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Sample records for pyuria

  1. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AND PYURIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimkhani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nPregnant women are at increased risk for urinary tract infection (UTI but in many cases infection is asymptomatic. This study was performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria in pregnant women. A total of 86 pregnant women during first trimester and 56 nonpregnant women were evaluated. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected for both groups. Urine samples were examined microscopically and were cultured. Bacteriological examination revealed asymptomatic bacteriuria in 25 (29.1% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. Microscopic analysis of urine revealed pyuria in 18 (20.9% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. In study group, Escherichia coli were found in 20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 36%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus in 12%, streptococcus group D in 12%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 12% and Proteus mirabilis in 8%. In control group, E. coli were found in 33.3% and S. epidermidis in 66.7%. Our results show that the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is significantly higher in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The main finding in the present study was that 29.1% of the pregnant women who were in first trimester had asymptomatic bacteriuria which is much higher than figures reported from other countries. The use of microscopic urinanalysis was not an effective method of detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria and urine culture is necessary for screening these pregnant women.

  2. Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants.

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    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2016-11-01

    Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration. Retrospective cross-sectional study of infants aged UTI in the emergency department with paired urinalysis and urine culture. UTI was defined as ≥50 000 colony-forming units/mL from catheterized specimens. Test characteristics were calculated across a range of WBC and leukocyte esterase (LE) cut-points, dichotomized into specific gravity groups (dilute UTI prevalence was 7.8%. Optimal WBC cut-points were 3 WBC/high-power field (HPF) in dilute urine (likelihood ratio positive [LR+] 9.9, likelihood ratio negative [LR‒] 0.15) and 6 WBC/HPF (LR+ 10.1, LR‒ 0.17) in concentrated urine. For dipstick analysis, positive LE has excellent test characteristics regardless of urine concentration (LR+ 22.1, LR‒ 0.12 in dilute urine; LR+ 31.6, LR‒ 0.22 in concentrated urine). Urine concentration should be incorporated into the interpretation of automated microscopic urinalysis in young infants. Pyuria thresholds of 3 WBC/HPF in dilute urine and 6 WBC/HPF in concentrated urine are recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of UTI. Without correction of specific gravity, positive LE by automated dipstick is a reliably strong indicator of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Prevalence and prognostic influence of bacterial pyuria in elderly patients with pneumonia: A retrospective study.

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    Oka, Hiroaki; Komiya, Kosaku; Ohama, Minoru; Kawano, Yoshiyuki; Uchida, Masahiro; Miyajima, Hajime; Iwashita, Tomohiko; Okabe, Eiji; Kawamura, Tadao; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    The number of elderly patients with pneumonia is significantly increasing as the populations in many countries age. Although elderly patients with pneumonia are at risk of developing urinary tract infections, no studies have examined the prevalence or the prognostic impact of this complication. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of comorbid bacterial pyuria and the impact on the prognosis of elderly patients with pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated 132 patients aged >65 years who were hospitalized for pneumonia and who underwent a urinary sediment test on admission. The background characteristics, laboratory results and treatment regimens were documented, and the risk factors for the complication of bacterial pyuria and its association with 90-day mortality in pneumonia patients were elucidated. A total of 37 (28%) of 132 patients were complicated by bacterial pyuria. The patients with bacterial pyuria were more often women, showed a poorer performance status, were more frequently fed by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and more frequently used diapers and/or a bladder catheter. Regarding first-line drugs, 82.6% of the patients received beta-lactamase inhibitors and extended-spectrum penicillins. The use of a bladder catheter and a poor performance status were associated with bacterial pyuria. A multivariate analysis showed that a poor performance status was the only factor associated with 90-day mortality. Bacterial pyuria did not affect the prognosis of patients who were treated with penicillin-based regimens. Thus, broad-spectrum antibiotics are not necessarily required for elderly patients with pneumonia complicated by urinary tract infection. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1076-1080. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Pyuria as a diagnostic test for urinary tract infection in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed at determining the significance of pyuria as a screening test for UTI in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Methods: Two hundred and seventy-two children with SCA, aged 6 months to 15 years, were studied out of which 185 (68.0%) were in stable state and 87 (32.0%) were in crises.

  5. High Prevalence of Sterile Pyuria in the Setting of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Women Presenting to an Emergency Department

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    Chelsea R. Risinger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical presentations for sexually transmitted infections (STI and urinary tract infections (UTI often overlap, and symptoms of dysuria and urinary frequency/urgency occur with both STIs and UTIs. Abnormal urinalysis (UA findings and pyuria are common in both UTIs and STIs, and confirmatory urine cultures are not available to emergency clinicians to aid in decision-making regarding prescribing antibiotics for UTIs. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of sterile pyuria in women with confirmed STIs, as well as whether the absolute number of leukocytes on microscopy or nitrite on urine dipstick correlated with positive urine cultures in patients with confirmed STIs. We also sought to determine how many patients with STIs were inappropriately prescribed a UTI antibiotic. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients aged 18–50 who had a urinalysis and pelvic examination in the emergency department (including cervical cultures, and tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. Descriptive statistics were obtained for all variables, and associations between various findings were sought using the Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. We calculated comparison of proportions using the N-1 chi-squared analysis. Results: A total of 1,052 female patients tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis and were entered into the database. The prevalence of pyuria in all cases was 394/1,052, 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.34–0.40]. Of the cases with pyuria, 293/394, 74% (95% CI [0.70–0.78] had sterile pyuria with negative urine cultures. The prevalence of positive urine cultures in our study population was 101/1,052, 9.6% (95% CI [0.08–0.11]. Culture positive urines had a mean of 34 leukocytes per high-power field, and culture negative urines had a mean of 24 leukocytes per high

  6. Can absence of pyuria exclude urinary tract infection in febrile infants? About 2011 AAP guidelines on UTI.

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    Kim, Seong Heon; Lyu, Soo Young; Kim, Hye Young; Park, Su Eun; Kim, Su Young

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe clinical and laboratory characteristics of urinary tract infection (UTI) without significant pyuria in young children aged 2-24 months. The subjects consisted of infants and young children with febrile UTI treated at Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Korea. Group A included 283 patients with definite UTI who fulfilled the revised American Academy of Pediatrics diagnostic criteria, and group B included 19 patients with presumed UTI who had significant culture of uropathogens without pyuria, bacteriuria or other focus of infection. Duration of fever before hospital visit in group B was significantly shorter than in group A (17.7 ± 14.0 vs 34.5 ± 30.7 h). Most patients in group B (17/19, 89.5%) came to the hospital within 24 h of onset of fever. Acute scintigraphic lesions were found in 47.8% of patients in group A and 50% in group B. Underlying urological abnormalities such as vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy were found in 24.5% of patients in group A and in 33.3% of patients in group B (P = 0.74). Clinicians cannot exclude UTI on the absence of pyuria in young children aged 2-24 months. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Short communication: Relationship between urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and noninfectious pyuria in dogs.

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    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Ferro, E; Martino, P A; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a neutrophil-derived protein whose concentration increases in plasma and urine with ongoing renal damage. Urinary leucocytes can be a potential source of urinary NGAL. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of urinary neutrophil count and other urinary parameters on urinary NGAL values in urine with negative culture. Urinalysis, urine culture, and determination of urinary NGAL were performed on 33 clinically healthy nonproteinuric dogs with negative urinoculture. The median uNGAL concentration in dogs in this study population was 9.74 ng/mL (IQR 1.93-25.43 ng/mL). In samples with WBCs > 5 hpf (mean 15.9, 6-50 leucocytes/hpf), median uNGAL value was significantly higher than that in samples with WBCs dogs with negative urinoculture. The present study suggests that noninfectious pyuria is significantly correlated with urinary NGAL values and might influence uNGAL values.

  8. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

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    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Procalcitonin, pyuria and proadrenomedullin in the management of urinary tract infections--'triple p in uti': study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

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    Drozdov, Daniel; Thomer, Anja; Meili, Marc; Schwarz, Stefanie; Kouegbe, Rita Bossart; Regez, Katharina; Guglielmetti, Merih; Schild, Ursula; Conca, Antoinette; Schäfer, Petra; Reutlinger, Barbara; Ottiger, Cornelia; Buchkremer, Florian; Litke, Alexander; Schuetz, Philipp; Huber, Andreas; Bürgi, Ulrich; Fux, Christoph A; Bock, Andreas; Müller, Beat; Albrich, Werner C

    2013-03-22

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and drivers of antibiotic use and in-hospital days. A reduction of antibiotic use potentially lowers the risk of antibiotic resistance. An early and adequate risk assessment combining medical, biopsychosocial and functional risk scores has the potential to optimize site-of-care decisions and thus allocation of limited health-care resources. The aim of this factorial design study is twofold: first, for Intervention A, it investigates antibiotic exposure of patients treated with a protocol based on the type of UTI, procalcitonin (PCT) and pyuria. Second, for Intervention B, it investigates the usefulness of the prognostic biomarker proadrenomedullin (ProADM) integrated into an interdisciplinary assessment bundle for site-of-care decisions. This randomized controlled open-label trial has a factorial design (2 × 2). Randomization of patients will be based on a pre-specified computer-generated randomization list and independent for the two interventions. Adults with UTI presenting to the emergency department (ED) will be screened and enrolled after providing informed consent. For our first Intervention (A), we developed a protocol based on previous observational research to recommend initiation and duration of antibiotic use based on the clinical presentation of UTI, pyuria and PCT levels. For our second intervention (B), an algorithm was developed to support site-of care decisions based on the prognostic marker ProADM and distinct nursing factors on days 1 and 3. Both interventions will be compared with a control group conforming to the guidelines. The primary endpoints for the two interventions will be: (A) overall exposure to antibiotics and (B) length of physician-led hospitalization within a follow-up of 30 days. Endpoints are assessed at discharge from hospital, and 30 and 90 days after admission. We plan to screen 300 patients and enroll 250 for an anticipated estimated loss of

  10. Massive pyuria as an unusual presentation of giant infected urachal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urachal remnants (URs) are manifestations of an incomplete regression of the urachus; therefore, there may be different types of remnants such as cyst, sinus tract, diverticulum or patent urachus. The clinical presentation of a urachal anomaly includes umbilical discharge, lower abdominal pain and urinary tract infection, ...

  11. Pitfalls of diagnosing urinary tract infection in infants and young children.

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    Yamasaki, Yasuhito; Uemura, Osamu; Nagai, Takuhito; Yamakawa, Satoshi; Hibi, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakano, Masaru; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Bo, Zhang

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of pyuria-based diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in urine collected by transurethral catheterization, and the reliability of diagnosis of pyuria in urine collected in a perineal bag. The gold standard for UTI diagnosis is significant colony counts of a single organism in urine obtained in a sterile manner. We enrolled 301 patients who underwent medical examination at the present hospital for possible UTI between January 2005 and December 2009. We collected 438 urine samples by transurethral catheterization. We investigated the accuracy of pyuria-based diagnosis of UTI using transurethral catheterization urine specimens, and the reliability of diagnosis of pyuria using bag-collected urine specimens. The false-negative rate of UTI diagnosis based on pyuria in transurethral catheterization urine sediments was 9.0%; there was no significant difference in the false-negative rate of UTI diagnosis between boys and girls. Approximately 28% of pyuria-positive bag-collected urine specimens were pyuria negative on transurethral catheterization; this rate was significantly higher in girls than in boys (56.7% vs. 8.9%, P UTI. Pyuria in bag-collected urine specimens frequently consists of urine leukocytes from external genitalia as well as from the urinary tract. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    However, later studies have shown that 7.1% of DOBV positive acute phase samples and 12.5% .... Urine analysis shows proteinuria, hematuria and pyuria. Significant elevations of ..... and proper storage of food should be practiced. There are.

  13. Evaluation of Screening Methods for the Detection of Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-05-30

    screening testsfor urinary tract infection was donefrom March 20 to May 30, 2000. A cross sectional study ... the diagnosis of urinary tract infection on the basis of pyuria alone. The minimum number of ..... infection Complicating. Pregnancy J.

  14. Urinary YKL-40 as a Candidate Biomarker for Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Young Children.

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    Kim, Hyun Hee; Chung, Mi Hae; Bin, Joong Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Juyoung; Suh, Jin Soon

    2018-01-01

    Given that YKL-40 is a known marker of inflammation, we sought to determine its association with urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children. In total, 44 children aged 0 to 24 months with febrile UTI and 35 age- and sex-matched controls with fever from other causes were enrolled in the study. ELISA was performed to determine the level of YKL-40 in urine collected from each child. The ratio of urinary YKL-40 to creatinine (Cr) was higher in the children with a UTI than in the controls (PUTI was 0.88 for the urinary YKL-40/Cr ratio, 0.86 for pyuria, and 0.71 for positive nitrite on urinalysis. We applied a cut-off value of 125.23 pg/mg to urinary YKL-40/Cr for detecting UTI. Eight of nine children in the control group with pyuria had urinary YKL-40/Cr levels lower than 125.23 pg/mg, and the one child in the UTI group without pyuria or positive nitrite had a urinary YKL-40/Cr level greater than 125.23 pg/mg. Determining the levels of urinary YKL-40/Cr may help identify true cases of UTI in febrile young children, especially when they have pyuria but not nitrite, or have neither pyuria nor nitrite in the urine. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  15. Urinary YKL-40 as a Candidate Biomarker for Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Young Children

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    Kim, Hyun Hee; Chung, Mi Hae; Bin, Joong Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Juyoung

    2018-01-01

    Background Given that YKL-40 is a known marker of inflammation, we sought to determine its association with urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children. Methods In total, 44 children aged 0 to 24 months with febrile UTI and 35 age- and sex-matched controls with fever from other causes were enrolled in the study. ELISA was performed to determine the level of YKL-40 in urine collected from each child. Results The ratio of urinary YKL-40 to creatinine (Cr) was higher in the children with a UTI than in the controls (Purinary YKL-40/Cr ratio, 0.86 for pyuria, and 0.71 for positive nitrite on urinalysis. We applied a cut-off value of 125.23 pg/mg to urinary YKL-40/Cr for detecting UTI. Eight of nine children in the control group with pyuria had urinary YKL-40/Cr levels lower than 125.23 pg/mg, and the one child in the UTI group without pyuria or positive nitrite had a urinary YKL-40/Cr level greater than 125.23 pg/mg. Conclusions Determining the levels of urinary YKL-40/Cr may help identify true cases of UTI in febrile young children, especially when they have pyuria but not nitrite, or have neither pyuria nor nitrite in the urine. PMID:29071817

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 483 ... Vol 33, No 1 (2006), Prune belly syndrome in Sagamu: Report of three cases with typical and atypical features, Abstract PDF. AF Adekanmbi, MB Fetuga, TA Ogunlesi, MM Ogunyemi, F Gbadebo, A Oyinlade. Vol 42, No 1 (2015), Pyuria as a diagnostic test for urinary tract infection in children with sickle ...

