Sample records for pyrophyllite

  1. The Fe removal in pyrophyllite by physical method (United States)

    Cho, Kanghee; Jo, Jiyu; Bak, GeonYeong; Choi, NagChoul; Park*, CheonYoung


    The presence of Fe in ingredient material such as limestone, borax and pyrophyllite can prevent their use mainly in the glass fiber manufacturing industry. The red to yellow pigmentation in pyrophyllite is mainly due to the associated oxides and sulfides of Fe such as hematite, pyrite, etc. The removal of Fe in the pyrophyllite was investigated using high frequency treatment and magnetic separation under various alumina grades in pyrophyllite. The hematite and pyrite were observed in the pyrophyllite from photomicrograph and XRD analysis results. On the decrease of Al2O3 content in pyrophyllite was showed that SiO2, Fe2O3 and TiO2 content were increased by XRF analysis. The high frequency treatment experiment for the pyrophyllite showed that the (1) pyrite phase was transformed hematite and magnetite, (2) mass loss of the sample by volatilization of included sulfur(S) in pyrite. The results of magnetic separation for treated sample by high frequency were identified that Fe removal percent were in the range of 97.6~98.8%. This study demonstrated that physical method (high frequency treatment and magnetic separation) was effective for the removal of Fe in pyrophyllite. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry".

  2. Interaction between bacteriophage and pyrophyllite clay in aqueous solution (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Son, Jeong-Woo; Yi, In-Geol; Kim, Song-Bae


    Viral contamination results in a degradation in drinking water quality and a threat to public health. Toprovide safe drinking water, water treatment alternatives using various adsorbents and filter media such as activated carbon, bituminous coal, quartz sand and clay have been considered. Pyrophyllite is a 2:1 clay mineral having dioctahedral layer structure with octahedrally coordinated Al ion sheets between two sheets of SiO4 tetrahedra. It is a hydrous aluminosilicate clay with the chemical composition AlSi2O5(OH). Pyrophyllite has recently been investigated as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for removing various contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of the bacteriophage MS2 from aqueous solution using pyrophyllite. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the MS2 sorption to pyrophyllite. The influence of fluoride, a groundwater contaminant, on the removal of MS2 was also observed. Batch results demonstrated that pyrophyllite was effective in MS2 removal. The percent removal increased from 5.26% to 99.99% (= 4.0 log removal) as the pyrophyllite concentrations increased from 0.2 to 20 g/L. More than 99% of MS2 could be removed with a pyrophyllite concentration of ≥ 4 g/L. The sorption of MS2 to pyrophyllite was rapid. Within 15 min, approximately 99.98% (= 3.7 log removal) of MS2 was attained. More than 4.0 log removal was achieved after 180 min. The experimental data were analyzed with the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. The correlation coefficient showed that pseudo second-order model was better than pseudo first-order model at describing the kinetic data. The amount of MS2 removed at equilibrium was determined to be 1.43 × 108 pfu/g from the pseudo second-order model. The experimental data were also analyzed with the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The correlation coefficients showed that the Langmuir model was more suitable than the Freundlich model for MS2

  3. Phase transformations of pyrophyllite clay mineral after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.


    The termal transformation of the Pyrophyllite clay mineral, given by the equations: AL sub(2) O sub(3).4SiO sub(2).H sub(2) O → Al sub(2) O sub(3).4SiO sub(2) + H sub(2) O Pyrophyllite Anhydride Water vapour. 3 (Al sub(2) O sub(3).4SiO sub(2)) → 3 Al sub(2) O sub(3). 2SiO sub(2) + 10 (SiO sub(2)) Pyrophyllite Anhydride Mullite Cristobalite, were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) associated to Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAD), applied to a very pure sample, colected at Diamantina, M.G. Some other tgechniques were also used, as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), applied to other different Pyrophyllite samples. A thermodynamical theoretical study was undertaken to estimate the values for the entropyu of formation, enthalpy and molar thermal capacity for the Pyrophyllite Anhydride. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of highly purified nanosilica from pyrophyllite ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuad, Abdulloh, E-mail:; Mufti, Nandang; Diantoro, Markus; Subakti,; Septa Kurniawati, S. [Jurusan Fisika FMIPA Universitas Negeri Malang. Jl. Semarang No. 5 Malang, east Java (Indonesia)


    A simple method based on alkaline extraction followed by acid precipitation and acid dissolution has been developed to produce highly purified nanosilica from pyrophyllite materials. The reaction parameters such as molar ratio NaOH/SiO{sub 2}, reaction time and reaction temperature are varied for obtaining maximum nanosilica convertion. About 99,45% highly purified precipitated nanosilica measure with ICP, 259 m{sup 2}/gr measure with BET surface area, 97% whiteness and 3 ml/gr oil absorbtion from pyrophyllite materials has been achieved in closed system at 150°C within 180 min. The physicals and chemical properties (such as X-Ray Diffraction from PANalytical, X-Ray Fluorescence Minipal4 from PANanalytical, BET surface area, Forier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy from Hitachi, and SEM-EDS Inspect-S50 from FEI Company) of the highly purity nanosilica were studied.

  5. Potassium Silicate Foliar Fertilizer Grade from Geothermal Sludge and Pyrophyllite

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    Muljani Srie


    Full Text Available Potassium silicate fertilizer grade were successfully produced by direct fusion of silica (SiO2 and potasium (KOH and K2CO3 in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The geothermal sludge (98% SiO2 and the pyrophyllite (95% SiO2 were used as silica sources. The purposes of the study was to synthesise potassium silicate fertilizer grade having solids concentrations in the range of 31-37% K2O, and silica in the range of 48-54% SiO2. The weight ratio of silicon dioxide/potasium solid being 1:1 to 5:1. Silica from geothermal sludge is amorphous, whereas pyrophylite is crystalline phase. The results showed that the amount of raw materials needed to get the appropriate molar ratio of potassium silicate fertilizer grade are different, as well as the fusion temperature of the furnace. Potassium silicate prepared from potassium hydroxide and geothermal sludge produced a low molar ratio (2.5: 1 to 3: 1. The potassium required quite small (4:1 in weight ratio, and on a fusion temperature of about 900 °C. Meanwhile, the potassium silicate prepared from pyrophyllite produced a high molar ratio (1.4 - 9.4 and on a fusion temperature of about 1350 °C, so that potassium needed large enough to meet the required molar ratio for the fertilizer grade. The product potassium silicate solid is amorphous with a little trace of crystalline.

