Sample records for pyuria

  1. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity


    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj


    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  2. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity. (United States)

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj


    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimkhani


    Full Text Available "nPregnant women are at increased risk for urinary tract infection (UTI but in many cases infection is asymptomatic. This study was performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria in pregnant women. A total of 86 pregnant women during first trimester and 56 nonpregnant women were evaluated. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected for both groups. Urine samples were examined microscopically and were cultured. Bacteriological examination revealed asymptomatic bacteriuria in 25 (29.1% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. Microscopic analysis of urine revealed pyuria in 18 (20.9% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. In study group, Escherichia coli were found in 20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 36%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus in 12%, streptococcus group D in 12%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 12% and Proteus mirabilis in 8%. In control group, E. coli were found in 33.3% and S. epidermidis in 66.7%. Our results show that the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is significantly higher in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The main finding in the present study was that 29.1% of the pregnant women who were in first trimester had asymptomatic bacteriuria which is much higher than figures reported from other countries. The use of microscopic urinanalysis was not an effective method of detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria and urine culture is necessary for screening these pregnant women.

  4. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit


    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  5. Postoperative bacteriuria, pyuria and urinary tract infection in patients with an orthotopic sigmoid colon neobladder replacement. (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of postoperative bacteriuria, pyuria and urine culture in patients with an orthotopic sigmoid colon neobladder replacement. Urine samples for bacteriuria, pyuria and urine culture, if necessary, were collected at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery and the presence of blood culture and antibiotic-resistant strains, and their treatments on positive urine culture cases were investigated. Of 209 for bacteriuria and 207 for pyuria urine samples with evaluable data, 95 (45.5%) were positive for bacteriuria and 76 (36.7%) had pyuria (10 or more white blood cells per high-power field). Totally, 30 bacteria were isolated from urine culture of urinary tract infection (UTI) and Klebisiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcos aureus and Enterococcus spp. strains were representatively isolated. The incidence of pyuria significantly decreased over time (P=0.041) but that of bacteriuria did not (P=0.107). In them, there were six bacteria (20.7%) with antibiotic-resistant strains. The antibiotics used for their treatments representatively were levofloxacin in five cases, tazobactam/piperacillin in three cases and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and cefepime, meropenem in two cases, respectively. In conclusion, these findings suggest that physicians taking care of sigmoid colon neobladder patients need to be aware of these high ratios of bacteriuria, pyuria and UTI, including bacteremia.

  6. Sterile pyuria as the initial finding in a case with Kawasaki disease

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    Bahar Büyükkaragöz


    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease is a multisystemic vasculitis of pediatric age group. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial as coronary artery aneurysms may develop in 20-25% of untreated cases in the 2nd-3rd weeks of the disease. The most common urinary finding in the active period is sterile pyuria; which is believed to be a sign of a more severe systemic inflammation. In this study, a 3.5 year old boy who admitted with high fever was presented. As he had pyuria and elevated acute phase reactants, antibiotic treatment was started with a pre-diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Later, with the persistence of fever, detection of a negative urine culture result and emergence of dermal, mucosal and conjunctival changes, incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD was diagnosed. In conclusion, it should be remembered that prolonged fever with sterile pyuria can be the initial findings in KD; before the emergence of typical lesions.

  7. Association of Sterile Pyuria and Coronary Artery Aneurysm in Kawasaki Syndrome

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    Mohsen Akhavan Sepahi


    Full Text Available "nKawasaki disease (KD is an inflammatory multiorgan disease of unknown etiology. The most dramatic organ involved is the heart. There were a few studies about cardiac involvement and sterile pyuria. This study guides to determine if sterile pyuria is associated with coronary artery aneurysm (CAA in KD patients and to consider it as a predicting factor for coronary artery involvement. Forty seven patients with KD were studied by echocardiography in admission and one month later. Urine analysis, complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were measured in admission. Data were analyzed using SPSS-14 software. Patients' age was ranged from 13 month to 7 years old (mean age of 3.43 ± 1.54 years. Thirty patients (63.8% were male and 17 patients (36.1% were female. Cardiac involvement was detected in 32 patients (68% using echocardiography, of which CAA was reported in 8 cases (17%. Six of CAA (75% were in association with sterile pyuria, although it was statistically insignificant (P>0.05. Although the majority of patients with CAA had sterile pyuria, this association is not statistically significant, thus it couldn't be considered as a predicting factor for CAA.

  8. Does pyuria always suggest urinary tract infection with common microorganisms? Questions. (United States)

    Taşdemir, Mehmet; Kaya, Hüseyin; Taşdemir, Zeynep Atam


    Genitourinary system tuberculosis (GUTB) is a chronic granulomatous infection in which tuberculous bacilli affect one or more organs in the genitourinary system. In this report, an unusual presentation of miliary tuberculosis was presented as GUTB. A 15-year-old girl presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and dysuria. Abdominal examination showed tenderness and defense. Pyuria and microscopic hematuria were observed. Acute abdominal causes could not be excluded through abdominal ultrasound. On abdominal computed tomography, a necrotic lesion was detected in the right kidney. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in the urine. Quartet anti-tuberculosis therapy was started. After treatment, static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-dimer captosuccinic acid and single-photon emission CT imaging showed parenchymal injury. In any suspected patient, voiding symptoms, abdominal or flank pain, sterile pyuria, and hematuria should be kept in mind as the presenting manifestations of GUTB in the differential diagnosis.

  9. Asymptomatic pyuria in pregnant women during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetrical outcomes. (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Ju; Hsu, Te-Yao; Lan, Kuo-Chung; Lin, Hao; Ou, Chia-Yu; Fu, Hung-Chun; Tsai, Ching-Chang


    Urinalysis is included in the prenatal examination in the first trimester in Taiwan, in contrast to Western countries. We aimed to investigate whether asymptomatic pyuria as detected by urinalysis was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. A total of 1187 singleton pregnant women who received prenatal care at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013 were included for retrospective analysis. We defined asymptomatic pyuria as the presence of 15 or more white blood cells/μL in midstream urine without symptoms. Adverse perinatal outcomes including preterm delivery, preterm premature rupture of membrane, low birth weight, and Apgar scores were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors. The prevalence of asymptomatic pyuria was 21.3% in our cohort. Univariate analysis showed that pyuria was the only factor associated with preterm delivery before 36 weeks of pregnancy, preterm premature rupture of membrane, and low birth weight. In multivariate analysis, both pyuria (odds ratio: 4.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.80-13.25, p=0.002) and a maternal age of 35 years or older (odds ratio: 3.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-10.78, p=0.033) were significant independent predictors for a low 5 minute Apgar score (<7). The identification of asymptomatic pyuria via urinalysis in the first trimester may be a predictor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Chronic asymptomatic pyuria precedes overt urinary tract infection and deterioration of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

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    Hwang Jin Ho


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI occurs in 30%-50% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. However, the clinical relevance of asymptomatic pyuria in ADPKD patients remains unknown. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 256 ADPKD patients who registered to the ADPKD clinic at Seoul National University Hospital from Aug 1999 to Aug 2010. We defined the asymptomatic pyuria as more than 5-9 white blood cells in high-power field with no related symptoms or signs of overt UTI. Patients were categorized into 2 groups depending on its duration and frequency: Group A included non-pyuria and transient pyuria patients; Group B included recurrent and persistent pyuria patients. The association between asymptomatic pyuria and both the development of overt UTI and the deterioration of renal function were examined. Results With a mean follow-up duration of 65.3 months, 176 (68.8% out of 256 patients experienced 681 episodes of asymptomatic pyuria and 50 episodes of UTI. The annual incidence of asymptomatic pyuria was 0.492 episodes/patient/year. The patients in group B showed female predominance (58.5% vs. 42.0%, P=0.01 and experienced an upper UTI more frequently (hazard ratio: 4.612, 95% confidence interval: 1.735-12.258; P=0.002, adjusted for gender and hypertension. The annual change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR was significantly larger in magnitude in group B than in group A (-2.7��4.56 vs. -1.17±5.8, respectively; P=0.01. Age and Group B found to be the independent variables for ΔeGFR and developing end-stage renal disease (16.0% vs. 4.3%, respectively; P=0.001. Conclusions Chronic asymptomatic pyuria may increase the risk of developing overt UTI and may contribute to declining renal function in ADPKD.

  11. Evaluation of cranberry juice on bacteriuria and pyuria in spinal cord injured patient with neurogenic bladder

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    mohamad Rajaei


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common medical complication experienced by individuals living with SCI . Several factors are responsible for the high prevalence of UTIs in individual with SCI. Concerns regarding the overuse of antibiotics in individuals with SCI and emerge multi-drug-resistant bacteria , has prompted consideration for consumer –directed alternatives to improve urinary tract health. This study was designed to evaluation of cranberry juice on bacteriuria and pyuria and in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder in Shahrekord, Iran. Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial .60 patients (51 male and 9 female with creatinine levels below 1.5 mg/dl and in the analysis of their urine white blood cell (WBC counts were greater than 10 in a high-powered field (pyuria or with a presence of bacteriuria (>= 104 cc/ml in their urine culture selected in this study. Urine analysis and culture were carried out at before and after intervention.Samples was divided into two two groups of 30.The case patients were given a dose of 250 to 300 ml of cranberry juice cocktail with 30% concentration, daily with meals.The control group was fed the same amount of a placebo cocktail.After two weeks, first morning urine analysis and culture test were done.Data collected and analyzed using K-squared method using the SPSS software and Paired-T test technique. Results: Urine analysis and culture before and after interventions show , Urinary PH in case and control groups did not any significant statistical difference before and after intervention (P>0.05. A change in pyuria and bacteriuria levels in case patients was observed after the treatment which was statistically significant (P95٪. Conclusion: Consumption of cranberries can be effective in treating SCI patients with UTI under certain conditions. The effectiveness was most profound in patients with normal GFR who did not use

  12. Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Van Ness, Peter H.; Bianco, Luann; Rink, Andrea; Rubeck, Sabina; Ginter, Sandra; Argraves, Stephanie; Charpentier, Peter; Acampora, Denise; Trentalange, Mark; Quagliarello, Vincent; Peduzzi, Peter


    Importance Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes. Cranberry capsules are an understudied, non-antimicrobial, prevention strategy used in this population. Objective To test the effect of two oral cranberry capsules once per day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes Design, Setting, and Participants This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and surveillance of one year. 21 nursing homes with at least 90 beds and within 50 miles of New Haven, CT participated. 185 English-speaking, female, nursing home residents, age 65 or older, with or without bacteriuria and pyuria at baseline, were randomized. The study was conducted from 8/24/12-10/26/15. Intervention Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (i.e., 72mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice), versus placebo administered once per day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the presence of bacteriuria (i.e., at least 105 cfu/mL of one or two microorganisms on urine culture) plus pyuria (i.e., any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every two months for a total of six assessments over the one year of surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multi-drug antibiotic resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration. Results Among 185 women who were randomized (mean age 86.4 years [± 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence to capsule administration was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI 18

  13. Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria Among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Van Ness, Peter H; Bianco, Luann; Rink, Andrea; Rubeck, Sabina; Ginter, Sandra; Argraves, Stephanie; Charpentier, Peter; Acampora, Denise; Trentalange, Mark; Quagliarello, Vincent; Peduzzi, Peter


    Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes. Cranberry capsules are an understudied, nonantimicrobial prevention strategy used in this population. To test the effect of 2 oral cranberry capsules once a day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and involving 185 English-speaking women aged 65 years or older, with or without bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline, residing in 21 nursing homes located within 50 miles (80 km) of New Haven, Connecticut (August 24, 2012-October 26, 2015). Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36 mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (ie, 72 mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice) vs placebo administered once a day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants. Presence of bacteriuria (ie, at least 105 colony-forming units [CFUs] per milliliter of 1 or 2 microorganisms in urine culture) plus pyuria (ie, any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every 2 months over the 1-year study surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multidrug antibiotic-resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration. Of the 185 randomized study participants (mean age, 86.4 years [SD, 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI, 18.6%-33.9%) of the treatment group and in 29.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-37.9%) of the control group. The adjusted generalized estimating equations model that accounted for missing data and covariates showed no significant difference in the presence of bacteriuria

  14. Procalcitonin and pyuria-based algorithm reduces antibiotic use in urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial


    Drozdov, Daniel; Schwarz, Stefanie; Kutz, Alexander; Grolimund, Eva; Rast, Anna Christina; Steiner, Deborah; Regez, Katharina; Schild, Ursula; Guglielmetti, Merih; Conca, Antoinette; Reutlinger, Barbara; Ottiger, Cornelia; Buchkremer, Florian; Haubitz, Sebastian; Blum, Claudine


    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common drivers of antibiotic use. The minimal effective duration of antibiotic therapy for UTIs is unknown, but any reduction is important to diminish selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, costs, and drug-related side-effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an algorithm based on procalcitonin (PCT) and quantitative pyuria reduces antibiotic exposure. Methods From April 2012 to March 2014, we conducted a factorial design ...

  15. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl. (United States)

    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin


    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrediting microscopic pyuria and leucocyte esterase as diagnostic surrogates for infection in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: results from a clinical and laboratory evaluation. (United States)

    Kupelian, Anthony S; Horsley, Harry; Khasriya, Rajvinder; Amussah, Rasheedah T; Badiani, Raj; Courtney, Angela M; Chandhyoke, Nihil S; Riaz, Usama; Savlani, Karishma; Moledina, Malik; Montes, Samantha; O'Connor, Dominic; Visavadia, Rakhee; Kelsey, Michael; Rohn, Jennifer L; Malone-Lee, James


    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Microscopic pyuria is widely used as a surrogate marker of infection, although there is little data supporting its use in patients who present with non-acute LUTS. The effects of urinary storage, preservation, and the use of laboratory methods to enhance leucocyte detection, are also unclear. This large, prospective study highlights the poor performance of dipstick urine analysis, and direct microscopy, as surrogate markers of UTI in patients with LUTS. A series of laboratory analyses also examine the effects of urine handling and processing on test integrity, which have important implications for clinical practice. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of pyuria as a surrogate marker of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and determine the impact of sample storage, cytocentrifugation, and staining techniques, on test performance. Between 2008 and 2011, we recruited 1223 patients (120 men; 1103 women; mean age 54 years) with one or more LUTS from a specialist urological outpatient service. We conducted a prospective observational study to determine the performance of microscopic pyuria ≥10 wbc/μL as a surrogate marker of UTI in patients with LUTS. All patients provided clean-catch midstream urine (MSU) samples for analysis, and routine microbiological cultures were used as our reference standard. We also scrutinised the performance of dipstick leucocyte esterase ≥ 'trace' in the detection of microscopic pyuria. The influence of sample handling and processing on test performance was examined in a series of laboratory studies. The effects of storage on leucocyte decay were determined using repeated microscopic assessments of individual urine samples, to plot temporal changes in leucocyte numbers. This study used varied storage conditions (≈20 °C and 4 °C), and boric acid preservation. Paired microscopic assessments were used to determine

  17. 以无菌性脓尿为首发症状的婴儿不完全性川崎病%Infant with incomplete Kawasaki disease present with sterile pyuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华; 茅幼英; 殷蕾; 周纬


    Objectives To explore the clinical features of incomplete Kawasaki disease (IKD) which presents with sterile pyuria in infant, in order to achieve early diagnosis and treatment. Methods A retrospective study of 15 infants with IKD was conducted in comparison with 29 patients who were diagnosed with KD according to the diagnostic criteria of American Heart Association 2004. Results Both KD and IKD groups had recurrent fever and poor response to antibiotic therapy. Hemoglobin level was signiifcantly lower in IKD group than in KD group at the onset or 7-d after onset (P<0.05). C-reaction protein (CRP) level was signiifcantly higher in IKD group than that in KD group at 7-d after onset (P<0.05). There were 4 patients with coronary artery abnormality, 2 patients with coronary artery dilation and 2 patients with coro-nary artery aneurysm. Conclusions For infant <1 year old who has pyuria ifrstly, continuous fever for over 5 days when treated by antibiotics and increasing serum inlfammatory markers, incomplete Kawasaki disease should be suspected and the cardiac ultrasound is recommended.%目的:探讨以无菌性脓尿为首发症状的婴儿不完全性川崎病(KD)的临床特点,以期早期诊断和治疗。方法回顾性分析以无菌性脓尿为首发症状的15例婴儿不完全性KD患儿的临床资料,与同期符合美国心脏协会2004年修订诊断标准的29例典型KD患儿进行比较。结果两组患儿均以反复高热、抗感染效果不佳为主要表现。与典型KD组相比,不完全性KD组在发病初期和发病7 d后血红蛋白较低,发病7 d后CRP较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。4例不完全性KD患儿心脏超声检查发现冠状动脉变化,其中动脉扩张2例,冠脉瘤2例。结论对<1岁以尿路感染为首发症状的婴儿在治疗过程中如发热持续5d以上,伴血清炎症指标明显增高,且抗生素治疗无效时,应警惕不完全性川崎病可能,并尽早做心

  18. Usefulness of Nonenhanced Computed Tomography for Diagnosing Urolithiasis without Pyuria in the Emergency Department

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    Dong Hoon Lee


    Full Text Available We compared the clinical utility of nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT and intravenous urography (IVU in patients with classic symptoms of renal colic without evidence of a urine infection. This was a retrospective analysis of IVU and NECT performed in adult patients with suspected renal colic at an emergency department between January 2005 and December 2013. The records of all patients in NECT and IVU groups were reviewed, and the patients were categorized according to the cause of their symptoms. A total of 2218 patients were enrolled. Of these patients, 1525 (68.8% underwent IVU and 693 (31.2% underwent NECT. The patients in NECT group were older (45.48 ± 14.96 versus 42.37 ± 13.68 years, p < 0.001, had less gross hematuria (7.6 versus 2.9%, p < 0.001, and were admitted more often (18.6 versus 12.0%, p < 0.001 than the patients in IVU group. Urinary stones were detected in 1413 (63.7% patients. NECT had a higher detection rate of urolithiasis than IVP (74.0 versus 59.0%, p < 0.001. No significant difference was observed in the incidence of urinary stones greater than 4mm between groups from the radiologic findings (p = 0.79 or the full medical record review (p = 0.87.

  19. 2725-IJBCS-Article-Taiye Shade Olusegun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    other than bacteria in urine and vaginal swabs of some selected female individuals and to determine the suitable sample material ... Keywords: UTI, Trichomonas, Yeast cells, Pyuria, Vaginitis, Hygiene. .... treatment would likely help slow the.

  20. Clinical features to identify urinary tract infection in nursing home residents: a cohort study. (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Quagliarello, Vincent; Perrelli, Eleanor; Towle, Virginia; Van Ness, Peter H; Tinetti, Mary


    To identify clinical features associated with bacteriuria plus pyuria in noncatheterized nursing home residents with clinically suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). Prospective, observational cohort study from 2005 to 2007. Five New Haven, Connecticut area nursing homes. Five hundred fifty-one nursing home residents each followed for 1 year for the development of clinically suspected UTI. The combined outcome of bacteriuria (>100,000 colony forming units from urine culture) plus pyuria (>10 white blood cells from urinalysis). After 178,914 person-days of follow-up, 228 participants had 399 episodes of clinically suspected UTI with a urinalysis and urine culture performed; 147 episodes (36.8%) had bacteriuria plus pyuria. The clinical features associated with bacteriuria plus pyuria were dysuria (relative risk (RR)=1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-2.03), change in character of urine (RR=1.42, 95% CI=1.07-1.79), and change in mental status (RR=1.38, 95% CI=1.03-1.74). Dysuria, change in character of urine, and change in mental status were significantly associated with the combined outcome of bacteriuria plus pyuria. Absence of these clinical features identified residents at low risk of having bacteriuria plus pyuria (25.5%), whereas presence of dysuria plus one or both of the other clinical features identified residents at high risk of having bacteriuria plus pyuria (63.2%). Diagnostic uncertainty still remains for the vast majority of residents who meet only one clinical feature. If validated in future cohorts, these clinical features with bacteriuria plus pyuria may serve as an evidence-based clinical definition of UTI to assist in management decisions.

  1. Effectiveness of different diagnostic tools for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma

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    Yi-Sheng Tai


    Conclusion: Combining random urine cytology for 3 nonconsecutive days, upper urinary tract images, and URS biopsies provided an accurate diagnosis of UTUC. This study found that preoperative pyuria in urinalysis, non-enhancement in IVP or RP, and high-grade tumor in URS biopsy could predict high-grade tumor in RNU specimens.

  2. Staining of urinary leucocytes as an aid to the diagnosis of inflammation in the urinary tract. (United States)

    Harris, D M


    Five hundred specimens of urine have been examined for pyuria and bacteriuria, the leucocytes being stained by the Sternheimer-Malbin method. Most urines contained either less than 1 or more than 10 leucocytes per cmm; a few specimens contained 1 to 10 cells per cmm, whatever their viable bacterial count. The presence of leucocytes in urine was usually related to the bacterial count, pyuria being commonest in urines showing ;significant bacteriuria'. However, urinary tract instrumentation caused pyuria in the absence of infection. Leucocytes with nuclei staining blue by the Sternheimer-Malbin technique were considered to be indicative of active inflammation, but the incidence of such cells appeared to be a reflection of the total leucocyte count of the specimen rather than of its viable bacterial count. In the majority of cases the diagnosis of infection can be made on the basis of the bacterial count and the degree of pyuria. The staining technique appears to have a limited use, restricted to the interpretation of cases in which the results of culture and conventional leucocyte counts are ambiguous.