  17. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: clinical manifestations in infancy and prenatal diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, N; Lavard, L; Danpure, C J

    1992-01-01

    biopsy demonstrated complete absence of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein compatible with a diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. He died at the age of 11 months, just before liver transplantation was made possible. Fetal liver biopsy in the mother......A 9-month-old Pakistani boy of consanguineous parents presented with uraemia preceded by pyuria from 5 weeks of age. He had no history of renal calculi or macroscopic haematuria. Renal biopsy revealed severe calcium oxalate deposition in the tubuli and fibrosis of the interstitial tissue. Liver......'s subsequent pregnancy showed normal enzymatic activity. Early detection and early replacement of the missing enzyme by liver transplantation are considered to be crucial for the survival of severely affected infants with the acute neonatal form of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Persistent pyuria could...

  18. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  19. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.

  20. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria urinary tract infections and complex pediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Ruth; Harris, Anna; Patel, Mitul; Robb, Andrew; Chandran, Harish; McCarthy, Liam

    2017-02-01

    Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics including third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides. This resistance is plasmid-borne and can spread between species. Management of ESBL is challenging in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complex urological abnormalities. We aim to quantify the risk in children and specifically in urological patients. Retrospective review of a microbiology database (April 2014 to November 2015). This identified urine isolates, pyuria, ESBL growth and patient demographics. Data analysis was by Chi square, Mann-Whitney U-test and ANOVA. A P value of 10×10 6 WC/L). 136 urine cultures (n=79 patients) grew purely ESBL. Overall, 5.2% of urine isolates were ESBL and 9.5% isolates with pyuria (>100×10 6 WC/L) had ESBL, whereas only 22/1032 (2.1%) with no pyuria, (Pantibiotics). Over the study period, there was no significant rise of the monthly incidence between 2014 and 2015 (ANOVA P=0.1). This study is the first to document the incidence of ESBL in children (5%), and estimate the frequency of possible plasmid transmission between bacterial species in children. This quantifies the risk of ESBL, especially to urology patients, and mandates better antibiotic stewardship. Level IIc. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Enhanced versus automated urinalysis for screening of urinary tract infections in children in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ami P; Cobb, Benjamin T; Lower, Darla R; Shaikh, Nader; Rasmussen, Jayne; Hoberman, Alejandro; Wald, Ellen R; Rosendorff, Adam; Hickey, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common serious bacterial infection in febrile infants. Urinalysis (UA) is a screening test for preliminary diagnosis of UTI. UA can be performed manually or using automated techniques. We sought to compare manual versus automated UA for urine specimens obtained via catheterization in the pediatric emergency department. In this prospective study, we processed catheterized urine samples from infants with suspected UTI by both the manual method (enhanced UA) and the automated method. We defined a positive enhanced UA as ≥ 10 white blood cells per cubic millimeter and presence of any bacteria per 10 oil immersion fields on a Gram-stained smear. We defined a positive automated UA as ≥ 2 white blood cells per high-powered field and presence of any bacteria using the IRIS iQ200 ELITE. We defined a positive urine culture as growth of ≥ 50,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single uropathogen. We analyzed data using SPSS software. A total of 703 specimens were analyzed. Prevalence of UTI was 7%. For pyuria, the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the enhanced UA in predicting positive urine culture were 83.6% and 52.5%, respectively; corresponding values for the automated UA were 79.5% and 37.5%, respectively. For bacteriuria, the sensitivity and PPV of a Gram-stained smear (enhanced UA) were 83.6% and 59.4%, respectively; corresponding values for the automated UA were 73.4%, and 26.2%, respectively. Using criteria of both pyuria and bacteriuria for the enhanced UA resulted in a sensitivity of 77.5% and a PPV of 84.4%; corresponding values for the automated UA were 63.2% and 51.6%, respectively. Combining automated pyuria (≥ 2 white blood cells/high-powered microscopic field) with a Gram-stained smear resulted in a sensitivity of 75.5% and a PPV of 84%. Automated UA is comparable with manual UA for detection of pyuria in young children with suspected UTI. Bacteriuria detected by automated UA is

  2. Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Westwood, Marie; Watt, Ian; Cooper, Julie; Kleijnen, Jos

    2005-04-05

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common sources of infection in children under five. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to reduce the risk of renal scarring. Rapid, cost-effective, methods of UTI diagnosis are required as an alternative to culture. We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for detecting UTI in children under five years of age. The evidence supports the use of dipstick positive for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite (pooled LR+ = 28.2, 95% CI: 17.3, 46.0) or microscopy positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria (pooled LR+ = 37.0, 95% CI: 11.0, 125.9) to rule in UTI. Similarly dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite (Pooled LR- = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) or microscopy negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria (Pooled LR- = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23) can be used to rule out UTI. A test for glucose showed promise in potty-trained children. However, all studies were over 30 years old. Further evaluation of this test may be useful. Dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite or microscopic analysis negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria of a clean voided urine, bag, or nappy/pad specimen may reasonably be used to rule out UTI. These patients can then reasonably be excluded from further investigation, without the need for confirmatory culture. Similarly, combinations of positive tests could be used to rule in UTI, and trigger further investigation.

  3. Acute kidney injury in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children: Risk factors and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Valavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is frequently seen in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children. We have previously reported several victims with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 deficiency. Hence, we conducted this study to identify predictive factors and clinical features of AKI in H. lepturus scorpion stung patients. We included all 215 H. lepturus scorpion stung children with no previous renal diseases in two groups (with and without AKI and compared them based on their clinical and laboratory findings. AKI was found in 27.4% of patients, they were significantly younger and with lower body weight (P = 0.006, P = 0.011, respectively. There was a significant difference between groups with and without AKI in findings such as fever (P = 0.003, hypertension (P <0.001, hemolytic anemia (P <0.001, thrombocytopenia (P <0.001, massive proteinuria (P <0.001, hemoglobinuria (P <0.001, pyuria (P <0.001, and hematuria (P = 0.004. HUS was in 5.5% and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14.6% which had a significant association with AKI (P <0.001.There were several independent predictors for AKI in a multivariate regression model including thrombocytopenia (P = 0.002, pyuria (P = 0.01, proteinuria (P =0.01, and fever (P = 0.02. Hemodialysis was performed in four patients but kidney function improved in all patients and there was no findings of renal impairment after three months follow-up. We found several predictors for AKI in children following H. lepturus scorpion sting including younger age, delay in receiving medical care, pigmenturia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, proteinuria, and pyuria.

  4. Piperazine side-effects in a patient with pre-existing renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Malaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piperazine as an antihelminth has many adverse effects, especially on patients with renal insufficiency. We report the use of piperazine in a girl with a moderately severe kidney disease due to Biedl Bardet syndrome. She developed coma and acute kidney injury due to acute interstitial nephritis (AIN, anemia and thrombocytopenia. The presence of fever, proteinuria, acidosis, anemia, sterile pyuria and non-oliguric renal failure strongly suggested AIN. Her problems abated mostly by discontinuing of piperazine and supportive therapy, except anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  5. The Importance of Urine Concentration on the Diagnostic Performance of the Urinalysis for Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Shah, Pinkey; Bachur, Richard G

    2017-07-01

    The presence of leukocyte esterase by urine dipstick and microscopic pyuria are both indicators of possible urinary tract infection. The effect of urine concentration on the diagnostic performance of the urinalysis for pediatric urinary tract infection has not been studied. Our objective is to determine whether the urinalysis performance for detecting urinary tract infection varies by urine concentration as measured by specific gravity. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of the urine laboratory results of children younger than 13 years who presented to the emergency department during 68 months and had a paired urinalysis and urine culture obtained. Urinary tract infection was defined as pure growth of a uropathogen at standard culture thresholds. Test characteristics were calculated across 4 specific gravity groups (1.000 to 1.010, 1.011 to 1.020, 1.021 to 1.030, and >1.030). In total, 14,971 cases were studied. Median age was 1.5 years (interquartile range 0.4 to 5.5 years) and 60% were female patients. Prevalence of urinary tract infection was 7.7%. For the presence of leukocyte esterase and a range of pyuria cut points, the positive likelihood ratios decreased with increasing specific gravity. From most dilute to most concentrated urine, the positive likelihood ratio decreased from 12.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7 to 13.7) to 4.2 (95% CI 3.0 to 5.8) and 9.5 (95% CI 8.6 to 10.6) to 5.5 (95% CI 3.3 to 9.1) at a threshold of greater than or equal to 5 WBCs per high-power field and presence of leukocyte esterase, respectively. The negative likelihood ratios increased with increasing specific gravity for leukocyte esterase and microscopic pyuria. For the detection of pediatric urinary tract infection, the diagnostic performance of both dipstick leukocyte esterase and microscopic pyuria varies by urine concentration, and therefore the specific gravity should be considered when the urinalysis is interpreted. Copyright © 2016 American College of

  6. Clinical and laboratory features of urinary tract infections in young infants

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    Denise Swei Lo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common serious bacterial infection in young infants. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. Objectives: To describe clinical, demographic and laboratory features of UTI in infants ≤ 3 months old. Methods: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 3 months old with UTI diagnosed in a pediatric emergency department, for the period 2010-2012. UTI was defined as ≥ 50,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single uropathogen isolated from bladder catheterization. Paired urinalysis and urine culture from group culture-positive and group culture-negative were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pyuria and nitrite tests in detecting UTI. Results: Of 519 urine cultures collected, UTI was diagnosed in 65 cases (prevalence: 12.5%; with male predominance (77%. The most common etiologies were Escherichia coli (56.9%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.5% and Enterococcus faecalis (7.7%. Frequent clinical manifestations were fever (77.8%, irritability (41.4% and vomiting (25.4%. The median temperature was 38.7°C. The sensitivity of the nitrite test was 30.8% (95%CI:19.9-43.4%, specificity of 100% (95%CI:99.2-100%. Pyuria ≥ 10,000/mL had a sensitivity of 87.7% (95%CI:77.2-94.5%, specificity of 74.9% (95%CI:70.6 -78.8%. The median peripheral white blood cell count was 13,150/mm3; C-reactive protein levels were normal in 30.5% of cases. Conclusions: The male: female ratio for urinary tract infection was 3.3:1. Non-Escherichia coli etiologies should be considered in empirical treatment. Fever was the main symptom. Positive nitrite is highly suggestive of UTI but has low sensitivity; whereas pyuria ≥ 10,000/mL revealed good sensitivity, but low specificity. Peripheral white blood cell count and C-reactive protein concentration have limited usefulness to suggest UTI.

  7. Clinical and laboratory features of urinary tract infections in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Denise Swei; Rodrigues, Larissa; Koch, Vera Hermina Kalika; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in young infants. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. To describe clinical, demographic and laboratory features of UTI in infants ≤ 3 months old. Cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 3 months old with UTI diagnosed in a pediatric emergency department, for the period 2010-2012. UTI was defined as ≥ 50,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single uropathogen isolated from bladder catheterization. Paired urinalysis and urine culture from group culture-positive and group culture-negative were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pyuria and nitrite tests in detecting UTI. Of 519 urine cultures collected, UTI was diagnosed in 65 cases (prevalence: 12.5%); with male predominance (77%). The most common etiologies were Escherichia coli (56.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.5%) and Enterococcus faecalis (7.7%). Frequent clinical manifestations were fever (77.8%), irritability (41.4%) and vomiting (25.4%). The median temperature was 38.7°C. The sensitivity of the nitrite test was 30.8% (95%CI:19.9-43.4%), specificity of 100% (95%CI:99.2-100%). Pyuria ≥ 10,000/mL had a sensitivity of 87.7% (95%CI:77.2-94.5%), specificity of 74.9% (95%CI:70.6 -78.8%). The median peripheral white blood cell count was 13,150/mm3; C-reactive protein levels were normal in 30.5% of cases. The male: female ratio for urinary tract infection was 3.3:1. Non-Escherichia coli etiologies should be considered in empirical treatment. Fever was the main symptom. Positive nitrite is highly suggestive of UTI but has low sensitivity; whereas pyuria ≥ 10,000/mL revealed good sensitivity, but low specificity. Peripheral white blood cell count and C-reactive protein concentration have limited usefulness to suggest UTI.

  8. Isolated urachal malakoplakia mimicking malignancy

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    Saisriharsha Pakalapati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Radiological investigations revealed a mass in the urachal region. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy followed by pelvic lymph node dissection and partial cystectomy with excision of the urachal mass. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed malakoplakia. Postoperative course was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of isolated urachal malakoplakia without any concomitant malignancy or bladder involvement reported in our country and one of the very few reported worldwide.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy: do obstetricians bother?

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    Lelekis, M; Economou, E; Adamis, G; Gargalianos, P; Kosmidis, J

    1994-02-01

    In view of the potentially serious consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy (ASB), we surveyed the attitudes of Greek obstetricians towards this entity. A total of 108 obstetricians practicing in the area of Athens completed a questionnaire concerning ASB. Only 73 of the 108 stated that they screen their clients for ASB (51 of them when pyuria is present and only 22 in all pregnant women). Of special interest is the finding that a larger percentage of younger obstetricians (practicing for up to 9 years) habitually screen their patients, compared to older ones (83% vs 60%). Concerning treatment of ASB, only 45 out of 73 doctors screening for ASB give any treatment when ASB is present. Most obstetricians (87%) prefer a beta-lactam antibiotic. In almost all cases 7-10 days are considered the appropriate duration of treatment. Better education of obstetricians, especially the older ones, concerning detection and management of ASB is needed.

  10. Emphysematous cystitis occurred in the case treated with steroid for autoimmune hepatitis.

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    Yoshino, Tateki; Ohara, Shinya; Moriyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare clinically entity, more commonly seen in diabetic, immunocompromised patients, which was characterized by air within the bladder wall and lumen. A 83-year-old woman was introduced to our department with fever elevation and abnormal findings of computed tomography (CT). She took orally prednisolone for autoimmune hepatitis. Pelvic CT revealed diffuse air throughout the bladder wall. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria. Escherichia coli was detected in blood culture. Abnormal findings of complete blood count and laboratory examination included an elevated WBC count (12,200/μL), C-reactive protein (11.7 mg/dL), and creatinine (1.07 mg/dL). Cystoscopy confirmed diffuse submucosal emphysema throughout. On the basis of diagnosis with emphysematous cystitis, she was treated with antibiotics based on the results of blood culture and indwelling Foley catheter. After treatment, the improvement of inflammatory findings and submucosal emphysema on cystoscopy and CT were achieved.

  11. Short course of cyclophosphamide therapy may reduce recurrence in patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome

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    Taheri, Shahram; Taheri Diana

    2009-01-01

    We report a 43-year-old woman with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome (TINU syndrome) presented with a 5-day complaint of chills and fever, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. She had elevated BUN and creatinine and urinalysis revealed decreased concentration, proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria. A kidney biopsy showed non-caseating granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis. She suffered from anterior uveitis one month before, which was managed with local ophthalmic steroids. She received two months of oral high dose prednisolone, which was tapered over the next two months, and two months of 2 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Her renal function recovered during the first two months. Her kidney and ocular symptoms did not recur during one year of follow-up. We suggest short course of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone for treatment of TINU syndrome to decrease the recurrence of kidney and ocular involvement. (author)

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

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    Ghafarnezhad M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data by using fisher exact and chi-squared test. 14 cases had positive urine culture (6.8%. Significant correlation was seen between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, parity, past history of kidney stone, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, preterm delivery and pyuria pvalue <0.05. We suggest routine urine culture in first visit of high risk and 16th week of low risk pregnancies.

  13. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Presenting as Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Leg

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    Yu-Xiong Ye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful, swollen right leg. He had also experienced right flank pain for 1 week prior to admission. Physical examination was notable for tenderness over the right flank. The right leg was diffusely swollen and exquisitely tender to touch, with palpable crepitance. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis and pyuria. Computed tomography showed a right ureteral stone with hydronephrosis and characteristic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Furthermore, a right perirenal gas-forming abscess with extension to the right leg was noted. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aggressive control of blood sugar, percutaneous drainage of the hydronephrosis and perirenal abscess, and aggressive debridement of the leg.

  14. A case of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Toru; Ito, Masaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kawase, Norio; Taki, Yoji

    2002-01-01

    A 76-year-old man complained of difficulty in urination and miction pain with abacterial pyuria after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Transurethral resection of the prostate was performed and histopathologically widespread necrosis was observed in the prostate. Thereafter retention of urine and fever occurred and computed tomography scan revealed an abscess of the penile corpus. The abscess was drained, but the fever continued. He developed an abacterial lung abscess and abacterial necrotic ulcerating lesions on his back, his left leg and his lower abdomen. Macroscopic findings demonstrated typical features of pyoderma gangrenosum. Steroid treatment was initiated and the response to steroid therapy was dramatic. Finally urinary diversion using an ileal conduit was performed. We found few cases of pyoderma gangrenosum involving lesions other than those of the skin in the literature. This is the first report of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (author)

  15. A case of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

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    Kanno, Toru; Ito, Masaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kawase, Norio; Taki, Yoji [Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    A 76-year-old man complained of difficulty in urination and miction pain with abacterial pyuria after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Transurethral resection of the prostate was performed and histopathologically widespread necrosis was observed in the prostate. Thereafter retention of urine and fever occurred and computed tomography scan revealed an abscess of the penile corpus. The abscess was drained, but the fever continued. He developed an abacterial lung abscess and abacterial necrotic ulcerating lesions on his back, his left leg and his lower abdomen. Macroscopic findings demonstrated typical features of pyoderma gangrenosum. Steroid treatment was initiated and the response to steroid therapy was dramatic. Finally urinary diversion using an ileal conduit was performed. We found few cases of pyoderma gangrenosum involving lesions other than those of the skin in the literature. This is the first report of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (author)

  16. Atypical desquamation in a 2.5-year-old boy with Kawasaki disease: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Ali; Fazel, Ali; Nabavizadeh, Seyed Hesamedin; Alyasin, Sohaila; Kashef, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that mostly affects children under 5 years of age. This article presents a 2.5-year-old boy who presented with 6 days of fever, generalized maculopapular rash, bilateral non-exudative conjunctivitis, cracked lips, right cervical lymphadenopathy, erythematous extremities, and perianal desquamation. Laboratory studies showed leukocytosis and sterile pyuria. Because diagnosis of KD was proved, oral acetylsalicylic acid with the anti-inflammatory dose and intravenous immunoglobulin were started for him. On the seventh day of admission time, he developed desquamation and erythema on the site of his right cervical lymphadenopathy as well as periungual scaling. About three weeks after starting the treatment, scaling of the cervical lymphadenopathy and periungual area stopped. Echocardiography was performed for him three times: at the time of diagnosis, four weeks, and 6 months later and revealed normal coronary arteries. We report this sign, desquamation on the site of cervical lymphadenopathy, as a new finding.

  17. Clinical features and risk factors for development of urinary tract infections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ruzafa, Ivan; Kruger, John M; Miller, RoseAnn; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bolin, Carole A; Kaneene, John B

    2012-10-01

    The clinical and diagnostic features of 155 cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and 186 controls with negative urine culture/s were characterized retrospectively (signalment, clinical signs, urinalysis, urine culture, concurrent diseases, lower urinary tract diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with UTI. Cats of all ages were affected by UTI with no sex/breed predisposition. Lower urinary tract signs were absent in 35.5% of cats with UTI. Pyuria and bacteriuria had sensitivities of 52.9% and 72.9%, and specificities of 85.5% and 67.7% for detection of UTI, respectively. Risk factors significantly associated with increased odds of UTI were urinary incontinence [odds ratio (OR)=10.78, P=0.0331], transurethral procedures (OR=8.37, Purinary tract anatomic abnormalities improved statistical model performance and contributed to UTI.

  18. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Christopher A.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Methods: Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. Results: 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women. PMID:18288237

  19. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and male lower urinary symptoms: A guide for family physicians

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    Farhad Fakhrudin Vasanwala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are increasingly seen by family physicians worldwide due to ageing demographics. A systematic way to stratify patients who can be managed in the community and those who need to be referred to the urologist is thus very useful. Good history taking, physical examination, targeted blood or urine tests, and knowing the red flags for referral are the mainstay of stratifying these patients. Case selection is always key in clinical practice and in the setting of the family physician. The best patient to manage is one above 40 years of age, symptomatic with nocturia, slower stream and sensation of incomplete voiding, has a normal prostate-specific antigen level, no palpable bladder, and no haematuria or pyuria on the labstix. The roles of α blockers, 5-α reductase inhibitors, and antibiotics in a primary care setting to manage this condition are also discussed.

  20. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C A

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had sterile pyuria. Specific skin problems occurred in 28 cases. Simple measures to improve hygiene and treatment of threadworms gave effective relief. Genital irritation caused urinary symptoms with no clinical evidence of infection, and it is advised that antibiotic treatment should await urine culture. Specific skin problems require help from a dermatologist. The possibility of sexual abuse must be considered especially if the vulvovaginitis is persistent or recurrent after adequate treatment. PMID:1580682

  1. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Christine M; Lowder, Jerry L

    2018-01-02

    Urinary tract infections are the most common outpatient infections, but predicting the probability of urinary tract infections through symptoms and test results can be complex. The most diagnostic symptoms of urinary tract infections include change in frequency, dysuria, urgency, and presence or absence of vaginal discharge, but urinary tract infections may present differently in older women. Dipstick urinalysis is popular for its availability and usefulness, but results must be interpreted in context of the patient's pretest probability based on symptoms and characteristics. In patients with a high probability of urinary tract infection based on symptoms, negative dipstick urinalysis does not rule out urinary tract infection. Nitrites are likely more sensitive and specific than other dipstick components for urinary tract infection, particularly in the elderly. Positive dipstick testing is likely specific for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, but urine culture is still the test of choice. Microscopic urinalysis is likely comparable to dipstick urinalysis as a screening test. Bacteriuria is more specific and sensitive than pyuria for detecting urinary tract infection, even in older women and during pregnancy. Pyuria is commonly found in the absence of infection, particularly in older adults with lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence. Positive testing may increase the probability of urinary tract infection, but initiation of treatment should take into account risk of urinary tract infection based on symptoms as well. In cases in which the probability of urinary tract infection is moderate or unclear, urine culture should be performed. Urine culture is the gold standard for detection of urinary tract infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, particularly in older women, and should not be treated with antibiotics. Conversely, in symptomatic women, even growth as low as 10 2 colony-forming unit/mL could reflect infection. Resistance is

  3. Detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in long-term care setting: Is the multireagent strip an adequate diagnostic tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinzon, Zeev; Peisakh, Alexander; Shuval, Ishay; Shabat, Shay; Berner, Yitshal N

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated infection in elderly residents of long-term care (LTC) setting, and most of them are asymptomatic. Early diagnosis and treatment especially in this group of patients is very important because even a brief delay contributes to mortality as well as to reduce functional and cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to determine the validity of multireagent strips (Multistix 10 SG, Bayer, UK) compared with standard urinalysis for the early detection of UTI in LTC elderly patients. Urine specimens were examined for the presence of leukocyte esterase (LE) activity as an indicator of pyuria, nitrite production as an indicator of bacteriuria, erythrocytes (RBC), and protein. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, kappa agreement, and likelihood ration were determined for each of the four dipstick parameters measurement separately, and in four combinations were calculated against the urine culture for the diagnosis of UTI and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Ninety-six patients aged 65 years and older with symptomatic UTI were compared with similar number, age, sex and comorbidity status matched patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. In both groups, urinary culture results were compared with the results of multireagent strips. The multireagent strips results were evaluated for the presence of LE activity as an indicator of pyuria, nitrite production as an indicator of bacteriuria, RBC, and protein. All positive sticks results were evaluated as single parameter and in combination of them. Positive urine cultures were found in 71% (68/96) of the patients with symptomatic and in 60% (58/96; p>0.05) of patients with asymptomatic UTI. In patients with UTI, using multireagent strips kappa agreement for LE was 0.53, for nitrite was 0.14, and in combination of them was 0.31. Similar results were reported in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria, 0.35, 0.23, and 0.35m. The detection of

  4. Ketamine-snorting associated cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Yi-Chang; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2011-12-01

    Ketamine hydrochloride, commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic agent, is an N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acid receptor antagonist with rapid onset and short duration of action. It produces a cataleptic-like state where the patient is dissociated from the surrounding environment by direct action on the cortex and limbic system. It has emerged as an increasingly popular choice among young drug users, especially within dance club venues. Cases of bladder dysfunction among recreational ketamine users were reported since Shahani et al first reported nine cases of ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis in 2007. We report on four patients who had history of ketamine abuse, presenting with dysuria, fluctuating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower abdominal or perineal pain, and impaired functional bladder capacities. Urinalysis showed pyuria and microhematuria. Urine culture was sterile. Bladder ulceration with severe diffuse hemorrhage and low bladder capacity were noted under anesthetized cystoscopic examination. Transurethral bladder mucosa biopsy was consistent with chronic cystitis. Cessation of ketamine abuse was the milestone of treatment, followed by the administration of mucosal protective agents, such as pentosan polysulphate or hyaluronic acid. Suprapubic pain was improved in three patients during follow-up. However, the outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the disease process, similar to that of interstitial cystitis (IC). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Current Indications for Transurethral Resection of the Prostate and Associated Complications

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    Chia-Chu Liu

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP is the most common surgical procedure for relieving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Here, we report our experience of current indications for TURP and their associated outcomes at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (KMUH. A total of 111 patients who underwent TURP at KMUH between May 2000 and December 2001 were included in this retrospective review. For each patient, the surgical indication was categorized into acute urinary retention, chronic complications (including renal impairment, recurrent urinary infection, bladder stone/diverticulum, post-void residue, and recurrent hematuria, and symptomatic prostatism. Thirty-five patients (31% had acute urinary retention, 28 (27% had chronic complications, and 48 (42% had symptomatic prostatism. Most patients chose TURP only when medical treatment had failed to relieve symptoms, no matter what category they belonged to. Patients with acute urinary retention and chronic complications had larger prostates (p = 0.002 and more tissue resected (p = 0.05 than those with symptomatic prostatism. Patients with acute urinary retention seemed to be at greater risk of postoperative complications such as recurrent urinary retention and urinary tract infection. We suggest that urodynamic study may be necessary to rule out concomitant bladder dysfunction before surgery and that adequate prophylactic antibiotic treatment be used to decrease the risk of urinary tract infection during or after TURP, especially when pyuria is noted preoperatively in patients with acute urinary retention.

  6. Actinobaculum schaalii an emerging pediatric pathogen?

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    Zimmermann Petra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobaculum schaalii was first described as a causative agent for human infection in 1997. Since then it has mainly been reported causing urinary tract infections (UTI in elderly individuals with underlying urological diseases. Isolation and identification is challenging and often needs molecular techniques. A. schaalii is increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans, however data in children is very limited. Case presentation We present the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian boy suffering from myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder who presented with a UTI. An ultrasound of the urinary tract was unremarkable. Urinalysis and microscopy showed an elevated leukocyte esterase test, pyuria and a high number of bacteria. Empiric treatment with oral co-trimoxazole was started. Growth of small colonies of Gram-positive rods was observed after 48 h. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed an A. schaalii infection 9 days later. Treatment was changed to oral amoxicillin for 14 days. On follow-up urinalysis was normal and urine cultures were negative. Conclusions A.schaalii is an emerging pathogen in adults and children. Colonization and subsequent infection seem to be influenced by the age of the patient. In young children with high suspicion of UTI who use diapers or in children who have known abnormalities of their urogenital tract, infection with A. schaalii should be considered and empiric antimicrobial therapy chosen accordingly.

  7. Mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion in a girl with acute pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jung Sook; Koo, Chung Mo; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2018-02-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who had mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with acutepyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli . The patient was admitted with a high fever, and she was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis based on pyuria and the results of urine culture, which detected cefotaxime-sensitive E. coli . Although intravenous cefotaxime and tobramycin were administered, her fever persisted and her C-reactive protein level increased to 307 mg/L. On day 3 of admission, she demonstrated abnormal neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as delirium, ataxia, and word salad. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain performed on day 4 showed marked hyperintensities in the bilateral corpus callosum and deep white matter on diffusion-weighted images, with corresponding diffusion restriction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. No abnormalities or pathogens were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) were detected in plasma (41.6 pg/mL), associated with acute neurological deterioration. Her clinical condition gradually improved, and no neurological abnormalities were observed on day 6. Follow-up brain MRI performed 2 weeks later showed near-disappearance of the previously noted hyperintense lesions. In this patient, we first proved endotoxemia in a setting of MERS. The release of LPS following antibiotic administration might be related to the development of MERS in this patient. The possibility of MERS should be considered in patients who present with acute pyelonephritis and demonstrate delirious behavior.

  8. Anti - microbial resistance stratified by risk factor among Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urinary tract at a rural clinic in Central India

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    Chatterjee B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The failure of empirical therapy is frequently observed, even in community-acquired urinary tract infections. We, therefore, conducted a prospective, clinic-based study in 2004-2005 to document anti-microbial resistance rates and correlate them with possible risk factors to assist empirical decision-making. Materials and Methods: Symptomatic patients with pyuria underwent urine culture. Isolates were identified using standard methods and anti-microbial resistance was determined by disk-diffusion. Ultrasonography was used to detect complicating factors. Patients were stratified by the presence of complicating factors and history of invasive procedures for comparison of resistance rates. Statistical Method Used: Chi-square or Fisher exact tests, as appropriate. Results: There were 156 E. coli isolates, of which 105 were community-acquired. Twenty-three community-acquired isolates were from patients with complicating factors while 82 were from patients without any. Fifty-one isolates were from patients who had recently undergone invasive procedures on the urinary tract. Thirty-two community-acquired isolates from reproductive-age women without apparent complicating factors had resistance rates of 50% or above against tetracyclines, Co-trimoxazole, aminopenicillins, Nalidixic acid, Ciprofloxacin and 1 st generation cephalosporins. Resistance rates were significantly higher among isolates from patients subjected to invasive procedures, except against Co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines and Amikacin. Conclusion: High rates of anti-microbial resistance in community-acquired uropathogens have made antimicrobial sensitivity testing necessary even in a rural, primary-care setting.