  6. Energy efficient process for making pyrophyllite-based ceramic tiles using phosphoric acid and mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amritphale, S.S.; Sanjeev Bhasin; Navin Chandra [Habib Ganj Naka, Pradesh (India). Regional Research Laboratory


    The processing parameters for making ceramic tiles in the pyrophyllite-phosphoric acid binder (P-PA) system have been optimized. The optimized raw material composition requires sintering at a lower temperature of 950{sup o}C. The X-ray powder diffraction studies on the powdered sample of optimized composition have confirmed the presence of dehydroxylate pyrophyllite, tridymite (T-AlPO{sub 4}), cristyoballite (C-AlPO{sub 4}) forms of aluminium phosphate and formation of silico-phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and alkali aluminium silicates (NaAlSiO{sub 4}, KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}). The IR studies of the sample show Al-O, Si-O.P-O and Na/K-O linkages. The thermal analysis shows the formation of dehydroxylate pyrophyllite and different forms of AlPO{sub 4}. Scanning electron microphotograph reveals the chunky morphology of the dehydroxylate pyrophyllite, the rhombohedral morphology of T-AlPO{sub 4} and spherical C-AlPO{sub 4} and silico-phosphate particles. (author)

  7. Effect of pyrophyllite filler treatment toward water absorbance rate of SAPC and its application test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadigia Ginting


    An optimization treatment to pyrophyllite filler has been done to synthesis super absorbent polymers composite (SAPC) with copolymerization of acrylic. Pyrophyllite is one of a silicate mineral with chemical formula Al 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 having a reactive functional group -OH that easily making a bonding and therefore it is suitable for water absorbance materials. The pyrophyllite were studied as its weight composition and its powder-size in the SAPC preparation. To obtain the fine-size, the filler pyrophyllite were milled with high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) into divers hours of milling. The syntheses were carried out by using the settle method from Chemicals Engineering group of ITB Bandung. The samples of SAPC-prflt were then characterized with fourier-transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Effect of filler treatment toward water absorbance rate is the SAPC-prflt with 0.5 gr filler having the highest gradient absorbance 1,610; SAPC prflt which milled for 9 hours has gradient absorbance 1,526; SAPC-prflt after hot water test at 40°C has gradient absorbence 2,241 and SAPC-prflt as pampers test has the gradient absorbance 1,607. XRD data analysis showed a broad peak 2 θ at scale 5 w which correspond to the micrographs picture of the sample which has 0.5 gr filler pyrophyllite and sample after milled for 9 hours, that proposed increase the sample strength and stability which induce the increasing of its water absorbance.

  8. A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Keon-Joon; Choi, Yeon-Ho; Kim, Sang-Bae; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Cho, Sung-Baek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc.. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and development of technology of improvement in whiteness, and the optimum synthesis condition of zeolite Y are the scopes and contents of the study. Pyrophyllite samples are taken from Bunam. Principal composed minerals are pyrophyllite, quartz and dickite, having chemical components of 9.2% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 74.8% SiO{sub 2}, and 0.1% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. Dickite sample is taken from Bugok, consists of dickite and quartz having 37.7% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 47.8% SiO{sub 2} and 0.04% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Efficiency of the vibrating mill proved to be greater than ball mill compare with median size. The whiteness of sample increased with roasting temperature. In grinding a Bunam and Bugok sample by vibrating mill for 180 minute, median particle size is 3.06{mu}m and 2.85{mu}m, respectively. The structure water dehydration temperature is about 600 deg.C and mullite is presented around 850 deg.C for dickite, and the whiteness increased with roasting temperature. The whiteness of Bunam and Bugok sample ground by vibrating mill for 180 minute and roasted for 60 minutes at 900 deg.C is 96.5, 98, respectively. The mole ratio of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is important factor for synthesis of zeolite Y, crystallinity is 56 at SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio is 13. Reaction time also important factor, crystallinity is 52 at SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio

  9. Map showing reconnaissance geochemistry in the gold-pyrophyllite belt of northwestern Moore County, North Carolina (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.


    Traces of gold and molybdenum are widely disseminated in an area approximately 35 km long and 10 km wide in northwestern Moore County, N.C.  At least 2540 oz. of gold were recovered from 16 or more mines and prospects between 1880 and 1910.  One hundred and ninety rock samples out of 244 collected from old gold mines, pyrophyllite deposits and along roads contain gold quantities ranging from 0.02 to 2.4 parts per million.  In addition, 43 samples out of the 244 taken contain molybdenum in amounts ranging from 4 to 500 parts per million.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedallah Talidi


    Full Text Available Tubular macroporous support for ceramic microfiltration membranes were prepared by extrusion followed by sintering of the low cost pyrophyllite clay. Clay powders mixed with some organic additives can be extruded to form a porous tubular support. The average pore size of the membrane is observed to increase from 5 µm to 10.8 µm when sintering temperature increase from 900 °C to 1200 °C. However, with the increase in temperature from 900 °C to 1200 °C, the support porosity is reduced from 47% to 30% and flexural strength is increased from 4 MPa to 17 MPa. The fabricated macro-porous supports are expected to have potential applications in the pre-treatment and also can be used like support for membranes of ultra-filtration.

  11. Influence of mechanical and thermal treatments on raw materials containing pyrophyllite

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    Sánchez Soto, P. J.


    Full Text Available In the present work results obtained in a study on the influence of thermal, mechanical by dry grinding, and their combination, in raw materials containing pyrophyllite, are discussed. First of all, it is studied the influence of thermal treatment concerning the development and evolution of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite from dehydroxylated pyrophyllite. On the basis of these results, it is analyzed what happens in a natural raw mixture of pyrophyllite with kaolinite and mica (sericite submitted to thermal treatments. The raw pyrophyllite materials are altered under laboratory conditions using mechanical treatments by dry grinding. It is noted that the increase of surface area and particle size reduction is produced by grinding, but other effects are produced on the structure and properties of the solid submitted to grinding. In general, grinding leads to a progressive destruction of the original crystal structure of the present layered silicates, but it is preferentially produced along the “c” axis. In other words, mechanochemical reactions are induced by dry grinding due to the increase of reactivity of the system. Between these reactions, it is enhanced the reagglomeration process that occurs above a determinate limit of grinding time. The grinding treatment can be combined with a subsequent thermal treatment that enhances the increase of reactivity, producing the formation of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite at lower temperatures that in unground samples with energy saving. The results are compared taking into account the crystal structures of both kaolinite and pyrophyllite, the thermal transformation of kaolinite to mullite, and the process of grinding kaolinite because this layer silicate is present in the raw materials containing pyrophyllite.

    En el presente trabajo se exponen y discuten resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la influencia de tratamientos térmicos, tratamientos mecánicos por molienda

  12. Ab-Initio Modelling Of Surface Site Reactivity And Fluid Transport In Clay Minerals Case Study: Pyrophyllite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churakov, S.V.


    Pyrophyllite, Al 2 [Si 4 O 10 ](OH) 2 , is the simplest structural prototype for 2:1 dioctahedral phyllosilicate. Because the net electric charge in pyrophyllite is zero, it is the best candidate for investigating the non electrostatic contribution to sorption and transport phenomena in clays. Using ab-initio simulations, we have investigated the reactivity and structure of the water-solid interface on the basal plane and edge sites of pyrophyllite. The calculations predict slightly hydrophobic behaviour of the basal plane. For the high water coverage (100), (110) and (-110), lateral facets have a lower energy than for the (010), (130) and (-130) surfaces. Analysis of the surface reactivity reveals that the =Al-OH groups are most easily protonated on the (010), (130) and (-130) facets. The =Al-O-Si= sites will be protonated on the (100), (130), (110), (-110) and (-130) surfaces. The =Al-OH 2 complexes are more easily de-protonated than the =Si-OH and =Al-OH sites. A spontaneous, reversible exchange of the protons between the solution and the edge sites has been observed in ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K. Such near-surface proton diffusion may result in a significant contribution to the diffusion coefficients measured in neutron scattering experiments. (author)

  13. Origin of 6-fold coordinated aluminum at (010-type pyrophyllite edges

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    M. Okumura


    Full Text Available To better understand the aqueous chemical reactivity of clay mineral edges we explored the relationships between hydration and the structure of (010-type edges of pyrophyllite. In particular, we used density functional theory and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules to evaluate the stability of 6-fold coordinated hydrated aluminum at the edge in terms of the electron density distribution. Geometrical optimization revealed an intra-edge hydrogen bond network between aluminol hydroxyls and water ligands completing the aluminum coordination shell. From the electron density isosurfaces one water ligand is not covalently bonded to aluminum. Bader charge analysis revealed that OH2 ligands have small negative charge. In addition, it is also found that the charge of the 6-fold coordinated aluminum is larger than one of the 5-fold aluminum. From these results, the charging of the OH2 ligands is interpreted as charge transfer originated from the formation of the hydrogen bond network and not from Al-OH2 interaction per se. This suggests that the weakly bound water ligand in question, and more generally 6-fold hydrated edge Al coordination, is stabilized primarily by the hydrogen bond network which in turn leads to weak ionic attraction to the aluminum center itself. The finding highlights the importance of cooperative effects between solvent structure and the coordination of metal cations exposed at clay mineral edges.