  3. Renal tuberculosis: a case report. (United States)

    Toccaceli, S; Persico Stella, L; Diana, M; Taccone, A; Giuliani, G; De Paola, L; Valvano, M; De Padua, C; Di Biasio, G; Ranucci, C; Orsi, E; La Torre, F


    Tuberculosis or TB (tubercle bacillus) remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Over the last decades extrapulmonary locations of the disease have become more frequent due to the increased prevalence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the increase number of organ transplants. The urogenital localization represents about 27% of all extra-pulmonary localizations of TB and may be due either to a disseminated infection or to a primitive genitourinary localization. The majority of patients, has pyuria, sometimes with hematuria. The diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis is based on the finding of pyuria in the absence of infection by common bacteria. The initial medical treatment includes isoniazide, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin. This disease should be suspected in patients with unexplained urinary tract infections, especially if immunocompromised and/or coming from endemic areas.

  4. Urinary tuberculosis presented as isolated bladder lesion - a case report. (United States)

    Siddique, F H; Uddin, B; Saleh, F M; Latif, T; Saha, N; Rahman, M A


    Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) may affect all organs of the body with varied presentations. Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) carries importance for its morbidity, though it is an uncommon form of TB. A widow of 45 years was admitted with several episodes of painless haematuria and recently developed urinary incontinence. Diagnosis of urinary bladder tuberculosis was made only by histopathology from bladder lesion with supportive evidence of few nonspecific constitutional symptoms and positive family history of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and persistent sterile pyuria. Upper urinary tract involvement was not found. Category 1 anti-TB treatment was started. With this treatment recovery of the patient is satisfactory and symptoms are disappearing except for the incontinence. Urinary tuberculosis should be ruled out in a case of painless haematuria, repeated sterile pyuria.

  5. Managing urinary tract infections


    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.


    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  6. [Bladder stone surrounding a foreign body: a case report]. (United States)

    Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Guessous, H; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Elmrini, M; Benjeloun, S


    The bladder can be the site of various foreign bodies. We report one case of bladder stone including a foreign body in a 24 years old man with a psychomotor deficiency who was admitted for pyuria, block miction and bladder symptoms. The pelvic X-Ray film showed a bladder stone including a sewing needle. We analysed the diagnosis, aspect and therapeutic management of this case.

  7. Bilateral psoas and bilateral perinephric abscesses complicating acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy



    Acute pyelonephritis complicates 1-2% of pregnancies and causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) is often delayed and commonly presents with sterile pyuria or along with other pyogenic organisms. We report a case where the diagnosis of renal TB was missed in a pregnant woman when she presented with acute pyelonephritis, septic shock, and acute renal failure. There was clinical recovery with antibiotics, but bilateral psoas and pe...

  8. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi



    CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory ...

  9. Incidence of Hyperbilirubinemia and Urinary Tract Infection (UTI in Asymptomatic Term Neonates Under Two Weeks of Age

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    Marjaneh Zarkesh


    Results: Out of 314 neonates, 12 patients (3.8% were diagnosed with UTI, and E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen in these patients. No significant differences were observed between neonates with and without UTI in terms of gender, birth weight, age, bilirubin level on admission and mode of delivery (P>0.05. Additionally, pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more prevalent among UTI patients compared to other neonates (P

  10. Air Force Health Study: An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. 2002 Follow-up Examination Results, May 2002 to March 2005 (United States)


    choice, particularly when validating diabetic nephropathy . The AFHS cutpoints for hematuria and pyuria (two cells per HPF) will miss few cases of...Control (2002 AFHS diabetes definition) MR-V/ LAB D Requiring Insulin Oral Hypoglycemics Diet and Exercise No Treatment Nondiabetic (2...No Treatment Nondiabetic (2) (b) U:PR,CS A:PR Time to Diabetes Onset (years) (2002 AFHS diabetes definition) MR-V/ LAB/ MIL C -- (2) (b

  11. Acute kidney injury in a child: A case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy

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    Mukta Mantan


    Full Text Available Renal and urologic problems in pediatric condition falsification (PCF or Munchausen by proxy (MSP can result in serious diagnostic dilemma. Symptoms of hematuria, pyuria and recurrent urinary tract infections have occasionally been described. However, MSP presenting as azotemia has not been previously reported. We describe the case of an unfortunate boy who had to undergo unnecessary hemodialysis for persistent hyperkalemia and azotemia before a final diagnosis of the falsification of investigations by the parents was made.

  12. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Ahmad, S


    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.

  13. Postoperative prophylaxis with norfloxacin in patients requiring bladder catheters. (United States)

    Verbrugh, H A; Mintjes-de Groot, A J; Andriesse, R; Hamersma, K; van Dijk, A


    The effect of once daily doses of 200 mg oral norfloxacin on the occurrence of catheter-associated bacteriuria (greater than 1000 CFU/ml) and pyuria was studied in 105 post-operative gynaecologic patients. Norfloxacin was given from the second day after surgery until catheter removal. Bacteriuria developed in 32 of 51 (63%) control patients compared to 8 of 54 (15%) patients receiving norfloxacin (p less than 0.001). Pyuria was present in 22 of 51 (43%) control subjects versus only 3 of 54 (5%) patients treated with norfloxacin (p less than 0.001). Bacteria isolated from control patients comprised species of Enterobacteriaceae (40%), Staphylococcus (35%), and Streptococcus (17%); seven isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics reflecting their nosocomial origin. In contrast, strains isolated from norfloxacin-treated patients comprised non-fermenting gram-negative rods (79%, usually Alcaligenes or Acinetobacter spp.) and faecal streptococci (12%). It is concluded that once daily doses of 200 mg oral norfloxacin are effective in reducing the rate of catheter-associated bacteriuria and pyuria following reconstructive gynaecologic surgery.

  14. Serum and urinary interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels as predicting factors of Kawasaki disease activity. (United States)

    Chow, Y M; Lin, C Y; Hwang, B


    From January 1988 to Autumn 1991, 60 patients suffering from Kawasaki disease (KD) were recruited in this study. Their ages ranged from 4 months to 5 years. Diagnosis was based on the criteria revised in 1984 by the KD Research Committee in Japan. Of these, 12 cases developed coronary aneurysms. First, blood samples from 60 KD patients were taken on admission before aspirin and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Convalescent blood samples were taken 3 months after onset of disease. The control group included (1) 10 cases of viral infection with skin rash and fever (aged 5 months to 5 years) and (2) 10 age and sex matched normal children admitted for elective pediatric surgery such as inguinal hernia. Second, urinary samples were collected from 32 cases during the acute phase of KD. Of these, 10 cases had pyuria and/or proteinuria. The results showed that the serum IL-6 levels from KD patients during the first week of acute phase were significantly increased while undetectable in the convalescent sera and controls. There was also a statistical difference between the with and without coronary aneurysm groups during the first week (336.8 +/- 95.1 vs 125.5 +/- 56.5 pg/ml, P Urinary IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in KD patients with pyuria and/or proteinuria (156.6 +/- 77.7 pg/mg Cr) and undetectable in the group without pyuria and proteinuria and controls during the first week. There was no difference between with and without coronary aneurysm. These results suggest that serum IL-6 level is a useful factor for predicting formation of coronary aneurysm even within one week after onset of disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Acute kidney injury in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children: Risk factors and clinical features

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    Ehsan Valavi


    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is frequently seen in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children. We have previously reported several victims with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 deficiency. Hence, we conducted this study to identify predictive factors and clinical features of AKI in H. lepturus scorpion stung patients. We included all 215 H. lepturus scorpion stung children with no previous renal diseases in two groups (with and without AKI and compared them based on their clinical and laboratory findings. AKI was found in 27.4% of patients, they were significantly younger and with lower body weight (P = 0.006, P = 0.011, respectively. There was a significant difference between groups with and without AKI in findings such as fever (P = 0.003, hypertension (P <0.001, hemolytic anemia (P <0.001, thrombocytopenia (P <0.001, massive proteinuria (P <0.001, hemoglobinuria (P <0.001, pyuria (P <0.001, and hematuria (P = 0.004. HUS was in 5.5% and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14.6% which had a significant association with AKI (P <0.001.There were several independent predictors for AKI in a multivariate regression model including thrombocytopenia (P = 0.002, pyuria (P = 0.01, proteinuria (P =0.01, and fever (P = 0.02. Hemodialysis was performed in four patients but kidney function improved in all patients and there was no findings of renal impairment after three months follow-up. We found several predictors for AKI in children following H. lepturus scorpion sting including younger age, delay in receiving medical care, pigmenturia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, proteinuria, and pyuria.

  16. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Antibiotics with Oral Levofloxacin against Post-Shock Wave Lithotripsy Infectious Complications: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei; Chang, Shang-Jen


    To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in reduction of infections after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients undergoing shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). The study was a randomized control trial. Between 2012 and 2014, patients with pre-operative sterile urine undergoing SWL were randomly assigned by the randomization ratio of 1:1 to receive prophylactic antibiotics with single-dose oral levofloxacin (500 mg) or no treatment (control group), respectively. Urinalysis and urine cultures were obtained between post-operative day five and seven, respectively. Pyuria was defined as ≥10 white blood cells per high power field (WBC/hpf). Significant bacteriuria was defined as ≥10(5) colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) uropathogens. Febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) was defined as body temperature higher than 38.0°C with pyuria or significant bacteriuria within seven days after SWL treatment. Initially, 274 patents underwent randomization with 135 and 139 patients in the levofloxacin and control group, respectively. A total of 206 patients (106 with placebo and 100 with levofloxacin) with complete follow-up of urinalysis were eligible for analysis. The rates of post-operative pyuria were not significantly different in patients with and without prophylaxis (8% versus 4.7%, p = 0.33). Moreover, there was also no significant difference in rates of bacteriuria in patients with and without prophylaxis (1% versus 0%, p = 0.49). Patients without follow-up urinalysis and urine culture received telephone survey. Among them, there was only one patient reporting post-SWL fever in the levofloxacin group (0.7%) compared with none (0%) in the control group (p = 0.49). As the results of the interim analysis revealed no benefit of levofloxacin in preventing post-SWL pyuria, bacteriuria, and fUTI, we terminated the study early before the pre-planned sample size was achieved. The incidence of asymptomatic and fUTI is low in patients with pre

  17. Piperazine side-effects in a patient with pre-existing renal insufficiency

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    Majid Malaki


    Full Text Available Piperazine as an antihelminth has many adverse effects, especially on patients with renal insufficiency. We report the use of piperazine in a girl with a moderately severe kidney disease due to Biedl Bardet syndrome. She developed coma and acute kidney injury due to acute interstitial nephritis (AIN, anemia and thrombocytopenia. The presence of fever, proteinuria, acidosis, anemia, sterile pyuria and non-oliguric renal failure strongly suggested AIN. Her problems abated mostly by discontinuing of piperazine and supportive therapy, except anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  18. Effect of acetohydroxamic acid on dissolution of canine struvite uroliths. (United States)

    Krawiec, D R; Osborne, C A; Leininger, J R; Griffith, D P


    Long-term administration of acetohydroxamic acid to dogs with experimentally induced urease-positive staphylococcal urinary tract infections and struvite urolithiasis resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of urolith growth or urolith dissolution. Inhibition of urolith growth was associated with drug dose-dependent reduction of urine urease activity, urine pH, crystalluria, pyuria, hematuria, and proteinuria. Lesions of the urinary tract of dogs treated with acetohydroxamic acid were less severe than those of control dogs. Dose-dependent adverse drug reactions included reversible hemolytic anemia, abnormal red cell morphology, and abnormalities of bilirubin metabolism.

  19. A child with a large bladder stone: A case report

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    Hulya Ozturk


    Full Text Available Bladder stones account for approximately 5% of all urinary system stones and are prevalent among children living in poor or rural regions. The symptoms and findings in children with bladder stones are usually urgency, frequency, incontinence, dysuria, pyuria, difficulty voiding, and fever, small caliber of urinary stream, lower abdominal pain and urinary intermittency. Most bladder stones are composed of calcium oxalate, followed by calcium phosphate, and they are usually larger than 2.5 cm in diameter. We present a case of a larger-than 2.5-cm bladder stone in a child.

  20. Familial vesicoureteral reflux


    朴, 勺; 新井, 豊; 友吉, 唯夫; 吉田, 修


    Primary vesicoureteral reflux was seen in 2 siblings in a family of 5 (1 daughter and 2 sons). Voiding cystogram of elder sister, who complained of fever and backache, showed bilateral reflux at the age of 6. Left reflux disappeared soon but right reflux persisted. Right antireflux operation was performed at the age of 9, but right renal function deteriorated gradually. Right nephrectomy was done at the age of 12 because of persistent pyuria and renal stones. The second case was her younger b...

  1. The Importance of Urine Concentration on the Diagnostic Performance of the Urinalysis for Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection. (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Shah, Pinkey; Bachur, Richard G


    The presence of leukocyte esterase by urine dipstick and microscopic pyuria are both indicators of possible urinary tract infection. The effect of urine concentration on the diagnostic performance of the urinalysis for pediatric urinary tract infection has not been studied. Our objective is to determine whether the urinalysis performance for detecting urinary tract infection varies by urine concentration as measured by specific gravity. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of the urine laboratory results of children younger than 13 years who presented to the emergency department during 68 months and had a paired urinalysis and urine culture obtained. Urinary tract infection was defined as pure growth of a uropathogen at standard culture thresholds. Test characteristics were calculated across 4 specific gravity groups (1.000 to 1.010, 1.011 to 1.020, 1.021 to 1.030, and >1.030). In total, 14,971 cases were studied. Median age was 1.5 years (interquartile range 0.4 to 5.5 years) and 60% were female patients. Prevalence of urinary tract infection was 7.7%. For the presence of leukocyte esterase and a range of pyuria cut points, the positive likelihood ratios decreased with increasing specific gravity. From most dilute to most concentrated urine, the positive likelihood ratio decreased from 12.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7 to 13.7) to 4.2 (95% CI 3.0 to 5.8) and 9.5 (95% CI 8.6 to 10.6) to 5.5 (95% CI 3.3 to 9.1) at a threshold of greater than or equal to 5 WBCs per high-power field and presence of leukocyte esterase, respectively. The negative likelihood ratios increased with increasing specific gravity for leukocyte esterase and microscopic pyuria. For the detection of pediatric urinary tract infection, the diagnostic performance of both dipstick leukocyte esterase and microscopic pyuria varies by urine concentration, and therefore the specific gravity should be considered when the urinalysis is interpreted. Copyright © 2016 American College of

  2. Anaesthetic Management of Nephrectomy for Emphysematous Pyelonephritis

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    N Dua


    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN is a serious and often life threatening infection of the renal and perirenal tissues. The characteristic feature of this infection is the presence of gas within the kidney and perinephric tissues. The triad of symptoms of fever, flank pain and pyuria, especially in a diabetic female patient which did not respond promptly to conventional antibiotic therapy raised the possibility of EPN. CT scan established the diagnosis and the line of management. After failing medical management, uncontrolled frustrating hyperglycemia with fear of septice-mia, nephrectomy was done in life threatening fulminant infection of the kidney.

  3. Renal histology of mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease). (United States)

    Salcedo, J R; Greenberg, L; Kapur, S


    Renal involvement is well described in patients with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MCLNS), or Kawasaki disease and is manifested by mild azotemia, hematuria, pyuria or cylinduria, and more often, proteinuria. Renal morphology during the acute stages of the illness has never been reported. In this paper we describe the renal histopathologic changes in a child with MCLNS. The glomerular histopathologic findings suggest immune complex damage to the kidney as a possible mechanism of nephrotoxicity in MCLNS. Presence of kidney lesions, which speak in favor of the injurious role of immune complexes in MLCNS may be relevant to the understanding of the pathogenesis of the vascular lesions that are characteristic of this disease.

  4. Renal tuberculosis in the modern era. (United States)

    Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Barros, Elvino José Guardão


    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease remains as an important public health problem in developing countries. Extrapulmonary TB became more common with the advent of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and by the increase in the number of organ transplantation, which also leads to immunosuppression of thousand of persons. Urogenital TB represents 27% of extrapulmonary cases. Renal involvement in TB can be part of a disseminated infection or a localized genitourinary disease. Renal involvement by TB infection is underdiagnosed in most health care centers. Most patients with renal TB have sterile pyuria, which can be accompanied by microscopic hematuria. The diagnosis of urinary tract TB is based on the finding of pyuria in the absence of common bacterial infection. The first choice drugs include isoniazide, rifampicin, pirazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin. Awareness of renal TB is urgently needed by physicians for suspecting this disease in patients with unexplained urinary tract abnormalities, mainly in those with any immunosuppression and those coming from TB-endemic areas.

  5. Tetraparesia: an unusual presentation of disseminated tuberculosis. (United States)

    Quaresma, Filipa; Bentes Jesus, Margarida


    A 48-year-old man with a 4 months history of asthenia, anorexia, 10 kg weight loss and 1 month of hematuria and dysuria was admitted to another hospital for sudden muscular weakness. He was found to have areflexic tetraparesis and was referred to our hospital.On admission, he was bradycardic, tachypneic, with flaccid tetraplegia. Laboratory results showed metabolic acidemia, severe hyperkalemia and hyponatremia, acute renal dysfunction and sterile pyuria. After hyperkalemia correction, the neurological symptoms resolved.On the second day, he became febrile and chest radiograph and CT images showed a pulmonary bilateral reticulomicronodular pattern, left hydronephrosis and diffuse bladder wall thickening. Disseminated tuberculosis was considered as diagnosis by the coexistence of this imagiologic alterations and sterile pyuria. Acid-fast test for Mycobacteriumtuberculosis was negative, but the urine culture became positive after 2 weeks.Antituberculosis treatment was started. One year later, he was asymptomatic and the structural urinary lesions had disappeared. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervicitis and urethritis in women. (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Vesterinen, E


    In the Scandinavian countries today, Chlamydia trachomatis seems to be the most important cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is most prevalent in symptomatic women and in persons visiting venereal disease clinics, the asymptomatic carrier rate, particularly in young women, appears to be surprisingly high. In addition to young age and level of sexual activity, the use of oral contraceptives and the presence of cervical ectopy are important risk factors for chlamydial infection. Chlamydial cervicitis often is characterized by a hypertrophic follicular appearance, with severe edema, erythema, friability, and endocervical mucopurulent discharge. On colposcopy, an atypical transformation zone is frequently observed. Papanicolaou smears taken from C. trachomatis culture-positive patients often reveal benign atypias and dyskaryotic changes. C. trachomatis, therefore, being a venereally transmitted intracellular organism, may well play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Future studies on patients with cytological atypias, therefore, also should include tests for C. trachomatis. Prospective studies are needed to determine the natural history and outcome of C. trachomatis-associated atypias and their behavior after adequate therapy. A large proportion of C. trachomatis-infected women also are culture-positive from the urethra. The demonstration that C. trachomatis is a common causative agent of acute urethral syndrome (also called abacterial urethritis, dysuria-pyuria syndrome) in women has been a valuable contribution. The diagnosis of pyuria in a patient with abacterial dysuria is of critical importance, since it suggests a chlamydial etiology and thus is a potentially treatable condition.

  7. Clinical significance of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria at a tertiary care hospital. (United States)

    Al Mohajer, Mayar; Musher, Daniel M; Minard, Charles G; Darouiche, Rabih O


    Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria has been associated with invasive S. aureus disease. The current project describes the clinical significance of S. aureus bacteriuria. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who had S. aureus bacteriuria at the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2008-2010. A total of 326 patients were included. Invasive S. aureus disease was documented within 12 months of bacteriuria in 56 patients (22.3% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) cases and 8.4% of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), p = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression indicated that MRSA bacteriuria (odds ratio (OR) 2.91, p = 0.010), absence of symptoms suggestive of a urinary tract infection (UTI) (OR 3.21, p = 0.019), inpatient status (OR 4.72, p = 0.003), and receipt of antibiotics active against S. aureus (OR 6.41, p bacteriuria. Age (OR 1.02, p = 0.025), absence of pyuria (OR 2.00, p = 0.029), the presence of invasive S. aureus disease (OR 2.05, p = 0.033), and inpatient status (OR 3.62, p bacteriuria is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients without UTI symptoms, those with MRSA bacteriuria, and those without pyuria were more to likely to have worse outcomes (invasive S. aureus disease or death). Obtaining blood cultures should be considered in these cases.

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 Iranian diabetic women: a cross sectional study

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    Salarifar Mojtaba


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of developing infection in diabetic patients is higher and urinary tract is the most common site for infection. Serious complications of urinary infection occur more commonly in diabetic patients. To study the prevalence and associates of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Iranian population, this study was conducted. Methods Between February 10, 2004 and October 15, 2004; 202 nonpregnant diabetic (type 2 women (range: 31 to 78 years old with no abnormalities of the urinary tract system were included in this clinic based study. We defined ASB as the presence of at least 105 colony-forming units/ml of 1 or 2 bacterial species, in two separated cultures of clean-voided midstream urine. All the participants were free from any symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI. Associates for developing bacteriuria was assessed and compared in participants with and without bacteriuria. Results In this study, the prevalence of ASB was 10.9% among diabetic women. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism responsible for positive urine culture. Most of the isolated microorganisms were resistant to Co-trimoxazole, Nalidixic acid and Ciprofloxacin. Pyuria (P 1c level (P Conclusion The prevalence of ASB is higher in women with type 2 diabetes, for which pyuria and glucosuria can be considered as associates. Routine urine culture can be recommended for diabetic women even when there is no urinary symptom.

  9. Relationship between uncommon computed tomography findings and clinical aspects in patients with acute pyelonephritis. (United States)

    Kim, Jang Sik; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Jun Mo; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Min Eui


    Computed tomography (CT) has become popular in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) and its related complications in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between uncommon CT findings and clinical and laboratory data in patients with APN. From July 2009 to July 2012, CT findings and clinical data were collected from 125 female patients with APN. The six uncommon CT findings (excluding a wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion in the renal parenchyma) studied were perirenal fat infiltration, ureteral wall edema, renal abscess formation, pelvic ascites, periportal edema, and renal scarring. The clinical parameters analyzed were the age and body mass index of the patients as well as the degree and duration of fever. Laboratory parameters related to inflammation and infection included white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, pyuria, and bacteriuria. The most common CT finding was perirenal fat infiltration (69 cases, 55%). A longer duration of fever, higher CRP level, and grade of pyuria were related with perirenal fat infiltration (p=0.010, p=0.003, and p=0.049, respectively). The CRP level was significantly higher in patients with renal abscess and ureteral wall edema (p=0.005 and p=0.015, respectively). The uncommon CT findings that were related to aggravated clinical and laboratory parameters of APN patients were perirenal fat infiltration, ureteral wall edema, and renal abscess formation. The inflammatory reaction and tissue destruction may be more aggressive in patients with these CT findings.

  10. Evaluation of modified Wright-staining of dried urinary sediment as a method for accurate detection of bacteriuria in cats. (United States)

    Swenson, Cheryl L; Boisvert, Agatha M; Gibbons-Burgener, Suzanne N; Kruger, John M


    Urinary sediment examination and quantitative urinary culture results are frequently discordant. The aims of this study were to compare accuracy of light microscopic examination of wet-mounted unstained (wet-unstained) and air-dried modified Wright-stained (dry-stained) sedimented preparations of urine with results of quantitative aerobic bacterial culture for detection and characterization of bacteriuria in cats. In addition, the presence of pyuria detected by urinalysis and potential risk factors were assessed. A blinded prospective study was conducted on 472 urinary samples collected from 410 cats by cystocentesis. The age and sex of each cat were recorded. Complete urinalyses were performed and included quantification of WBCs. Quantity and morphology of bacteria in each specimen were determined by light microscopic examination of wet-unstained (performed by certified medical technologists) and dry-stained (performed by a veterinary clinical pathologist) sedimented preparations of urine and compared with results of quantitative bacterial cultures. Of 472 urinary specimens, 29 were positive for bacteriuria by culture and considered true positives and 443 were considered true negatives. Compared with these results, examination of wet-unstained and dry-stained urines had sensitivities of 75.9% and 82.8%, specificities of 56.7% and 98.7%, and test efficiencies of 57.8% and 97.7%, respectively. Positive likelihood ratios were 1.8 and 63.7 and negative likelihood ratios were 0.42 and 0.17 for wet-unstained and dry-stained examinations, respectively. Compared with 29 culture-positive samples, the wet-unstained method had morphologic concordance and misclassification rates of 37.9% and 62.1%, respectively, whereas the dry-stained method had morphologic concordance and misclassification rates of 65.5% and 34.5%, respectively. Only 34% of samples with bacteriuria had pyuria. Frequency of bacteriuria was not significantly different based on age and sex of the cats, but

  11. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Presenting as Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Leg

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    Yu-Xiong Ye


    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful, swollen right leg. He had also experienced right flank pain for 1 week prior to admission. Physical examination was notable for tenderness over the right flank. The right leg was diffusely swollen and exquisitely tender to touch, with palpable crepitance. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis and pyuria. Computed tomography showed a right ureteral stone with hydronephrosis and characteristic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Furthermore, a right perirenal gas-forming abscess with extension to the right leg was noted. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aggressive control of blood sugar, percutaneous drainage of the hydronephrosis and perirenal abscess, and aggressive debridement of the leg.

  12. [Urinary Tuberculosis: Serious Complications May Occur when Diagnosis is Delayed]. (United States)

    Sanches, Inês; Pinto, Cláudia; Sousa, Mário; Carvalho, Aurora; Duarte, Raquel; Pereira, Manuel


    Genitourinary tuberculosis is the third most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, comprising 4 - 17% of extrapulmonary forms. The authors describe the case of a patient with recurrent urinary tract infections, without isolation of an infectious agent and without symptomatic resolution, despite antibiotic treatment. Imaging exams showed left ureteral stenosis with moderate hydronephrosis. The attempt of retrograde catheterization was impossible so we opted for percutaneous nephrostomy to renal relief. Microbiological urine analysis colleted by that way was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The patient started therapy with classical quadruple therapy and underwent nephrostomy for catheter placement. Despite therapeutic measures the patient required nephrectomy due to nonfunctioning kidney. Genitourinary tuberculosis is a diagnosis that should be considered in the presence of a persistent sterile pyuria.

  13. The value of positive nitrites in screening asymptomatic bacteriuria amongst Malaysian school children. (United States)

    Zainal, D; Baba, A


    It is important to diagnose and treat urinary tract infection in children before renal damage has taken place. Hence a new screening procedure will be of interest. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of urinary nitrite in screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria among school children compared to a more traditional method. Of the 44,816 school children investigated 240 (0.54%) students were judged to have bacteriuria ie 82 (0.19%) in boys and 158 (0.35%) in girls. Escherichia coli was the commonest organism isolated (28.75%). Urine dipstick testing for nitrite was found to have a low sensitivity and positive predictive value. While urinalysis for pyuria was noted to have a sensitivity of 77.9%, a specificity of 95.8% and a negative predictive value of 99.9%.

  14. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and male lower urinary symptoms: A guide for family physicians

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    Farhad Fakhrudin Vasanwala


    Full Text Available Male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are increasingly seen by family physicians worldwide due to ageing demographics. A systematic way to stratify patients who can be managed in the community and those who need to be referred to the urologist is thus very useful. Good history taking, physical examination, targeted blood or urine tests, and knowing the red flags for referral are the mainstay of stratifying these patients. Case selection is always key in clinical practice and in the setting of the family physician. The best patient to manage is one above 40 years of age, symptomatic with nocturia, slower stream and sensation of incomplete voiding, has a normal prostate-specific antigen level, no palpable bladder, and no haematuria or pyuria on the labstix. The roles of α blockers, 5-α reductase inhibitors, and antibiotics in a primary care setting to manage this condition are also discussed.

  15. Medical dissolution of feline struvite urocystoliths. (United States)

    Osborne, C A; Lulich, J P; Kruger, J M; Polzin, D J; Johnston, G R; Kroll, R A


    The efficacy of a diet designed to facilitate dissolution of feline magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) uroliths was evaluated in 30 cases of urolithiasis, sterile struvite uroliths dissolved in a mean of 36 days after initiation of dietary treatment. In 5 cases of urolithiasis, struvite urocystoliths associated with urease-negative bacterial urinary tract infection dissolved in a mean of 23 days after initiation of dietary and antimicrobial treatment. In 3 cases of urolithiasis, struvite urocystoliths associated with urease-positive staphylococcal urinary tract infection dissolved in a mean of 79 days after initiation of dietary and antimicrobial treatment. Dissolution of uroliths in cats fed the treatment diet was associated with concomitant remission of dysuria, hematuria, and pyuria, and reduction in urine pH and struvite crystalluria. In one case, a urocystolith composed of 100% ammonium urate, and in another case, a urolith composed of 60% calcium phosphate, 20% calcium oxalate, and 20% magnesium ammonium phosphate did not dissolve.

  16. BK virus in solid organ transplant recipients: an emerging syndrome. (United States)

    Mylonakis, E; Goes, N; Rubin, R H; Cosimi, A B; Colvin, R B; Fishman, J A


    BK virus is a human polyomavirus associated with a range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic viruria with pyuria to ureteral ulceration with ureteral stenosis in renal transplant patients or hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant recipients. Infection of renal allografts has been associated with diminished graft function in some individuals. Fortunately, however, the majority of patients with BK virus infections are asymptomatic. The type, duration, and intensity of immunosuppression are major contributors to susceptibility to the activation of BK virus infection. Histopathology is required for the demonstration of renal parenchymal involvement; urine cytology and viral polymerase chain reaction methods are useful adjunctive diagnostic tools. Current, treatment of immunosuppressed patients with polyomavirus viruria is largely supportive and directed toward minimizing immunosuppression. Improved diagnostic tools and antiviral therapies are needed for polyomavirus infections.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy1

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    Ghafarnezhad M


    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data by using fisher exact and chi-squared test. 14 cases had positive urine culture (6.8%. Significant correlation was seen between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, parity, past history of kidney stone, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, preterm delivery and pyuria pvalue <0.05. We suggest routine urine culture in first visit of high risk and 16th week of low risk pregnancies.

  18. Managing urinary tract infections. (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K


    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  19. Isolated urachal malakoplakia mimicking malignancy

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    Saisriharsha Pakalapati


    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Radiological investigations revealed a mass in the urachal region. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy followed by pelvic lymph node dissection and partial cystectomy with excision of the urachal mass. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed malakoplakia. Postoperative course was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of isolated urachal malakoplakia without any concomitant malignancy or bladder involvement reported in our country and one of the very few reported worldwide.

  20. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women (United States)

    Czaja, Christopher A.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E.


    Objectives: We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Methods: Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. Results: 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women. PMID:18288237

  1. The first case report of emphysematous pyelonephritis and bacteremia due to Oligella urethralis. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Hadano, Yoshiro; Hayashi, Kenichi; Nagahara, Chie; Muratani, Tetsuro; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi


    Oligella urethralis (O. urethralis) is an organism that rarely causes infections in humans. We report the case of a 90-year-old bedridden woman with progressive dementia who was placed in a long-term-care facility. She was admitted to our hospital due to fever and unconsciousness with pyuria. The abdominal computed tomography showed left pneumatosis and urinary stone. Fluoroquinolones-resistant O. urethralis, which was identified by the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was isolated form the blood and urine cultures at admission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of emphysematous pyelonephritis caused by O. urethralis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

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    Ghafarnezhad M


    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data by using fisher exact and chi-squared test. 14 cases had positive urine culture (6.8%. Significant correlation was seen between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, parity, past history of kidney stone, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, preterm delivery and pyuria pvalue <0.05. We suggest routine urine culture in first visit of high risk and 16th week of low risk pregnancies.

  3. Imaging of acute pyelonephritis in the adult

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    Stunell, H.; Buckley, O.; Feeney, J.; Geoghegan, T.; Browne, R.F.J.; Torreggiani, W.C. [The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)


    The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in adults is predominantly made by a combination of typical clinical features of flank pain, high temperature and dysuria combined with urinalysis findings of bacteruria and pyuria. Imaging is generally reserved for patients who have atypical presenting features or in those who fail to respond to conventional therapy. In addition, early imaging may be useful in diabetics or immunocompromised patients. In such patients, imaging may not only aid in making the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, but more importantly, it may help identify complications such as abscess formation. In this pictorial review, we discuss the role of modern imaging in acute pyelonephritis and its complications. We discuss the growing role of cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that may be used to demonstrate both typical as well as unusual manifestations of acute pyelonephritis and its complications. In addition, conditions such as emphysematous and fungal pyelonephritis are discussed. (orig.)


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    Mamata Sharma Neupane


    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI refers to both microbial colonization of the urine and tissue invasion of any structure of the urinary tract. Pregnancy enhances the progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic bacteriuria which could lead to pyelonephritis and adverse obstetric outcomes such as prematurity, low-birth weight, and higher fetal mortality rates. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy; its causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. The total number of participants who finished the study was 392. The mean age of the participants was 29.76 ± 6.71(range, 21-37 years. Of the 392 urine specimens processed, 102 (26.0% showed significant bacteriuria. The commonest organism causing bacteriuria was Escherichia coli. The sensitivity pattern of the isolated organisms revealed that all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin at very high percentage. 200 (51.5% women had more than 5 pus cells in urine specimens from which 50 (12.75% had positive cultures. Women with higher number of pus cells in urine specimen had significantly higher asymptomatic bacteriuria (p < 0.0001.In conclusion, screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in Nepalese community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  5. Chronic Nephropathy from Dietary Hyperoxaluria: Sustained Improvement of Renal Function after Dietary Intervention. (United States)

    Sun, Yijuan; Horowitz, Bruce L; Servilla, Karen S; Fair, Joanna R; Vigil, Darlene; Ganta, Kavitha; Massie, Larry; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H


    A 56-year-old man with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) for two years following a single episode of calcium oxalate urolithiasis developed progressive elevation of his serum creatinine concentration. Urinalysis revealed pyuria and white cell casts, a few red blood cells, minimal proteinuria, and no crystals. Urine culture was sterile. Gallium scintigraphy was consistent with interstitial nephritis. Proton pump inhibitor intake was discontinued, and a short course of oral corticosteroids was initiated. Percutaneous kidney biopsy, performed because of the continued deterioration of renal function to a minimum estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value of 15 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent pyuria, revealed deposition of oxalate crystals in the tubules and interstitium, pronounced tubular changes, and interstitial nephritis and fibrosis. Urinary oxalate excretion was very high, in the range usually associated with primary hyperoxaluria. However, investigations for primary or enteric hyperoxaluria were negative. He reported a diet based on various nuts high in oxalate content. Estimated oxalate content in the diet was, for years, approximately four times higher than that in the average American diet. The institution of a diet low in oxalates resulted in the rapid normalization of urinary oxalate excretion and urinary sediment and in the slow, continuous improvement of renal function to near normal levels (eGFR 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) before his death from a brain malignancy 3.5 years later. The manifestations of nephropathy secondary to dietary hyperoxaluria, including the urine findings, can be indistinguishable from other types of interstitial nephritis. The diagnosis of dietary hyperoxaluria requires careful dietary history and a kidney biopsy. Identifying dietary hyperoxaluria as the cause of CKD is important because the decrease in dietary oxalate intake without any other measures can lead to sustained improvement in renal function.

  6. Urinary Tract Infection and Drug Susceptibility Pattern in Patients of a Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

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    Rafiul Alam Khan


    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common and frequently encountered serious morbidity that afflicts the tool not only to all segments of human population but also results in increasing antibiotic resistance due to persistence and mismanagement of the ailment. The present study aimed to ascertain the current situation of antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection. Objectives: To find out pyuria by direct microscopy, isolation and identification of the organisms by culture and to know the susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 midstream urine samples were subjected to aerobic bacteriologic culture in the department of Microbiology, Cox’s Bazar Medical College and 250-bedded Sadar Hospital, Cox’s Bazar during the period of March to October 2012. Specimens were collected from hospitalized and outdoor patients of different age and sex groups. All specimens were examined by routine microscopy to find out significant pyuria (>5 pus cells/HPF. Strict aseptic precautions were taken all through the culture system. Results: Out of 180 specimens, 101 (56.11% culture yielded significant growth of single organism and 79 (43.89% yielded no growth. The isolated organisms were E. coli 74.26%, Klebsiella species 12.87%, Enterococci 4.95%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3.96%, Pseudomonas species 1.98% and Proteus species 1.98%. The highest sensitivity was shown by imipenem (100% followed by ceftriaxone (65%, azithromycin (65%, ciprofloxacin (60% and less sensitive to amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, cephradine and nalidixic acid ranging 15–30%. Conclusion: The findings of the present study recommends that UTI should be treated by selective antibiotics obtained from culture and sensitivity test to minimize increasing trend of drug resistance.

  7. Antimicrobial management and appropriateness of treatment of urinary tract infection in general practice in Ireland

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    Hanahoe Belinda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second most common bacterial infections in general practice and a frequent indication for prescription of antimicrobials. Increasing concern about the association between the use of antimicrobials and acquired antimicrobial resistance has highlighted the need for rational pharmacotherapy of common infections in general practice. Methods Management of urinary tract infections in general practice was studied prospectively over 8 weeks. Patients presenting with suspected UTI submitted a urine sample and were enrolled with an opt-out methodology. Data were collected on demographic variables, previous antimicrobial use and urine samples. Appropriateness of different treatment scenarios was assessed by comparing treatment with the laboratory report of the urine sample. Results A total of 22 practices participated in the study and included 866 patients. Bacteriuria was established for 21% of the patients, pyuria without bacteriuria for 9% and 70% showed no laboratory evidence of UTI. An antimicrobial agent was prescribed to 56% (481 of the patients, of whom 33% had an isolate, 11% with pyuria only and 56% without laboratory evidence of UTI. When taking all patients into account, 14% patients had an isolate identified and were prescribed an antimicrobial to which the isolate was susceptible. The agents most commonly prescribed for UTI were co-amoxyclav (33%, trimethoprim (26% and fluoroquinolones (17%. Variation between practices in antimicrobial prescribing as well as in their preference for certain antimicrobials, was observed. Treatment as prescribed by the GP was interpreted as appropriate for 55% of the patients. Three different treatment scenarios were simulated, i.e. if all patients who received an antimicrobial were treated with nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim or ciprofloxacin only. Treatment as prescribed by the GP was no more effective than treatment with nitrofurantoin for all patients

  8. An overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI

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    Elbadawi O


    Full Text Available We present the case of a 25 year old man who had a splenectomy five years previously following a road traffic accident (RTA. He presented to our A&E department one evening with fever and upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. Clinical examination was unremarkable. Initial investigations revealed only pyuria. He was treated symptomatically along with parenteral antibiotic and admitted to the general medical ward. Within few hours he deteriorated rapidly with septic shock, multi-organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and eventually cardio-respiratory arrest. Despite all resuscitative measures he died within few hours of admission. Splenectomized patients are prone to develop severe infection, including sepsis and meningitis, due to OPSI, or overwhelming post-splenectomy infection. Presentation may be mild, but the course is rapid and the prognosis is very poor, even in young people. It is important that splenectomized patients receive vaccines according to guidelines, take antibiotic prophylaxis and are educated to seek medical attention at the earliest sign of even minor infections.

  9. Empyema and Respiratory Failure Secondary to Nephropleural Fistula Caused by Chronic Urinary Tract Infection: A Case Report

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    G. H. Jones


    Full Text Available We report a case of nephropleural fistula causing empyema and respiratory failure in a 68-year-old gentleman with a long history of urological problems including recurrent nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infections. He was admitted with sepsis, a productive cough, pyuria, and reduced breath sounds over the left hemithorax. Radiological imaging revealed a fistulous connection between a left-sided perinephric abscess and the pleural space. He was commenced on broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics but developed progressive respiratory failure requiring intensive care admission. Urinary and pleural aspirates cultured facultative anaerobic pathogens with identical resistance patterns. Drainage of thoracic and perinephric collections was carried out, allowing him to be extubated after 24 hours and discharged home after 18 days on an extended course of oral antibiotics. Left nephrectomy is now planned after a period of convalescence. Empyema developing in patients with known urolithiasis should alert the treating physician to the possibility that a pathological communication has formed especially if typical urinary tract pathogens are cultured from respiratory sampling.

  10. Use of partial prostatectomy for treatment of prostatic abscesses and cysts in dogs. (United States)

    Rawlings, C A; Mahaffey, M B; Barsanti, J A; Quandt, J E; Oliver, J E; Crowell, W A; Downs, M O; Stampley, A R; Allen, S W


    To determine whether dogs had prostatic disease, urinary incontinence, or urinary tract infection 1 year after partial prostatectomy to treat prostatic abscesses and cysts. Prospective study. 20 male dogs with prostatic abscesses or cysts. Fifteen dogs had evidence of urinary tract infection. Only 8 dogs urinated normally; the remainder dribbled, had obstructions, or required medical treatment. Partial prostatectomy was performed on each dog. Sexually intact dogs (n = 12) also were castrated. None of the dogs had return of prostatic cystic enlargement or clinical signs of prostatic disease during the first year after surgery. Two dogs were euthanatized within 1 year after surgery, with 1 dog having prostatic enlargement and adenocarcinoma and 1 dog having unrelated lymphosarcoma. Fifteen dogs were continent. The remaining 5 dogs urinated normally but had intermittent and minor incontinence. Eleven dogs had no signs of infection 1 year after surgery, 5 had pyuria or positive urine bacteriologic culture results, 2 did not have urinalysis performed, and 2 were euthanatized. Dogs with severe prostatic abscesses or cysts and infections can be successfully treated by partial prostatectomy with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator and castration, resulting in long-term disease resolution. Although most dogs with severe prostatic disease do not urinate normally before surgery, nearly all dogs resume normal micturition after partial prostatectomy. Postoperative results of partial prostatectomy appear to be better than those of previous drainage techniques for treatment of prostatic cavitary disease.

  11. Clinical Manifestations Vary with Different Age Spectrums in Infants with Kawasaki Disease

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    Hao-Chuan Liu


    Full Text Available Background. Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology. The diagnosis of KD depends on clinical manifestations. The prevalence of coronary artery abnormality (CAA is 11.0% and results in cardiac sequelae, such as myocardial infarction or coronary aneurysm, which are the most serious complications in KD. Methods. We divided KD's children into different age groups: ≤6 months old, 7 months to 1 year old, and >1 year old, respectively. Different parameters were compared in each group. Results. Infants ≤6 months old are less likely to fulfill KD's major diagnostic criteria within 10 days, are prone to develop incomplete KD with the lowest cholesterol level, and have the greatest chance to have CAA and the laboratory features associated with CAA, such as the longest time needed to confirm CA diagnosis, lower hemoglobin level, lower albumin level, and higher platelet count. Infants <1 year old develop higher percentage of leukocytosis and sterile pyuria. But this group has fewer patients with neck lymphadenopathy.

  12. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease. (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoichi; Takeshita, Seiichiro; Kanai, Takashi; Takizawa, Mari; Yoshida, Yusuke; Tsujita, Yuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki


    Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH) activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5) levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI), and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI) and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders (n = 89) and nonresponders (n = 31) with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4 ± 4.8 IU/L, P IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1 ± 4.7 IU/L, P IVIG responders (32.0 ± 2.8 IU/L). KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.

  13. Point-Counterpoint: Reflex Cultures Reduce Laboratory Workload and Improve Antimicrobial Stewardship in Patients Suspected of Having Urinary Tract Infections (United States)


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent and lead to a large number of clinical encounters. A common management strategy for patients suspected of having a urinary tract infection is to test for pyuria and bacteria by urine analysis (UA) of midstream urine, with initiation of antibiotic therapy and urine culture if one or both tests are positive. Although this practice was first used in an outpatient setting with midstream urine samples, some institutions allow its use in the management of catheterized patients. The ideas behind the reflex urine culture are to limit laboratory workload by not performing culture on negative specimens and to improve antimicrobial stewardship by not giving antimicrobials to patients with negative UA results. The questions are, first, whether reflex urine culture reduces workloads significantly and, second, whether it improves antimicrobial stewardship in the era of increasing numbers of urinary tract infections due to extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Romney Humphries from UCLA supports the idea that reflex urine cultures are of value and describes what reflex parameters are most useful, while Jennifer Dien Bard of Children's Hospital Los Angeles discusses their limitations. PMID:26659213

  14. [Stab wound to the left solitary kidney: report of a case]. (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Hafiani, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S


    A forty-four-years old man with a left solitary kidney presented a stab wound in the left lumbar region. Upon admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable, the abdominal ultrasonography showed a small perirenal hematoma and the intravenous pyelography was normal. Two days later, he had no hematuria and was discharged from the hospital, with a computed tomography scan control two weeks later. Unfortunately, seven days later, the patient was admitted to emergency for left lumbar pain, a 40 degrees C fever and pyuria. The creatinine level was 72 ng/mL, and the computed tomography scan showed a large urohematoma. The patient was operated and required partial upper polar nephrectomy for distorted upper pole with infected hematoma. A large hematoma was removed and a nephrostomy tube was introduced. The renal function returned to normal six days postoperatively and the nephrostomy tube was removed after nephrostogram at 12 days. Concerning this uncommon case, we emphasize the advantage of the computed tomography scan and the necessity of emergency management in a patient with solitary traumatic kidney.

  15. Point-Counterpoint: Reflex Cultures Reduce Laboratory Workload and Improve Antimicrobial Stewardship in Patients Suspected of Having Urinary Tract Infections. (United States)

    Humphries, Romney M; Dien Bard, Jennifer


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent and lead to a large number of clinical encounters. A common management strategy for patients suspected of having a urinary tract infection is to test for pyuria and bacteria by urine analysis (UA) of midstream urine, with initiation of antibiotic therapy and urine culture if one or both tests are positive. Although this practice was first used in an outpatient setting with midstream urine samples, some institutions allow its use in the management of catheterized patients. The ideas behind the reflex urine culture are to limit laboratory workload by not performing culture on negative specimens and to improve antimicrobial stewardship by not giving antimicrobials to patients with negative UA results. The questions are, first, whether reflex urine culture reduces workloads significantly and, second, whether it improves antimicrobial stewardship in the era of increasing numbers of urinary tract infections due to extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Romney Humphries from UCLA supports the idea that reflex urine cultures are of value and describes what reflex parameters are most useful, while Jennifer Dien Bard of Children's Hospital Los Angeles discusses their limitations. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. A multicenter case-control study of diagnostic tests for urinary tract infection in the presence of urolithiasis. (United States)

    Yilmaz, S; Pekdemir, M; Aksu, N M; Koyuncu, N; Cinar, O; Akpinar, E


    Urinary stone disease (USD) alone can cause much morbidity, but when present in conjunction with urinary tract infection, complications and morbidity increase even more. This study investigated the clinical and laboratory findings in patients who had USD with and without infection and evaluated the most suitable diagnostic value for urinary tract infection parameters before urine culture results were available. In a prospective fashion, patients who presented to the emergency department with a complaint of colicky flank pain (with or without hematuria) and who were diagnosed as having urolithiasis with ultrasound were evaluated for 1 year. The gold standard for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was urine culture. The most suitable diagnostic value for urinary tract infection parameters was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Logistic regression was used to identify independent variables that predicted a positive urine culture. Of the 192 eligible patients, 177 agreed to participate in the study. Of the clinical and laboratory characteristics analyzed, urine WBC, blood WBC, and fever were significantly different between culture positive and negative patients (p 11,300 (OR 2.1), pyuria (OR 2.8), and temperature >37.9°C (OR 3.1) showed a significantly increased risk of having a positive urine culture (correct class 87.9%). While a single physical examination or laboratory finding cannot predict urinary tract infection in USD patients with complete reliability, the presence of pyruria, fever, and leukocytosis significantly increases the odds of a positive urine culture.

  17. Anti - microbial resistance stratified by risk factor among Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urinary tract at a rural clinic in Central India

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    Chatterjee B


    Full Text Available Background: The failure of empirical therapy is frequently observed, even in community-acquired urinary tract infections. We, therefore, conducted a prospective, clinic-based study in 2004-2005 to document anti-microbial resistance rates and correlate them with possible risk factors to assist empirical decision-making. Materials and Methods: Symptomatic patients with pyuria underwent urine culture. Isolates were identified using standard methods and anti-microbial resistance was determined by disk-diffusion. Ultrasonography was used to detect complicating factors. Patients were stratified by the presence of complicating factors and history of invasive procedures for comparison of resistance rates. Statistical Method Used: Chi-square or Fisher exact tests, as appropriate. Results: There were 156 E. coli isolates, of which 105 were community-acquired. Twenty-three community-acquired isolates were from patients with complicating factors while 82 were from patients without any. Fifty-one isolates were from patients who had recently undergone invasive procedures on the urinary tract. Thirty-two community-acquired isolates from reproductive-age women without apparent complicating factors had resistance rates of 50% or above against tetracyclines, Co-trimoxazole, aminopenicillins, Nalidixic acid, Ciprofloxacin and 1 st generation cephalosporins. Resistance rates were significantly higher among isolates from patients subjected to invasive procedures, except against Co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines and Amikacin. Conclusion: High rates of anti-microbial resistance in community-acquired uropathogens have made antimicrobial sensitivity testing necessary even in a rural, primary-care setting.

  18. Relationship of abnormal Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein localization to renal morphology and function. (United States)

    Chambers, R; Groufsky, A; Hunt, J S; Lynn, K L; McGiven, A R


    Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (TH) distribution was studied using a biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase technique in renal biopsies from 166 consecutive patients and 8 normal kidneys. Tubulointerstitial damage was independently assessed and graded. In 109 patients TH antibodies were measured by ELISA and in 30 of these urinary TH and beta 2-microglobulin excretions were measured by radioimmunoassay. In 124 biopsies only distal tubular epithelium and casts were stained. Glomerular space (8) or interstitial (34) deposits were seen in 42 biopsies; 16/68 with glomerulonephritis, 4/14 with systemic vasculitis, 12/33 with chronic interstitial nephritis, 1/8 with acute interstitial nephritis, 9/43 with other nephropathies. There was no correlation between TH distribution and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage (p greater than 0.5), urinary TH excretion (p greater than 0.05), urinary beta 2-microglobulin excretion (p greater than 0.05), glomerular filtration rate, urinary concentrating ability, or the incidence of pyuria. TH antibodies did not correlate with TH distribution (p greater than 0.5) or the degree of tubulointerstitial damage. Abnormal TH distribution showed no statistical relationship to the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, changes in renal function or levels of TH antibodies.

  19. Travel-related leptospirosis in Japan: a report on a series of five imported cases diagnosed at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine. (United States)

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Koizumi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio


    Leptospirosis is one of the most common travel-related infections. We report 5 cases of travel-related leptospirosis who presented at our clinic between January 2008 and December 2013. Patients were included in the study if they presented with a clinical profile that was compatible with the disease within 21 days of their return from traveling, which were laboratory-diagnosed as leptospirosis by blood culture, rise in antibody titers in paired sera using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), and/or DNA detection using flaB-nested PCR. Five leptospirosis cases were evaluated, all of which contracted the disease after exposure to fresh water in Southeast Asian countries. All of the cases had fevers, headaches, conjunctival injections, and relative bradycardia. The pertinent laboratory findings included elevated C-reactive protein levels, elevated creatinine levels, and sterile pyuria. All 5 cases had serum MAT titers that increased by ≥ 4 times in the interval between specimens taken during the acute phase and those taken during the convalescence phase, and leptospiral DNA was detected in plasma and/or urine specimens in 4 cases. Leptospira interrogans was isolated from one patient's blood sample. Patients were treated with penicillin G, minocycline, or doxycycline. One case was cured without antibiotics. A diagnosis of leptospirosis should be considered for febrile travelers who return from Southeast Asian countries to Japan after being exposed to freshwater while traveling.

  20. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

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    Danielo Garcia de Freitas


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Metotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor.

  1. Current Indications for Transurethral Resection of the Prostate and Associated Complications

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    Chia-Chu Liu


    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP is the most common surgical procedure for relieving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Here, we report our experience of current indications for TURP and their associated outcomes at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (KMUH. A total of 111 patients who underwent TURP at KMUH between May 2000 and December 2001 were included in this retrospective review. For each patient, the surgical indication was categorized into acute urinary retention, chronic complications (including renal impairment, recurrent urinary infection, bladder stone/diverticulum, post-void residue, and recurrent hematuria, and symptomatic prostatism. Thirty-five patients (31% had acute urinary retention, 28 (27% had chronic complications, and 48 (42% had symptomatic prostatism. Most patients chose TURP only when medical treatment had failed to relieve symptoms, no matter what category they belonged to. Patients with acute urinary retention and chronic complications had larger prostates (p = 0.002 and more tissue resected (p = 0.05 than those with symptomatic prostatism. Patients with acute urinary retention seemed to be at greater risk of postoperative complications such as recurrent urinary retention and urinary tract infection. We suggest that urodynamic study may be necessary to rule out concomitant bladder dysfunction before surgery and that adequate prophylactic antibiotic treatment be used to decrease the risk of urinary tract infection during or after TURP, especially when pyuria is noted preoperatively in patients with acute urinary retention.

  2. Association between Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Pre-Eclampsia. (United States)

    Rezavand, Negin; Veisi, Firooze; Zangane, Mrayam; Amini, Roghaye; Almasi, Afshin


    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the most common and important bacterial infections during pregnancy and can result in progressive infections and endanger maternal as well as fetal health. In this study, we assessed the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. In this case-control study, pregnant women who presented to Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah in 2013-14 were studied. The minimum sample size was calculated as 125 pregnant women in each group with a total of 250 subjects. There were 125 women with pre-eclampsia and 125 women without pre-eclampsia (control group). Matching was done for age, gestational age, and parity between case and control groups. Matching was verified by a P value of 0.061 for maternal age and gestational age and 0.77 for parity. The statistical analyses were done by applying the chi-squared test and determining odds ratio (OR) for having bacteriuria in univariate logistic regression as well as multivariate regression with adjusting the effect of maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more common in pre-eclampsia group than in control group. The results showed that a significant association existed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. The rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.8 times higher in women with pre-eclampsia compared to those without pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required for better clarification of association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia.

  3. Pathologic significance of Staphylococcus saprophyticus in complicated urinary tract infections. (United States)

    Ishihara, S; Yokoi, S; Ito, M; Kobayashi, S; Deguchi, T


    To determine the pathologic significance of Staphylococcus saprophyticus in complicated urinary tract infections. We performed a retrospective analysis of specimens demonstrating this organism based on a survey of 9980 urine specimens cultured in our clinic during an 11-year period. Forty-two specimens from 34 patients were positive for S. saprophyticus. S. saprophyticus was isolated in 13 women without underlying urologic disease, and their symptoms were compatible with acute cystitis or acute pyelonephritis. S. saprophyticus was isolated from 7 men and 14 women with underlying urologic disease. In most of these 21 patients, S. saprophyticus was thought not to be a true uropathogen but rather a colonizer, because the isolated organism was usually low in numbers and found with a low degree of pyuria, and the hosts were usually asymptomatic. However, 2 patients demonstrating S. saprophyticus colonization developed sepsis after urologic surgery. Although this organism is pathogenic in certain circumstances, suggesting the necessity of preoperative antimicrobial elimination, it is usually a colonizer in complicated urinary tract infections.

  4. Radiologic findings of UTI in children

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    Cho, W.Y.; Oh, K. K.; Kim, P. K. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Urinary tract infection in children is common and recurrent especially combined with anatomical and functional abnormalities. Radiological analysis of the 68 cases of urinary tract infection who were admitted to the pediatric department of Yong Dong Severance Hospital from Apr. 1983 to Aug. 1985 were subjected in this study. The results were as follows: 1. Urinary tract infection was more common in male under 1 year of age, but increasing with age more prevalent tendency in female. 2. Clinical manifestations on admission were fever, urinary frequency, flank pain, gross hematuria and etc. 3. Urinalysis disclosed pyuria in 60%, hematuria in 47%, and bacteriuria in 7%. Escherichia coli was the most common strain and Klebsiella species, Enterococcus, Proteus species were common in descending order. 4. In the radiologic findings, the patients of refluxed cases showed more changes in the size of kidney and damage of renal parenchyma. And also they were more combined with anatomical abnormalities. 5. VCUG findings according to the grade of reflux showed more extensive changes of kidney itself, ureter and bladder with increasing of the grade of VUR. 6. Over 6 months follow-up, the initial scarring were aggravated and getting worse although treatment.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from significant bacteriuria. (United States)

    Schuab, Rôde B B; Arêas, Glauber P; Souza, Viviane C; Barros, Rosana R


    Streptococcus agalactiae has been implicated in urinary tract infections, but the molecular epidemiology of such infections is poorly characterized. In this study, 194 isolates recovered from significant bacteriuria of non-pregnant individuals were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization of macrolide resistance, PCR-based capsular typing and analysis of genetic diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By disk diffusion, all isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin; 87.6% and 9.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to tetracycline and clindamycin, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) confirmed that 11.3% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Macrolide resistance determinants were iMLSB (n = 9), cMLSB (n = 9) and M (n = 4), associated with ermA, ermB and mefA/E. Predominant capsular types were V, Ia, II and III. No significant association was observed between any capsular type and the occurrence of pyuria. However, type III was associated with erythromycin resistance, while type II was associated with erythromycin-susceptible isolates. Distinct PFGE profiles were observed among different types, but identical profiles were found among erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates of the same type. A variety of capsular and PFGE types are involved in significant bacteriuria. Although capsular types found here are prevalent in different infections, the frequency of each type seems to be unique. Erythromycin resistance is due to polyclonal origin instead of the expansion of few clones of S. agalactiae.

  6. Actinobaculum schaalii an emerging pediatric pathogen?

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    Zimmermann Petra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobaculum schaalii was first described as a causative agent for human infection in 1997. Since then it has mainly been reported causing urinary tract infections (UTI in elderly individuals with underlying urological diseases. Isolation and identification is challenging and often needs molecular techniques. A. schaalii is increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans, however data in children is very limited. Case presentation We present the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian boy suffering from myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder who presented with a UTI. An ultrasound of the urinary tract was unremarkable. Urinalysis and microscopy showed an elevated leukocyte esterase test, pyuria and a high number of bacteria. Empiric treatment with oral co-trimoxazole was started. Growth of small colonies of Gram-positive rods was observed after 48 h. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed an A. schaalii infection 9 days later. Treatment was changed to oral amoxicillin for 14 days. On follow-up urinalysis was normal and urine cultures were negative. Conclusions A.schaalii is an emerging pathogen in adults and children. Colonization and subsequent infection seem to be influenced by the age of the patient. In young children with high suspicion of UTI who use diapers or in children who have known abnormalities of their urogenital tract, infection with A. schaalii should be considered and empiric antimicrobial therapy chosen accordingly.

  7. Renal manifestations in hypocomplementic urticarial vasculitis syndrome: Is it a distinct pathology?

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    Badriya AlHermi


    Full Text Available Hypocomplementic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS is an autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent urticaria, arthritis, and glomerulonephritis (GN. Anti-C1q antibody is the marker of HUVS together with low levels of classical pathway complements which are C2, C3, C4, and C1q. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with episodes of rashes, injected conjunctiva, abdominal pain, and arthritis, diagnosed as HUVS. He had low C3, low CH50, normal C4, and positive C1q antibody. His urinalysis showed intermittent microscopic hematuria only. One year later, his laboratories showed persistent low C3 and positive Anti-ds DNA. The urinalysis showed hematuria, pyuria, and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Urine protein to creatinine ratio was 101.8 h mg/mmol. Kidney biopsy showed mesangioproliferative GN consistent with the diagnosis of HUVS. The patient was treated initially with prednisolone then azathioprine was added to the regimen. He showed good response with the disappearance of hematuria and proteinuria. Nine months later, he had no skin rashes with normal urinalysis and normal anti-ds DNA antibody. We report a case with HUVS and GN with positive anti-dsDNA antibody that revealed good response to combination of immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. Rat indwelling urinary catheter model of Candida albicans biofilm infection. (United States)

    Nett, Jeniel E; Brooks, Erin G; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R


    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-associated Candida albicans biofilm infection that mimics this common process in patients. In the setting of a functioning, indwelling urinary catheter in a rat, Candida proliferated as a biofilm on the device surface. Characteristic biofilm architecture was observed, including adherent, filamentous cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to what occurs in human patients, animals with this infection developed candiduria and pyuria. Infection progressed to cystitis, and a biofilmlike covering was observed over the bladder surface. Furthermore, large numbers of C. albicans cells were dispersed into the urine from either the catheter or bladder wall biofilm over the infection period. We successfully utilized the model to test the efficacy of antifungals, analyze transcriptional patterns, and examine the phenotype of a genetic mutant. The model should be useful for future investigations involving the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and drug resistance of Candida biofilms in the urinary tract.

  9. Interleukin 8 Receptor Deficiency Confers Susceptibility to Acute Experimental Pyelonephritis and May Have a Human Counterpart (United States)

    Frendéus, Björn; Godaly, Gabriela; Hang, Long; Karpman, Diana; Lundstedt, Ann-Charlotte; Svanborg, Catharina


    Neutrophils migrate to infected mucosal sites that they protect against invading pathogens. Their interaction with the epithelial barrier is controlled by CXC chemokines and by their receptors. This study examined the change in susceptibility to urinary tract infection (UTI) after deletion of the murine interleukin 8 receptor homologue (mIL-8Rh). Experimental UTIs in control mice stimulated an epithelial chemokine response and increased chemokine receptor expression. Neutrophils migrated through the tissues to the epithelial barrier that they crossed into the lumen, and the mice developed pyuria. In mIL-8Rh knockout (KO) mice, the chemokine response was intact, but the epithelial cells failed to express IL-8R, and neutrophils accumulated in the tissues. The KO mice were unable to clear bacteria from kidneys and bladders and developed bacteremia and symptoms of systemic disease, but control mice were fully resistant to infection. The experimental UTI model demonstrated that IL-8R–dependent mechanisms control the urinary tract defense, and that neutrophils are essential host effector cells. Patients prone to acute pyelonephritis also showed low CXC chemokine receptor 1 expression compared with age-matched controls, suggesting that chemokine receptor expression may also influence the susceptibility to UTIs in humans. The results provide a first molecular clue to disease susceptibility of patients prone to acute pyelonephritis. PMID:10993918

  10. [Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: Review of 10 cases]. (United States)

    Leoni, Francisco Alberto; Kinleiner, Pablo; Revol, Martín; Zaya, Alejandro; Odicio, Alejandro


    To report our experience with clinical presentation, appearance, diagnosis and treatment of Xanthogranulomaous pyelonephritis (XP). Multicenter, observational, descriptive and retrosprospective study carried out during six years. We studied 10 patients, 8 women and 2 males, with an average age of 50 years. All cases presented with lumbar and abdominal pain, loss of weight, conjuntival pallor, renal lithiasis and chronic evolution Fever and palpable abdominal mass, were present in 80% of cases and 60% presented history of urinary tract infection. Initial diagnosis, in most cases, was pyonephrosis. Two cases (20 %). were associated with cancer and other 2 (20 %)with Psoriasis. Mortality was of (10 %).Laboratory hallmark were anemia, high SGV rate and leukocytosis. Urinary sediment showed pyuria. Urine culture was positive in the 50 % of the patients. On the other hand urine cultures obtained from nephrostomy tube were always positive. The onset was unilateral and diffuse in all cases without predominance in the location. Direct abdominal x-ray showed lithiasis, ultrasound showed increased renal size, with a pattern of hydronephrosis and/or intraparenchymatous abscesses. CT scan was useful to demonstrate disease extension. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XP) is a chronic and unusual inflammatory-infectious disease with acute episodes involving renal parenchyma. Most cases appear in medium aged women. Histopathologic study offers the accurate diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy avoids septic complications. Total or partial nephrectomy is the definitive treatment. We propose nephrostomy because it facilitates the microbiological diagnosis and surgery (nephrectomy).

  11. Predictors of ertapenem therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalized adults: the importance of renal insufficiency and urinary pH. (United States)

    Cunha, B A; Giuga, J; Gerson, S


    In hospitalized adults acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and catheter associated bacteriuria (CAB) may be treated with oral antibiotics. With AUC or CAB due to extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) + Gram negative bacilli (GNB) physicians often use intravenous therapy, e.g., ertapenem. We reviewed our recent experience in hospitalized adults with AUC and CAB treated with ertapenem. Therapeutic efficacy of ertapenem was assessed by decreased pyuria/bacteriuria, and elimination of the uropathogen. The effectiveness of ertapenem in the presence of renal insufficiency (CrCl 3 days) in patients with decreased renal function and alkaline urinary pH. We reviewed 45 hospitalized adults with AUC or CAB to determine if renal insufficiency and or alkaline urinary pH affected ertapenem efficacy. In the 33 adult hospitalized patients with AUC and 12 with CAB, we found that ertapenem was consistently effective in eliminating the GNB bacteriuria. In hospitalized adults, the presence of renal insufficiency and acid urine, bacteriuria was eliminated in  3 days which has not been previously reported.

  12. [Wardenafil in combined treatment of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis]. (United States)

    Aliaev, Iu G; Vinarov, A Z; Akhvlediani, N D


    The efficiency of treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in combination with antibacterial drugs in chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) was studied in a randomized trial with participation of 103 CBP patients (mean age 36.2 +/- 8.4 years). Group 1 patients (n = 32) received levofloxacine (500 mg/day) monotherapy for 4 weeks. Group 2 patients (n = 34) received antibacterial treatment plus wardenafil in a dose 10 mg in the evening. Group 3 patients (n = 37) received combined treatment (fluoroquinolone + wardenafil), PDE-5 inhibitor was taken for more than 2 times a week 10-60 min before the coitus. Treatment efficacy was assessed with NIH-CPSI scale, count of bacteria and leukocytes in the pre- and postmassage urine portions, uroflowmetry. By NIH-CPSI scale, a significant (p quality of life in group 2. The control test discovered pyuria in postmassage urine in 7 (21.9%), 4 (11.8%) and 6 (16.2%) patients of group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Manifest bacteriuria was registered in 3 (9.4%), 2 (5.9%) and 3 (8.1%) patients, respectively. Uroflowmetry reported significant changes (p patients of group 2. Efficacy of CBP treatment significantly rises in combination of antibacterial treatment with wardenafil.

  13. [Analgesic nephropathy]. (United States)

    Pintér, I; Nagy, J


    Analgesic nephropathy is a slowly progressive disease caused by the chronic abuse of analgesic mixtures containing two analgesic components combined with potentially addictive substances (coffeine and/or codeine). Pathologically, the nephropathy is characterized by renal papillary necrosis with calcification and chronic interstitial nephritis sometimes in association with transitional-cell carcinoma of the uroepithelium. In the early stage, the clinical characteristics are polyuria, sterile pyuria, sometimes renal colic and haematuria. With further progression of the disease, there are the nonspecific symptoms of advanced renal failure. The incidence of classic analgesic nephropathy among Hungarian patients on chronic renal replacement therapy has proven. There is an urgent need for the estimation of analgesic nephropathy among patients with chronic renal disease and among patients with chronic pain presumably regularly taking analgesics in Hungary. As long as analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin or paracetamol and/or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and addictive substances are available "over-the-counter", analgesic nephropathy will continue to be a problem also in our country.

  14. Sudden death due to medulloblastoma: a case report. (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Hsuan; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Juan, Chun-Jung; Lee, Herng-Shen; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Fan, Hueng-Chuen


    Medulloblastoma is one of the notorious CNS malignancies for subtle and atypical clinical presentations, causing rapid neurological deterioration and death, especially in pediatric patients. The delay in diagnosis leads to painful remorse, conflicts, and lawsuits for parents and medical staff. We report a 2 year old girl with initial presentation of febrile pyuria. Soon after admission, a generalized clonic-tonic seizure attacked to her and led to an impression of febrile convulsion. However, an unusual postical slowness of pupils to light stimulation propelled a further investigation. A contrast enhanced brain computer tomography (CT) unexpectedly showed a mass occupied the fourth ventricle resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus and compressed adjacent brain stem and cerebellum. The disease rapidly progressed and she died 18 hours after an emergent decompression with extraventricular drainage (EVD) installation. Cytology of cerebrospinal fluid proved medulloblastoma. This case report highlights the importance of clinical suspicion, such as a trivial but unusual presentation, a lagged pupil response to light stimulation. A brain CT scan should be done to rule out any possibility of an organic lesion. Close monitor is required in order to catch and treat medulloblastoma early. However, once discovered, the cancer has spread.

  15. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prostatic Abscess Presenting as Acute Urinary Retention: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Naboush, Ali; Abou Yassine, Ali; Yasmin, Mohamad; Mobarakai, Neville


    Background. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains have emerged as a substantial cause of infection in individuals without exposure to the healthcare system. Prostatic abscess is an uncommon disease. To date, there are only 6 published reports of a prostatic abscess secondary to CA-MRSA. Case Description. A 52-year-old diabetic Caucasian presented to the emergency department with severe lower abdominal pain of few hours duration, urinary frequency, and dribbling over the last 3 weeks. Physical examination was remarkable for an enlarged nontender prostate. A urine analysis showed pyuria while urine cultures grew CA-MRSA. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed multiple prostate abscesses and a thickened urinary bladder wall. A TURP was performed by the urology team and pathology showed severe acute and chronic prostatitis with abscess formation and necrotic tissue. Our treatment regimen included IV vancomycin followed by oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampin. Eradication of CA-MRSA was confirmed by follow-up cultures 2 months following discharge. Conclusion. This case illustrates the successful identification, diagnosis, and prompt treatment of a prostatic abscess secondary to CA-MRSA in a diabetic patient without recent hospitalization. Early treatment with antibiotics and transurethral resection of the prostate abscess led to a shortened hospital stay and decreased morbidity.

  16. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prostatic Abscess Presenting as Acute Urinary Retention: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Ali Naboush


    Full Text Available Background. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA strains have emerged as a substantial cause of infection in individuals without exposure to the healthcare system. Prostatic abscess is an uncommon disease. To date, there are only 6 published reports of a prostatic abscess secondary to CA-MRSA. Case Description. A 52-year-old diabetic Caucasian presented to the emergency department with severe lower abdominal pain of few hours duration, urinary frequency, and dribbling over the last 3 weeks. Physical examination was remarkable for an enlarged nontender prostate. A urine analysis showed pyuria while urine cultures grew CA-MRSA. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed multiple prostate abscesses and a thickened urinary bladder wall. A TURP was performed by the urology team and pathology showed severe acute and chronic prostatitis with abscess formation and necrotic tissue. Our treatment regimen included IV vancomycin followed by oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and rifampin. Eradication of CA-MRSA was confirmed by follow-up cultures 2 months following discharge. Conclusion. This case illustrates the successful identification, diagnosis, and prompt treatment of a prostatic abscess secondary to CA-MRSA in a diabetic patient without recent hospitalization. Early treatment with antibiotics and transurethral resection of the prostate abscess led to a shortened hospital stay and decreased morbidity.

  17. A Giant Retroperitoneal Abscess Mimicking Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

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    Naciye Sinem Gezer


    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with an acute left-sided groin pain and scrotal swelling. He has suffered from a groin hernia for two years. Abdominal x-ray demonstrated air-fluid levels in the left upper quadrant suggesting an intestinal obstruction (Figure 1. Abdominal computed tomography (CT scan was obtained with an initial diagnosis of an incarcerated inguinal hernia. However, it showed multiple perirenal abscesses and a giant-sized retroperitoneal abscess extending from the retroperitoneal space into the scrotum through the inguinal canal (Figure 2 and 3. Retroperitoneal abscesses are most frequently seen in the 3rd to 6th decades of life (1. Gram-negative bacteria, most commonly E. coli, are the cause of infection which usually develops secondary to pyelonephritis, urinary stasis or immune suppression. The onset of clinical manifestations of the infection, including flank, abdomen and groin pain, chills, fever, tachycardia, weakness and anorexia are often insidious (2,3. Laboratory findings include leukocytosis, increased serum creatinine levels and pyuria. The literature emphasizes the possibility of diagnostic delay and postponed treatment of retroperitoneal abscess due to the fact that its prodrome phase may be long.

  18. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on inflammation biomarkers in pediatric acute pyelonephritis: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Allameh, Zahra; Karimi, Abdollah; Rafiei Tabatabaei, Seddigheh; Sharifian, Mostafa; Salamzadeh, Jamshid


    This study was designed to investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as a potent and safe antioxidant, on inflammatory biomarkers of acute pyelonephritis in pediatric patients. Children (pyelonephritis were recruited in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups and recieved placebo or NAC effervescent tablets with daily dose based on their weight, for 5 days. The children were evaluated for serum procalcitonin level, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum creatinine, and clinical symptoms on the 1st and the 5th days. Seventy patients, 35 in each group, with a mean age of 5.54 ± 3.10 years completed the study. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the amount of changes in procalcitonin levels after 5 days (P = .90). Within-group analysis confirmed CRP reduction in both groups (P < .001); however, between-group analysis did not show significant difference in CRP reductions, either (P = .65). No significant differences were found between the two groups in the day of resolving pyuria (P = .46), day of resolving bacteriuria (P = .81), or reductions in leukocyte count (P = .64) and neutrophil count (P = .49). A short period of NAC administration with the recommended doses could not lead to a significant decrease in inflammation biomarkers. Studies on higher doses and longer duration of NAC administration along with evaluation of the long-term effects of the intervention by tools such as renal scntigraphy are suggested.

  19. Acute pyelonephritis: role of enhanced CT scan in the prediction of clinical outcome

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    Jo, Byung June; Kim, Ki Whang; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Jai Keun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Chong Hoon [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To correlate the CT findings of acute pyelonephritis with its outcome and with clinical data. Thirty five contrast enhanced CT scans in patients diagnosed as suffering from acute pyelonephritis were retrospectively analyzed. Findings based on the morphology of perfusion defect in the renal parenchyma were classified as normal, focal wedge, multifocal wedge, focal mass, or mixed form composed of wedge and mass. These findings were correlated with clinical data such as degree of fever, leukocytosis, the period after antibiotic treatment during which fever was reduced, and the presence of pyuria in each group Analysis was then performed. Perfusion defects were seen in 23 of 35 cases, and their morphology was classified as follow; focal wedge (n=2), multifocal wedge (n=8), focal mass (n=4), and mixed form (n=9). Twelve cases (34.3%) showed no perfusion defect. The duration of fever was significantly prolonged in patients with focal mass form (p < .05). There was no significant correlation between the morphology of perfusion defect, bilaterality, and other clinical factors. The present study shows that the clinical course of the focal mass form of perfusion defect, as seen on CT, is different from that of other types. CT could be effective in predicting clinical progress and the outcome of treatment in cases of acute pyelonephritis.

  20. Ureaplasma urealyticum as a causative organism of urinary tract infection stones. (United States)

    Mobarak, A; Tharwat, A


    Ureaplasma urealyticum is a fastidious organism which is not recovered by conventional bacterial cultures techniques, but special cultures are required for its isolation and identification. As it is a urease-producing organism, it is considered a risk factor for the formation of struvite calculi in the urinary tract. A total of 30 patients with urinary infection stones (19 of them with the 1st formation and 11 with recurrent stone formation) were included in the study. Both bladder urine specimen (cystoscopically obtained) and stones removed were subjected to conventional cultures and also to Ureaplasma specific cultures (A7 agar and U9 broth). The results of culture techniques revealed that 86.7% of patients had aerobic organisms (E. coli in 46.7%, Klebsiella in 30%, Proteus in 6.7% and Pseudomonas in 3.3%) and 26.7% showed U. urealyticum in mid stream urine. As regards stone cultures, they revealed aerobic organisms in 76.7%, and U. urealyticum in 20%. Sensitivity tests for U. urealyticum showed that minocycline was the most effective antimicrobial followed by tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. From these data, we conclude that U. urealyticum may be the causative organism for infection stone and should be searched for via its specific cultures, especially in patients with recurrent stones and with the so-called sterile pyuria.

  1. Efficacy and safety of the phytotherapeutic drug Canephron® N in prevention and treatment of urogenital and gestational disease: review of clinical experience in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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    Naber KG


    Full Text Available Kurt G NaberTechnical University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: This review evaluates 17 clinical studies from 18 selected publications concerning the safety, tolerability, and additional effects of the phytotherapeutic drug, Canephron® N (CAN, containing the medicinal plants, Centaurium erythraea, Levisticum officinale, and Rosmarinus officinalis as standard therapy in various clinical settings. Its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults and in children, therapy and prophylaxis in adult patients with renal stones, treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and other gestational diseases in pregnancy, and also its safety and tolerability. The dosage was as recommended and over a varying duration. Overall, CAN was shown to be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of UTI compared with standard therapy, both in adults and children, and there was a reduced number of relapses. Children undergoing surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux benefited from a prophylactic course of CAN. Ten-day add on therapy increased the rate of spontaneous elimination of kidney stones compared with standard therapy alone and may also have had a positive effect on stone prevention. Pregnant women showed earlier relief of symptoms and normalization of pyuria on additional treatment with the herbal combination. Only one adverse effect was reported (skin rash in the 3115 patients included in this review. No teratogenic, embryotoxic, or fetotoxic effects, or negative interference with the psychological development or health of children born of mothers treated with the drug were reported. Because some of the studies were not well designed, their statistical significance remains unclear.Keywords: Canephron® N, herbal remedy, urogenital disease, gestational disease

  2. Urinary tuberculosis: a cohort of 79 adult cases. (United States)

    Altiparmak, Mehmet Riza; Trabulus, Sinan; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yalin, Serkan Feyyaz; Denizli, Nazim; Aslan, Gonul; Doruk, Hasan Erdal; Engin, Aynur; Tekin, Recep; Birengel, Serhat; Cetin, Birsen Durmaz; Arslan, Ferhat; Turhan, Vedat; Mert, Ali


    We aimed to investigate the demographic, clinical, diagnostic, treatment and outcome features of patients with urinary tuberculosis (UTB). Patients with UTB admitted to seven separate centers across Turkey between 1995 and 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnosis of UTB was made by the presence of any clinical finding plus positivity of one of the following: (1) acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in urine, (2) isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (3) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. tuberculosis, (4) histopathological evidence for TB. Seventy-nine patients (49.36% male, mean age 50.1 ± 17.4 years) were included. Mean time between onset of symptoms and clinical diagnosis was 9.7 ± 8.9 months. The most common signs and symptoms were hematuria (79.7%), sterile pyuria (67.1%), dysuria (51.9%), weakness (51.9%), fever (43%) and costovertebral tenderness (38%). Cystoscopy was performed in 59 (74.6%), bladder biopsy in 18 (22.8%), kidney biopsy in 1 (1.26%) and nephrectomy in 12 (15.2%) patients. Histopathological verification of UTB was achieved in 12 (63.1%) patients who undergone biopsy and in 100% of those undergone nephrectomy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated in the urine of 50 (63.3%) cases. Four-drug standard anti-TB treatment was the preferred regimen for 87.3% of the patients. Mean treatment duration was 10.5 ± 2.7 months. Deterioration of renal function occurred in 15 (18.9%) patients two of whom progressed to end-stage renal disease and received hemodialysis. Only one patient died after 74-day medical treatment period. Cases with UTB may present with non-specific clinical features. All diagnostic studies including radiology, cyctoscopy and histopathology are of great importance to exclude UTB and prevent renal failure.

  3. Renal tuberculosis

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    Džamić Zoran


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  4. Genitourinary tuberculosis: historical and basic science review: past and present. (United States)

    Zajaczkowski, Thaddaeus


    Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) usually results from the reactivation of old, dormant tuberculous diseases by pathogens of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. GUTB is the second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with more than 90% of cases occurring in developing countries. In GUTB, the kidneys are the most common sites of infection and are infected through hematogenous spread of the bacilli, which then spread through the renal and urinary tract. Patients with genital and urethral TB present with a superficial tuberculous ulcer on the penis or in the female genital tract develop mainly due to primary contact with mycobacterium exposure during intercourse or inoculation via goods or chattels contaminated with mycobacterium. The diagnosis of TB of the urinary tract is based on the case history, the finding of pyuria in the absence of infection as judged by culture on routine media, and by radiological imaging. However, a positive yellow egg culture and/or histological analysis of biopsy specimens, possibly combined with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is still required in most patients to establish a definitive diagnosis of GUTB. The standard antituberculous drug treatment should be administered initially for two months during the intensive phase with three or four drugs daily followed by dual continuation therapy for four months. Surgery as a treatment option in GUTB might be indicated in complicated urinary tuberculosis. After antituberculous treatment of GUTB, surveillance with regular follow-up visits over the next five years is recommended. In cases of drug resistance, additional drugs and prolonged treatment are required. Furthermore, increasing rates of drug-resistant cases and co-infection with HIV pose challenges in the treatment GUTB and other forms of TB.

  5. Predictors of nonresponse to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in Kawasaki disease

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    Hyo Min Park


    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; It has been reported that 10% to 20% of children with Kawasaki disease (KD will not respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment. In this study, we aimed to identify useful predictors of therapeutic failure in children with KD. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We examined 309 children diagnosed with KD at the Kyungpook National University Hospital and the Inje University Busan Paik Hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records and analyzed multiple parameters in responders and nonresponders to IVIG. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; Among the 309 children, 30 (9.7% did not respond to IVIG. They had significantly higher proportion of neutrophils, and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin, and N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide than did responders. IVIGnonresponders had a significantly longer duration of hospitalization, and more frequently experienced coronary artery lesion, and sterile pyuria. No differences in the duration of fever at initial treatment or, clinical features were noted. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; Two independent predictors (ALT?#248;4 IU/L, total bilirubin?#240;.9 mg/dL for nonresponse were confirmed through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thus elevated ALT and total bilirubin levels might be useful in predicting nonresponse to IVIG therapy in children with KD.

  6. Correlation ofbiofilm formation ofuropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)and fimbriae genotypes

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    Maysaa El Sayed Zaki


    Objective:In the present study we try to correlate between pathogenic intrinsic factor of Escherichia coli (E.coli) presented with different fimbria genotyes and biofilm formation with host immune factor entitled interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion as defense mechanism.Methods:A total of91 pediatrics complaining of pyuria were included in the present study.In addition,20 healthy control children were included.Full microbiological study was performed for isolated E.coli.PapG alleles were studied by multiple alleles PCR and biofilm formation was studied.IL-6 was measured in urine.Results:IL-6 had statistically significant elevation in patients′urine compared to control.From biofilm study, it was found that 19 isolated E.coli had formed biofilm in vitro.Moreover,urine samples with positive biofilm for-mation of E.coli had statistically significant lower IL-6 secretion than those with negative E.coli for biofilms.The distribution of fimbria genotypes showed that the frequent genotype was for allele II (34.3%)followed by mixed al-leles I and II (24.1%).There was significant correlation between mixed alleles (I &II)and biofilm formation.Con-clusion:The present study highlights the presence of significant strains of E.coli causing urinary tract infections ca-pable of biofilm formation.Biofilm formation is associated with less innate immunity manifested by lower urinary IL-6.The majority of isolates had fimbria genes.It appears that mixed alleles I and II have prominent virulence effect with tendency for biofilm formation.

  7. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico bolhoso: diagnóstico diferencial com dermatite herpetiforme

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    Wanessa Simão Barbosa


    Full Text Available O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico bolhoso é um subtipo raro do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que ocorre ainda de forma mais incomum nos pacientes pediátricos. Relatamos o caso de uma adolescente de 12 anos, apresentando lesões vésico-bolhosas em face, pescoço, tronco, mucosas oral e genital, anemia, leucocitúria estéril, FAN: 1/1280 padrão nuclear pontilhado grosso, Anti-Sm e Anti-RNP positivos. O estudo anatomopatológico sugere dermatite herpetiforme e a imunofluorescência direta revela IgG, IgA e fibrina ao longo da zona de membrana basal. Apresentamos um caso típico de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico bolhoso e enfatizamos a importância do diagnóstico diferencial com a dermatite herpetiformeBullous systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare subset of systemic lupus erythematosus that is even rarer in pediatric patients. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a vesiculobullous eruption on her face, neck, trunk and genital and oral mucosa, as well as anemia, sterile pyuria, ANA (1:1280, speckled pattern and positive anti-Sm and anti-RNP. Pathological examination suggested dermatitis herpetiformis, and direct immunofluorescence revealed IgG, IgA and fibrin in the epithelial basement membrane zone. We present a typical case of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus and emphasize the importance of clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis with dermatitis herpetiformis

  8. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoichi; Kanai, Takashi; Takizawa, Mari; Yoshida, Yusuke; Tsujita, Yuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki


    Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH) activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5) levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI), and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI) and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders (n = 89) and nonresponders (n = 31) with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4 ± 4.8 IU/L, P < 0.05) and UTI patients (66.0 ± 8.0 IU/L, P < 0.01) than in VI patients (17.0 ± 6.2 IU/L). In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1 ± 4.7 IU/L, P < 0.05), especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P < 0.05), than IVIG responders (32.0 ± 2.8 IU/L). KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients. PMID:28348604

  9. Clinical validation of integrated nucleic acid and protein detection on an electrochemical biosensor array for urinary tract infection diagnosis.

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    Ruchika Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection that poses a substantial healthcare burden, yet its definitive diagnosis can be challenging. There is a need for a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method that could allow early detection of UTI and reduce unnecessary antibiotics. Pathogen identification along with quantitative detection of lactoferrin, a measure of pyuria, may provide useful information towards the overall diagnosis of UTI. Here, we report an integrated biosensor platform capable of simultaneous pathogen identification and detection of urinary biomarker that could aid the effectiveness of the treatment and clinical management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated pathogen 16S rRNA and host lactoferrin detection using the biosensor array was performed on 113 clinical urine samples collected from patients at risk for complicated UTI. For pathogen detection, the biosensor used sandwich hybridization of capture and detector oligonucleotides to the target analyte, bacterial 16S rRNA. For detection of the protein biomarker, the biosensor used an analogous electrochemical sandwich assay based on capture and detector antibodies. For this assay, a set of oligonucleotide probes optimized for hybridization at 37°C to facilitate integration with the immunoassay was developed. This probe set targeted common uropathogens including E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. as well as less common uropathogens including Serratia, Providencia, Morganella and Staphylococcus spp. The biosensor assay for pathogen detection had a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 89%. A significant correlation was found between LTF concentration measured by the biosensor and WBC and leukocyte esterase (p<0.001 for both. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We successfully demonstrate simultaneous detection of nucleic acid and host immune marker on a single biosensor array in clinical samples. This platform can be used for

  10. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

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    Yoichi Kawamura


    Full Text Available Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD. We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5 levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI, and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG responders (n=89 and nonresponders (n=31 with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4±4.8 IU/L, P<0.05 and UTI patients (66.0±8.0 IU/L, P<0.01 than in VI patients (17.0±6.2 IU/L. In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1±4.7 IU/L, P<0.05, especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P<0.05, than IVIG responders (32.0±2.8 IU/L. KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.


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    Uju M.E. Dibua


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s of urinary tract infections (UTIs in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch' method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2% from females and 12 (19.4% from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08% were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%. All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

  12. [Pyonephrosis: diagnosis and treatment: report of 14 cases]. (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Rais, H; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S


    Prior to the introduction of antibiotics, the treatment of pyelonephrosis frequently consisted of nephrectomy to remove the non-functional kidney, which was a potentially dangerous source of systemic infection. This approach was later modified as a result of the advances made in antibiotic therapy, and included vigorous antibiotic treatment and prompt drainage of the kidney. At present, percutaneous nephrostomy provides a means of draining off the pus and determining a possible residual renal function. In this study, 14 cases of pyonephrosis were observed over a 7-month period. Lumbar pain was noted in 70% of cases, painful lumbar contact in 5 cases and fever, shivering and pyuria in all cases. Cytobacteriological urine analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 7 patients, Proteus in 4 patients, and in 3 cases abacterial leucocyturia; in 2 patients with only one functional kidney, renal insufficiency was observed. In all cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography. The main etiological factors were urinary lithiasis in 10 patients (71%), followed by uropathy of the pyeloureteral junction in 4 patients (29%). Treatment consisted of primary nephrectomy in 10 cases; in 3 cases, primary nephrostomy was performed with a positive outcome and recovery of renal function in 2 subjects; in one case of renal failure treated by nephrostomy followed by conservative surgery, the patient did not survive. In conclusion, nephrectomy is advocated as the treatment of choice in the case of a damaged kidney and a normal contralateral kidney. Conservative treatment should be envisaged particularly in the case of a single kidney, or if the patient's state of health is poor. The best treatment consists of the detection and cure of the lithiasis which is the main etiological factor in this pathology.


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract is a common site of infection in the pediatric population. Unlike generally benign course of urinary tract infection (UTI in the adult population, UTI in the pediatric population is well recognized as a cause of acute morbidity and chronic medical conditions like hypertension and renal insufficiency in adulthood. As a result, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of clinical profile of UTI in children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. to study the clinical presentation of UTI in children. 2. To identify the common microorganisms causing UTI in children. 3. To evaluate the risk factors for UTI in children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital based prospective study conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 in Department of Pediatrics at S.V.R.R Gov ernment General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital affiliated to S.V . Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. METHODS AND MATERIAL: INCLUSION CRITERIA: All children in the age group of 1 to12 years admitted in hospital with a probable urinary tract inf ection and later confirmed by a positive urine culture. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Those children who received partial treatment with antibiotics prior to admission and those with any neurological abnormality of urinary bladder. Informed written consent was taken from parents of children and data was collected in pre - designed pro - forma. RESULTS: Significant pyuria was present in all patients. Most common organisms isolated on urine culture were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both were sensitive to thi rd generation Cephalosporins, Piperacillin - Tazobacta m and Amikacin. VUR was a significant risk factor for UTI (P1year, UTI is much more common in girls than boys. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common organisms causing UTI in children. Ultrasound examination of abdomen is a sensitive test to detect. Vesicoureteral reflux is a common predisposing factor for UTI in both boys and girls.

  14. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis in a male child with renal vein thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava: a Case Report

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    Kotasthane Vaishali D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a case of Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN in a male child with renal vein thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava. This is a rare presentation. XGPN is a rare type of renal infection characterised by granulomatous inflammation with giant cells and foamy histiocytes. The peak incidence is in the sixth to seventh decade with a female predominance. XGPN is rare in children. Case presentation An 11 year old male child presented with a history of high grade fever and chills, right flank pain and progressive pyuria for two months. He had a history of vesical calculus for which he was operated four years back. In our case, a subcapsular right nephrectomy was performed. The surgical specimens were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. The sections were stained with routine Hematoxylin & Eosin stain. Grossly; the kidney was enlarged with adherent capsule and thickening of the perinephric tissue. The pelvicalyceal system was dilated and was filled with a cast of pus. Histological evaluation revealed diffuse necrosis of the renal parenchyma and perinephric fat. Neutrophils, plasma cells, sheets of foamy macrophages and occasional multinucleate giant cells were seen. The renal vein was partially occluded by an inflammatory thrombus with fibrin, platelets and mixed inflammatory cells. The thrombus was focally adherent to the vein wall with organization. Conclusions The clinical presentation and the macroscopic aspect, together with the histological pattern, the cytological characteristics addressed the diagnosis towards XGPN with a vena caval thrombus. Our case illustrates that the diagnosis of XGPN should be considered even in paediatric age group when renal vein and vena caval thrombi are present.

  15. Interstitial nephritis with moderate-to-heavy proteinuria: An unusual combination

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    Biplab Ghosh


    Full Text Available Interstitial nephritis with proteinuria >1 g/day is uncommon and almost always the result of drug-induced ATIN with an associated minimal change glomerulonephritis (GN. Here, we present a series of five unusual cases of interstitial nephritis without GN but with proteinuria >1 g/day, and they were identified from renal biopsies done from February 2008 to March 2009. Out of 236 patients who underwent renal biopsy, only five met the inclusion criteria. Three patients presented with edema and two with oliguria, while none had frank hematuria, fever, arthralgia, skin rash or history of exposure to nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drugs, analgesics, anti-biotics, allopurinol, or Chinese herb before presentation. Urinalysis revealed hematuria in two patients, pyuria in three and nephrotic range proteinuria in two. All had normal complement levels and were negative for antinuclear antibodies, Anti-dsDNA antibody, and antineutrophil cyto-plasmic antibodies. Clinical diagnosis was nephrotic syndrome in two patients, the third had diagnosis of rapidly progressive GN, the fourth had HIV associated nephropathy, and the fifth had unexplained advanced renal failure. Though three patients had renal dysfunction only one required dialysis. Light microscopy of renal biopsies revealed granulomatous interstitial nephritis in three patients and small vessel vasculitis in two of them. One patient had nongranulomatous interstitial nephritis along with vasculitis. Acute interstitial nephritis was the only finding in one patient. In conclusion, patients with interstitial nephritis can present with moderate-to-heavy proteinuria probably due to cytokine-like permeability increasing factor secreted by inflammatory cells in the interstitium.

  16. Conservative/surgical treatment predictors of maternal hydronephrosis: results of a single-center retrospective non-randomized non-controlled observational study. (United States)

    Ercil, Hakan; Arslan, Burak; Ortoglu, Ferhat; Alma, Ergun; Unal, Umut; Deniz, Mehmet Eflatun; Senturk, Aykut Bugra; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan


    To determine the parameters that may help the clinicians decide the best suitable treatment method for the pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis which will be based on the easily accessible laboratory tests, monitoring methods and clinical symptoms. Digital data and documents of 246 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis who were hospitalized in our clinic between the dates of January 2011 and January 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were statistically evaluated in terms of age, symptomatic maximal anterior-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (MADP), parity, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, white blood cell count (WBC), presence of pyuria, growth of urine culture, fever, serum urine and creatinine levels, visual analog scale (VAS) score of pre- and post-therapy and threatened preterm labor. The study includes a total of 211 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis. In the second and third trimester groups, the surgical treatment group statistically provided higher levels of CRP, WBC and VAS. Mean MADP in the second trimester of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.67 ± 4.67 and 28.68 ± 7.70 mm, respectively. Mean MADP in the third trimester group of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.96 ± 5.96 and 28.85 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. In patients with symptomatic pregnancy hydronephrosis, the likelihood of surgical treatment for CRP levels, WBC counts and VAS is high.

  17. The management of renal matrix calculi: a single-centre experience over 5 years. (United States)

    Shah, Hemendra N; Kharodawala, Shabbir; Sodha, Hiren S; Khandkar, Amit A; Hegde, Sunil S; Bansal, Manish B


    To define incidence of renal matrix calculi in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and describe its clinical, laboratory and radiological features; we also studied the efficacy of PCNL in managing this rare entity. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1368 PCNLs performed from April 2003 to March 2008, and identified 17 patients (mean age 44.3 years; 11 women and six men) having matrix calculi. The patients' clinical, laboratory and radiological features were studied, and the perioperative outcome and follow-up data analysed. Flank pain was commonest mode of presentation (15) followed by recurrent urinary tract infection (five). Pyuria was present in 14 patients and urine culture showed significant growth in 10. A plain X-ray showed a small radio-opaque calculus (10 renal units) and faint laminated calcification (four). Intravenous urography showed a filling defect and non-visualized system in nine and five patients, respectively. Non-contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance urography diagnosed calculi in two and one patient, respectively, on haemodialysis. PCNL was abandoned initially in four patients due to pyonephrosis. The mean hospital stay was 3.4 days and decrease in haemoglobin was 0.89 g/dL. One patient developed sepsis. Of 11 stones analysed, two were composed entirely of proteins and the remaining nine had crystalline components. At a mean follow-up of 12.6 months, no patients had recurrence of stone. Matrix calculi occurred in 1.24% of patients undergoing PCNL. Although considered radiolucent, plain X-ray showed a small radio-opaque calculi or faint laminated calcifications in 10 of 17 patients. PCNL rendered patients stone-free with minimum morbidity.

  18. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

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    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  19. Similar Neutrophil-Driven Inflammatory and Antibacterial Responses in Elderly Patients with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria. (United States)

    Yu, Yanbao; Zielinski, Martin D; Rolfe, Melanie A; Kuntz, Melissa M; Nelson, Heidi; Nelson, Karen E; Pieper, Rembert


    Differential diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) is based on the presence of diverse symptoms, including fever (≥38.5°C), rigors, malaise, lethargy, flank pain, hematuria, suprapubic discomfort, dysuria, and urgent or frequent urination. There is consensus in the medical community that ASB warrants antibiotic treatment only for patients undergoing urological procedures that lead to mucosal bleeding, catheterized individuals whose ASB persists for more than 48 h after catheter removal, and pregnant women. Pyuria is associated with UTI and implicates host immune responses via release of antibacterial effectors and phagocytosis of pathogens by neutrophils. Such responses are not sufficiently described for ASB. Metaproteomic methods were used here to identify the pathogens and evaluate molecular evidence of distinct immune responses in cases of ASB compared to UTI in elderly patients who were hospitalized upon injury. Neutrophil-driven inflammatory responses to invading bacteria were not discernible in most patients diagnosed with ASB compared to those with UTI. In contrast, proteomic urine analysis for trauma patients with no evidence of bacteriuria, including those who suffered mucosal injuries via urethral catheterization, rarely showed evidence of neutrophil infiltration. The same enzymes contributing to the synthesis of leukotrienes LTB4 and LTC4, mediators of inflammation and pain, were found in the UTI and ASB cohorts. These data support the notion that the pathways mediating inflammation and pain in most elderly patients with ASB are not quantitatively different from those seen in most elderly patients with UTI and warrant larger clinical studies to assess whether a common antibiotic treatment strategy for elderly ASB and UTI patients is justified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Clinical Significances of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA Renal Scan in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

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    Mok, Cha Soo; Shin, Dong Jin; Choi, Ho Cheon; Kim, Gyeong Wook; Yi, Gang Wook; Choi, Dae Seop [Sang Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Patients with acute pyleonephritis may present with a spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs. There are few noninvasive diagnostic studies, however to confirm or exclude this diagnosis. To evaluate the clinical utility of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scan in diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, we performed {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scan in 37 patients suspected with urinary tract infection. Simultaneously kidney ultrasonography was done in 21 patients diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis, clinically. And we performed the followup scan after treatment in two to six weeks. The results were as follows. 1) {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scan disclosed single of multiple cortical defects and decreased radiouptake ratio of affected kidney in 23 patients among 25 patients diagnosed with acute pyleonephritis. 2) In the 21 patients with acute pyelonephritis, kidney ultrasonography showed abnormal findings in the 7 patients. And {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scan disclosed abnormal cortical defects in this 7 patients also. 3) Between the patients with acute pyelonephritis and those with lower urinary tract infection, asymptomatic bacteriuria or pyuria, right-to-left radiouptake ratios (R/L ratio ) were significantly different(p<0.001). 4) In two to six weeks after antibiotic therapy, we performed followup {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scan for 5 patients among 25 acute pyelonephritis patients. And we have found the improvement of cortical defects and the right-to-left radiouptake ratio. In conclusion, we thought that {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scan should be useful in diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis and follow up examination.

  1. Patient characteristics but not virulence factors discriminate between asymptomatic and symptomatic E. coli bacteriuria in the hospital. (United States)

    Marschall, Jonas; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Foxman, Betsy; Zhang, Lixin; Warren, David K; Henderson, Jeffrey P


    Escherichia coli is a common cause of asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is frequently treated with antibiotics without a clear indication. Our goal was to determine patient and pathogen factors suggestive of ASB. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of adult inpatients with E. coli bacteriuria seen at a tertiary care hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Urine cultures were taken at the discretion of treating physicians. Bacterial isolates were tested for 14 putative virulence genes using high-throughput dot-blot hybridization. The median age of the 287 study patients was 65 (19-101) years; 78% were female. Seventy percent had community-acquired bacteriuria. One-hundred ten (38.3%) patients had ASB and 177 (61.7%) had symptomatic urinary tract infection (sUTI). Asymptomatic patients were more likely than symptomatic patients to have congestive heart failure (p = 0.03), a history of myocardial infarction (p = 0.01), chronic pulmonary disease (p = 0.045), peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.04), and dementia (p = 0.03). Patients with sUTI were more likely to be neutropenic at the time of bacteriuria (p = 0.046). Chronic pulmonary disease [OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.04, 4.1)] and dementia [OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.02, 5.8)] were independent predictors for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Absence of pyuria was not predictive of ASB. None of the individual virulence genes tested were associated with ASB nor was the total number of genes. Asymptomatic E. coli bacteriuria in hospitalized patients was frequent and more common in patients with dementia and chronic pulmonary disease. Bacterial virulence factors could not discriminate symptomatic from asymptomatic bacteriurias. Asymptomatic E. coli bacteriuria cannot be predicted by virulence screening.

  2. Prevalence of bacteriuria in dogs without clinical signs of urinary tract infection presenting for elective surgical procedures. (United States)

    McGhie, J A; Stayt, J; Hosgood, G L


    To determine the frequency of bacteriuria in dogs presenting for elective surgery, to compare the frequency of bacteriuria in dogs presenting for orthopaedic (non-neurological) procedures to that of dogs presenting for soft tissue procedures and to measure the agreement of microscopic visualisation of bacteria in urine sediment with the occurrence of bacterial growth on culture. Prospective cohort study of 140 client-owned dogs. Urine was collected via prepubic cystocentesis prior to or immediately after induction of anaesthesia. Urine was submitted for quantitative bacteriological culture and urinalysis. The dogs' age, sex, weight and breed were recorded, as well as the surgical procedure performed. In total, 80 orthopaedic and 60 soft tissue surgical cases were included in the study; 3 dogs (2.1%) returned bacterial growth on culture (positive urine culture) and 19 (13.6%) recorded urine sediment with pyuria and/or bacteriuria on urinalysis (positive urinalysis). All dogs with positive urine culture were female and two of them underwent orthopaedic procedures. Each bitch had growth of Escherichia coli >10(5)  CFU/mL. The agreement between positive urinalysis and positive urine culture was poor (κ = 0.15). The prevalence of bacteriuria in dogs without clinical signs of urinary tract infection in this population was low (2.1%). An at-risk population could not be identified because of the small number of positive outcomes. A positive urinalysis showed poor agreement with urine culture results and therefore the decision to treat without performing a urine culture is not advised. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Why is asymptomatic bacteriuria overtreated?: A tertiary care institutional survey of resident physicians. (United States)

    Lee, Myung Jin; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Kim, Chung-Jong; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Park, Wan Beom; Bang, Ji Hwan; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Nam Joong; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin


    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is common and often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. Reducing antibiotic overuse for ABU is therefore an important issue for antimicrobial stewardship. We performed this study to investigate the appropriateness of ABU management and to evaluate physicians' knowledge and practice regarding ABU. We reviewed all urine cultures of ≥10(5) cfu/mL of bacteria among inpatients in a 900-bed hospital in 2011. Each episode of bacteriuria was classified into ABU or urinary tract infection (UTI). ABU was defined as a positive urine culture (≥10(5) cfu/mL) without symptoms or signs suggesting UTI. In October 2012 a cross-sectional survey of resident physicians was undertaken using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. We identified 219 ABU cases among 1167 positive urine cultures, of which 70 (32.0 %) were inappropriately treated. Female gender, old age, pyuria, hematuria, and positive nitrite on urinalysis were associated with inappropriate ABU treatment in a multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). The response rate to the survey was 74.2 % (95/128). The mean knowledge score was 37.3 %, and 33.7 % of respondents were able to distinguish ABU from UTI, but less than half knew the indications for treating ABU. Even after ABU was correctly diagnosed, concerns about postoperative infections (38.6 %), UTI (9.1 %), and abnormal urinalysis (29.5 %) prevented proper management. About half of the respondents reported to prescribing antibiotics for ABU despite knowing they were not indicated. About one third of ABUs were inappropriately managed. Lack of knowledge and discrepancies between knowledge and practice, contributed to antimicrobial overuse for ABU. Our findings highlight the importance of developing interventions, including education, audit and feedback, to tackle the problem of inappropriate treatment of ABU.

  4. Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli in Women with Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection Do Not Correlate with Emergency Department Antibiogram. (United States)

    Hines, Michelle C; Al-Salamah, Tareq; Heil, Emily L; Mallemat, Haney; Witting, Michael D; Johnson, Jennifer K; Winters, Michael E; Hayes, Bryan D


    Urine cultures are not always performed for female Emergency Department (ED) patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Accordingly, hospital, and even ED-specific, antibiograms might be skewed toward elderly patients with many comorbidities and relatively high rates of antimicrobial resistance, and thus do not accurately reflect otherwise healthy women. Our ED antibiogram indicates Escherichia coli resistance rates for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) of 42%, 26%, and 33%, respectively. This study aims to compare resistance rates of urinary E. coli from otherwise healthy women with uncomplicated UTI and pyelonephritis in the ED to rates in our ED antibiogram. Females > 18 years old with acute onset of urinary frequency, urgency, or dysuria with pyuria identified on urinalysis (white blood cell count > 10/high-power field) were prospectively enrolled in the ED of an urban, academic medical center. Exclusion criteria indicating a complicated UTI were consistent with Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. Susceptibility patterns of E. coli to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and TMP-SMX in the study group were compared to our ED antibiogram. Forty-five patients grew E. coli. Pyelonephritis was suspected in nine (20%) subjects. Compared with the ED antibiogram, significantly lower rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin (2% vs. 42%, p < 0.001), levofloxacin (2% vs. 26%, p < 0.001), and TMP-SMX (16% vs. 33%, p = 0.016) were observed. Six patients grew non-E. coli uropathogens. All were susceptible to both levofloxacin and TMP-SMX. ED antibiograms may overestimate resistance rates for uropathogens causing uncomplicated UTIs. In cases where nitrofurantoin cannot be used, fluoroquinolones and possibly TMP-SMX may remain viable options for treatment of uncomplicated UTI and pyelonephritis in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines. (United States)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S; Hoebeke, Piet; Kočvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J M; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgül, Serdar


    In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting with UTI. The recommendations were developed after a review of the literature and a search of PubMed and Embase. A consensus decision was adopted when evidence was low. UTIs are classified according to site, episode, symptoms, and complicating factors. For acute treatment, site and severity are the most important. Urine sampling by suprapubic aspiration or catheterisation has a low contamination rate and confirms UTI. Using a plastic bag to collect urine, a UTI can only be excluded if the dipstick is negative for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite or microscopic analysis is negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria. A clean voided midstream urine sample after cleaning the external genitalia has good diagnostic accuracy in toilet-trained children. In children with febrile UTI, antibiotic treatment should be initiated as soon as possible to eradicate infection, prevent bacteraemia, improve outcome, and reduce the likelihood of renal involvement. Ultrasound of the urinary tract is advised to exclude obstructive uropathy. Depending on sex, age, and clinical presentation, vesicoureteral reflux should be excluded. Antibacterial prophylaxis is beneficial. In toilet-trained children, bladder and bowel dysfunction needs to be excluded. The level of evidence is high for the diagnosis of UTI and treatment in children but not for imaging to identify patients at risk for upper urinary tract damage. In these guidelines, we looked at the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children with urinary tract infection. There are strong recommendations on diagnosis and treatment; we also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathy within 24h and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Copyright © 2014 European

  6. Clinicopathological features of acute kidney injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. (United States)

    Cortazar, Frank B; Marrone, Kristen A; Troxell, Megan L; Ralto, Kenneth M; Hoenig, Melanie P; Brahmer, Julie R; Le, Dung T; Lipson, Evan J; Glezerman, Ilya G; Wolchok, Jedd; Cornell, Lynn D; Feldman, Paul; Stokes, Michael B; Zapata, Sarah A; Hodi, F Stephen; Ott, Patrick A; Yamashita, Michifumi; Leaf, David E


    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), monoclonal antibodies that target inhibitory receptors expressed on T cells, represent an emerging class of immunotherapy used in treating solid organ and hematologic malignancies. We describe the clinical and histologic features of 13 patients with CPI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) who underwent kidney biopsy. Median time from initiation of a CPI to AKI was 91 (range, 21 to 245) days. Pyuria was present in 8 patients, and the median urine protein to creatinine ratio was 0.48 (range, 0.12 to 0.98) g/g. An extrarenal immune-related adverse event occurred prior to the onset of AKI in 7 patients. Median peak serum creatinine was 4.5 (interquartile range, 3.6-7.3) mg/dl with 4 patients requiring hemodialysis. The prevalent pathologic lesion was acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in 12 patients, with 3 having granulomatous features, and 1 thrombotic microangiopathy. Among the 12 patients with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 10 received treatment with glucocorticoids, resulting in complete or partial improvement in renal function in 2 and 7 patients, respectively. However, the 2 patients with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis not given glucocorticoids had no improvement in renal function. Thus, CPI-induced AKI is a new entity that presents with clinical and histologic features similar to other causes of drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, though with a longer latency period. Glucocorticoids appear to be a potentially effective treatment strategy. Hence, AKI due to CPIs may be caused by a unique mechanism of action linked to reprogramming of the immune system, leading to loss of tolerance. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between urine analysis and urine culture in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in Yazd central laboratory

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    Khalili M B


    Full Text Available Background: The misdiagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI may lead to kidney deficiency and even pyelonephritis. Since different species may cause this disease, urine culture (UC and antibiogram of the isolated species should be performed and results compared to urine analysis (UA parameters to obtain the best diagnosis."nMethods: The urine specimens from 1509 patients (1195 women and 314 men were processed for UA, UC and antibiogram. First of all, the sterile urine samples were cultured using differential media, including EMB and blood agar. After 24 hr incubation, the colonies were identified and differentiated by biochemical tests. Antibiograms for all isolated species were determined using Muller Hinton agar. All results obtained from this survey were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: Of the 1509 samples, 986 (65.3% were positive for pathogenic bacteria, 170 (17.2% of which were from men and 816 (82.8% from women. E. coli was the most prevalent with 591 cases (58.7%, followed by Enterobacter 115 (11.4% and Klebsiella 88 (8.8%. Data analysis revealed that the correlations between the WBC, RBC, nitrite, crystal, and protein were significantly higher in culture-positive samples. Of the antibiotics tested, isolated species were most sensitive to amikacin and most resistant to ampicillin."nConclusion: The present study revealed a correlation between pyuria and bacteruria; however, it should be noted that the clinical signs and the presence of WBC in urine could not be used to confirm the UTI. In addition, since different bacterial species are able to cause UTI, in order to administer proper treatment while controlling improper use of antibiotics, thorough testing, including UA and UC together with antibiogram, is strongly recommended.

  8. CT findings of acute pyelonephritis in children; correlation with clinical manifestations

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    Lee, Jeong Kyong; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Seung Joo [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children and to assess the correlation between these findings, clinical parameters and renal scar development, as seen on follow-up CT scans. Contrast-enhanced CT scans of thirty children in whom APN had been diagnosed were assigned to one of three groups according to whether an abscess had formed, and then to subgroups on the basis of the number of lesions in the renal parenchyme. Initial CT findings were retrospectively correlated with five clinical parameters (maximal body temperature, fever duration, leukocytosis, pyuria and admission period) and renal scar development, as seen on follow-up CT (n=12). CT scans demonstrated linear, wedge-shaped, low-density renal parenchymal lesions in 35 kidneys of 25 patients and abscesses in seven kidneys of seven patients, but no abnormal lesions in five patients. In the three groups there was correlation between these findings and some clinical parameters(maximal body temperature, fever duration and admission period), but no subgroup showed significant correlation with any clinical parameter. Renal cortical scars detected by follow-up CT were more prevalent in patients in whom initial CT demonstrated the presence of an abscess. Clinical parameters correlated with the presence of renal parenchymal hypoenhancing lesions and abscess formation, as seen on CT scans, rather than the number of renal parenchymal lesions. Renal cortical scars were more prevalent in patients in whom initial CT revealed the presence of an abscess. Enhanced CT is thought to be useful both for diagnosing APN and for predicting its clinical course in children.

  9. Serious acute pyelonephritis: a predictive score for evaluation of deterioration of treatment based on clinical and radiologic findings using CT

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    Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Young Whan; Lee, Hee Jung (Department of Radiology, Keimyung University, Dongsan Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)), Email:


    Background. Acute pyelonephritis (APN) requires prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment. Purpose To develop a simple score to assist in diagnosing treatment deterioration in patients with serious APN. Material and Methods. Using data from a retrospective cohort of 193 patients with APN, we developed scores based on multivariate logistic regression after the jackknife procedure. We validated the scores in a prospective cohort of 40 patients. Results. Nine criteria were independently associated with our investigation: Abscess (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 19.8; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.5-72.1), pyonephrosis with or without stone (18.3; 4.8-70.9), pelvicalyceal air (15.5; 3.2-26.9), poor global excretion of contrast (12.3; 2.9-68.5), tachycardia or hypotension (10.1; 2.5-28.0), obliteration of the renal sinus (9.6; 2.5-45.2), persistent fever or pyuria (9.8; 1.9-25.8), diabetes (9.4; 2.0-31.8), and global renal enlargement (7.5; 2.1-35.8). The APN score was based on these nine criteria. Low-risk and high-risk groups were derived from the score (probability, 3.5% [95% CI 0-7.5] and 67% [51-83]). Application of these criteria to the prospective cohort confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of the score (probability 0% [0-15] and 71% [25-100] in the low-risk and high-risk groups, respectively). Conclusion. This easy-to-calculate score may prove useful for diagnosing patients with serious APN who deteriorate with treatment

  10. Imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

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    Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    To define the imaging patterns of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). The demographic, clinical, and imaging findings of 21 cases of pathologically proven XGP in 20 patients (bilateral in one) were evaluated. The findings of ultrasonography and CT were retrospectively evaluated with regard to distribution and extent of the disease, kidney size, the presence of calculi, hydronephrosis, and renal function. The findings were assessed by two radiologists, who established a consensus. Imaging and pathologic findings were compared. Sixteen of the 20 patients were female, and 19 were adults. Their age ranged from 3 to 16 (mean, 45) years. In all patients except one, the disease was unilateral (right: left =3D 13 :16). In one patient, XGP was bilateral, and there were thus 21 cases. Seventeen (81%) of these were diffuse, and four (19%) were focal; extrarenal extension occurred in 13 cases (62%), among which ipsilateral pleural effusion was noted in two. The kidney was enlarged diffusely in 12 cases (57%), and focally in three (14%); urinary calculi were present in 16 cases (76%), with staghorn calculi in four of these; and hydronephrosis occurred in 17 (81%). Impairment of ipsilateral renal function was noted in 13 cases (62%). Clinical findings of inflammation such as fever, pyuria, bacteriuria, or leucocytosis were noted in all patients. In addition to nephromegaly, renal function impairment, and urinary obstruction due to calculi, which are typical features of XGP, the condition may also show variable imaging findings. If the images obtained in the case of a middle-aged woman with clinical findings of urinary infection are atypical, we believe that XGP should be included in the differential diagnosis. (author)

  11. 女性系统性红斑狼疮患者性功能障碍状况及影响因素研究%Sexual Dysfunction Status and Influencing Factors of Female Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦毅; 顾志峰; 李立人; 桑燕


    龄、绝经与否、合并心脏病、服用非甾体类抗炎药,存在血管炎、脓尿,SF -36生理机能、生理职能、躯体疼痛、情感职能维度得分存在相关性(P <0.05)。多元线性回归分析结果显示,合并心脏病是女性 SLE 患者 FSFI 性欲、性唤起、阴道润滑度、性交疼痛维度得分的影响因素,存在血管炎是 FSFI 总分及性唤起、阴道润滑度、性高潮、性交疼痛维度得分的影响因素,SF -36生理职能维度得分是 FSFI 性唤起维度得分的影响因素,黏膜溃疡是 FSFI 阴道润滑度维度得分的影响因素,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论我国女性 SLE 患者的性功能障碍发生率较高,主要类型为性欲减退、性唤起困难,合并心脏病、存在血管炎和黏膜溃疡、生理职能缺失是其影响因素。%Objective To investigate sexual dysfunction status of Chinese female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE)and its influencing factors. Methods Eighty female SLE patients from Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from October 2014 and October 2015 were enrolled to conduct questionnaire investigation. The questionnaires included General Information Questionnaire,Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI)in Chinese Version,Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index(SLEDAI),and 36 - item Short - Form Health Survey Questionnaire(SF - 36)in Chinese version. A total of 85 questionnaires were sent out and 80 were recovered with a response rate of 94. 1% . Results There were 61 patients (76. 2% )with sexual dysfunction,including 58 ( 72. 5% ) loss of libido and 54 ( 67. 5% ) had difficulties in sexual arousal. The FSFI total scores of patients were correlated with age,years of marriage,age at menarche,menopause or not, combining with heart disease,taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs,presence of vasculitis and pyuria,dimensional scores of physical function,physical role function and emotional

  12. Urinary ATP and visualization of intracellular bacteria: a superior diagnostic marker for recurrent UTI in renal transplant recipients? (United States)

    Kelley, Stephen P; Courtneidge, Holly R; Birch, Rebecca E; Contreras-Sanz, Alberto; Kelly, Mark C; Durodie, Jerome; Peppiatt-Wildman, Claire M; Farmer, Christopher K; Delaney, Michael P; Malone-Lee, James; Harber, Mark A; Wildman, Scott S


    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are highly susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs) with over 50% of patients having at least one UTI within the first year. Yet it is generally acknowledged that there is considerable insensitivity and inaccuracy in routine urinalysis when screening for UTIs. Thus a large number of transplant patients with genuine urine infections may go undiagnosed and develop chronic recalcitrant infections, which can be associated with graft loss and morbidity. Given a recent study demonstrating ATP is released by urothelial cells in response to bacteria exposure, possibly acting at metabotropic P2Y receptors mediating a proinflammatory response, we have investigated alternative, and possibly more appropriate, urinalysis techniques in a cohort of RTRs. Mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected from 53 outpatient RTRs. Conventional leukocyte esterase and nitrite dipstick tests, and microscopic pyuria counts (in 1 μl), ATP concentration measurements, and identification of intracellular bacteria in shed urothelial cells, were performed on fresh unspun samples and compared to 'gold-standard' bacterial culture results. Of the 53 RTRs, 22% were deemed to have a UTI by 'gold-standard' conventional bacteria culture, whereas 87%, 8% and 4% showed evidence of UTIs according to leukocyte esterase dipstick, nitrite dipstick, and a combination of both dipsticks, respectively. Intracellular bacteria were visualized in shed urothelial cells of 44% of RTRs, however only 1 of the 23 RTRs (44%) was deemed to have a UTI by conventional bacteria culture. A significant association of the 'gold-standard' test with urinary ATP concentration combined with visualization of intracellular bacteria in shed urothelial cells was determined using the Fisher's exact test. It is apparent that standard bedside tests for UTIs give variable results and that seemingly quiescent bacteria in urothelial cells are very common in RTRs and may represent a focus of


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    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of percutaneous nephrostomy versus double J ureteral stenting in the management infective hydronephrosis in calculous disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2012 to January 2014,40 patients of age 25 - 65 years with obstructing ureteral or renal pelvic stones with clinical signs of infection were underwent decompression by double J stenting(20 patients or percutaneous nephrostomy (20 patients in this study. Patients with single calculus of size less than or equal to 15mm with fever and white blood count (WBC of 14000/ mm 3 or greater were included in this study. Calculus size greater than 15 mm, patients with bilateral or multiple calculi, pregnancy, ureteral or urethral stricture disease, uncorrected coagulopathy, Patients with solitary kidney were excluded from the study. Outcome parameters included time to achieve normal temperature and WBC of 11000 /mm 3 or less, and resolution of pyuria if present were analyzed in both group of patients. RESULTS: Majority of the patients were between 25 to 65 years of age with male to female ratio was2.12:2.87.The most common location of stone was at distal ureter in either group. There was no significant difference between pre procedural WBC count, maximum temperature and stone size in either group. Procedura land fluoroscopy times were significantly shorter for double j stenting (30.95±6.02 and5.3±3.2 compared with percutaneous nephrostomy (35.9± 5.4 and7.2± 4.2. During drainage the appearance of the urine was grossly purulent in 5 patients (12.5%, turbid in 19 (47.5% and clear in 16 (40%. Overall urine cultures and blood cultures were positive in 50 and 12.5% of patients, respectively. Urine cultures were positive in 60% of the percutaneous nephrostomy compared with 40% of the double j stenting group (p not significant. There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement (T ime to normal WBC and temperature and time for purulent drain

  14. Mortality differences between elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in San Antonio, Texas. (United States)

    Espino, D V; Parra, E O; Kriehbiel, R


    To identify differences in causes of death between elderly Mexican Americans (MA) and non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Retrospective death certificate review. Elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites age 65 and over who died in Bexar County, Texas during 1989. Data obtained from chart review included age, sex, race/ethnicity, and cause of death. Age-adjusted and cause-specific mortality rates, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Mexican Americans were at greater risk of dying in nine of the thirty causes of death examined. The mortality rates of MA subjects were higher than those of NHW from death caused by diabetes (OR = 3.19, CI = 2.27-4.49), renal failure (OR = 2.06, CI = 1.44-2.94), congestive heart failure (OR = 1.50, CI = 1.44-2.94), and multiple systemic diseases (OR = 2.59, CI = 1.89-3.57). Among the male subjects, MA had a greater risk than NHW of dying from myocardial infarction (OR = 1.83, CI = 1.15-2.90), coronary disease (OR = 1.37, CI = 1.07-1.75) and septicemia/pyuria (OR = 2.12, CI = 1.09-4.10). Among female subjects, MA had a greater likelihood of dying from cirrhosis (OR = 3.03, CI = 1.00-9.29). For only one of the causes of death was the risk lower among MA than NHW: MA female subjects had a lesser chance of dying from the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than NHW females (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.18-0.72). Mexican American elders have a greater risk of dying from non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and renal failure than their NHW counterparts. Elderly MA men have a greater risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than their NHW counterparts. Mexican American women may have a greater risk of dying from cirrhosis, but a lower risk of dying from complications of COPD. Finally, death from ill defined causes, such as multiple systemic diseases, may be a major under-acknowledged cause of death among older MA.

  15. Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection. (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Kaspar, Kerrie L; Khoo, Christina; Derrig, Linda H; Schild, Arianne L; Gupta, Kalpana


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and are often treated with antibiotics. Concerns about multidrug-resistant uropathogens have pointed to the need for safe and effective UTI-prevention strategies such as cranberry consumption. We assessed the effects of the consumption of a cranberry beverage on episodes of clinical UTIs. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial, women with a history of a recent UTI were assigned to consume one 240-mL serving of cranberry beverage/d (n = 185) or a placebo (n = 188) beverage for 24 wk. The primary outcome was the clinical UTI incidence density, which was defined as the total number of clinical UTI events (including multiple events per subject when applicable) per unit of observation time. The dates of the random assignment of the first subject and the last subject's final visit were February 2013 and March 2015, respectively. The mean age was 40.9 y, and characteristics were similar in both groups. Compliance with study product consumption was 98%, and 86% of subjects completed the treatment period in both groups. There were 39 investigator-diagnosed episodes of clinical UTI in the cranberry group compared with 67 episodes in the placebo group (antibiotic use-adjusted incidence rate ratio: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.91; P = 0.016). Clinical UTI with pyuria was also significantly reduced (incidence rate ratio: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97; P = 0.037). One clinical UTI event was prevented for every 3.2 woman-years (95% CI: 2.0, 13.1 woman-years) of the cranberry intervention. The time to UTI with culture positivity did not differ significantly between groups (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.67; P = 0.914). The consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical UTI episodes in women with a recent history of UTI. This study was registered at as NCT01776021. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. A Controlled Quasi-Experimental Study of an Educational Intervention to Reduce the Unnecessary Use of Antimicrobials For Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

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    Neal Irfan

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice.To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU.Quasi-experimental study with a control group.Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals.Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between January 30th and April 17th, 2012 (baseline and January 30th and April 30th, 2013 (intervention.In January 2013, a multifaceted educational intervention based on risk factors identified during the baseline period was provided to medical residents (monthly on one clinical teaching unit (CTU at one hospital site, with the CTU of the other hospital serving as the control.During the baseline period, 160/341 (46.9% positive urine cultures were obtained from asymptomatic patients at the two hospitals, and 94/160 (58.8% were inappropriately treated with antibiotics. Risk factors for inappropriate use included: female gender (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.3, absence of a catheter (OR 2.5, 1.2-5, bacteriuria versus candiduria (OR 10.6, 3.8-29.4, pyuria (OR 2.0, 1.1-3.8, and positive nitrites (OR 2.2, 1.1-4.5. In 2013, only 2/24 (8% of ABU patients were inappropriately treated on the intervention CTU as compared to 14/29 (52% on the control CTU (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02-0.49. A reduction was also observed as compared to baseline on the intervention CTU (OR 0.1, 0.02-0.7 with no significant change noted on the control CTU (OR 0.47, 0.13-1.7.A multifaceted educational intervention geared towards medical residents with a focus on identified risk factors for inappropriate management of ABU was effective in reducing unnecessary antibiotic use.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha


    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in sickle cell disease: a cross-sectional study (United States)

    Cumming, Vanessa; Ali, Susanna; Forrester, Terrence; Roye-Green, Karen; Reid, Marvin


    Background It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd) of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB) or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB). Results Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266). Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3%) of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0). The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p < 0.005) but serum creatinine, uric acid and haematology values were not different in patients with confirmed ASB compared with those with sterile urine. There was no association with history of gram

  19. Development and validation of an algorithm to recalibrate mental models and reduce diagnostic errors associated with catheter-associated bacteriuria (United States)


    Background Overtreatment of catheter-associated bacteriuria is a quality and safety problem, despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines. Little is known about how guidelines-based knowledge is integrated into clinicians’ mental models for diagnosing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). The objectives of this research were to better understand clinicians’ mental models for CA-UTI, and to develop and validate an algorithm to improve diagnostic accuracy for CA-UTI. Methods We conducted two phases of this research project. In phase one, 10 clinicians assessed and diagnosed four patient cases of catheter associated bacteriuria (n= 40 total cases). We assessed the clinical cues used when diagnosing these cases to determine if the mental models were IDSA guideline compliant. In phase two, we developed a diagnostic algorithm derived from the IDSA guidelines. IDSA guideline authors and non-expert clinicians evaluated the algorithm for content and face validity. In order to determine if diagnostic accuracy improved using the algorithm, we had experts and non-experts diagnose 71 cases of bacteriuria. Results Only 21 (53%) diagnoses made by clinicians without the algorithm were guidelines-concordant with fair inter-rater reliability between clinicians (Fleiss’ kappa = 0.35, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) = 0.21 and 0.50). Evidence suggests that clinicians’ mental models are inappropriately constructed in that clinicians endorsed guidelines-discordant cues as influential in their decision-making: pyuria, systemic leukocytosis, organism type and number, weakness, and elderly or frail patient. Using the algorithm, inter-rater reliability between the expert and each non-expert was substantial (Cohen’s kappa = 0.72, 95% CIs = 0.52 and 0.93 between the expert and non-expert #1 and 0.80, 95% CIs = 0.61 and 0.99 between the expert and non-expert #2). Conclusions Diagnostic errors occur when clinicians’ mental models for catheter

  20. A Clinical and Radiological Observation on Urolithiasis

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    Chung, Young Sun; Byun, Moung Ho; Yoon, I Ho [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    A clinical and radiological observation was made on 167 cases of urolithiasis among the number of 150 patients during 1 year and 6 months from June, 1981 to November, 1982. The results were summarized as follows. 1. There were 101 man and 49 women, a ratio of 2:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 to 74 years, showing the highest incidence in 31 to 60 years (68.1%). 2. Locational distributions of urolithiasis were 80 cases (47.9%) in the ureter, 66 cases (39.5%) in the kidney, 11 cases (6.5%) in the urethra and 10 cases (5.9%) in the bladder. 3. Among the 66 cases of renal stone, pelvis stone was 55 cases (83.3%) with staghorn types in 23 cases (34.8%), and calyceal stone was 11 cases (16.6%). 4. The location of ureteral stone was 47.5% in lower, 40% in upper ureter and 12.5% in mid-ureter. 5. The location of urethra stone was 82% in the anterior urethra and 18% in the posterior urethra. 6. The chief complain of urolithiasis was flank pain in 59.2%, gross hematuria in 20.3%, renal colic in 13.1%, dysuria in 8.3%, nausea and vomiting in 4.7%, and sudden stoppage of urine stream in 3.5%. 7. On urinalysis, gross hematuria was found in 54.4%, pyuria in 28.7%, bacteriuria in 23.3%, microscopic hematuria in 18.5% and normal in 7.1%. 8. The size of urinary stone was 0.6-2.0 cm in length in 105 cases (62.8%). 9. On I.V.P. study of renal stones (66 cases), mild and moderate hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 38 kidneys (57.5%), and the relationship between the urinary stasis and renal stone size was relatively good. 10. On I.V.P. study of ureteral stones (80 cases), mild to severe hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 64 kidneys (80%). 11. On K.U.B. film, paralytic ileus was found in 25 cases (14.9%). 12. Among the urinary stones, the radiolucent stones were detected in 8 cases (4.7%). 13. Urinary stones disappeared in 11 cases (6.5%) spontaneously or medical treatment.

  1. Risk factors and clinical impact of levofloxacin or cefazolin nonsusceptibility or ESBL production among uropathogens in adults with community-onset urinary tract infections. (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Hui; Chen, Po-Lin; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Ko, Wen-Chien


    Gram-negative bacilli causing community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are getting increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Clinical significance and risk factors of the acquisition of antimicrobial-nonsusceptible pathogens are still under investigation. A prospective study was performed in the medical wards of two hospitals in southern Taiwan between August 2009 and January 2012. Patients were enrolled if they were aged >18, admitted through the emergency department, and had CoUTI due to Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Overall 136 adults with CoUTI were enrolled. Their mean age was 67 years and females were predominant (68.4%). Comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus (30.1%) and hypertension (54.4%), were common. Escherichia coli (111, 81.6%) was the predominant species, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (11, 8.1%), and Proteus mirabilis (7, 5.1%). Nine (8.0%) of E. coli isolates and 5 (45%) of K. pneumoniae isolates had extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. Out of 122 non-ESBL producing isolates, 35 (28.7%) and 31 (25.4%) were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin and cefazolin, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, several clinical characters were found to be independently associated with CoUTIs due to levofloxacin-nonsusceptible (i.e. males, recent hospitalization, underlying old stroke, diabetes mellitus, and altered consciousness, or absence of chills, pyuria, or tachycardia), cefazolin-nonsusceptible (i.e. males, recent hospitalization, underlying old stroke, absence of fever or chills), or ESBL-producing isolates (i.e. recent hospitalization or antimicrobial therapy). All patients survived and discharged. However, the patients with CoUTIs due to levofloxacin-nonsusceptible (16.1 vs. 7.5 days, p < 0.01), cefazolin-nonsusceptible (15.4 vs. 8.4 days, p < 0.01) or ESBL-producing (16.7 vs. 9.6 days; p < 0.01) pathogens had a longer hospitalization stay than those due to their susceptible comparators. Several host factors were recognized

  2. Use of daptomycin in the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections: a short case series. (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Divya Pradeep; Amodio-Groton, Maria; Scholand, Stephen J


    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a leading cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infection and a growing concern for the clinician. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of daptomycin in the treatment of patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection treated in our 200-bed community-based institution. Patients with confirmed symptomatic vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection identified by infectious disease consultation between January 1, 2007, and December 8, 2009, vancomycin-resistant enterococci-positive urine culture, and urinary symptoms and/or pyuria on urinalysis, and treated with daptomycin, were included in this case series. Daptomycin was generally administered at a planned dosage regimen of ≥ 5 mg/kg every 24 hours in patients with normal to moderately impaired kidney function or every 48 hours in patients with severe kidney disease. Microbiologic cure was defined as eradication of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in urine cultures taken after the completion of daptomycin treatment. Clinical cure was defined by symptom resolution, as assessed by the infectious disease clinician caring for the patient. Included in this case series are 10 patients who received daptomycin for confirmed vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection. Patients had a history of extensive hospital stays. Chart review revealed that all levels of kidney function (3, 2, 3, and 2 patients with kidney disease classified as normal, mild, moderate, and severe/kidney failure, respectively) were represented in the sample and that patients with (n = 5) or without (n = 5) previous urinary tract infection and with (n = 3) or without (n = 7) Foley catheters were included. Treatment with daptomycin achieved clinical cure and vancomycin-resistant enterococcal eradication in all cases in this series. Treatment with daptomycin was well tolerated and effective in all patients in this series, regardless of renal

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in sickle cell disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Roye-Green Karen


    Full Text Available Background It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD. However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB. Results Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266. Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3% of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0. The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p Conclusion ASB is a significant problem in individuals with SCD and may be the source of pathogens in UTI. However, further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of ASB in

  4. Acute Pyelonephritis Focusing on Perfusion Defects on Contrast Enhansed Computerized Tomography(CT) Scans and Its Clinical Outcome (United States)

    Ha, Sung-Kyu; Seo, Jung-Kun; Kim, Seung-Jung; Park, Seung-Ho; Park, Chong-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Yung; Han, Dae-Suk; Kim, Ki-Whang


    Objectives Many cases of acute pyelonephritis show renal perfusion defects on contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CT) imaging studies. The purpose of this study is to show the frequency of renal perfusion defects in uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis and to compare the clinical responses of patients who had perfusion defects or not. Methods We studied patients who had symptoms and signs of acute pyelonephritis through CT examinations with contrast enhancement. We identified 21 cases who had perfusion defects among 35 patients who had undergone CT imaging studies and compared the clinical data in the two groups of patients who had perfusion defects on CT (group 1) and who had not (group 2). Results Nearly all patients had typical symptoms and signs of acute pyelonephritis such as high fever and chill, flank pain and costovertebral angle tenderness. Combined clinical problems were septic shock (one case, 4.8%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (one case, 4.8%) in group 1. Laboratory findings were not different between the two groups. All patients were treated with antibiotics and had successful recoveries. The duration of recovery of pyuria in group 1 (5.2±9.6 days) was not longer than that in group 2(3.1±2.9 days) (p>0.05). The length of defeverscence in group 1 (7.0±4.6 days) was longer than in group 2 (3.5±2.7 days) (ppyelonephritis patients). We classified CT findings of group 1 as focal unilateral (2 cases, 9.5%), multifocal unilateral (14 cases, 66.7%) and multifocal bilateral (5 cases, 23.8%), and there were no differences between the subgroups of group 1 in the duration of defeverscence. Conclusion Those patients who had perfusion defects on CT showed relatively severe clinical courses but responses to early antibiotics were very good. Contrast enhanced CT scans may be very sensitive for the detection of acute renal parenchymal inflammatory disease and for defining the extent of disease, but it is clinically not essential to perform

  5. Disease of the kidney and of the urinary tract in De Medicina Methodica (Padua, 1611) of Prospero Alpini (1563-1616). (United States)

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Bisaccia, Carmela; Ricciardi, Biagio; Anastasio, Pietro; Aliotta, Giovanni; Ongaro, Giuseppe


    The study was devised to understand the contribution to nephrology ofDe Medicina Methodicaof Prospero Alpini published in 1511, at a time when the fame of the professor reached the azimuth. We have analyzed the contents of chapters devoted to nephrology in that book of Prospero Alpini and the novelties of his message. Prospero Alpini (1563-1616) taught at the University of Padua (1594-1616), at the same time of Galileo Galilei, Santorio Santorio, and Girolamo Fabrizi dAcquapendente, when measurements (pulse, temperature, perspiration) were introduced into medicine. He was a travelling physician to whom we owe fundamental contributions to the use of urine to prognosticate life and death (De Praesagienda vita et morte aegrotantium libri septem, Venetiis, apud Haeredes Melchioris Sessae,1601). As prefect of the Botanical Garden - the first ever and a model in the world - he could turn the study of simples into cures(De Medicina Methodica Libri Tredecim. Patavi, apud Franciscum Bolzettam, 1611. Ex typographia Laurentij Pasquali, is anin foliovolume of XLVII + 424 pages, 54 lines per page), wherein Alpini aimed to rejuvenate antique medical Methodism. It is a testimony of the interest of medicine philosophers of the modern era for the corpuscular and atomic ideas (Nancy Siraisi). Methodists (2ndCentury BC) refused anatomy and physiology as unique guidelines to the interpretations of diseases and gave importance to the development of a pharmacological science and alternative medicine. The book begins with a 3 page letter to Francis Maria della Rovere Duke of Montefeltro, and a 2 page letter to the readers. We discuss the novelties of the chapters on renal colic (de dolorerenum), hematuria (de sanguinis profluvium), pyuria, anuria (de urina suppressa) and its cure, polyuria (de urina profluvio), renal abscesses, hydrops and its treatment by skin incisions. We also analyze the chapter on kidney and bladder stones (Book X, Chapter XVIII, pp. 354-356) - a masterpiece of

  6. Infantile urolithiasis: Diagnosis

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    M. Mehdizadah


    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Urolithiasis in children is not a common disease in western countries. Urolithiasis in children is more located in the upper urinary tract and only 5-10% is seen in the bladder. The most com-mon stone composition differs in variable age groups but calcium oxalate seems to be the most common type in all children age groups. Clinical manifestations also differ in different age groups. In infants, growth retarda-tion (FTT and crying during crystaluria are the most common symptoms and signs. High resolution (HR sonography (7.5 MHz is an effective, noninvasive, and easy to access procedure for the diagnosis of infantile urolithiasis. Even with high resolution sonography (7.5 MHz we can determine the grading of nephrocalcino-sis in infants. Non radio-opaque stones are also diagnosed by HR sonography. Patients & Methods: This study tries to emphasize the importance and efficacy of high resolution sonography in the diagnosis of infantile urolithiasis by surveillance of 200 infants under 2 years old with urinary tract stones in Markaz-Tebi-Hospital during 1375 to 1383. Results: In this study the mean age was 12 months old (2 to 24 months and 55% were boys; 61% had positive family history; 54.5% (109 ones had no underlying metabolic disorder and among others 41 (20.5% had hy-percalciuria ( the most common ; 78 (39% had hematuria, 61 (30.5% had pyuria and 61 (30.5% had no ab-normality in U/A. In 63 (31.5%, urine culture was positive; 39 (31.5% had macroscopic hematuria. Their chief complaint was changing of urine color in 44 (22%, crystaluria in 37 (18.5%, UTI in 37 (31%, and no complaints in 20 (10%. FTT and crying during urination were observed in 25 (12.5% and 12 (6% of our pa-tients. In 79.5% of all infants, there was a positive sonographic finding that confirmed the stone. About the stone location according to the sonographic finding, 124 (62% had kidney stone, 10 (4.5% had ureter stone, and 25 (12.5% had bladder stone. In

  7. Erythema induratum of Bazin and renal tuberculosis: report of an association Eritema indurado de Bazin e tuberculose renal: relato de uma associação

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    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher


    Full Text Available Erythema induratum of Bazin is a disease that usually affects women, in whom erythematous subcutaneous nodules and plaques appear on the posterior part of the lower extremities, some of which ulcerate. In many countries, tuberculosis is still the main etiologic factor. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman who presented a course of protracted and recurrent episodes over five years of cutaneous lesions on her legs. These tend to involute, but new crops appear at irregular intervals. It was painful, erythematous-violaceous nodules, some of which drained a reddish secretion. The histopathologic features of the lesions demonstrated inflammatory infiltration, with predominance of neutrophils in dermis and hypodermis, necrotizing vasculitis in the arterioles and septal fibrosis. There was no granuloma. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain did not revealed acid-fast bacilli, and the culture of biopsy specimen was negative. The tuberculin skin test was strongly positive (17 mm. The chest X-ray was normal. Few months later she presented adynamia and urinary complaints, such as polacyuria and dysuria. It has been done an urynalysis, which demonstrated acid pH urine, sterile pyuria and microscopic hematuria. It was then raised the diagnostic hypothesis of renal tuberculosis. The urine culture for M. tuberculosis was positive in two out of ten samples. The treatment was instituted with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide, with complete regression. This case illustrates a clear association between erythema induratum and renal tuberculosis, demonstrated by the remission of the cutaneous lesions after the treatment of the renal tuberculosis.O eritema indurado de Bazin é doença caracterizada por erupções cutâneas que usualmente ocorrem nos membros inferiores de mulheres adolescentes e de meia idade. Relatamos o caso de paciente de 40 anos que apresentava há 5 anos lesões cutâneas em região inferior de ambas as pernas. Tratavam-se de nódulos eritemato

  8. Investigation the Diagnosis of Renal Tuberculosis%肾结核临床诊断方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松; 张勇; 陈忠; 杨为民


    目的:探讨肾结核的临床表现及诊断方法,提高早期诊断水平.方法:收集2000年10月~2009年10月收治136例肾结核患者的临床资料,对其病史特点及诊断方法进行回顾性分析.结果:136中男62例,女74例.常见临床症状依次为尿频尿急(59.6%)、尿痛(41.9%)、血尿(36.0%)和腰痛(36.0%).尿常规异常率71.8%,尿沉渣找抗酸杆菌阳性率29.3%,PPD试验(纯结核菌素试验)阳性率86.7%,血结核蛋白芯片检测法阳性率88.3%.B超、KUB及IVU、CT、MRI、膀胱镜、活检以及输尿管逆行插管造影的阳性率分别为20.6%、10.3%、56.1%、51.7%、12.5%、22.6%、11.1%.结论:肾结核早期诊断困难,需要结合临床表现、实验室(结核蛋白芯片检测法阳性率最高)以及影像学检查(CT准确率最高)综合考虑.%Objective: lo investigate the clinical mamiestations and diagnosis ol renal tuberculosis (IB) and improve the early diagnosis ability of renal tuberculosis. Methods: The data collected from our hospital with 136 cases of renal tuberculosis patients' clinical materials from October 2000 to October 2009, retrospectively analyzed its history characteristics and diagnostic methods. Results: Renal tuberculosis was diagnosed in 136 patients which consisted of 62 males and 74 females. The most common presenting symptoms were frequency and urgency (59. 6%), dysuria (41. 9%) ,gross hematuria (36%) and flank or back pain (36%). Microscopic hematuria and/or py-uria were detected in 71. 8% of the patients. The positive results of acid-fast stains on urinary sediment, PPD and tuberculosis protein chip were 29. 3% ,86. 7% and 88. 3% respectively. The positive rate of KUB+IVU, B-type ultrasonography, CT, MRI, cystoscopy, cystoscopy with biopsy and retrograde pyelography were 10. 3%, 20. 6%,55. 1% ,51. 7%,12. 5%,22. 6%,11. 1% respectively. Conclusions: Since the earlier diagnosis of renal tuberculosis is difficult to make, it's necessary to

  9. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e tuberculose renal: descrição de nove Casos Systemic lupus erythematosus and renal tuberculosis: description of nine cases

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    Daniela Cabral de Sousa


    department of Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio. Data were collected regarding demographics, SLE and renal TB. RESULTS: All patients were female, aged between 19 and 58 years and had a history of lupus nephritis. Three had been on cyclophosphamide therapy prior to TB infection. The average dose of prednisone administered before the diagnosis of renal TB ranged between 7.5 and 20 mg/day. The most common laboratory findings were leukocyturia and hematuria. Renal TB recurred in four patients. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of renal TB in SLE patients should be suspected in the presence of persistent sterile pyuria and/or hematuria, especially in developing countries.

  10. Frecuencia de infección del tracto urinario en lactantes con fiebre, sin foco infeccioso evidente, que consultan a la Unidad Vida Infantil de la Universidad de Antioquia del Hospital Francisco Valderrama, Turbo (Antioquia Frequency of urinary tract infections in febrile infants without evidence of an infectious source. from the clinic of the Unidad Vida Infantil of the University of Antioquia, Hospital Francisco Valderrama, Turbo, Colombia.

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    Harold Durango Galván


    , erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, urine dipstick tests for leukocyte esterase and nitrites, urinalysis (UA (urine white blood cell count/mm3, gram stain in a drop of uncentrifuged urine, microscopic UA (white blood cells and bacteria per high-powered field, and quantitative urine culture (positive urine results were defined as ³104 colony-forming units of an urinary tract pathogen per mL. All urine specimens were obtained by urethral catheterization. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy likelihood ratios were determined for each one of the screening tests. RESULTS: overall prevalence of UTI (growth of >104 CFU of an urinary tract pathogen per mL was 10%. Average age was 7 months. Most children with UTI had anorexia, irritability, general malaise, and vomiting. The most specific laboratory parameters were urine positive gram stain (any bacteria, and pyuria (>10 WBC/high-powered field. All urinary tract infections were caused by Escherichia coli. Isolates of this urinary pathogen showed decreased susceptibility to trimetoprimsulfametoxasole, as well as resistance to ampicillin. CONCLUSIONS: UTI is a frequent cause of the acute febrile syndrome without apparent source for the fever in infants of Turbo, Antioquia. In such cases, particularly when there are not specific clinical signs or symptoms, physicians should take this disease into consideration, and order an UA (white blood cells and bacteria per high-powered field, and gram stain. If results of these tests are positive, an urine culture becomes necessary. In our study, E. coli isolates showed significant resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

  11. 不完全性川崎病的临床特征、早期诊断及治疗%Clinical Features,Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Incomplete Kawasaki Disease in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余莉; 王一斌; 乔莉娜; 华益民; 朱琦; 石晓青; 周开宇; 刘瀚旻


    Objective To explore the clinical features, early diagnosis and treatment of incomplete Kawasaki disease ( iKD) in children in order to early recognition and diagnosis of iKDs. Methods Retrospectively study on children with KD( Ka-wasaki disease)including 174 cases of iKD patients and 317 cases of cKD(complete Kawasaki disease)patients admitted in the West China Second University hospital from May,2011 to April,2014. The sex,age,clinical features,laboratory tests in acute phase,IVIG( intravenous immunoglobulin) treatment and CALs( coronary artery lesions) were analysed between the iKDsand cKDs, respectively. Results ①There were no significant differences in sex and age between iKDs and cKDs(P>0. 05),but the inci-dences of exanthema,bilateral bulbar conjunctival injection,oral and pharyngeal hyperemia,strawberry tongue,erythema of palms and soles,cervical lymphadenopathy in iKDs were lower than in cKDs(P 0. 05).③The time of diagnosis in iKDswere later than in cKDs. There were no significant difference in the incidence of CALs,response of IVIG and duration of fever betweeniKDs and cKDs(P>0. 05). Conclusion The incidences of typical clinical symptoms of KD in iKDswere lower than in cKDs. These la-boratory tests including WBC,Hct,ESR,AST,ALT,PA,HDL,sterile pyuria are help for diagnosis of iKDs. The CALs caused by iKDs were decreased by using of IVIG within 10 days after initial fever.%目的:探讨不完全性川崎病的临床特征、诊断及治疗,为临床医生识别和早期诊断提供依据。方法回顾性分析2011年4月至2014年3月在我医院住院治疗的川崎病( Kawasaki disease,KD)患者临床资料,对174例不完全性川崎病( incomplete Kawasaki disease,iKD)及317例完全性川崎病( complete Kawasaki disease,cKD)的性别、发病年龄、临床表现、急性期实验室检查、IVIG( intravenous immunoglobulin)治疗及冠状动脉损伤( coronary artery lesions,CALs)进行比较。结果①iKD与cKD患者性别及年

  12. Relationship between urinary tract infection and age of heminephrectomy in duplex kidney infants%婴幼儿重复肾上肾切除病例中尿路感染与手术时年龄关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培强; 黄岩


    Objective To analyze the relationship between urinary tract infection and age of heminephreetorny in duplex kidney infants.Methods The records of infants diagnosed as a duplex kidney and received heminephrectomy were reviewed,who were admitted in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between Aug.2009 to Jul.2013.Results There were 26 duplex kidney infants altogether.Fifteen infants (57.7%) were in urinary tract infection group,age of heminephrectomy was from 2 months to 36 months (3 years),the median age of 7 months.Eleven infants (42.3%) were without urinary tract infection group,and the age of heminephrectomy was from 0.2 months (6 days) to 10.0 months,the median age was 4 months.The age of heminephrectomy was older in urinary tract infection group than that in non-infection group (P =0.045).In urinary tract infection group,all of the 15 infants had presence of lots of white blood cells in the urine before surgery and pyuria was found in the upper pelvis and the ureters when surgery,the result of urine culture was Escherichia coli (4 cases),Klebsiella pneumoriae (1 case),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 case),and culture negative 9 cases.In urinary tract infection group,infections could not be healed only by medical management,9 patients had fever and 2 patients had hypoalbuminemia,but all the symptoms were healed after surgery.In the group without urinary tract infection,all of the 11 infants had normal findings by urinalysis and urine culture,and fever and hypoalbuminemia were not present.There was no surgery complication related to lower ages of heminephrectomy and heminephrectomy for duplex kidneys was safe in small infants.Conclusions The rate of urinary tract infection is higher when the age of heminephrectomy is older in duplex kidney infants.Diagnosis and heminephrectomy should be performed early for infants with the poor kidney function since there is on sense to retain the damaged kidneys.%目的 研究婴幼儿重复肾上肾切除病例

  13. Treatment of 22 Cases of Renal Colic with Double-J Stent during Pregnancy%输尿管双J管在22例妊娠期肾绞痛治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪姣; 杜鹃


    Objective:To evaluate the therapeutic safety and efficacy of double-J stent in renal colic combined with pregnancy. Methods: Clinical data of 22 patients of renal colic during pregnancy who were treated with double-J stent in Shengjing hospital from June 2000 to November 2010 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results:All the patients received the double-J stent insertion and the subsequent anti-infection treatment. After 1 ~5 days of all the treatment, the symptoms of pain, fever, nausea and vomiting in all patients were obviously relieved. Three days after the treatment, the percentage of microscopic hematuria, pyu-ria, elevated white blood cell, elevated serum creatinine and urinary nitrogen was decreased, compared to the preoperative level. One month after the treatment, the hydronephrosis of 16 patients were vanished and the hydronephrosis in another 6 patients were alleviated. All patients had no pregnancy complications, while only one patient had symptoms of renal colic and fever near three months after the treatment of double-J stent. The retention time of double-J stent in all patients varied from 1 to 7 months, the average retention time was 3.4 months. Among the 22 patients,21 patients successfuly delivery, only one patient took induced a-bortion as the left tuberculous exative pleurisy. Conclusions: For pregnant women with renal colic, if conservative management fails, the double-J stent treatment is a less invasive and efficient method to relieve the pain and control the hydronephrosis.%目的:探讨留置双J管治疗妊娠期肾绞痛的有效性及安全性.方法:回顾性分析2000年6月至2010年11月因肾绞痛就诊于盛京医院泌尿外科及产科并留置双J管治疗的22例妊娠期患者的临床资料.分析其临床特征,并观察留置双J管治疗的疗效.结果:所有患者在留置双J管和辅助抗感染治疗后,肾绞痛、发热及恶心、呕吐等症状均于治疗后1~5天明显缓解;术后3

  14. Clinical features and renal morphological changes of the patients with urinary tract infection associated ureteral stent%输尿管支架管相关尿路感染患者的临床特征及其肾脏形态学改变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔庐东; 闫伟; 陈山


    but no fever; Group C (n=7):patients who had febrile urinary tract infections but no ureteral stent.The clinical data,laboratory data and 99Tcm-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy results were recorded prospectively and analyzed.Results In Group A,there were two patients had flank pain and positive costovertebral angle percussion tcnderness.The mean value of white blood cells and Hs-CRP of Group A and Group C were obviously higher than Group B (P<0.05).The ratios of pyuria were 100.0%,71.4% and 100.0% in Group A,B and C.The ratios of positive urine bacteuria culture were 100.0%,42.9% and 100.0% in Group A,B and C.The results of 99Tcm-DMSA renal scintigraphy demonstrated the decreased uptake in the different portion of the kidneys on the sides of ureteral stents inserted in all the patients in Group A but no such changes in Group B and Group C.Conclusions 99Tcm-DMSA renal scintigraphy can be used to judge the status of urinary tract infection associated ureteral stent.The febrile urinary tract infection associated with ureteral stents always means pyelonephritis occurs and prompt treatment must be given.