  9. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Daily Practice: Managing an Important Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Le Saux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship is a recent concept that embodies the practical, judicious use of antimicrobials to decrease adverse outcomes from antimicrobials while optimizing the treatment of bacterial infections to reduce the emergence of resistant pathogens. The objectives of the present statement are to illustrate the principles of antimicrobial stewardship and to offer practical examples of how to make antimicrobial stewardship part of everyday hospital and outpatient practice. Vital components of antimicrobial stewardship include appropriate testing to diagnose whether infections are viral or bacterial, and using clinical follow-up rather than antibiotics in cases in which the child is not very ill and uncertainty exists. Other specific, important actions include questioning whether positive urine cultures are contaminated when there is no evidence of pyuria or inflammatory changes, and obtaining a chest radiograph to support a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia. Optimizing the choice and dosage of antimicrobials also reduces the probability of clinical failures and subsequent courses of antimicrobials. A list of common clinical scenarios to promote stewardship is included.

  10. Urinalysis requests on the elderly residing in the Auckland community: tick box requesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Arlo; McEwan, M; Williamson, Deborah

    2016-01-29

    Urinalysis for microscopy and culture is one of the most frequently requested tests for microbiology laboratories, particularly from elderly patients. This study sought to describe the clinical appropriateness of urinalysis from community-dwelling elderly patients and subsequent antibiotic prescription. Demographic, laboratory, and antibiotic prescription data were collected on all samples submitted from patients ≥ 70 years during August 2014 to Labtests Auckland. In addition, clinical data were collected by questionnaire from a subgroup of 200 patients. During August 2014, approximately 7% of the Auckland population aged ≥ 70 years had urinalysis submitted. Urine dipstick was not routinely performed before specimen submission, particularly from patients living at home rather than a long-term care facility, and nearly 50% of samples were not cultured due to absence of pyuria. Escherichia coli was isolated from 23% of female and 7% of male specimens. E. coli isolates from our cohort were less susceptible to all antibiotics tested against compared with all E. coli isolated from all urines in 2014. Clinical indications were absent in 40% of the subgroup of patients. Antibiotic prescription within 7 days of urinalysis was common (36%). This study highlights the frequency of urinalysis testing among the elderly residing in the community. Clinical indications are often absent, and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is likely to be contributing to excessive antibiotic prescription in this group of patients.

  11. Screening for urine abnormalities among preschool children in western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Abdulla A.; Taha, Azza A.; Edrees, Awatif E.; Elnawawy, Ali N.; Abdelrahman, Azza H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the frequency of urinary problems among preschool children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 preschool asymptomatic children attending the outpatient clinics of the Children’s Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between August 2013 and December 2013 were subjected to dipstick urine analysis. Microscopic examination was performed for the abnormal dipstick samples, and children with hematuria were investigated for kidney function. Results: Dipstick urine analysis revealed abnormal findings in 25.1% of the screened children. The most common dipstick abnormalities were positive nitrite test in 18.1%, hematuria in 16.9%, and positive leukocyte esterase test in 14.3% of the cases. The most common abnormality in microscopic urine examination was crystals in 13% of the cases. Pyuria were evident in 5% of cases and hematuria in 2.5%. The most common bacteria in positive urine culture samples was Escherichia coli in 62.6%. Conclusion: In view of these important findings, dipstick screening should be implemented in preschool children. PMID:25491212

  12. A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.

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    Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.

  13. Predictive value of clinical and laboratory variables for vesicoureteral reflux in children.

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    Soylu, Alper; Kasap, Belde; Demir, Korcan; Türkmen, Mehmet; Kavukçu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    We aimed to determine the predictability of clinical and laboratory variables for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with urinary tract infection (UTI). Data of children with febrile UTI who underwent voiding cystoureterography between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively for clinical (age, gender, fever > or = 38.5 degrees C, recurrent UTI), laboratory [leukocytosis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), pyuria, serum creatinine (S(Cr))] and imaging (renal ultrasonography) variables. Children with VUR (group 1) vs. no VUR (group 2) and children with high-grade (III-V) VUR (group 3) vs. no or low-grade (I-II) VUR (group 4) were compared. Among 88 patients (24 male), 38 had VUR and 21 high-grade VUR. Fever > or = 38.5 degrees C was associated with VUR [odds ratio (OR): 7.5]. CRP level of 50 mg/l was the best cut-off level for predicting high-grade VUR (OR 15.5; discriminative ability 0.89 +/- 0.05). Performing voiding cystourethrography based on this CRP level would result in failure to notice 9% of patients with high-grade VUR, whereas 69% of children with no/low-grade VUR would be spared from this invasive test. In conclusion, fever > or = 38 degrees C and CRP > 50 mg/l seem to be potentially useful clinical predictors of VUR and high-grade VUR, respectively, in pediatric patients with UTI. Further validation of these findings could limit unnecessary voiding cystourethrography.

  14. Radiologic findings of UTI in children

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    Cho, W.Y.; Oh, K. K.; Kim, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Urinary tract infection in children is common and recurrent especially combined with anatomical and functional abnormalities. Radiological analysis of the 68 cases of urinary tract infection who were admitted to the pediatric department of Yong Dong Severance Hospital from Apr. 1983 to Aug. 1985 were subjected in this study. The results were as follows: 1. Urinary tract infection was more common in male under 1 year of age, but increasing with age more prevalent tendency in female. 2. Clinical manifestations on admission were fever, urinary frequency, flank pain, gross hematuria and etc. 3. Urinalysis disclosed pyuria in 60%, hematuria in 47%, and bacteriuria in 7%. Escherichia coli was the most common strain and Klebsiella species, Enterococcus, Proteus species were common in descending order. 4. In the radiologic findings, the patients of refluxed cases showed more changes in the size of kidney and damage of renal parenchyma. And also they were more combined with anatomical abnormalities. 5. VCUG findings according to the grade of reflux showed more extensive changes of kidney itself, ureter and bladder with increasing of the grade of VUR. 6. Over 6 months follow-up, the initial scarring were aggravated and getting worse although treatment.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of the urinalysis for urinary tract infection in infants <3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Alan R; Chang, Pearl W; Shen, Mark W; Biondi, Eric A; Greenhow, Tara L

    2015-06-01

    The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics urinary tract infection (UTI) guideline suggests incorporation of a positive urinalysis (UA) into the definition of UTI. However, concerns linger over UA sensitivity in young infants. Infants with the same pathogenic organism in the blood and urine (bacteremic UTI) have true infections and represent a desirable population for examination of UA sensitivity. We collected UA results on a cross-sectional sample of 276 infants 3 white blood cells/high-power field) was 96% (95% CI 92.5%-98.1%). Only 1 infant with bacteremic UTI (Group B Streptococcus) and a complete UA had an entirely negative UA. In infants with negative urine cultures, leukocyte esterase specificity was 93.9% (95% CI 87.9 - 97.5) and of pyuria was 91.3% (84.6%-95.6%). In young infants with bacteremic UTI, UA sensitivity is higher than previous reports in infants with UTI in general. This finding can be explained by spectrum bias or by inclusion of faulty gold standards (contaminants or asymptomatic bacteriuria) in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Simultaneous Bilateral Femur Neck Fracture in A Young Adult with Chronic Renal Failure- A Case Report and Review of Literature.

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    V, Sathyanarayana; Patel, Maulik Tulsibhai; S, Raghavan; D, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Pathological bilateral femoral neck fracture due to renal osteodystrophy is rare. This is a report of a chronic renal failure patient who had sustained bilateral intra-capsular displaced fracture neck of femur following an episode of convulsion and the difficulties encountered in early diagnosis and treatment. The pathophysiology of renal osteodystrophy and the treatment of hip fractures in patients with renal failure are also discussed. A 23 years old male patient admitted with h/o dysuria, pyuria and loss of appetite since 3 months. He was a known case of chronic renal failure and reflux nephropathy. On investigating, patient's renal parameters were high and he was started with haemodialysis. The next day patient had c/o bilateral hip pain and inability to move bilateral lower limbs following an episode of seizure. Radiograph of pelvis showed vertical sub capital fractures of bilateral neck of femur. In this patient, considering his age, general condition & prognosis, an elective surgery in the form of bilateral uncemented modular bipolar hemiarthroplasty was done. Overall risk of hip fracture among patients with chronic renal failure is considerably higher than in the general population, independent of age and gender. Simultaneous spontaneous bilateral fractures of the femoral neck are rare and a delayed diagnosis is usual. The study of etiological factors of these fractures is essential to guide us in choosing the treatment of choice. Obviously patient's age, life expectancy as well as renal co morbidity has an influence over deciding treatment and outcome.

  17. Effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-A) in patients with recurrent UTI by pathogenic E. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal; Gautam, Lokesh Kumar; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (PAC-A ~ proanthocyanidin-A) on the in vitro bacterial properties of uropathogenic (E. coli) and its efficacy/tolerability in patients with subclinical or uncomplicated recurrent UTI (r-UTI). After obtaining clearance from the ethics committee and administering a written informed consent, 72 patients with r-UTI were enrolled as per protocol (November 2011 to March 2013) in this prospective study, to randomly receive (PAC-A: group I, 36) or (placebo: group II, 36), for 12 weeks. Any change/reduction in the incidence of r-UTI at 12 weeks was construed to be the primary endpoint of this study. After 12 weeks, bacterial adhesion scoring decreased (0.28)/(2.14) in group I/II (p UTI decreased to 33.33 versus 88.89 % in group I/II (p UTI (dysuria, bacteriuria and pyuria). Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate the precise role, exact dose and optimal duration of PAC-A therapy in patients at risk of r-UTI.

  18. Similar Neutrophil-Driven Inflammatory and Antibacterial Responses in Elderly Patients with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanbao; Zielinski, Martin D; Rolfe, Melanie A; Kuntz, Melissa M; Nelson, Heidi; Nelson, Karen E; Pieper, Rembert

    2015-10-01

    Differential diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) is based on the presence of diverse symptoms, including fever (≥38.5°C), rigors, malaise, lethargy, flank pain, hematuria, suprapubic discomfort, dysuria, and urgent or frequent urination. There is consensus in the medical community that ASB warrants antibiotic treatment only for patients undergoing urological procedures that lead to mucosal bleeding, catheterized individuals whose ASB persists for more than 48 h after catheter removal, and pregnant women. Pyuria is associated with UTI and implicates host immune responses via release of antibacterial effectors and phagocytosis of pathogens by neutrophils. Such responses are not sufficiently described for ASB. Metaproteomic methods were used here to identify the pathogens and evaluate molecular evidence of distinct immune responses in cases of ASB compared to UTI in elderly patients who were hospitalized upon injury. Neutrophil-driven inflammatory responses to invading bacteria were not discernible in most patients diagnosed with ASB compared to those with UTI. In contrast, proteomic urine analysis for trauma patients with no evidence of bacteriuria, including those who suffered mucosal injuries via urethral catheterization, rarely showed evidence of neutrophil infiltration. The same enzymes contributing to the synthesis of leukotrienes LTB4 and LTC4, mediators of inflammation and pain, were found in the UTI and ASB cohorts. These data support the notion that the pathways mediating inflammation and pain in most elderly patients with ASB are not quantitatively different from those seen in most elderly patients with UTI and warrant larger clinical studies to assess whether a common antibiotic treatment strategy for elderly ASB and UTI patients is justified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Once daily, extended release ciprofloxacin for complicated urinary tract infections and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, David A; Klimberg, Ira W; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Song, James; Kowalsky, Steven F; Church, Deborah A

    2004-02-01

    We assessed the efficacy and safety of 1,000 mg extended release ciprofloxacin orally once daily vs conventional 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally twice daily, each for 7 to 14 days, in patients with a complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP). In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, North American multicenter clinical trial adults were stratified based on clinical presentation of cUTI or AUP and randomized to extended release ciprofloxacin or ciprofloxacin twice daily. Efficacy valid patients had positive pretherapy urine cultures (105 or greater cFU/ml) and pyuria within 48 hours of study entry. Bacteriological and clinical outcomes were assessed at the test of cure visit (5 to 11 days after therapy) and the late followup visit (28 to 42 days after therapy). The intent to treat population comprised 1,035 patients (extended release ciprofloxacin in 517 and twice daily in 518), of whom 435 were efficacy valid (cUTI in 343 and AUP in 92). For efficacy valid patients (cUTI and AUP combined) bacteriological eradication rates at test of cure were 89% (183 of 206) vs 85% (195 of 229) (95% CI -2.4%, 10.3%) and clinical cure rates were 97% (198 of 205) vs 94% (211 of 225) (95% CI -1.2%, 6.9%) for extended release vs twice daily ciprofloxacin. Late followup outcomes were consistent with test of cure findings. Eradication rates for Escherichia coli, which accounted for 58% of pathogens, were 97% or greater per group. Drug related adverse event rates were similar for extended release and twice daily ciprofloxacin (13% and 14%, respectively). Extended release ciprofloxacin at a dose of 1,000 mg once daily was as safe and effective as conventional treatment with 500 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily, each given orally for 7 to 14 days in adults with cUTI or AUP. It provides a convenient, once daily, empirical treatment option.