  14. Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-Pyrophyllite-based system. (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Aminuddin, Siti Fatimah; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi


    This work focuses on the stabilization and speciation of lead (Pb) in a composite solid produced from an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA)-pyophyllite-based system. The solid product was synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h. The product could reduce the leaching of Pb and the Pb concentration in the leachate was 7.0 × 10 -3 using the Japanese leaching test and 9.7 × 10 -4  mg/L using toxicity characteristics leaching procedure method, which satisfied the respective test criteria and successfully stabilized Pb in this system. The solid product had a compressive strength of 2 MPa and consisted mainly of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure suggested that Pb was present along with Al, Si, and O, and that the atomic environment around the Pb was similar to that of PbSiO 3 . These results suggest that the alkali-activated MSWIFA-pyrophyllite-based system could be used to stabilize Pb in MSWIFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water structure and aqueous uranyl(VI) adsorption equilibria onto external surfaces of beidellite, montmorillonite, and pyrophyllite: results from molecular simulations. (United States)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A; Cygan, Randall T


    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to provide a systematic study of aqueous uranyl adsorption onto the external surface of 2:1 dioctahedral clays. Our understanding of this key process is critical in predicting the fate of radioactive contaminants in natural groundwaters. These simulations provide atomistic detail to help explain experimental trends in uranyl adsorption onto natural media containing smectite clays. Aqueous uranyl concentrations ranged from 0.027 to 0.162 M. Sodium ions and carbonate ions (0.027-0.243 M) were also present in the aqueous regions to more faithfully model a stream of uranyl-containing groundwater contacting a mineral system comprised of Na-smectite. No adsorption occurred near the pyrophyllite surface, and there was little difference in uranyl adsorption onto the beidellite and montmorillonite, despite the difference in location of clay layer charge between the two. At low uranyl concentration, the pentaaquouranyl complex dominates in solution and readily adsorbs to the clay basal plane. At higher uranyl (and carbonate) concentrations, the mono(carbonato) complex forms in solution, and uranyl adsorption decreases. Sodium adsorption onto beidellite occurred both as inner- and outer-sphere surface complexes, again with little effect on uranyl adsorption. Uranyl surface complexes consisted primarily of the pentaaquo cation (85%) and to a lesser extent the mono(carbonato) species (15%). Speciation diagrams of the aqueous region indicate that the mono(carbonato)uranyl complex is abundant at high ionic strength. Oligomeric uranyl complexes are observed at high ionic strength, particularly near the pyrophyllite and montmorillonite surfaces. Atomic density profiles of water oxygen and hydrogen atoms are nearly identical near the beidellite and montmorillonite surfaces. Water structure therefore appears to be governed by the presence of adsorbed ions and not by the location of layer charge associated with the substrate. The water

  16. Chemical kinetics of Cs species in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and pyrophyllite-based system using Cs K-edge in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi; Ina, Toshiaki


    We conducted in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (in situ XAFS) analysis at the Cs K-edge to investigate the chemical kinetics of Cs species during reaction in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) and pyrophyllite-based system. Understanding the kinetics of Cs is essential to the design of appropriate conditions for Cs stabilization. In situ XAFS analysis of four pastes, prepared from NaOHaq, sodium silicate solution, pyrophyllite, and MSWIFA with the addition of CsCl, was conducted in custom-built reaction cells at four curing temperatures (room temperature, 60 °C, 80 °C, 105 °C) for approximately 34 h. The results indicated that the change in Cs species during reaction at room temperature was small, while changes at higher temperatures were faster and more extreme, with the fastest conversion to pollucite occurring at 105 °C. Further analysis using a leaching test and a simple reaction model for Cs species during reaction showed that the pollucite formation rate was dependent on the curing temperature and had a significant negative correlation with Cs leaching. The activation energy of pollucite formation was estimated to be 31.5 kJ/mol. These results revealed that an important change in the chemical state of Cs occurs during reaction in the system.

  17. Coal fly ash utilization: Low temperature sintering of wall tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Navin; Sharma, Priya; Pashkov, G.L.; Voskresenskaya, E.N.; Amritphale, S.S.; Baghel, Narendra S.


    We present here a study of the sintering of fly ash and its mixture with low alkali pyrophyllite in the presence of sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP), a complex activator of sintering, for the purpose of wall tile manufacturing. The sintering of fly ash with SHMP in the temperature range 925-1050 deg. C produces tiles with low impact strength; however, the incremental addition of low alkali pyrophyllite improves impact strength. The impact strength of composites with ≥40% (w/w) pyrophyllite in the fly ash-pyrophyllite mix satisfies the acceptable limit (19.6 J/m) set by the Indian Standards Institute for wall tiles. Increasing the pyrophyllite content results in an increase in the apparent density of tiles, while shrinkage and water absorption decrease. The strength of fly ash tiles is attributed to the formation of a silicophosphate phase; in pyrophyllite rich tiles, it is attributed to the formation of a tridymite-structured T-AlPO 4 phase. Scanning electron micrographs show that the reinforcing rod shaped T-AlPO 4 crystals become more prominent as the pyrophyllite content increases in the sintered tiles

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerous younger thin quartz veins with somewhat similar orientation cut across the giant quartz veins. They show imprints of strong brittle to ductile–brittle deformation, and in places are associated with base metal and gold incidences, and pyrophyllite-diaspore mineralization. The geochemistry of giant quartz veins were ...

  19. Cathodoluminescence (CL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetze, J.; Ploetze, M.; Goette, T.; Neuser, R.D.; Richter, D.K.


    Sheet silicates of the serpentine-kaolin-group (serpentine, kaolinite, dickite, nacrite, halloysite), the talc-pyrophyllite-group (talc, pyrophyllite), the smectite-group (montmorillonite), and illite (as a mineral of the mica-group) were investigated to obtain information concerning their cathodoluminescence behavior. The study included analyses by cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and trace element analysis. In general, all dioctahedral clay minerals exhibit a visible CL. Kaolinite, dickite, nacrite and pyrophyllite have a characteristic deep blue CL, whereas halloysite emission is in the greenish-blue region. On the contrary, the trioctahedral minerals (serpentine, talc) and illite do not show visible CL. The characteristic blue CL is caused by an intense emission band around 400 nm (double peak with two maxima at 375 and 410 nm). EPR measurements indicate that his blue emission can be related to radiation induced defect centers (RID), which occur as electron holes trapped on apical oxygen (Si-O center) or located at the Al-O-Al group (Al substituting Si in the tetrahedron). Additional CL emission bands were detected at 580 nm in halloysite and kaolinite, and between 700 and 800 nm in kaolinite, dickite, nacrite and pyrophyllite. Time-resolved spectral CL measurements show typical luminescence kinetics for the different clay minerals, which enable differentiation between the various dioctahedral minerals (e.g. kaolinite and dickite), even in thin section. (author)

  20. Ultra low and negative expansion glass–ceramic materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra low and negative expansion glass–ceramic materials have been obtained from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag. The batch composition was modified with the addition of lithium carbonate, hydrated alumina, boric acid and nucleating agent (titania). The batch was melted at 1400°C followed by casting in the form of ...

  1. Thermal behaviour of ground vermiculite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, Vladimír; Perez, M.; Šubrt, Jan; Poyato, J.


    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2007), s. 819-823 ISSN 1388-6150 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LA 040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : kaolinite * pyrophyllite * bentonite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2007

  2. Características generales, propiedades, yacimientos y aplicaciones de pirofilita. II. Yacimientos, aplicaciones y utilización como materia prima cerámica

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    Sánchez Soto, P. J.


    Full Text Available In this work, the main world deposits of pyrophyllite are indicated according to the literature, showing the available production data. It is emphasized the research focusing on mining and characterization of raw materials containing pyrophyllite, which shows a marked applied interest. It is described and reviewed the most relevant applications of pyrophyllite and pyrophyllite raw materials, in especial refractories and ceramics, fillers, building materials, catalysts and as a high-pressure medium for synthesis of materials. Finally, it is also described and reviewed its use as raw material for the preparation of advanced materials, such as sialon, emphasizing the possibilities of application of pyrophyllite raw materials in our country as a result of distinct investigations of relevant interest performed by several Research Institutes and University Departments. It is deduced that pyrophyllite and pyrophyllite raw materials are increasing in relative importance in many applied fields, as compared with other layer silicates, such as talc and kaolinite.

    En este trabajo se indican los principales yacimientos mundiales de pirofilita según la bibliografía, los datos de producción disponibles, además de revisar las investigaciones más destacadas sobre prospección y caracterización de materias primas que contienen pirofilita y que presentan un marcado interés aplicado. Se realiza una amplia revisión de las principales aplicaciones a las que se destinan dichas materias primas, en especial para la preparación de materiales cerámicos y refractarios, su uso como carga, en la construcción, obtención de catalizadores y síntesis de materiales a alta presión debido a sus propiedades. Por último, se describen y revisan sus aplicaciones en la preparación de nuevos materiales y materiales avanzados, como son los sialones, destacando su potencial de utilización en nuestro país como resultado de diversas investigaciones de inter

  3. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for industrial minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone: This study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro- and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. 2) A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite: Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and

  4. Acidity of clay edges from ab-initio simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazi, Sami; Salanne, Mathieu; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Turq, Pierre; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore


    Document available in extended abstract form only. One of the most important factor to understand and predict the sorption of cations on clay surfaces is the protonation state of the surface sites, which is difficult to determine experimentally. Indeed, titration provides a global measure only; it does not probe the status of different silanol (Si-OH) and aluminol sites (Al-OH and Al-OH 2 ) present along the edges of clay sheets in the presence of water. A novel method has been recently designed to quantify the acidity of chemical species. This method allows to estimate pKa values from First Principles Molecular Dynamics by thermodynamic integration. We have applied it to the case of pyrophyllite clay edge sites. These calculations will allow us to subsequently perform classical Molecular Dynamic simulations with realistic surface structures (protonated/deprotonated sites) for natural clays in the presence of water. After presenting the method, we show its application to the (010) edge of pyrophyllite. We find that the most acidic group is Si-OH while the least acidic one is Al-OH, which never deprotonates in water because of its high pKa value (22.1). We further provide a microscopic understanding of the solvation structure and reactivity of the edges of neutral clays. In particular we address the tendency to deprotonation of the different reactive groups on the (010) face of pyrophyllite, showing the important role of solvation and its rearrangements after deprotonation. Finally, we compare our results to the one predicted by the empiric method MUSIC and the estimate from deprotonation energies in the vacuum, confirming the important role of solvation in both the protonated and deprotonated states. (authors)

  5. Cross flow microfiltration of oil-water emulsions using clay based ceramic membrane support and TiO2 composite membrane


    Kanchapogu Suresh; G. Pugazhenthi


    The main objective of this work is to study the effect of cross flow filtration conditions on the separation of oily wastewater using ceramic support and TiO2 membrane. Firstly, the low cost clay based ceramic membrane support was prepared by uniaxial compaction method using combination of pyrophyllite, quartz, feldspar, kaolin, ball clay and calcium carbonate along with PVA as a binder. Subsequently, TiO2 composite membrane was fabricated via hydrothermal route employing TiO2 sol derived fro...

  6. The Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Manganese Nodules From the Southern Ocean (United States)


    viii Figure Page 17. Distribution of Values for the Ratio of Peak Areas 3.2 R Plagio lase-Phillipsite + 9.7 Todorokite / 3.34 § Quartz in Concretions...noted anorthoclase and plagio - clase both on the Rise crest and on the flanks. From their data they were able to delineate a province of acidic vol...peak shouldering on the 3.2 plagio - clase peak may have been caused by prehnite. Minor phyllosilicates Illite/muscovite, chlorite, and talc/pyrophyllite

  7. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi


    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  8. Comprehensive Study on Ceramic Membranes for Low‐Cost Microbial Fuel Cells (United States)

    Pasternak, Grzegorz; Greenman, John


    Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) made with different types of ceramic membranes were investigated to find a low‐cost alternative to commercially available proton exchange membranes. The MFCs operated with fresh human urine as the fuel. Pyrophyllite and earthenware produced the best performance to reach power densities of 6.93 and 6.85 W m−3, respectively, whereas mullite and alumina achieved power densities of 4.98 and 2.60 W m−3, respectively. The results indicate the dependence of bio‐film growth and activity on the type of ceramic membrane applied. The most favourable conditions were created in earthenware MFCs. The performance of the ceramic membranes was related to their physical and chemical properties determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy. The cost of mullite, earthenware, pyrophyllite and alumina was estimated to be 13.61, 4.14, 387.96 and 177.03 GBP m−2, respectively. The results indicate that earthenware and mullite are good substitutes for commercially available proton exchange membranes, which makes the MFC technology accessible in developing countries. PMID:26692569

  9. Estudio y composición de nueve estatuillas chinas y japonesas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales aportadas por D. Juan de Cuellar en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, Javier


    Full Text Available This paper describes a historical study combined with a non-destructive chemical and molecular characterisation (using ESEM-EDS and Raman spectroscopy of nine small sculptures. The specimens kept in the National Museum of Natural Sciences (MNCN institution are composed of steatite or soapstone, a soft and unctuous mineral containing talc and pyrophyllite. We found that two of the specimens are made of pyrophyllite from Japan while the other seven are talc carved with Chinese-style ornamentation. These talc specimens from China include calcite formed by dolomite metamorphism, while the pyrophyllite samples show Pb, Fe, Cl, As, P, S, Na and Ca, chemical elements more characteristic of hydrothermal alterations of felsic rocks from Japan. The statuettes were brought to what was then the RGHN from Philippines in the eighteenth century by Juan de Cuellar. The paper includes a short biography of this Spanish explorer and botanist and an account of his scientific and economic activities. These specimens are an excellent example of the Enlightenment fashion for collecting Asian objects.Se presenta un estudio histórico y de caracterización química y molecular por técnicas no destructivas, ESEMEDS y Raman, de nueve esculturas de pequeño tamaño, fabricadas en esteatita, antigua denominación de minerales blandos y untuosos como talco y pirofilita, conservadas en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN. Se concluye que dos especímenes son de pirofilita y procedentes de Japón, mientras que las otras siete son de talco con ornamentación de procedencia China. Las muestras de talco de China tienen calcita con algo de cobre, típica de metamorfismo de dolomías, mientras que las pirofilitas tienen Pb, Fe, Cl, As, P, S, Na y Ca, elementos químicos de origen hidrotermal de rocas félsicas más característico de Japón. Las estatuillas fueron aportadas al RGHN desde Filipinas, en el siglo XVIII, por D. Juan de Cuellar, expedicionario y bot

  10. Formation of organoclays by a one step synthesis (United States)

    Jaber, Maguy; Miéhé-Brendlé, Jocelyne; Delmotte, Luc; Le Dred, Ronan


    Different lamellar hybrid inorganic-organic materials having as inorganic parent 2:1 (T.O.T.) phyllosilicates such as talc, saponite, pyrophyllite, beidellite and montmorillonite were prepared by a one step synthesis. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, solid state 29Si, 27Al, and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance and transmission electron microscopy. XRD patterns show that solids with inorganic parents having octahedral sheet based on aluminium exhibit a lamellar structure similar to MCM-50, whereas those with magnesium have an organophyllosilicate structure. In the first case, the absence of hexacoordinated aluminium was confirmed by 27Al NMR and an ordered stacking of the layers is observed on TEM micrographs. In opposite, a disorder is observed on the TEM images of organophyllosilicates. The formation of the 2:1 structure was found to be controlled mainly by the insertion of silicic species in the interlamellar space of brucite like layers.

  11. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snow Camp-Saxapahaw Area, Central North Carolina (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert G.; Gumiel, Pablo; Payas, Alba


    The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw study area, in the Carolina slate belt in the Southeastern United States, is notable for large zones of high-sulfidation alteration in arc-related metavolcanic rocks. The area has potential for additional significant pyrophyllite and related aluminosilicate refractory mineral deposits and may have potential for small- to medium-size gold deposits also associated with the high-sulfidation hydrothermal systems. The Carolina slate belt is an elongate zone of mostly low-grade metamorphic rocks of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic age that extends from northeastern Georgia to southern Virginia. It is dominated by volcanic rocks but locally consists of fine-grained epiclastic sedimentary rocks. Plutons and subvolcanic bodies have intruded the rocks of the Carolina slate belt in many places and have been important in controlling the metamorphism and in localizing hydrothermal alteration. The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw area is mostly underlain by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and lesser amounts of intrusive shallow plutons. The volcanic rocks range in composition from basalt to rhyolite; however andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites are the most abundant. The intrusive bodies are largely granite and quartz monzonite; gabbroic bodies also are common. It was possible to establish the relative ages of only part of these rocks. Two northeast-trending fault zones and fractures divide the map area into three structural blocks; the central block was tilted down to the southwest to form a grabenlike structure. Most of the hydrothermally altered rocks and all of the intensely altered zones are confined to the downdropped block, which we think may have been calderalike in origin. A major volcanic unit, the Reedy Branch Tuff, is limited to the southwestern part of the graben and may be the youngest volcanic rock in the area. Layered rocks record one or more strong folding events, but the diversity of rock types, lack of recognizable stratigraphic markers, and

  12. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data (United States)

    Mars, John L.


    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  13. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.


    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  14. The improved flotation of gold from the residues of Orange Free State ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabassi, P.A.J.; Loveday, B.K.; Wilkinson, M.J.; Radcliffe, P.H.


    The recovery of gold, uranium, and pyrite from accumalated residues at mines in the Orange Free State is adversely affected by the presence of pyrophyllite, which is naturally floatable and must be prevented from floating with the desired constituents by the use of a mica depressant, and of thucholite (uraniferous kerogen), which contains significant quantities of uranium and gold but does not float readily in the presence of a mica depressant. In laboratory tests on these residues, the use of a mixture of MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol) and paraffin in addition to the suite of reagents normally used was found to increase the gold recovery substantially, but the sulphur grade was lower. The recovery of thucholite also increased considerably, but the proportion of uranium, associated with this mineral was small. Plant trials, which are continuing, have been encouraging, indicating an increase in the gold recovery of 4,6 per cent

  15. Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in clays at thermodynamic conditions of hydraulic fracturing: Insight from molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin


    To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of 365 K and 275 bar, and we represent the clay pores as pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) slits. We employ the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) model for water, Joung-Cheatham model for ions, and CLAYFF for the slit walls. We impose the pressure in the normal direction and the resulting slit width varies from about 20 to 25 Å when the salt concentration in the surrounding solution increased from zero to an oversaturated value. By varying the salt concentration, we observe two scenarios. First, the crystal dissolves and its dissolution time increases with increasing salt concentration. We describe the dissolution process in terms of the number of ions in the crystal, and the crystal size and shape. Second, when the salt concentration reaches a system solubility limit, the crystal grows and attains a new equilibrium size; the crystal comes into equilibrium with the surrounding saturated solution. After crystal dissolution, we carry out canonical MD simulations for the concentrated solution. We evaluate the hydration energy, density profiles, orientation distributions, hydrogen-bond network, radial distribution functions, and in-plane diffusion of water and ions to provide insight into the microscopic behaviour of the concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in interlayer galleries of the slightly hydrophobic pyrophyllite and hydrophilic Na-MMT pores.

  16. The effect of pressure on the thermal conductivity of silicate rocks up to 12 kbar (United States)

    Horai, Ki-iti; Susaki, Jun-ichi


    The effect of high pressure up to 12 kbar on thermal conductivity of silicate rocks was determined. Measurements were made by the transient hot wire method on 23 samples. With the exception of one sedimentary rock, one meteorite and manufactured fused and crystalline quartz, the samples were igneous and metamorphic rocks of the oceanic and the continental lithospheres. The samples were of cylindrical shape, 24 mm long and 12 mm in diameter, containing a heater of 0.1 mm thick chromel wire along their axis and a thermocouple at the center. They were encased in cubes of 41 mm-edge-long pyrophyllite and then placed between slide-type cubic anvils of the IHI high-pressure apparatus, which transmitted quasi-hydrostatic pressure of more than 2 kbar to the sample through the solid pyrophyllite medium. The validity of the method was confirmed by comparing the conductivity of standard materials measured using the present method with literature values. The results show that the thermal conductivity of all samples increases with increasing pressure. The most rapid increase in the range below 2 kbar can be attributed to the closure of microcracks in the sample, and uniform, less pronounced increases above 2 kbar should be intrinsic to the material. The effect of temperature was also studied on a small number of selected samples. In the temperature range from 300 to 700 K, the thermal conductivities of crystalline rocks under quasi-hydrostatic compressive stresses of 4 and 10 kbar showed a monotonic decrease of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of fused quartz, however, increased with temperature. Pressure appeared to have no appreciable effect on the temperature dependence of silicate thermal conductivity.

  17. A review of the surface features and properties, surfactant adsorption and floatability of four key minerals of diasporic bauxite resources. (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Nguyen, Anh V; Zhou, Changchun


    Diasporic bauxite represents one of the major aluminum resources. Its upgrading for further processing involves a separation of diaspore (the valuable mineral) from aluminosilicates (the gangue minerals) such as kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite. Flotation is one of the most effective ways to realize the upgrading. Since flotation is a physicochemical process based on the difference in the surface hydrophobicity of different components, determining the adsorption characteristics of various flotation surfactants on the mineral surfaces is critical. The surfactant adsorption properties of the minerals, in turn, are controlled by the surface chemistry of the minerals, while the latter is related to the mineral crystal structures. In this paper, we first discuss the crystal structures of the four key minerals of diaspore, kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite as well as the broken bonds on their exposed surfaces after grinding. Next, we summarize the surface chemistry properties such as surface wettability and surface electrical properties of the four minerals, and the differences in these properties are explained from the perspective of mineral crystal structures. Then we review the adsorption mechanism and adsorption characteristics of surfactants such as collectors (cationic, anionic, and mixed surfactants), depressants (inorganic and organic), dispersants, and flocculants on these mineral surfaces. The separation of diaspore and aluminosilicates by direct flotation and reverse flotation are reviewed, and the collecting properties of different types of collectors are compared. Furthermore, the abnormal behavior of the cationic flotation of kaolinite is also explained in this section. This review provides a strong theoretical support for the optimization of the upgrading of diaspore bauxite ore by flotation and the early industrialization of the reverse flotation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstructures in landslides in northwest China - Implications for creeping displacements? (United States)

    Schäbitz, M.; Janssen, C.; Wenk, H.-R.; Wirth, R.; Schuck, B.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Meng, X.; Dresen, G.


    Microstructures, mineralogical composition and texture of selected landslide samples from three landslides in the southern part of the Gansu Province (China) were examined with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Common sheet silicates are chlorite, illite, muscovite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite and dickite. Other minerals are quartz, calcite, dolomite and albite. In one sample, graphite and amorphous carbon were detected by TEM-EDX analyses and TEM high-angle annular dark-field images. The occurrence of graphite and pyrophyllite with very low friction coefficients in the gouge material of the Suoertou and Xieliupo landslides is particularly significant for reducing the frictional strength of the landslides. It is proposed that the landslides underwent comparable deformation processes as fault zones. The low friction coefficients provide strong evidence that slow-moving landsliding is controlled by the presence of weak minerals. In addition, TEM observations document that grain size reduction in clayey slip zone material was produced mainly by mechanical abrasion. For calcite and quartz, grain size reduction was attributed to both pressure solution and cataclasis. Therefore, besides landslide composition, the occurrence of ultrafine-grained slip zone material may also contribute to weakening processes of landslides. TEM images of slip-zone samples show both locally aligned clay particles, as well as kinked and folded sheet silicates, which are widely disseminated in the whole matrix. Small, newly formed clay particles have random orientations. Based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements, the degree of preferred orientation of constituent sheet silicates in local shear zones of the Suoertou and Duang-He-Ba landslide is strong. This work is the first reported observation of well-oriented clay fabrics in landslides.

  19. Spectroscopic mapping of the white horse alunite deposit, Marysvale volcanic field, Utah: Evidence of a magmatic component (United States)

    Rockwell, B.W.; Cunningham, C.G.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.


    Previous studies have demonstrated that the replacement alunite deposits just north of the town of Marysvale, Utah, USA, were formed primarily by low-temperature (100??-170?? C), steam-heated processes near the early Miocene paleoground surface, immediately above convecting hydrothermal plumes. Pyrite-bearing propylitically altered rocks occur mainly beneath the steam-heated alunite and represent the sulfidized feeder zone of the H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids, the oxidation of which at higher levels led to the formation of the alunite. Maps of surface mineralogy at the White Horse deposit generated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction studies of field samples to test the accuracy and precision of AVIRIS-based mineral mapping of altered rocks and demonstrate the utility of spectroscopic mapping for ore deposit characterization. The mineral maps identified multiple core zones of alunite that grade laterally outward to kaolinite. Surrounding the core zones are dominantly propylitically altered rocks containing illite, montmorillonite, and chlorite, with minor pyrite, kaolinite, gypsum, and remnant potassium feldspar from the parent rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff. The AVIRIS mapping also identified fracture zones expressed by ridge-forming selvages of quartz + dickite + kaolinite that form a crude ring around the advanced argillic core zones. Laboratory analyses identified the aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals woodhouseite and svanbergite in one sample from these dickite-bearing argillic selvages. Reflectance spectroscopy determined that the outer edges of the selvages contain more dickite than do the medial regions. The quartz + dickite ?? kaolinite ?? APS-mineral selvages demonstrate that fracture control of replacement processes is more prevalent away from the advanced argillic core zones. Although not exposed at the White Horse deposit, pyrophyllite ?? ordered illite was identified

  20. Immobilization of aqueous radioactive cesium wastes by conversion to aluminosilicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.


    Radioactive cesium (primarily 137 Cs) is a major toxic constituent of liquid wastes from nuclear fuel processing plants. Because of the long half-life, highly penetrating radiation, and mobility of 137 Cs, it is necessary to convert wastes containing this radioisotope into a solid form which will prevent movement to the biosphere during long-term storage. A method for converting cesium wastes to solid, highly insoluble, thermally stable aluminosilicate minerals is described. Aluminum silicate clays (bentonite, kaolin, or pyrophyllite) or hydrous aluminosilicate gels are reacted with basic waste solutions to form pollucite, cesium zeolite (Cs-D), Cs-F, cancrinite, or nepheline. Cesium is trapped in the aluminosilicate crystal lattice of the mineral and is permanently immobilized. The identity of the mineral product is dependent on the waste composition and the SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ratio of the clay or gel. The stoichiometry and kinetics of mineral formation reactions are described. The products are evaluated with respect to leachability, thermal stability, and crystal morphology. (U.S.)

  1. Calibration of a belt apparatus to 1800°C and 6 GPa (United States)

    Brey, G. P.; Weber, R.; Nickel, K. G.


    A belt type solid media high-pressure apparatus has been calibrated to the same accuracy as piston-cylinder apparatuses. This was achieved by ensuring high reproducibility of pressures and temperatures and by calibrating the system with well-established, internally consistent phase transitions. We have used the melting of silver (Mirwald and Kennedy, 1979), the quartz-coesite transition (Mirwald and Masonne, 1980), and the graphite-diamond boundary (Kennedy and Kennedy, 1976). High reproducibility of experimental conditions can be achieved by machining the various components of the furnace assembly very accurately and by using components which do not contaminate the thermocouple and have 99-100% theoretical density (in our case single-crystal MgO and natural polycrystalline CaF2). It is essential that the gasket material has well-defined mechanical properties: its friction behavior must be reproducible in each experiment so that the ram pressure always acts on the pressure vessel and the sample in the same way. Factory-processed pyrophyllite fulfills this requirement. With all precautions taken and on the basis of the reactions cited above, we claim an accuracy of ±7°C and ±(1% nominal pressure+0.05 GPa). This corresponds to the accuracy given by Mirwald et al. (1975) for a low-friction cell for a piston-cylinder apparatus. Our belt apparatus is used routinely to achieve pressures up to 6 GPa and temperatures up to 1800°C.

  2. Radioactivity in books printed in Japan. Its source and relation to the year of issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Asaya


    The radioactivities of the naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K) and a fallout nuclide 137 Cs) in books produced in Japan in the 20th century were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry to obtain information on radiation emitted from books. The respective concentration ranges of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were 0.2-6.4, 0.4-11.2, 0.3-11.3, 1-112, and 0-3.6 Bq kg -1 . X-ray diffraction spectra of the papers used in book printing showed that pyrophyllite, talc, kaolinite, and calcium carbonate were contained as fillers. A comparison of the radioactivity contents of the pulp and filler indicated that most of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 228 Th in the books was present in the filler whereas 137 Cs was in the pulp. The pattern of the concentration of each nuclide vs. the year of issue of the book was investigated. Patterns for the naturally occurring radionuclides were similar and were explained by the kinds of filler used. The pattern for 137 Cs differed from the patterns of the naturally occurring radionuclides, having a marked peak in the mid-1960s. (author)

  3. Modelling aqueous solubility of sodium chloride in clays at thermodynamic conditions of hydraulic fracturing by molecular simulations. (United States)

    Moučka, Filip; Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin


    To address the high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we have studied the equilibrium partitioning of NaCl and water between the bulk phase and clay pores. In shale rocks, such a partitioning can occur between fractures with a bulk-like phase and clay pores. We use an advanced Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) technique based on fractional exchanges of dissolved ions and water molecules. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of a temperature of 365 K and pressure of 275 bar, and we represent clay pores by pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite slits of a width ranging from about 7 to 28 Å, covering clay pores from dry clay to clay pores with a bulk-like layer in the middle of the pore. We employ the Joung-Cheatham model for ions, SPC/E model for water and CLAYFF for the clay pores. We first determine the chemical potentials for NaCl and water in the bulk phase using Osmotic Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The chemical potentials are then used in GCMC to simulate the adsorption of ions and water molecules in the clay pores, and in turn to predict the salt solubility in confined solutions. Besides the thermodynamic properties, we evaluate the structure and in-plane diffusion of the adsorbed fluids, and ion conductivities.

  4. Cross flow microfiltration of oil-water emulsions using clay based ceramic membrane support and TiO2 composite membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchapogu Suresh


    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to study the effect of cross flow filtration conditions on the separation of oily wastewater using ceramic support and TiO2 membrane. Firstly, the low cost clay based ceramic membrane support was prepared by uniaxial compaction method using combination of pyrophyllite, quartz, feldspar, kaolin, ball clay and calcium carbonate along with PVA as a binder. Subsequently, TiO2 composite membrane was fabricated via hydrothermal route employing TiO2 sol derived from TiCl4 and NH4OH solution. Cross flow microfiltration investigations were carried out by utilizing oil-water emulsion concentration of 200 mg/L at three distinct applied pressures (69–207 kPa and three cross flow velocities (0.0885, 0.1327, and 0.1769 m/s. Compared to ceramic support, TiO2 composite membrane demonstrates better performance in terms of flux and removal efficiency of oil and also the rate of flux decline during filtration operation is lower due to highly hydrophilic surface of the TiO2 membrane. TiO2 membrane displays the oil removal efficiency of 99% in the entire range of applied pressures investigation, while ceramic support shows 93–96% of oil removal.

  5. Experimental measurements of shock properties of stishovite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, M.D.; Ito, E.


    We have synthesized, characterized and performed Hugoniot measurements on monolithic samples of stishovite. Synthesis was accomplished in a multianvil press with pyrophyllite gaskets and carbon heaters. The samples had densities ranging from 3.80 to 4.07Mg/m 3 , corresponding to stishovite volume fractions of 0.7 to 0.87, a range confirmed by NMR analysis. They had no significant impurities except less than 1% carbon. Samples ∼1 mm thick and 3 mm diameter were tested in reverse- and forward-ballistics modes on a two-stage light gas gun, using velocity interferometry diagnostics. Impact velocities ranged from 4.0 to 6.5 km/sec. Hugoniot stresses for the four successful tests ranged from 65 to 225GPa. At higher stresses significant uncertainties arise due to impact tilt/nonplanarity issues. Results are consistent with earlier predictions of the stishovite Hugoniot based on quartz-centered Hugoniot data, static-compression (diamond-anvil cell) data and hydrostatic multianvil cell data. Release behavior appears to be frozen. These results are remarkable in view of the small size of the samples used. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. Studies of mineralogy and geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in permo-Triassic Bauxite deposit, Northeast of Bukan, North West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedini, A.; Calagari, A. A.; Hadjalilu, B.; Jahangiri, A.


    Bauxite deposit of Permo-Triassic age in northeast of Bukan was developed stratiformly along the boundary between Ruteh and Elika formations, and includes four distinct rock units. This deposit was affected by tectonic and morphological processes. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations showed that during weathering processes, two mechanisms of ferrugenization and deferrugenization played crucial role in formation of minerals such as Diaspora, boehmite, hematite, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, clinochlore, illite, montmorillonite, anatase, rutile, albite, sanidine, quartz, and calcite in this deposit. By taking notice of field evidence and of mineralogical and geochemical data, the basalts (whose remnants are still present along the contact of this deposit with carbonate bedrock) are the potential parent rock of this deposit. The distribution pattern of rare earth elements (normalized to chondrite and basaltic parent rock) along with anomaly variations of Eu, Ce, and (La/Yb) N indicates differentiation of LREEs from HREEs during bauxitization processes. Further geochemical considerations indicate that the concentrations of LREEs were occurred by hematite, goethite, manganese oxides, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (rhabdophane, vitusite, gorceixite, monazite) and of HREEs by clay minerals; rutile, anatase, zircon, euxenite, and fergusonite. Incorporation of the results obtained from mineralogical and geochemical investigations suggests that in addition to factors such as p H of weathering solutions, ionic potential, composition of the parent rock, and fixation by residual minerals, adsorption processes also played crucial role in enrichment of rare earth elements during moderate to intense lateritization in the study area

  7. Use of clay-mineral alteration patterns to define syntectonic permeability of joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, E.J.; Marshak, S.; Altaner, S.P. [Chevron Oil Field Research Company, La Habra, CA (United States)


    Joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite contain two distinct clay-mineral assemblages, both of which formed by alteration of preexisting kaolinite at peak metamorphic conditions during the Alleghanian orogeny. The first assemblage, NH{sub 4} - illite or pyrophyllite {+-} quartz, formed by reaction of kaolinite with methane-rich fluids derived from within the coal. The second assemblage, sudoite {+-} tosudite {+-} rectorite {+-} berthierine, formed by the reaction of kaolinite with ferromagnesian-bearing hydrothermal fluids which must have come from outside the coal. In an earlier paper, the authors suggested that the first assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in low-permeability environments, and that the second assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in high-permeability environments. If this premise is correct, then the distribution of clay-mineral alteration assemblages serves to define syntectonic permeability variations in coal cleat. The first assemblage dominates in the coal matrix itself, in isolated cleat, in cleat that parallel the regional trend of Alleghanian folds, and in the mirror portions of cleat oriented perpendicular to the fold trends, suggesting that these regions are low-permeability environments. The second assemblage dominates in the hackle fringe of interconnected cleat that trend perpendicular to the strike of the Appalachian orogen, suggesting that these regions are high-permeability environments. These results emphasize that syntectonic cleat permeability is a function of cleat orientation, macroscopic cleat interconnetivity and orientation, as well as microscopic cleat-surface morphology.

  8. Characterization of gold mineralization in Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria, using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat M. Ramadan


    Full Text Available Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria is part of the Neoproterozoic to Early Phanerozoic terrane separating the west African and Congo Cratons. Three main gold-bearing shear zones were detected in the study area from the processed Landsat ETM+ images and extensive ground investigation. Field and petrographical studies indicate that the Neoproterozoic rocks are represented by a highly folded and faulted belt constituted of hornblende, muscovite and graphite schist. They are intruded by granondiorites and late to post granitic dykes. Extensive alteration zones were identified using high resolution QuickBird image along Garin Hawal shear zone. The alteration zones and associated quartz veins are generally concordant with the main NE–SW regional structural trend and are dipping to the NW. Geochemical studies indicate that the gold content reaches 8 g/t in the alteration zones, while it reaches up to 35 g/t in the quartz veins. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alterations are strongly potassium-enriched. Pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz also occur. The main ore minerals are gold, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena and iron oxides. This study indicates that the alteration zones and the associated quartz veins in the muscovite schist are promising and need more detailed exploration for Au and Ag mineralization to evaluate their potential.

  9. Exploration for gold mineralization in the Arabo Nubian Shield: Using remote sensing Approach (United States)

    Ramadan, Talaat


    In the southern part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt, Landsat Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and fieldwork was combined with mineralogical and geochemical investigations in order to detect and characterize alteration zones within Pan-African rocks. The processing of Landsat ETM+ data using ratioing (bands 5/7,5/1,4/3 in Red, Green, Blue) showed two different types of alteration zones (type l and 2). Type 1 is close to the ophiolitic ultramafic rocks and type 2 is located within island-arc related metavolcanic rocks at the study areas. Both of these alteration zones are concordant with the main NW-SE structural trend. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alteration zones of type 1 consist mainly of calcite, ankerite, magnesite, dolomite and quartz. Chromian spinel, pyrite, and Ni-bearing sulphides (gersdorffite, pentlandite and polydymite) are the main ore minerals within this zone. Alteration zones of type 2 are strongly potassium-enriched and pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz occur. The brecciated quartz-veins associated with theses alteration zones consist of quartz, Fe-hydroxides, hematite and native gold. The gold content reaches up to 5 g/t in the alteration zone, while it extends up to 50 g/t in the quartz veins. This study presents a mineralogical characterization of such zones and demonstrates the utility of orbital remote sensing for finding unknown alteration zones in the Eastern Desert and other arid areas with similar host rock lithologies.

  10. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy response of amines and amino acids intercalated smectites in far-infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janek, M., E-mail: [Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Mlynská dolina CH1, SK-84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Zich, D. [Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Mlynská dolina CH1, SK-84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Naftaly, M., E-mail: [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Rd, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)


    Layered clay minerals from the smectite group with different chemical composition and resulting layer charge (e.g. pyrophyllite, illite, hectorite and montmorillonite) were characterised for their dielectric properties in the far-infrared region using terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Samples with distinct cation exchange capacity such as hectorite and montmorillonite were modified using cation exchange reaction with alkylamines or amino acids. The presence of these species in 2D gallery was proved by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The frequency-dependent refractive index of these minerals was determined in the experimentally accessible range of 0.1–3.0 THz (3–100 cm{sup −1}) using THz-TDS. Pristine samples revealed their refractive indices to be 1.82–2.15 at about 1 THz while the modified montmorillonite samples had their refractive indices changed by organic molecules used for their modification to 1.70–2.35 for amines and 1.97–2.36 for amino acids. The presence of organic substances in 2D gallery of clays was detectable despite the relatively high absorption of smectites with magnitude of 100 cm{sup −1}. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • “Guest” molecules in “host” layered material were investigated. • Amines and amino-acids were selected as guest molecules. • Natural and synthetic host with smectite phyllosilicate structure were used. • Dielectric properties were investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy. • Resonance absorption peaks of guest were detected in far infrared region.

  11. Behaviour of major, minor and trace elements (including REEs during kaolinization processes at Zonouz deposit, northeast of Marand, East Azarbaidjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Alipour


    Full Text Available The Zonouz kaolin deposit is located ~15 km northeast of Marand, East-Azarbaidjan province. Based on physical features in field investigations, such as color, five distinct kaolin types including (1 white, (2 lemon, (3 gray, (4 brown, and (5 yellow are distinguished in the deposit. Field evidence and petrographic studies indicate that the deposit is genetically close to trachy-andesite rocks. According to mineralogical data, the deposit contains quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite, pyrophyllite, chlorite, muscovite-illite, dolomite, hematite, and anatase minerals. Geochemical data indicate that function of alteration processes on trachy-andesite rocks during development of Zonouz ore deposit was accompanied by leaching of elements such as Al, Na, K, Rb, Ba, V, Hf, Cu, Zr, Tm, Yb, and Lu, enrichment of elements such as U, Nb, and Ta, and leaching-fixation of elements such as Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ti, Mn, P, Cs, Sr, Th, Co, Cr, Ni, Y, Ga, LREE, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er. Incorporation of obtained results from mineralogical and geochemical studies show that physico-chemical conditions of alteration environment, the relative stability of primary minerals, surface adsorption, preferential sorption by metallic oxides, existing of organic matters, scavenging and concentration processes, and fixation in neomorphic mineralogical phases played important role in distribution of elements in the deposit. Geochemical studies show that development of the deposit is relative to two types of processes, (1 hypogene and (2 supergene. The distribution pattern of REEs indicates that differentiation degree of LREEs from HREEs in supergene kaolins is more than hypogene kaolins. Geochemical studies indicate that minerals such as Mn-oxides, zircon, anatase, hematite, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (monazite, rhabdophane, churchite, and zenotime are the potential hosts for rare earth elements in this deposit.

  12. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.


    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  13. The diagenesis-metamorphism limit in pelitic rocks: an X-ray diffraction and decomposition study of illite and interstratified illite/smectite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharrabi, M.


    The definition of the limit between diagenesis and metamorphism has long been debated. Various approaches have been used to describe this limit including mineral reaction such as the appearance of pyrophyllite, illite crystallinity and rock textures (i.e. the development of schistosity). The aim of this study is to characterize the illite clays transformation during this transition. Study of the (001) and (003) XRD peaks of illite and illite-rich interstratified illite/smectite (I/S) by decomposition of XRD spectra allows to define the transformation that affect these minerals in the transition from extensive diagenesis to low grade metamorphism. We studied Paleozoic pelites from the Illinois Basin (USA), Cornwall (UK), Brittany (France) and the Anti-Atlas mountains and the Eastern-Haou/Basin (Morocco) that have undergone this transition. Illite clays pass through three evolutionary stages during the transition from diagenesis to metamorphism: advanced diagenesis where the population of illite particles is composed of the following phases: interstratified illite/smectite (I/S), small illite crystallites (PCI) and large illite crystallites (WCI). The composition of I/S particles that contain approximately 95 % illite layers changes very little at low temperatures even over long periods of time. The most important change during this stage is the reduction in the amount of this phase. These I/S particles (<5% smectite layers) dissolve and furnish the chemical constituents necessary for the growth of PCI and WCI before they are transformed into 100 % illite. Particles of PCI also contain smectite interlayers in their structure. These smectite interlayers may be considered as a characteristic of diagenetic conditions. The second stage, corresponding to anchizone metamorphism is characterized by the disappearance of I/S. The disappearance is caused by higher thermal regime. In the last stage corresponding to epizone metamorphism there exists only one population of illite

  14. Acid-base properties of 2:1 clays. I. Modeling the role of electrostatics. (United States)

    Delhorme, Maxime; Labbez, Christophe; Caillet, Céline; