decays of the ER meson

  19. Perturbative QCD and electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.E.; Gross, F.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate nucleon magnetic form factors using perturbative QCD for several distribution amplitudes including a general one given in terms of Appell polynomials. We find that the magnitude and sign of both nucleon magnetic form factors can be explained within perturbative QCD. The observed normalization of G/sub Mp/ requires that the distribution amplitude be broader than its superhigh momentum transfer limit, and the G/sub Mn//G/sub Mp/ data may require the distribution amplitude to be asymmetric, in accord with distribution amplitudes derived from QCD sum rules. Some speculation as to how an asymmetric distribution amplitude can come about is offered. Finally, we show that the soft contributions corresponding to the particular distribution amplitudes we use need not be bigger than the data. 16 refs., 6 figs

  20. Testing QCD with Hypothetical Tau Leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-10-21

    We construct new tests of perturbative QCD by considering a hypothetical {tau} lepton of arbitrary mass, which decays hadronically through the electromagnetic current. We can explicitly compute its hadronic width ratio directly as an integral over the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross section ratio, R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}. Furthermore, we can design a set of commensurate scale relations and perturbative QCD tests by varying the weight function away from the form associated with the V-A decay of the physical {tau}. This method allows the wide range of the R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} data to be used as a probe of perturbative QCD.

  1. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  2. Small-x physics in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, L.N.

    1996-07-01

    We review the parton model and the Regge approach to the QCD description of the deep-inelastic ep scattering at the small Bjorken variable x and demonstrate their relation with the DGLAP and BFKL evolution equations. It is shown, that in the leading logarithmic approximation the gluon is reggeized and the pomeron is a compound state of two reggeized gluons. The conformal invariance of the BFKL pomeron in the impact parameter space is used to investigate the scattering amplitudes at high energies and fixed momentum transfers. The remarkable properties of the Schroedinger equation for compound states of an arbitrary number of reggeized gluons in the multi-colour QCD are reviewed. The gauge-invariant effective action describing the gluon-Reggeon interactions is constructed. The known next-to-leading corrections to the QCD pomeron are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Topics in perturbative QCD beyond the leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.J.

    1979-08-01

    The basic structure of QCD formulae for various inclusive and semi-inclusive processes is presented. Next to leading order QCD corrections to inclusive deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in some detail. The methods for calculations of QCD corrections (leading, next to leading) to semi-inclusive processes are outlined. Some results of these calculations are discussed. 58 references

  4. Comparative Analyses of Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behavior Using Conflict-Based Novelty Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysil, Elana V; Meshalkina, Darya A; Frick, Erin E; Echevarria, David J; Rosemberg, Denis B; Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of stress and anxiety in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized in neuroscience research and central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery. Representing the most commonly used zebrafish anxiety models, the novel tank test (NTT) focuses on zebrafish diving in response to potentially threatening stimuli, whereas the light-dark test (LDT) is based on fish scototaxis (innate preference for dark vs. bright areas). Here, we systematically evaluate the utility of these two tests, combining meta-analyses of published literature with comparative in vivo behavioral and whole-body endocrine (cortisol) testing. Overall, the NTT and LDT behaviors demonstrate a generally good cross-test correlation in vivo, whereas meta-analyses of published literature show that both tests have similar sensitivity to zebrafish anxiety-like states. Finally, NTT evokes higher levels of cortisol, likely representing a more stressful procedure than LDT. Collectively, our study reappraises NTT and LDT for studying anxiety-like states in zebrafish, and emphasizes their developing utility for neurobehavioral research. These findings can help optimize drug screening procedures by choosing more appropriate models for testing anxiolytic or anxiogenic drugs.

  5. QCD jet simulation with CMS at LHC and background studies to H to gamma gamma process

    CERN Document Server

    Litvin, V; Shevchenko, S; Wisniewski, N

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated and reconstructed one million of QCD jet events. This study was done with CMS full detector simulation, based on GEANT3 package, and object-oriented CMS C++ reconstruction program. The understanding of QCD jet background is important for the Higgs search in two-photon decay mode. The comparison with other types of backgrounds was also done. It was shown that the isolation tools were important ones to isolate the signal process from the huge background one. Using the isolation criteria based on the information from PbWO /sub 4/ electromagnetic calorimeter and the tracker we were able to reduce the QCD jet background to 15% of the total one. (9 refs).

  6. New Methods in Non-Perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-01-31

    In this work, we investigate the properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), by using newly developing mathematics and physics formalisms. Almost all of the mass in the visible universe emerges from a quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which has a completely negligible microscopic mass content. An intimately related issue in QCD is the quark confinement problem. Answers to non-perturbative questions in QCD remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. It is also believed that the usual perturbation theory is inadequate to address these kinds of problems. Perturbation theory gives a divergent asymptotic series (even when the theory is properly renormalized), and there are non-perturbative phenomena which never appear at any order in perturbation theory. Recently, a fascinating bridge between perturbation theory and non-perturbative effects has been found: a formalism called resurgence theory in mathematics tells us that perturbative data and non-perturbative data are intimately related. Translating this to the language of quantum field theory, it turns out that non-perturbative information is present in a coded form in perturbation theory and it can be decoded. We take advantage of this feature, which is particularly useful to understand some unresolved mysteries of QCD from first principles. In particular, we use: a) Circle compactifications which provide a semi-classical window to study confinement and mass gap problems, and calculable prototypes of the deconfinement phase transition; b) Resurgence theory and transseries which provide a unified framework for perturbative and non-perturbative expansion; c) Analytic continuation of path integrals and Lefschetz thimbles which may be useful to address sign problem in QCD at finite density.

  7. QCD and Light-Front Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins /Costa Rica U.

    2011-01-10

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its {beta}-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  8. QCD and Light-Front Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2011-01-01

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate ζ which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its β-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  9. Chemometrical characterization of four italian rice varieties based on genetic and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Vincenzo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Tedeschi, Paola; Barile, Daniela; Cereti, Elisabetta; Maietti, Annalisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Martelli, Aldo; Arlorio, Marco

    2006-12-27

    This paper describes a method for achieving qualitative identification of four rice varieties from two different Italian regions. To estimate the presence of genetic diversity among the four rice varieties, we used polymerase chain reaction-randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) markers, and to elucidate whether a relationship exists between the ground and the specific characteristics of the product, we studied proximate composition, fatty acid composition, mineral content, and total antioxidant capacity. Using principal component analysis on genomic and compositional data, we were able to classify rice samples according to their variety and their district of production. This work also examined the discrimination ability of different parameters. It was found that genomic data give the best discrimination based on varieties, indicating that RAPD assays could be useful in discriminating among closely related species, while compositional analyses do not depend on the genetic characters only but are related to the production area.

  10. Stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs based on a load-modifying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiushan; Liu Yinghua; Wang Jianbin; Cen Zhangzhi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a load-modifying method for the stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs used in cylindrical oil storage tanks. The formulations of loads and deformations are derived according to the equilibrium analysis of floating roofs. Based on these formulations, the load-modifying method is developed to conduct a geometrically nonlinear analysis of floating roofs with the finite element (FE) simulation. In the procedure with the load-modifying method, the analysis is carried out through a series of iterative computations until a convergence is achieved within the error tolerance. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed method, which provides an effective and practical numerical solution to the design and analysis of floating roofs

  11. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Gook; Joe, Yang Hee

    2005-01-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities

  12. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Gook [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sgcho@incheon.ac.kr; Joe, Yang Hee [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities.

  13. Secondary Data Analyses of Subjective Outcome Evaluation Data Based on Nine Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong by analyzing 1,327 school-based program reports submitted by program implementers. In each report, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants and program implementers. Secondary data analyses were carried out by aggregating nine databases, with 14,390 meaningful units extracted from 6,618 conclusions. Results showed that most of the conclusions were positive in nature. The findings generally showed that the workers perceived the program and program implementers to be positive, and they also pointed out that the program could promote holistic development of the program participants in societal, familial, interpersonal, and personal aspects. However, difficulties encountered during program implementation (2.15% and recommendations for improvement were also reported (16.26%. In conjunction with the evaluation findings based on other strategies, the present study suggests that the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. is beneficial to the holistic development of the program participants.

  14. What is needed to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections: The contribution of model-based analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Katie; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review Computer simulation models can identify key clinical, operational, and economic interventions that will be needed to achieve the elimination of new pediatric HIV infections. In this review, we summarize recent findings from model-based analyses of strategies for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT). Recent Findings In order to achieve elimination of MTCT (eMTCT), model-based studies suggest that scale-up of services will be needed in several domains: uptake of services and retention in care (the PMTCT “cascade”), interventions to prevent HIV infections in women and reduce unintended pregnancies (the “four-pronged approach”), efforts to support medication adherence through long periods of pregnancy and breastfeeding, and strategies to make breastfeeding safer and/or shorter. Models also project the economic resources that will be needed to achieve these goals in the most efficient ways to allocate limited resources for eMTCT. Results suggest that currently recommended PMTCT regimens (WHO Option A, Option B, and Option B+) will be cost-effective in most settings. Summary Model-based results can guide future implementation science, by highlighting areas in which additional data are needed to make informed decisions and by outlining critical interventions that will be necessary in order to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections. PMID:23743788

  15. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Levin, Eugene [Departemento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,and Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Avda. Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2016-08-04

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  16. QCD measurements with the CMS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In the first year of LHC data taking, CMS pursued a rich program of QCD physics. In the low-pt front, results on momentum-, pseudorapidity- and multiplicity distributions of charged and strange hadrons, underlying event observables, two particle rapidity correlations and Bose-Einstein correlations are presented. In the high-pt front, jet and photon cross-section measurements are reported on inclusive and di-object production, as well as ratios of 3/2 jet cross sections. Finally, the QCD multi-jet dynamics is explored with event-shapes variables, dijet azimuthal decorrelations and dijet angular distributions

  17. Critical opalescence in baryonic QCD matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, N G; Diakonos, F K; Kapoyannis, A S; Kousouris, K S

    2006-07-21

    We show that critical opalescence, a clear signature of second-order phase transition in conventional matter, manifests itself as critical intermittency in QCD matter produced in experiments with nuclei. This behavior is revealed in transverse momentum spectra as a pattern of power laws in factorial moments, to all orders, associated with baryon production. This phenomenon together with a similar effect in the isoscalar sector of pions (sigma mode) provide us with a set of observables associated with the search for the QCD critical point in experiments with nuclei at high energies.

  18. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene; Lublinsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  19. The instanton liquid model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotz, A.

    1998-01-01

    Within a microscopic model for the non-perturbative vacuum of QCD, hadronic correlation functions are calculated. In the model the vacuum is a statistical, interacting ensemble of instantons and anti-instantons at the scale of Λ QCD . Hadronic two-point as well as three-point correlation functions are evaluated and compared with phenomenological information about the spectra, couplings and form factors. Especially the electro magnetic form factor of the pion is obtained and new predictions for the charm contribution to DIS structure functions are made

  20. Exclusive hadronic and nuclear processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-12-01

    Hadronic and nuclear processes are covered, in which all final particles are measured at large invariant masses compared with each other, i.e., large momentum transfer exclusive reactions. Hadronic wave functions in QCD and QCD sum rule constraints on hadron wave functions are discussed. The question of the range of applicability of the factorization formula and perturbation theory for exclusive processes is considered. Some consequences of quark and gluon degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed which are outside the usual domain of traditional nuclear physics. 44 refs., 7 figs

  1. Towards finite density QCD with Taylor expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, F.; Schaefer, B.-J.; Wagner, M.; Wambach, J.

    2011-01-01

    Convergence properties of Taylor expansions of observables, which are also used in lattice QCD calculations at non-zero chemical potential, are analyzed in an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model. A recently developed algorithmic technique allows the calculation of higher-order Taylor expansion coefficients in functional approaches. This novel technique is for the first time applied to an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model and the findings are compared with the full model solution at finite densities. The results are used to discuss prospects for locating the QCD phase boundary and a possible critical endpoint in the phase diagram.

  2. A color magnetic vortex condensate in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Olesen, P.

    1980-03-01

    It is shown that there exists a very close analogy between a lattice of vorticies in a superconductor near the critical field and a condensate of color magnetic flux tubes due to the unstable mode in QCD. This analogy makes it possible to identify a dynamical Higgs field in QCD. It is shown that the color magnetic flux tubes are quantized in terms of the center group Z(2) in the SU(2) case. In the case of SU(N) it is possible to select a color direction of the field such that one has Z(N) quantization. (Auth.)

  3. Playing with QCD I: effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.

    2009-01-01

    The building blocks of hadrons are quarks and gluons, although color is confined into singlet states. QCD is believed to be the fundamental theory of strong interactions. Its asymptotically free nature puts the vacuum out of reach for perturbation theory. The Lagrangian of QCD and the Feynman rules associated were built by using the Gauge Principle, starting from the quark matter fields and obtaining gluons as connections. A simpler, and sometimes necessary or complementary, approach is provided by effective field theories or effective models, especially when one has to deal with the nonperturbative sector of the theory. (author)

  4. QCD bosonization and the meson effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praschifka, J.; Roberts, C.D.; Cahill, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A bosonization of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is employed to derive a meson effective action, thus providing a direct link between QCD and meson phenomenology. As an example of this approach expressions are obtained for the meson parameters associated with the analysis of ω→3π decay. The bosonization also directly motivates a divergence-free, global color-symmetry model for mesons, which is seen to be a generalization of various phenomenological models. Good estimates are obtained for the values of several of the meson parameters

  5. QCD physics with the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Jets which are the signatures of quarks and gluons in the detector can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. Jets are abundantly produced at the LHC's high energy scales. Measurements of inclusive jets, dijets and multijets can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions (PDF), as well as to measure the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{S}$. The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at various center-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV.

  6. QCD Physics with the CMS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerci, S.

    2017-12-01

    Jets which are the signatures of quarks and gluons in the detector can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. Jets are abundantly produced at the LHC's high energy scales. Measurements of inclusive jets, dijets and multijets can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions (PDF), as well as to measure the strong coupling constant αS . The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at various center-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV.

  7. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  8. Power corrections to exclusive processes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankiewicz, Lech

    2002-02-01

    In practice applicability of twist expansion crucially depends on the magnitude to power corrections to the leading-twist amplitude. I illustrate this point by considering explicit examples of two hard exclusive processes in QCD. In the case of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{pi} amplitude power corrections are small enough such that it should be possible to describe current experimental data by the leading-twist QCD prediction. The photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon receives large kinematical power corrections which screen the leading-twist prediction up to large values of the hard photon virtuality.

  9. Factorial correlators: angular scaling within QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Factorial correlators measure the amount of dynamical correlation in the multiplicity between two separated phase-space windows. We present the analytical derivation of factorial correlators for a QCD jet described at the double logarithmic (DL) accuracy. We obtain a new angular scaling property for properly normalized correlators between two solid-angle cells or two rings around the jet axis. Normalized QCD factorial correlators scale with the angular distance and are independent of the window size. Scaling violations are expected beyond the DL approximation, in particular from the subject structure. Experimental tests are feasible, and thus would be welcome. (orig.)

  10. Two flavor QCD and confinement - II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cossu, G.; D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of a program of investigation of the chiral transition in Nf=2 QCD, started in Phys.Rev.D72:114510,2005. Progress is reported on theunderstanding of some possible systematic errors. A direct test of first orderscaling is presented.......This paper is part of a program of investigation of the chiral transition in Nf=2 QCD, started in Phys.Rev.D72:114510,2005. Progress is reported on theunderstanding of some possible systematic errors. A direct test of first orderscaling is presented....

  11. The η' meson from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Urbach, C.

    2008-04-01

    We study the flavour singlet pseudoscalar mesons from first principles using lattice QCD. With N f =2 flavours of light quark, this is the so-called η 2 meson and we discuss the phenomenological status of this. Using maximally twisted-mass lattice QCD, we extract the mass of the η 2 meson at two values of the lattice spacing for lighter quarks than previously discussed in the literature. We are able to estimate the mass value in the limit of light quarks with their physical masses. (orig.)

  12. Critical Opalescence in Baryonic QCD Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, N. G.; Diakonos, F. K.; Kapoyannis, A. S.; Kousouris, K. S.

    2006-07-01

    We show that critical opalescence, a clear signature of second-order phase transition in conventional matter, manifests itself as critical intermittency in QCD matter produced in experiments with nuclei. This behavior is revealed in transverse momentum spectra as a pattern of power laws in factorial moments, to all orders, associated with baryon production. This phenomenon together with a similar effect in the isoscalar sector of pions (sigma mode) provide us with a set of observables associated with the search for the QCD critical point in experiments with nuclei at high energies.

  13. Critical Opalescence in Baryonic QCD Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniou, N. G.; Diakonos, F. K.; Kapoyannis, A. S.; Kousouris, K. S.

    2006-01-01

    We show that critical opalescence, a clear signature of second-order phase transition in conventional matter, manifests itself as critical intermittency in QCD matter produced in experiments with nuclei. This behavior is revealed in transverse momentum spectra as a pattern of power laws in factorial moments, to all orders, associated with baryon production. This phenomenon together with a similar effect in the isoscalar sector of pions (sigma mode) provide us with a set of observables associated with the search for the QCD critical point in experiments with nuclei at high energies

  14. Quasiparticles in QCD thermodynamics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.; Renk, T.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel quasiparticle interpretation of the equation of state of deconfined QCD at finite temperature. Using appropriate thermal masses, we introduce a phenomenological parametrization of the onset of confinement in the vicinity of the phase transition. Lattice results of the energy density, the pressure and the interaction measure of pure SU(3) gauge theory are well reproduced. A relation between the thermal energy density of the Yang-Mills vacuum and the chromomagnetic condensate left angle B 2 right angle T is found. We also present the two flavour QCD equation of state for realistic quark masses and apply the model to dilepton production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  15. Measuring infrared contributions to the QCD pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kajantie, Keijo; Rummukainen, K; Schröder, Y

    2002-01-01

    For the pressure (or free energy) of QCD, four-dimensional (4d) lattice data is available at zero baryon density up to a few times the critical temperature $T_c$. Perturbation theory, on the other hand, has serious convergence problems even at very high temperatures. In a combined analytical and three-dimensional (3d) lattice method, we show that it is possible to compute the QCD pressure from about $2 T_c$ to infinity. The numerical accuracy is good enough to resolve in principle, e.g., logarithmic contributions related to 4-loop perturbation theory.

  16. Identifying QCD Transition Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Pang, Long-gang; Su, Nan; Petersen, Hannah; Stoecker, Horst; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2018-02-01

    In this proceeding we review our recent work using supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to identify the QCD equation of state (EoS) employed in hydrodynamic modeling of heavy-ion collisions given only final-state particle spectra ρ(pT, V). We showed that there is a traceable encoder of the dynamical information from phase structure (EoS) that survives the evolution and exists in the final snapshot, which enables the trained CNN to act as an effective "EoS-meter" in detecting the nature of the QCD transition.

  17. Automation of one-loop QCD corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, Valentin; Frixione, Stefano; Garzelli, Maria Vittoria; Maltoni, Fabio; Pittau, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present the complete automation of the computation of one-loop QCD corrections, including UV renormalization, to an arbitrary scattering process in the Standard Model. This is achieved by embedding the OPP integrand reduction technique, as implemented in CutTools, into the MadGraph framework. By interfacing the tool so constructed, which we dub MadLoop, with MadFKS, the fully automatic computation of any infrared-safe observable at the next-to-leading order in QCD is attained. We demonstrate the flexibility and the reach of our method by calculating the production rates for a variety of processes at the 7 TeV LHC.

  18. Precision tests of SM and pQCD with jets and photons at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Lee; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I will present several aspects of jet and isolated photon production in pp collisions that have been measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The measurements of the production cross sections of inclusive jets, di-jet, tri-jet are presented double-differentially as function of jet pT and rapidity for the inclusive measurement and masses and the jet rapidity separation for the di- and tri-jet cases. They probe the dynamics of QCD and can constrain the parton structure of the proton. The cross sections are measured are compared to expectations based on next-to-leading order QCD calculations, as well as to next-to-leading order Monte Carlo simulations. A QCD analysis of these complementary data set is presented. Jet cross sections measurements of di-jet systems with a veto on additional jets, probe QCD radiation effects. The measurements of inclusive prompt photons and di-photons probe the dynamics of QCD and can constrain the parton proton structure. The inclusive prompt photon cross sections...

  19. Validation of a fully autonomous phosphate analyser based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slater, Conor; Cleary, J.; Lau, K.T.

    2010-01-01

    of long-term operation. This was proven by a bench top calibration of the analyser using standard solutions and also by comparing the analyser's performance to a commercially available phosphate monitor installed at a waste water treatment plant. The output of the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip analyser...

  20. Lattice QCD simulations using the OpenACC platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Pushan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we will explore the OpenACC platform for programming Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The OpenACC platform offers a directive based programming model for GPUs which avoids the detailed data flow control and memory management necessary in a CUDA programming environment. In the OpenACC model, programs can be written in high level languages with OpenMP like directives. We present some examples of QCD simulation codes using OpenACC and discuss their performance on the Fermi and Kepler GPUs. (paper)