  20. Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S; Hoebeke, Piet; Kočvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J M; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgül, Serdar

    2015-03-01

    In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting with UTI. The recommendations were developed after a review of the literature and a search of PubMed and Embase. A consensus decision was adopted when evidence was low. UTIs are classified according to site, episode, symptoms, and complicating factors. For acute treatment, site and severity are the most important. Urine sampling by suprapubic aspiration or catheterisation has a low contamination rate and confirms UTI. Using a plastic bag to collect urine, a UTI can only be excluded if the dipstick is negative for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite or microscopic analysis is negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria. A clean voided midstream urine sample after cleaning the external genitalia has good diagnostic accuracy in toilet-trained children. In children with febrile UTI, antibiotic treatment should be initiated as soon as possible to eradicate infection, prevent bacteraemia, improve outcome, and reduce the likelihood of renal involvement. Ultrasound of the urinary tract is advised to exclude obstructive uropathy. Depending on sex, age, and clinical presentation, vesicoureteral reflux should be excluded. Antibacterial prophylaxis is beneficial. In toilet-trained children, bladder and bowel dysfunction needs to be excluded. The level of evidence is high for the diagnosis of UTI and treatment in children but not for imaging to identify patients at risk for upper urinary tract damage. In these guidelines, we looked at the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children with urinary tract infection. There are strong recommendations on diagnosis and treatment; we also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathy within 24h and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Copyright © 2014 European

  1. Contribution of urinary tract infection to the burden of febrile illnesses in young children in rural Kenya.

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    Masika, Wechuli Geoffrey; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme; Holland, Thomas L; Armstrong, Janice

    2017-01-01

    The clinical features of UTI in young children may not localize to the urinary tract and closely resemble other febrile illnesses. In malaria endemic areas, a child presenting with fever is often treated presumptively for malaria without investigation for UTI. Delayed or inadequate treatment of UTI increases the risk of bacteremia and renal scarring in young children and subsequently complications as hypertension and end stage renal disease in adulthood. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a hospital in western Kenya. Inpatients and outpatients 2 months to five years with axillary temperature ≥37.5°C and no antibiotic use in the previous week were enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013. Urine dipstick tests, microscopy, and cultures were done and susceptibility patterns to commonly prescribed antibiotics established. UTI was defined as presence of pyuria (a positive urine dipstick or microscopy test) plus a positive urine culture. A total of 260 subjects were recruited; 45.8% were female and the median age was 25months (IQR: 13, 43.5). The overall prevalence of UTI was 11.9%. Inpatients had a higher prevalence compared to outpatients (17.9% v 7.8%, p = 0.027). UTI co-existed with malaria but the association was not significant (OR 0.80, p = 0.570). The most common organisms isolated were Escherichia coli (64.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12.9%) and were sensitive to ciproflaxin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, gentamycin and nitrofurantoin but largely resistant to more commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (0%), amoxicillin (16.7%), cotrimoxazole (16.7%) and amoxicillin-clavulinate (25%). Our study demonstrates UTI contributes significantly to the burden of febrile illness in young children and often co-exists with other infections. Multi-drug resistant organisms are common therefore choice of antimicrobial therapy should be based on local sensitivity pattern.

  2. Serum albumin level predicts initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment failure in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Liang, Chi-Di; Wang, Chih-Lu; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Yang, Kuender D

    2010-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis primarily affecting children who are initial IVIG treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for initial IVIG treatment failure in KD. Children who met KD diagnosis criteria and were admitted for IVIG treatment were retrospectively enrolled for analysis. Patients were divided into IVIG-responsive and IVIG-resistant groups. Initial laboratory data before IVIG treatment were collected for analysis. A total of 131 patients were enrolled during the study period. At 48 h after completion of initial IVIG treatment, 20 patients (15.3%) had an elevated body temperature. Univariate analysis showed that patients who had initial findings of high neutrophil count, abnormal liver function, low serum albumin level (≤2.9 g/dL) and pericardial effusion were at risk for IVIG treatment failure. Multivariate analysis with a logistic regression procedure showed that serum albumin level was considered the independent predicting factor of IVIG resistance in patients with KD (p = 0.006, OR = 40, 95% CI: 52.8-562). There was no significant correlation between age, gender, fever duration before IVIG treatment, haemoglobin level, total leucocyte and platelet counts, C-reactive protein level, or sterile pyuria and initial IVIG treatment failure. The specificity and sensitivity for prediction of IVIG treatment failure in this study were 96% and 34%, respectively. Pre-IVIG treatment serum albumin levels are a useful predictor of IVIG resistance in patients with KD. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infection in Children With Gastroenteritis

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    Soleimani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second most common bacterial infection in infancy and childhood with peaking in infancy and toilet training. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate UTI in patients with diarrhea. Patients and Methods This case-control study was conducted on 200 participants, 100 were patients with acute gastroenteritis and the other 100 were controls who referred to the clinic for routine checkup. UTI was defined as two positive urine cultures with > 105 cfu/mL. If white blood cells were more than 10/mm3 in un-centrifuged urine it would be considered pyuria and more than one microorganism in 10 oil immersion fields as bacteriuria. Analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 16 with application of chi-square test and 0.05 as significant levels. Results The distribution of these 200 children were 115 (57.5% and 85 (42.5% for females and males respectively. The gender and age distribution in case and control groups showed non-significant association. In urine culture it was observed that 27 individuals were positive and there were seven healthy children. The number of children with positive urine culture was higher than that of their counterparts significantly (P = 0.0001. Relationship between urine culture and age groups showed that the number of participants with positive urine culture was higher in children with age of two months to two years but it was not significant (P = 0.54. Conclusions It was demonstrated that, considerable percentage of UTI existed in the gastroenteritis diseases. Early treatment of UTI in patients would reduce UTI complications.

  4. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 diabetic subjects with and without microalbuminuria

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    Skliros Eystathios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic subjects, especially women, show high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of ASB in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D with and without microalbuminuria (MA. Findings A hundred diabetic subjects with MA (53 males/47 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 65.5 ± 11.1 years and 100 diabetic subjects without MA (52 males/48 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 65.4 ± 11.3 years, consecutively attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of our hospital were recruited in the study. Subjects with overt diabetic nephropathy or nephropathy from other causes were excluded. In addition, subjects with symptoms of urinary track infection or use of antimicrobial drugs in the last 14 days were excluded by the study. Diabetic subjects with MA showed increased prevalence of ASB compared to diabetic subjects without MA (21% versus 8%, P Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen isolated in diabetic subjects with and without MA (12% versus 3.0%, P = 0.01, respectively followed by Proteus mirabilis (6% versus 5%, P = 0.75, respectively and Klebsiella spp (5% versus 1%, P = 0.09, respectively. Univariate logistic analysis showed that ASB was associated with the presence of coronary artery disease [odds ratio (OR: 0.29, 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI: 0.09-0.95, P = 0.04] and gender (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02-0.35, P Conclusions ASB is more prevalent among T2D subjects with MA. Screening for ASB is warranted in diabetic patients especially if pyuria is detected in urine analysis since ASB has been found to be a risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection.

  5. Efficacy and safety of the phytotherapeutic drug Canephron® N in prevention and treatment of urogenital and gestational disease: review of clinical experience in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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    Naber KG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Kurt G NaberTechnical University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: This review evaluates 17 clinical studies from 18 selected publications concerning the safety, tolerability, and additional effects of the phytotherapeutic drug, Canephron® N (CAN, containing the medicinal plants, Centaurium erythraea, Levisticum officinale, and Rosmarinus officinalis as standard therapy in various clinical settings. Its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults and in children, therapy and prophylaxis in adult patients with renal stones, treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and other gestational diseases in pregnancy, and also its safety and tolerability. The dosage was as recommended and over a varying duration. Overall, CAN was shown to be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of UTI compared with standard therapy, both in adults and children, and there was a reduced number of relapses. Children undergoing surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux benefited from a prophylactic course of CAN. Ten-day add on therapy increased the rate of spontaneous elimination of kidney stones compared with standard therapy alone and may also have had a positive effect on stone prevention. Pregnant women showed earlier relief of symptoms and normalization of pyuria on additional treatment with the herbal combination. Only one adverse effect was reported (skin rash in the 3115 patients included in this review. No teratogenic, embryotoxic, or fetotoxic effects, or negative interference with the psychological development or health of children born of mothers treated with the drug were reported. Because some of the studies were not well designed, their statistical significance remains unclear.Keywords: Canephron® N, herbal remedy, urogenital disease, gestational disease

  6. Papillary necrosis with invasive fungal infections: a case series of 29 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishan L.; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Joshi, Kusum; Chakrbarti, Arunaloke; Kohli, Harbir S.; Jha, Vivekanand; Sakhuja, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal papillary necrosis (RPN) is associated with a number of comorbid conditions. However, it has been rarely reported in patients with fungal infections of the kidney. Methods We analyzed medical records of our hospital for the last two decades and identified 29 patients with fungal infections and RPN. Results Among the 29 patients, there were 24 men and 5 women. The median (range) age at presentation was 31.2 years (2 days–73 years). Three patients (10%) were kidney transplant recipients. The remaining had varied co-existing medical conditions that included diabetes mellitus in 16 (55%) and septicemia in 4 (14%). Clinical features at presentation were fever and oliguric kidney failure in 17 patients and loin pain accompanied by passage of fleshy material per urethra in 11 (38%). Diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 17 (59%) patients. Twenty patients (69%) had infection limited to the kidneys, while in the rest, it was disseminated. Kidney involvement was bilateral in 17 patients (59%). Urinalysis showed pyuria in 23 (79%) and microhematuria in 8 (28%) patients. Fungal infections included candidiasis (69%), aspergillosis (21%) and zygomycosis (10%). Of the 17 patients in whom the diagnoses was made ante-mortem, 12 survived and 5 died. Overall mortality was observed in 48% of cases. Conclusions We herein report a series of patients with RPN associated with fungal infections of the kidney. Presentation varies from asymptomatic urinary tract infection to severe kidney failure with poor outcome. High index of suspicion is necessary to reduce the associated high mortality in these patients. PMID:27293566

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Boo-Ali Hospital Tehran Iran: Urine analysis vs. urine culture.

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    Etminan-Bakhsh, Mina; Tadi, Sima; Darabi, Roksana

    2017-11-01

    specificity of 100%, whereas we can only refer the pregnant women with positive leucocyte esterase test and significant pyuria to the urine culture.

  8. Renal tuberculosis

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    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  9. Predictors of nonresponse to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in Kawasaki disease

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    Hyo Min Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; It has been reported that 10% to 20% of children with Kawasaki disease (KD will not respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment. In this study, we aimed to identify useful predictors of therapeutic failure in children with KD. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We examined 309 children diagnosed with KD at the Kyungpook National University Hospital and the Inje University Busan Paik Hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records and analyzed multiple parameters in responders and nonresponders to IVIG. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; Among the 309 children, 30 (9.7% did not respond to IVIG. They had significantly higher proportion of neutrophils, and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin, and N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide than did responders. IVIGnonresponders had a significantly longer duration of hospitalization, and more frequently experienced coronary artery lesion, and sterile pyuria. No differences in the duration of fever at initial treatment or, clinical features were noted. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; Two independent predictors (ALT?#248;4 IU/L, total bilirubin?#240;.9 mg/dL for nonresponse were confirmed through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thus elevated ALT and total bilirubin levels might be useful in predicting nonresponse to IVIG therapy in children with KD.

  10. Acute extrarenal kidney damage in the course of infection with fungal strain of Candida glabrata in a patient with type 2 diabetes

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    Szarejko-Paradowska, A.; Bartnicki, P.; Pietrzak, B.; Wilk, R.; Serwa-Stepien, E.; Rysz, J.; Jablonowski, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute renal injury is becoming a significant epidemiological problem among patients requiring hospital treatment. Extrarenal aetiology of the kidney injury is recognized in 5 % to 10 % of hospitalized patients; however, the identification of the mycelium of the Candida glabrata as the direct factor causing the acute urinary obstruction is extremely rare. Case Report: A 64-year-old woman was admitted to the clinic because of progressing weakness, nausea and vomiting, poor appetite and reduced urination. On admission, laboratory findings revealed pyuria, inflammatory changes, acute renal failure (eGFR-MDRD 6 ml/min), and hyperglycemia. The patient underwent USG of the abdominal cavity, which showed bilateral hydronephrosis, with lithiasis on the right site. Cystoscopy done the next day revealed that the mucous membrane of the bladder was reddened and had a white coating. During the next several days, a renal fistula was created on the left and right sides. Candida glabrata was isolated from urine, and was sensitive only to voriconazole. V-fend (voriconazole) treatment resulted in increase of diuresis and decrease in creatinine and urea levels. Conclusions: Urinary tract infection caused by Candida glabrata causes significant therapeutic problems. In most cases, these yeasts are resistant to triazole anti-fungal drugs such as fluconazole, which translates into significantly increased mortality of patients. To date, a similar case was described only by one group of doctors, however, due to the intensity of the currently used immunosuppression and multiantibiotic therapy, increased incidence of diabetes and the aging of the population, it is expected that the prevalence of this clinical problem will increase. (authors)

  11. Clinical validation of integrated nucleic acid and protein detection on an electrochemical biosensor array for urinary tract infection diagnosis.

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    Ruchika Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection that poses a substantial healthcare burden, yet its definitive diagnosis can be challenging. There is a need for a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method that could allow early detection of UTI and reduce unnecessary antibiotics. Pathogen identification along with quantitative detection of lactoferrin, a measure of pyuria, may provide useful information towards the overall diagnosis of UTI. Here, we report an integrated biosensor platform capable of simultaneous pathogen identification and detection of urinary biomarker that could aid the effectiveness of the treatment and clinical management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated pathogen 16S rRNA and host lactoferrin detection using the biosensor array was performed on 113 clinical urine samples collected from patients at risk for complicated UTI. For pathogen detection, the biosensor used sandwich hybridization of capture and detector oligonucleotides to the target analyte, bacterial 16S rRNA. For detection of the protein biomarker, the biosensor used an analogous electrochemical sandwich assay based on capture and detector antibodies. For this assay, a set of oligonucleotide probes optimized for hybridization at 37°C to facilitate integration with the immunoassay was developed. This probe set targeted common uropathogens including E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. as well as less common uropathogens including Serratia, Providencia, Morganella and Staphylococcus spp. The biosensor assay for pathogen detection had a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 89%. A significant correlation was found between LTF concentration measured by the biosensor and WBC and leukocyte esterase (p<0.001 for both. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We successfully demonstrate simultaneous detection of nucleic acid and host immune marker on a single biosensor array in clinical samples. This platform can be used for

  12. Conservative/surgical treatment predictors of maternal hydronephrosis: results of a single-center retrospective non-randomized non-controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercil, Hakan; Arslan, Burak; Ortoglu, Ferhat; Alma, Ergun; Unal, Umut; Deniz, Mehmet Eflatun; Senturk, Aykut Bugra; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan

    2017-08-01

    To determine the parameters that may help the clinicians decide the best suitable treatment method for the pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis which will be based on the easily accessible laboratory tests, monitoring methods and clinical symptoms. Digital data and documents of 246 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis who were hospitalized in our clinic between the dates of January 2011 and January 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were statistically evaluated in terms of age, symptomatic maximal anterior-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (MADP), parity, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, white blood cell count (WBC), presence of pyuria, growth of urine culture, fever, serum urine and creatinine levels, visual analog scale (VAS) score of pre- and post-therapy and threatened preterm labor. The study includes a total of 211 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis. In the second and third trimester groups, the surgical treatment group statistically provided higher levels of CRP, WBC and VAS. Mean MADP in the second trimester of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.67 ± 4.67 and 28.68 ± 7.70 mm, respectively. Mean MADP in the third trimester group of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.96 ± 5.96 and 28.85 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. In patients with symptomatic pregnancy hydronephrosis, the likelihood of surgical treatment for CRP levels, WBC counts and VAS is high.

  13. Profile of children with urinary tract infection and the utility of urine dipstick as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, A R; Aryal, U R

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common problem in children and its early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent long-term complications. Urine dipstick can be an important tool in this respect. The aim of this study is to look at the utility of urine dipstick as a diagnostic tool for UTI and will also see the clinical profile of children with UTI and sensitivity pattern of antibiotics among the isolates of urine culture. Urine samples of all children below 14 years of age who were suspected of urinary tract infection were sent for routine microscopic examination and dipstick testing. Urine culture and sensitivity were sent for those samples that were tested positive for nitrite, leucocyte esterase activity or both. For every fifth sample, which is dipstick negative, a culture and sensitivity testing was done. Among 110 children enrolled, 32(29%) cases had significant bacteriuria. Out of 32 culture positive cases 18(56%) were female. Fever was the main complaint (62.5%)). Escherichia Coli was isolated in 81.25% of cases. Amikacin was sensitive in 93% and amoxicillinwas resistant in 82%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of nitrite test was 65%, 80%, 58%, 85% respectively; those of leucocyte esterase are 84%, 55%, 43%, 89% respectively; those for significant microscopic pyuria >10/hpf were 65%, 74%, 51%, 84% respectively. E. Coli is the commonest uropathogen in children with UTI. Amikacin is the most sensitive antibiotic against all the isolates. A positive dipstick both for nitrite and leucocyte esterase is associated with high sensitivity and specificity for urinary tract infection as compared to either of them positive alone. In addition, urine WBC ≥10/hpf is associated with high probability of UTI.

  14. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

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    Yoichi Kawamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD. We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5 levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI, and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG responders (n=89 and nonresponders (n=31 with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4±4.8 IU/L, P<0.05 and UTI patients (66.0±8.0 IU/L, P<0.01 than in VI patients (17.0±6.2 IU/L. In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1±4.7 IU/L, P<0.05, especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P<0.05, than IVIG responders (32.0±2.8 IU/L. KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.

  15. Clinical profile and antibiotics sensitivity in childhood urinary tract infection at Dhulikhel Hospital.

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    Singh, S D; Madhup, S K

    2013-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection implies presence of actively multiplying organisms in the urinary tract. Although it is infrequently associated with mortality, it is still a significant cause of morbidity. Early diagnosis is critical to preserve renal function of growing kidney. Our purpose was to determine the clinical, microbiologic profile and antibiotic sensitivity of such infections in pediatric Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) patients at Dhulikhel Hospital. A hospital based prospective descriptive study of 135 children from 2 months to 16 years, with clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection who visited the pediatric department of Dhulikhel Hospital over the period of 15 months were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent routine urine analysis and culture. Children with recurrent UTI underwent micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG). Children with recurrent UTI of more than two years and with feature of pyelonephritis underwent USG abdomen as well. Complications and response of the treatment was observed in all cases of UTI. All data were entered in Epidata and data analysis was done using spss 16 version. Among 135 children, 32.5% were male and 67.4% were female. Fever was the most common presenting symptom in 74.80% of patients followed by dysuria in 54.1%. Among these children 95.6% had significant pyuria and 45% had culture positive infection. Children who showed positive for bacteriuria, Escherichia coli (78.7%) was the most common organism and are more than 80% sensitive to Amikacin, Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Imipenem and Vancomycin. Co-trimoxazole was the most common drug used for treatment with a mean drug respond time of (mean+/-S.D) of 2.21+/-.78 days. 2+/-. Children who had recurrent UTI were more prone to develop culture positive UTI (p=0.0001). Urinary Tract Infection in female was almost twice more common than in male. Cotrimoxazole was the most common drug used for treatment, sensitivity of this drug was less than 50% for

  16. Urinary Tract Infection Antibiotic Trial Study Design: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmaci, Romain; Vazouras, Konstantinos; Bielicki, Julia; Folgori, Laura; Hsia, Yingfen; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Sharland, Mike

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent common bacterial infections in children. No guidance on the conduct of pediatric febrile UTI clinical trials (CTs) exist. To assess the criteria used for patient selection and the efficacy end points in febrile pediatric UTI CTs. Medline, Embase, Cochrane central databases, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched between January 1, 1990, and November 24, 2016. We combined Medical Subject Headings terms and free-text terms for "urinary tract infections" and "therapeutics" and "clinical trials" in children (0-18 years), identifying 3086 articles. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. We included 40 CTs in which a total of 4381 cases of pediatric UTIs were investigated. Positive urine culture results and fever were the most common inclusion criteria (93% and 78%, respectively). Urine sampling method, pyuria, and colony thresholds were highly variable. Clinical and microbiological end points were assessed in 88% and 93% of the studies, respectively. Timing for end point assessment was highly variable, and only 3 studies (17%) out of the 18 performed after the Food and Drug Administration 1998 guidance publication assessed primary and secondary end points consistently with this guidance. Our limitations included a mixed population of healthy children and children with an underlying condition. In 6 trials, researchers studied a subgroup of patients with afebrile UTI. We observed a wide variability in the microbiological inclusion criteria and the timing for end point assessment. The available guidance for adults appear not to be used by pediatricians and do not seem applicable to the childhood UTI. A harmonized design for pediatric UTIs CT is necessary. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Comparison of urinary tract infection rates among 2- to 12-month-old febrile infants with RSV infections using 1999 and 2011 AAP diagnostic criteria.

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    Kaluarachchi, Dinushan; Kaldas, Virginia; Roques, Euripedes; Nunez, Randolph; Mendez, Magda

    2014-07-01

    Infants with RSV infections have been found to have a clinically significant rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published a revised Clinical Practice Guideline on UTIs in 2011, which includes major changes in diagnostic criteria for UTIs. Past research has been done using previous diagnostic criteria. The objective of the study is to assess the rate of UTIs in febrile infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections according to the 2011 revised AAP Diagnostic Criteria and compare the rate of UTIs against the 1999 AAP Diagnostic Criteria. A retrospective comparative study of febrile infants (2-12 months) with RSV infections admitted to the Inpatient Pediatric unit of Lincoln Medical and Mental Center, Bronx, NY, from September through April 2006 to 2012. We applied the AAP's 1999 and 2011 diagnostic criteria for UTIs separately to assess the rates of UTIs. A total of 359 RSV-positive febrile patients who were investigated for UTIs were enrolled. Pyuria was found in 11.1% (40/359), positive urine culture 10 000 to 50 000 was found in 1.4% (5/359) and ≥50 000 in 4.7% (17/359). The rate of UTIs using AAP's 1999 criteria was 6.1% (22/359), and using the 2011 criteria the rate was 1.1% (4/359). The rate of UTIs was significantly different between the 2 groups (odds ratio [confidence interval] = 0.17 [0.05, 0.5], P = .001). The rate of UTIs in RSV-positive febrile infants is very low (1.1%) with the 2011 AAP diagnostic criteria. Previously described increased risk of UTIs may represent asymptomatic bacteriuria or contaminated specimens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

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    Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    To define the imaging patterns of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). The demographic, clinical, and imaging findings of 21 cases of pathologically proven XGP in 20 patients (bilateral in one) were evaluated. The findings of ultrasonography and CT were retrospectively evaluated with regard to distribution and extent of the disease, kidney size, the presence of calculi, hydronephrosis, and renal function. The findings were assessed by two radiologists, who established a consensus. Imaging and pathologic findings were compared. Sixteen of the 20 patients were female, and 19 were adults. Their age ranged from 3 to 16 (mean, 45) years. In all patients except one, the disease was unilateral (right: left =3D 13 :16). In one patient, XGP was bilateral, and there were thus 21 cases. Seventeen (81%) of these were diffuse, and four (19%) were focal; extrarenal extension occurred in 13 cases (62%), among which ipsilateral pleural effusion was noted in two. The kidney was enlarged diffusely in 12 cases (57%), and focally in three (14%); urinary calculi were present in 16 cases (76%), with staghorn calculi in four of these; and hydronephrosis occurred in 17 (81%). Impairment of ipsilateral renal function was noted in 13 cases (62%). Clinical findings of inflammation such as fever, pyuria, bacteriuria, or leucocytosis were noted in all patients. In addition to nephromegaly, renal function impairment, and urinary obstruction due to calculi, which are typical features of XGP, the condition may also show variable imaging findings. If the images obtained in the case of a middle-aged woman with clinical findings of urinary infection are atypical, we believe that XGP should be included in the differential diagnosis. (author)

  19. Urinary tract infection: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kenneth B

    2011-09-01

    To revise the American Academy of Pediatrics practice parameter regarding the diagnosis and management of initial urinary tract infections (UTIs) in febrile infants and young children. Analysis of the medical literature published since the last version of the guideline was supplemented by analysis of data provided by authors of recent publications. The strength of evidence supporting each recommendation and the strength of the recommendation were assessed and graded. Diagnosis is made on the basis of the presence of both pyuria and at least 50,000 colonies per mL of a single uropathogenic organism in an appropriately collected specimen of urine. After 7 to 14 days of antimicrobial treatment, close clinical follow-up monitoring should be maintained to permit prompt diagnosis and treatment of recurrent infections. Ultrasonography of the kidneys and bladder should be performed to detect anatomic abnormalities. Data from the most recent 6 studies do not support the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent febrile recurrent UTI in infants without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) or with grade I to IV VUR. Therefore, a voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is not recommended routinely after the first UTI; VCUG is indicated if renal and bladder ultrasonography reveals hydronephrosis, scarring, or other findings that would suggest either high-grade VUR or obstructive uropathy and in other atypical or complex clinical circumstances. VCUG should also be performed if there is a recurrence of a febrile UTI. The recommendations in this guideline do not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of care; variations may be appropriate. Recommendations about antimicrobial prophylaxis and implications for performance of VCUG are based on currently available evidence. As with all American Academy of Pediatrics clinical guidelines, the recommendations will be reviewed routinely and incorporate new evidence, such as data from the Randomized Intervention for Children

  20. Retrospective study for risk factors for febrile UTI in spinal cord injury patients with routine concomitant intermittent catheterization in outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, S; Shigemura, K; Nomi, M; Sengoku, A; Yamamichi, F; Fujisawa, M; Arakawa, S

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective study. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in spinal cord injury-associated neurogenic bladder (NB) patients who perform routine clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Rehabilitation Hospital, Kobe, Japan. Over a 3-year period, we retrospectively assessed the clinical risk factors for febrile UTI in 259 spinal cord injury patients diagnosed as NB and performing routine CIC with regard to the factors such as gender, the presence of pyuria and bacteriuria, and the categories of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale. A total of 67 patients had febrile UTI in the follow-up period, with 57 cases of pyelonephritis, 11 cases of epididymitis and 2 cases of prostatitis, including the patients with plural infectious diseases. The causative bacteria were ranked as follows: Escherichia coli (74 cases), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17 cases), Enterococcus faecalis (14 cases) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (12 cases). Antibiotic-resistant E. coli were seen, with 10.5% instances of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production and 23.8% of fluoroquinolone resistance. Multivariate analyses of clinical risk factors for febrile UTI showed that gender (male, P=0.0431), and ASIA impairment scale C or more severe (P=0.0266) were significantly associated with febrile UTI occurrence in NB patients with routine CIC. Our data demonstrated gender (male) and ASIA impairment scale C or more severe were significantly associated with febrile UTI occurrence in NB patients using routine CIC. Further prospective studies are necessary to define the full spectrum of possible risk factors for febrile UTI in these patients.

  1. Urinary symptoms in adolescent females: STI or UTI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jill S; Biro, Frank; Lan, Dongmei; Mortensen, Joel E; Reed, Jennifer; Slap, Gail B

    2007-05-01

    To determine if urinary symptoms or urinary tract infections (UTI) were associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) and which history, clinical, and laboratory findings could distinguish these infections in symptomatic women. A cross-sectional sample of 296 sexually active females aged 14-22 years attending a hospital-based teen health center or emergency department were recruited. Genitourinary symptoms, medical and sexual history, and urinalysis results were recorded. STI was defined as a vaginal swab positive for Trichomonas vaginalis or urine nucleic acid amplification test positive for Neisseria gonorrheae or Chlamydia trachomatis. A urine culture with >10,000 colonies of a single pathogen was considered a positive UTI. In the full sample, prevalence of UTI and STI were 17% and 33%, respectively. Neither urinary symptoms nor UTI was significantly associated with STI. Further analyses are reported for the 154 (51%) with urinary symptoms: Positive urine leukocytes, more than one partner in the last three months and history of STI predicted STI. Urinalysis results identified four groups: (1) Normal urinalysis-67% had no infection; (2) Positive nitrites or protein-55% had UTI; (3) Positive leukocytes or blood-62% had STI; and (4) Both nitrites/protein and leukocytes/blood positive-28% had STI and 65% had UTI. Those without a documented UTI were more likely to have trichomoniasis than those with a UTI, and 65% of those with sterile pyuria had STI, mainly trichomoniasis or gonorrhea. Adolescent females with urinary symptoms should be tested for both UTI and STIs. Urinalysis results may be helpful to direct initial therapy.

  2. Frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) and commonest causative organisms in spinal cord injury patients with various voiding modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, F.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of urinary tract infection and commonest causative organisms in spinal cord injury patients with various modes of voiding in rehabilitation setup in Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study of 100 spinal cord injury patients. Place and Duration of the Study: The Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi from September 2007 to March 2008 on clinical samples received from admitted patients in CMH Rawalpindi and AFIRM. Material and Methods: In 100 patients of spinal cord urine samples were subjected to Urine Routine examination and Urine Culture sensitivity. Urine culture revealing a bacterial colony count of 105 cfu/ml or higher were considered positive for urinary tract infection (UTI) if present with symptoms. Significant bacteriuria was investigated for spectrum and sensitivity pattern as well. Results: Of all 100 spinal cord patients 52 patients (52%) had symptoms suggestive of UTI but only 37 patients (37%) had significant bacteriuria on urine culture supported by high level pyuria were declared to have UTI. E-coli was the most commonly isolated organism with total no of 20 cases (54.1%) followed by Pseudomonas 6 cases (16.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 cases (8.1%), Proteus mirabilis 3 cases (8.1%), Citrobacter freundi 2 cases (5.4%) and the least frequent was Morganella morganii with 1 case (2.7%). UTI was most frequent in patients with indwelling catheter and was least associated with self voiding. Conclusion: Urinary Tract Infection was commonly observed among spinal cord injury patients. E-coli was the commonest isolated pathogen followed by Pseudomonas, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundi, Candida and Morganella morganii in descending order of frequency. UTI was most frequent in patients using indwelling catheter as a mode of voiding. (author)

  3. A Controlled Quasi-Experimental Study of an Educational Intervention to Reduce the Unnecessary Use of Antimicrobials For Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Neal; Brooks, Annie; Mithoowani, Siraj; Celetti, Steve J; Main, Cheryl; Mertz, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice. To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU. Quasi-experimental study with a control group. Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals. Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between January 30th and April 17th, 2012 (baseline) and January 30th and April 30th, 2013 (intervention). In January 2013, a multifaceted educational intervention based on risk factors identified during the baseline period was provided to medical residents (monthly) on one clinical teaching unit (CTU) at one hospital site, with the CTU of the other hospital serving as the control. During the baseline period, 160/341 (46.9%) positive urine cultures were obtained from asymptomatic patients at the two hospitals, and 94/160 (58.8%) were inappropriately treated with antibiotics. Risk factors for inappropriate use included: female gender (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.3), absence of a catheter (OR 2.5, 1.2-5), bacteriuria versus candiduria (OR 10.6, 3.8-29.4), pyuria (OR 2.0, 1.1-3.8), and positive nitrites (OR 2.2, 1.1-4.5). In 2013, only 2/24 (8%) of ABU patients were inappropriately treated on the intervention CTU as compared to 14/29 (52%) on the control CTU (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02-0.49). A reduction was also observed as compared to baseline on the intervention CTU (OR 0.1, 0.02-0.7) with no significant change noted on the control CTU (OR 0.47, 0.13-1.7). A multifaceted educational intervention geared towards medical residents with a focus on identified risk factors for inappropriate management of ABU was effective in reducing unnecessary antibiotic use.

  4. A Controlled Quasi-Experimental Study of an Educational Intervention to Reduce the Unnecessary Use of Antimicrobials For Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Irfan

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice.To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU.Quasi-experimental study with a control group.Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals.Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between January 30th and April 17th, 2012 (baseline and January 30th and April 30th, 2013 (intervention.In January 2013, a multifaceted educational intervention based on risk factors identified during the baseline period was provided to medical residents (monthly on one clinical teaching unit (CTU at one hospital site, with the CTU of the other hospital serving as the control.During the baseline period, 160/341 (46.9% positive urine cultures were obtained from asymptomatic patients at the two hospitals, and 94/160 (58.8% were inappropriately treated with antibiotics. Risk factors for inappropriate use included: female gender (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.3, absence of a catheter (OR 2.5, 1.2-5, bacteriuria versus candiduria (OR 10.6, 3.8-29.4, pyuria (OR 2.0, 1.1-3.8, and positive nitrites (OR 2.2, 1.1-4.5. In 2013, only 2/24 (8% of ABU patients were inappropriately treated on the intervention CTU as compared to 14/29 (52% on the control CTU (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02-0.49. A reduction was also observed as compared to baseline on the intervention CTU (OR 0.1, 0.02-0.7 with no significant change noted on the control CTU (OR 0.47, 0.13-1.7.A multifaceted educational intervention geared towards medical residents with a focus on identified risk factors for inappropriate management of ABU was effective in reducing unnecessary antibiotic use.

  5. Acute Pyelonephritis with Perinephric Stranding on CT

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    Ronald Goubert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 54-year old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of fevers, dysuria, urinary frequency, and diffuse abdominal pain. Her temperature was 103°F, but the remainder of her vital signs were normal. Upon physical examination, the patient had tenderness to palpation in the left upper and left lower abdomen and left costovertebral angle tenderness. Due to the location of pain (diverticulitis is in the differential for left-sided abdominal pain in this age group and patient’s reported history of nephrolithiasis, a computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast was ordered because the physician felt this could best work up both of these possible conditions. Significant findings: A CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast showed neither nephrolithiasis nor diverticulitis, and instead showed heterogeneous enhancement of the left kidney with mild edematous enlargement and striated left nephrogram. Significant perinephric stranding (red arrows was also noted and was consistent with severe acute pyelonephritis. Discussion: Acute pyelonephritis (APN is a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma which can present with a spectrum of symptoms including flank pain, high-grade fever, vomiting, and urinary tract symptoms.1,2 The diagnosis of APN can be made based on these clinical features with associated laboratory findings of bacteriuria, pyuria, positive urine cultures, and leukocytosis.1,2,7 Early diagnosis and treatment of APN is essential to prevent complications such as renal abscess or infarct, which could lead to renal failure, sepsis, and shock.3 CT has a sensitivity and specificity of 86.8% and 87.5%, respectively, for diagnosing APN. Common findings include striated nephrograms or perinephric fat stranding.2 However, imaging is not required for diagnosis and is typically reserved for patients who are immunocompromised, have severe symptoms, or show no clinical

  6. Childhood bladder stones-an endemic disease of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder calculi are one of the commonest health problems in young children especially in rural and underprivileged areas. Methods: All children of bladder stones operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi from July 2009 to June 2012 were included in this cross-sectional study. Data was collected regarding age, sex, address (rural or urban), body weight, duration of breast feeding, weaning, detailed dietary history regarding milk type, volume, amount of water intake, recurrent diarrhoea, urinary tract infection (UTI), family history, and socioeconomic history. Urine analysis, complete blood count (CBC), renal function, ultra sound abdomen, X-ray kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) was done in all patients. All patients had cystolithotomy and were followed up till complete recovery. Results: A total of 113 children (97 males and 16 females) operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi Tharparker were included in study. All patients belonged to local desert areas of Tharparker. Age ranged from 18 months to 14 year (mean age 8.6 year). Most frequent symptom was difficulty in micturition in 76 (67.25%) patients, urinary retention in 18 (15.9%) and stone with pyuria and fever in 12 (10.6%) patients. Recurrent episodes of diarrhoea (more than 3 episodes per year) in 73(65%) patients, recurrent UTI in 51 (45.6%), family history of stone disease in 6 (5%) and associated rectal prolapse in 3(2.6%) patients. On x-ray KUB 111 (98%) patients had single stone in bladder, 2 (2%) had multiple stones and an associated renal and ureteric stone in 5 (4.5%). Mild anaemia (Hb 7-10 gm%) was seen in 35 (39.55%) patients, moderate anaemia (Hb 5-7 gm %) was seen in 21(24%) and severe anaemia (Hb less than 5 gm%) was seen in 14 (16%) patients. All patients had open cystolithotomy for removal of stones under general anaesthesia. Conclusion: Bladder stones are public health problem. Majority of affected patients were less than 5 years old. Low protein diet, dehydration, use of goat milk

  7. Utility of a routine urinalysis in children who require clean intermittent catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, C S; Haslam, D B; Jackson, E; Goldstein, S L

    2017-10-01

    Children who require clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) frequently have positive urine cultures. However, diagnosing a urinary tract infection (UTI) can be difficult, as there are no standardized criteria. Routine urinalysis (UA) has good predictive accuracy for UTI in the general pediatric population, but data are limited on the utility of routine UA in the population of children who require CIC. To determine the utility of UA parameters (e.g. leukocyte esterase, nitrites, and pyuria) to predict UTI in children who require CIC, and identify a composite UA that has maximal predictive accuracy for UTI. A cross-sectional study of 133 children who required CIC, and had a UA and urine culture sent as part of standard of care. Patients in the no-UTI group all had UA and urine cultures sent as part of routine urodynamics, and were asymptomatic. Patients included in the UTI group had growth of ≥50,000 colony-forming units/ml of a known uropathogen on urine culture, in addition to two or more of the following symptoms: fever, abdominal pain, back pain, foul-smelling urine, new or worse incontinence, and pain with catheterization. Categorical data were compared using Chi-squared test, and continuous data were compared with Student's t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for individual UA parameters, as well as the composite UA. Logistic regression was performed on potential composite UA models to identify the model that best fit the data. There was a higher proportion of patients in the no-UTI group with negative leukocyte esterase compared with the UTI group. There was a higher proportion of patients with UTI who had large leukocyte esterase and positive nitrites compared with the no-UTI group (Summary Figure). There was no between-group difference in urinary white blood cells. Positive nitrites were the most specific (84.4%) for UTI. None of the parameters had a high positive predictive value, while all had

  8. Standardised high dose versus low dose cranberry Proanthocyanidin extracts for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in healthy women [PACCANN]: a double blind randomised controlled trial protocol.

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    Asma, Babar; Vicky, Leblanc; Stephanie, Dudonne; Yves, Desjardins; Amy, Howell; Sylvie, Dodin

    2018-05-02

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common bacterial infections affecting women. Although antibiotics are the treatment of choice for UTI, cranberry derived products have been used for many years to prevent UTIs, with limited evidence as to their efficacy. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of a cranberry extract capsule standardized in A-type linkage proanthocyanidins (PACs) for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection. We will perform a 1:1 randomized, controlled, double blind clinical trial in women aged 18 years or more who present ≥2 UTIs in 6 months or ≥ 3 UTIs in 12 months. One hundred and forty-eight women will be recruited and randomized in two groups to either receive an optimal dose of cranberry extract quantified and standardized in PACs (2 × 18.5 mg PACs per day) or a control dose (2 × 1 mg PACs per day). The primary outcome for the trial is the mean number of new symptomatic UTIs in women during a 6-month intervention period. Secondary outcomes are: (1) To evaluate the mean number of new symptomatic UTIs with pyuria as demonstrated by a positive leucocyte esterase test; (2) To detect the mean number of new symptomatic culture-confirmed UTIs; (3) To quantify urinary PACs metabolites in women who take a daily dose of 37 mg PACs per day compared to women who take a daily dose of 2 mg per day for 6 months; (4) To characterize women who present recurrent UTI based on known risk factors for recurrent UTI; (5) To describe the side effects of daily intake of cranberry extract containing 37 mg PACs compared to 2 mg PACs. This report provides comprehensive methodological data for this randomized controlled trial. The results of this trial will inform urologists, gynaecologists, family physicians and other healthcare professionals caring for healthy women with recurrent UTI, as to the benefits of daily use of an optimal dose of cranberry extract for the prevention of recurrent UTI. Clinicaltrials

  9. A Clinical and Radiological Observation on Urolithiasis

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    Chung, Young Sun; Byun, Moung Ho; Yoon, I Ho

    1983-01-01

    A clinical and radiological observation was made on 167 cases of urolithiasis among the number of 150 patients during 1 year and 6 months from June, 1981 to November, 1982. The results were summarized as follows. 1. There were 101 man and 49 women, a ratio of 2:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 to 74 years, showing the highest incidence in 31 to 60 years (68.1%). 2. Locational distributions of urolithiasis were 80 cases (47.9%) in the ureter, 66 cases (39.5%) in the kidney, 11 cases (6.5%) in the urethra and 10 cases (5.9%) in the bladder. 3. Among the 66 cases of renal stone, pelvis stone was 55 cases (83.3%) with staghorn types in 23 cases (34.8%), and calyceal stone was 11 cases (16.6%). 4. The location of ureteral stone was 47.5% in lower, 40% in upper ureter and 12.5% in mid-ureter. 5. The location of urethra stone was 82% in the anterior urethra and 18% in the posterior urethra. 6. The chief complain of urolithiasis was flank pain in 59.2%, gross hematuria in 20.3%, renal colic in 13.1%, dysuria in 8.3%, nausea and vomiting in 4.7%, and sudden stoppage of urine stream in 3.5%. 7. On urinalysis, gross hematuria was found in 54.4%, pyuria in 28.7%, bacteriuria in 23.3%, microscopic hematuria in 18.5% and normal in 7.1%. 8. The size of urinary stone was 0.6-2.0 cm in length in 105 cases (62.8%). 9. On I.V.P. study of renal stones (66 cases), mild and moderate hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 38 kidneys (57.5%), and the relationship between the urinary stasis and renal stone size was relatively good. 10. On I.V.P. study of ureteral stones (80 cases), mild to severe hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 64 kidneys (80%). 11. On K.U.B. film, paralytic ileus was found in 25 cases (14.9%). 12. Among the urinary stones, the radiolucent stones were detected in 8 cases (4.7%). 13. Urinary stones disappeared in 11 cases (6.5%) spontaneously or medical treatment.

  10. A Clinical and Radiological Observation on Urolithiasis

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    Chung, Young Sun; Byun, Moung Ho; Yoon, I Ho [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-09-15

    A clinical and radiological observation was made on 167 cases of urolithiasis among the number of 150 patients during 1 year and 6 months from June, 1981 to November, 1982. The results were summarized as follows. 1. There were 101 man and 49 women, a ratio of 2:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 to 74 years, showing the highest incidence in 31 to 60 years (68.1%). 2. Locational distributions of urolithiasis were 80 cases (47.9%) in the ureter, 66 cases (39.5%) in the kidney, 11 cases (6.5%) in the urethra and 10 cases (5.9%) in the bladder. 3. Among the 66 cases of renal stone, pelvis stone was 55 cases (83.3%) with staghorn types in 23 cases (34.8%), and calyceal stone was 11 cases (16.6%). 4. The location of ureteral stone was 47.5% in lower, 40% in upper ureter and 12.5% in mid-ureter. 5. The location of urethra stone was 82% in the anterior urethra and 18% in the posterior urethra. 6. The chief complain of urolithiasis was flank pain in 59.2%, gross hematuria in 20.3%, renal colic in 13.1%, dysuria in 8.3%, nausea and vomiting in 4.7%, and sudden stoppage of urine stream in 3.5%. 7. On urinalysis, gross hematuria was found in 54.4%, pyuria in 28.7%, bacteriuria in 23.3%, microscopic hematuria in 18.5% and normal in 7.1%. 8. The size of urinary stone was 0.6-2.0 cm in length in 105 cases (62.8%). 9. On I.V.P. study of renal stones (66 cases), mild and moderate hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 38 kidneys (57.5%), and the relationship between the urinary stasis and renal stone size was relatively good. 10. On I.V.P. study of ureteral stones (80 cases), mild to severe hydro nephrotic changes were detected in 64 kidneys (80%). 11. On K.U.B. film, paralytic ileus was found in 25 cases (14.9%). 12. Among the urinary stones, the radiolucent stones were detected in 8 cases (4.7%). 13. Urinary stones disappeared in 11 cases (6.5%) spontaneously or medical treatment.

  11. Urinary tract infections in older women: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-02-26

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and vaginal estrogen therapy effectively reduce

  12. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  13. Factors Affecting the Improvement of the Initial Peak Urinary Flow Rate after Transurethral Resection of the Prostate or Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate for Treating Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

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    Hwa Sub Choi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We evaluated the factors that affect the improvement of the initial peak flow rate after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP or photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH patients by using noninvasive tools. Methods One hundred and twenty seven BPH patients who had undergone TURP or PVP between January 2005 and May 2009 were evaluated. They were divided into 2 groups: the postoperative initial peak urinary flow rate (Qmax was less than 10 mL/sec (Group 1; n=37, TURP=11, PVP=26 and more than 10 mL/sec (Group 2; n=90, TURP=41, PVP=49. We confirmed the patients' preoperative check lists. The check list were the international prostate symptom score (IPSS, the quality of life score, a past history of acute urinary retention (AUR, body mass index and/or pyuria, the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level and the prostate volume, the prostate transitional zone volume and prostatic calcification. The initial Qmax was measured at the outpatient clinic one week after discharge. Results The improvement rate was not significant difference between the TURP group (78.8% and the PVP group (65.3%. The efficacy parameters were the IPSS-storage symptom score, the prostate volume, the PSA level and a past history of AUR. The IPSS-storage symptom scores of Group 1 (12.3±3.3 was higher than those of Group 2 (10.5±1.7. The prostate volume of Group 2 (42.3±16.6 g was bigger than that of Group 1 (36.6±7.8 g. The PSA level of Group 2 (3.8±2.6 ng/mL was higher than that of Group 1 (2.6±2.6 ng/mL. A past history of AUR in Group 1 (35.1% was more prevalent than that of Group 2 (15.6%. Conclusions The non-invasive factors affecting the initial Qmax after TURP or PVP were the IPSS-storage symptom score, the prostate volume and a past history of AUR. Accordingly, in patients who have a higher IPSS-storage symptom score, a smaller prostate volume and a history of AUR, there might be a detrimental effect on

  14. A prospective analysis of urinary tract infections among elderly trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Martin D; Kuntz, Melissa M; Polites, Stephanie F; Boggust, Andy; Nelson, Heidi; Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Jenkins, Donald H; Harmsen, Scott; Ballman, Karla V; Pieper, Rembert

    2015-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) have been deemed "reasonably preventable" by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, thereby eliminating reimbursement. Elderly trauma patients, however, are at high risk for developing urinary tract infections (UTIs) given their extensive comorbidities, immobilization, and environmental changes in the urine, which provide the ideal environment for bacterial overgrowth. Whether these patients develop CAUTI as a complication of their hospitalization or have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) or UTI at admission must be determined to justify the "reasonably preventable" classification. We hypothesize that a significant proportion of elderly patients will present with ASB or UTI at admission. Institutional review board permission was obtained to perform a prospective, observational clinical trial of all elderly (≥65 years) patients admitted to our Level I trauma center as a result of injury. Urinalysis (UA) and culture (UCx) were obtained at admission, 72 hours, and, if diagnosed with UTI, at 2 weeks after injury. Mean cost of UTI was calculated based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates of $862 to $1,007 per UTI. Of 201 eligible patients, 129 agreed to participate (64%). Mean (SD) age was 81 (8.6) years. All patients had a blunt mechanism of injury (76% falls), with a mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 13.8 (7.6). Of the 18 patients (14%) diagnosed with CAUTI, 14 (78%) were present at admission. In addition, there were 18 patients (14%) with ASB at admission. The most common bacterial species present at admission urine culture were Escherichia coli (24%) and Enterococcus (16%). Clinical features associated with bacteriuria at admission included a history of UTI, positive Gram stain result, abnormal microscopy, and pyuria. The estimated loss of reimbursement for 18 UTIs at admission was $15,516 to $18,126; however, given an estimated cost of $1,981 to screen all patients with UA and UCx at

  15. Triple Detector SPECT Imaging with 99mTc-DMSA in Adult Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Bea, Woon Gyu; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Myung Hae; Kim, Soon Bae; Park, Su Kil; Park, Jung Sik; Hong, Chang Gi; Cho, Kyung Sik

    1992-01-01

    Although early diagnosis of urinary tract infection is important, the radiologic evaluation is still controversial because of the low sensitivity and the lack of cost-effectiveness. This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical utility of high resolution triple head 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging in urinary tract infection. We prospectively performed 99m Tc-DMSA planar and SPECT imaging, ultrasound of kidney (US), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and voiding cystourethrography (VCU) in all 60 adult patients with UTI [26 with first episode of acute pyelonephritis (APN), 22 with recurrent APN, and 12 persistent asymptomatic pyuria] and 25 normal persons. To assess reversibility of the renal cortical defect (RCD), 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT was repeated 1 to 8 months later in those patients with abnormal initial findings. Overall detection rate of 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging was 83% (50/60), but planar, US, IVP and VCU showed abnormal findings in 68%, 28%, 32% and 13%, respectively. 25 out of 27 patients with normal or single RCD were all normal in other radiological studies. Only two patients showed vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on VCU (grade I) and mild hydronephrosis on IVP. But, high proportion of those with multiple RCD showed abnormal findings on US (17/33), IVP (18/33), and VCU (7/33): 67% in any of these 3 studies. Especially, 3 out 7 patients with VUR showed multiple RCD on 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT without any abnormality on IVP or US. 25 normal persons showed normal findings in all studies except one false positive finding on 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging. Follow-up 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT was done in 28 patients (13 with single RCD, 15 with multiple RCD). All 13 patients with single RCD showed improvement. Those with multiple RCD presented improvement in 4, no change in 10, and aggravation in 1 on follow-up studies. With these results, we conclude: 1) 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging is superior to planar imaging, US, IVP or VCU in detection of renal lesion in urinary tract infection. 99m Tc

  16. Urinary ATP and visualization of intracellular bacteria: a superior diagnostic marker for recurrent UTI in renal transplant recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Stephen P; Courtneidge, Holly R; Birch, Rebecca E; Contreras-Sanz, Alberto; Kelly, Mark C; Durodie, Jerome; Peppiatt-Wildman, Claire M; Farmer, Christopher K; Delaney, Michael P; Malone-Lee, James; Harber, Mark A; Wildman, Scott S

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are highly susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs) with over 50% of patients having at least one UTI within the first year. Yet it is generally acknowledged that there is considerable insensitivity and inaccuracy in routine urinalysis when screening for UTIs. Thus a large number of transplant patients with genuine urine infections may go undiagnosed and develop chronic recalcitrant infections, which can be associated with graft loss and morbidity. Given a recent study demonstrating ATP is released by urothelial cells in response to bacteria exposure, possibly acting at metabotropic P2Y receptors mediating a proinflammatory response, we have investigated alternative, and possibly more appropriate, urinalysis techniques in a cohort of RTRs. Mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected from 53 outpatient RTRs. Conventional leukocyte esterase and nitrite dipstick tests, and microscopic pyuria counts (in 1 μl), ATP concentration measurements, and identification of intracellular bacteria in shed urothelial cells, were performed on fresh unspun samples and compared to 'gold-standard' bacterial culture results. Of the 53 RTRs, 22% were deemed to have a UTI by 'gold-standard' conventional bacteria culture, whereas 87%, 8% and 4% showed evidence of UTIs according to leukocyte esterase dipstick, nitrite dipstick, and a combination of both dipsticks, respectively. Intracellular bacteria were visualized in shed urothelial cells of 44% of RTRs, however only 1 of the 23 RTRs (44%) was deemed to have a UTI by conventional bacteria culture. A significant association of the 'gold-standard' test with urinary ATP concentration combined with visualization of intracellular bacteria in shed urothelial cells was determined using the Fisher's exact test. It is apparent that standard bedside tests for UTIs give variable results and that seemingly quiescent bacteria in urothelial cells are very common in RTRs and may represent a focus of

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in sickle cell disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Roye-Green Karen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD. However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB. Results Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266. Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3% of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0. The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p Conclusion ASB is a significant problem in individuals with SCD and may be the source of pathogens in UTI. However, further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of ASB in

  18. Percutaneous intervention in obstructive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souftas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous intervention procedures in obstructive uropathy include percutaneous nephrostomy tube placements, nephroureteral stents, percutaneous nephrostomy combined with ureteral embolization, percutaneous management of stone disease, suprapubic tube placements into the bladder, and perinephric/retroperitoneal urinomas/abscesses drainages. Percutaneous nephrostomy is performed to relieve urinary obstruction or divert the urinary stream away from the ureter or bladder. Patients are given preprocedure antibiotics. Percutaneous nephrostomies can be emergent cases because of risk of pyuria and sepsis from a stagnant urine collection. The procedure is performed using both ultrasound and fluoroscopy (or fluoroscopy alone using anatomic landmarks, or an internal radiopaque calculus, or delayed phase excretion of the contrast into the renal collecting system) under local anesthesia or conscious sedation. Ureteral stents are placed to bypass an obstructing stone or to stent across of an area of stricture or ureteral laceration. Stents may be placed by the urologist via a transurethral approach or by the interventional radiologist via a percutaneous approach. The decision as to method of stent placement is based upon the location and accessibility of the ureteral pathology. Ureteral embolization is performed in patients with unresectable tumors of the pelvis with long-standing nephrostomy tubes and distal urine leaks refractory to other treatments. Coils, gelfoam and liquid embolic materials can be used. Ureteral embolization for ureteral fistulas and incontinence is technically successful in 100% of the patients. Complications include bleeding, infection, ureteral or renal injury, and deployment (or movement) of the coils within the renal pelvis. Percutaneous management of stone disease, including renal, ureteral, and bladder stones requires close cooperation between the urologist and interventional radiologist, because of availability of sonographic lithotripsy

  19. Disease of the kidney and of the urinary tract in De Medicina Methodica (Padua, 1611) of Prospero Alpini (1563-1616).

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    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Bisaccia, Carmela; Ricciardi, Biagio; Anastasio, Pietro; Aliotta, Giovanni; Ongaro, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    The study was devised to understand the contribution to nephrology ofDe Medicina Methodicaof Prospero Alpini published in 1511, at a time when the fame of the professor reached the azimuth. We have analyzed the contents of chapters devoted to nephrology in that book of Prospero Alpini and the novelties of his message. Prospero Alpini (1563-1616) taught at the University of Padua (1594-1616), at the same time of Galileo Galilei, Santorio Santorio, and Girolamo Fabrizi dAcquapendente, when measurements (pulse, temperature, perspiration) were introduced into medicine. He was a travelling physician to whom we owe fundamental contributions to the use of urine to prognosticate life and death (De Praesagienda vita et morte aegrotantium libri septem, Venetiis, apud Haeredes Melchioris Sessae,1601). As prefect of the Botanical Garden - the first ever and a model in the world - he could turn the study of simples into cures(De Medicina Methodica Libri Tredecim. Patavi, apud Franciscum Bolzettam, 1611. Ex typographia Laurentij Pasquali, is anin foliovolume of XLVII + 424 pages, 54 lines per page), wherein Alpini aimed to rejuvenate antique medical Methodism. It is a testimony of the interest of medicine philosophers of the modern era for the corpuscular and atomic ideas (Nancy Siraisi). Methodists (2ndCentury BC) refused anatomy and physiology as unique guidelines to the interpretations of diseases and gave importance to the development of a pharmacological science and alternative medicine. The book begins with a 3 page letter to Francis Maria della Rovere Duke of Montefeltro, and a 2 page letter to the readers. We discuss the novelties of the chapters on renal colic (de dolorerenum), hematuria (de sanguinis profluvium), pyuria, anuria (de urina suppressa) and its cure, polyuria (de urina profluvio), renal abscesses, hydrops and its treatment by skin incisions. We also analyze the chapter on kidney and bladder stones (Book X, Chapter XVIII, pp. 354-356) - a masterpiece of

  20. Clinico-mycological and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Candiduria in A Tertiary Care Hospital From South India

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    Dinoop Korol Ponnambath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candida is one of the common causative agent of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI worldwide. The most common reported species causing UTI is Candida albicans. Incidence of UTI due to non-albicans Candida species. is on rise in recent years because of their better adaptability and increased resistance to antifungals. Susceptibility profile reports of various Candida species. to newer azoles like voriconazole and betaglucan inhibitors (e.g., caspofungin are deficient in India, since the reference broth microdilution method is not widely utilized. In this study, a rapid reliable and easier alternative, VITEK 2 compact system was utilized to determine the antifungal susceptibility profile. Aim: To analyse the clinical and mycological profile with determination of drug susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates from urine samples. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, during April to September 2015. Candida isolated with a colony count of ≥103 CFU/ml of urine from clinically suspected cases of UTI were included in the study. Urine samples (n=3821 from clinically suspected UTI cases (n=3821 were subjected to microscopic examination and semi quantitative estimation of yeast culture obtained by inoculated of calibrated volume of urine onto blood, Mac-conkey and HiCrome UTI agar. Clinical parameters of the cases were obtained for analysis. Speciation of Candida was performed using germ tube test, observation of morphology in corn-meal agar and pigment production in HiChrome Candida differential agar. Confirmation of the species identification and anti-fungal susceptibility profile were obtained using VITEK-2 compact system. Results: Total 101 patients were identified with significant candiduria. Community-Acquired Candiduria (CAC was seen in 11 (10.8% of the cases. 23 (22.7% cases of candiduria were associated with pyuria. Concomitant candidemia was observed in 4 (3

  1. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e tuberculose renal: descrição de nove Casos Systemic lupus erythematosus and renal tuberculosis: description of nine cases

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    Daniela Cabral de Sousa

    2008-02-01

    department of Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio. Data were collected regarding demographics, SLE and renal TB. RESULTS: All patients were female, aged between 19 and 58 years and had a history of lupus nephritis. Three had been on cyclophosphamide therapy prior to TB infection. The average dose of prednisone administered before the diagnosis of renal TB ranged between 7.5 and 20 mg/day. The most common laboratory findings were leukocyturia and hematuria. Renal TB recurred in four patients. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of renal TB in SLE patients should be suspected in the presence of persistent sterile pyuria and/or hematuria, especially in developing countries.

  2. Frecuencia de infección del tracto urinario en lactantes con fiebre, sin foco infeccioso evidente, que consultan a la Unidad Vida Infantil de la Universidad de Antioquia del Hospital Francisco Valderrama, Turbo (Antioquia Frequency of urinary tract infections in febrile infants without evidence of an infectious source. from the clinic of the Unidad Vida Infantil of the University of Antioquia, Hospital Francisco Valderrama, Turbo, Colombia.

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    Harold Durango Galván

    2006-01-01

    , erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, urine dipstick tests for leukocyte esterase and nitrites, urinalysis (UA (urine white blood cell count/mm3, gram stain in a drop of uncentrifuged urine, microscopic UA (white blood cells and bacteria per high-powered field, and quantitative urine culture (positive urine results were defined as ³104 colony-forming units of an urinary tract pathogen per mL. All urine specimens were obtained by urethral catheterization. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy likelihood ratios were determined for each one of the screening tests. RESULTS: overall prevalence of UTI (growth of >104 CFU of an urinary tract pathogen per mL was 10%. Average age was 7 months. Most children with UTI had anorexia, irritability, general malaise, and vomiting. The most specific laboratory parameters were urine positive gram stain (any bacteria, and pyuria (>10 WBC/high-powered field. All urinary tract infections were caused by Escherichia coli. Isolates of this urinary pathogen showed decreased susceptibility to trimetoprimsulfametoxasole, as well as resistance to ampicillin. CONCLUSIONS: UTI is a frequent cause of the acute febrile syndrome without apparent source for the fever in infants of Turbo, Antioquia. In such cases, particularly when there are not specific clinical signs or symptoms, physicians should take this disease into consideration, and order an UA (white blood cells and bacteria per high-powered field, and gram stain. If results of these tests are positive, an urine culture becomes necessary. In our study, E. coli isolates showed significant resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics.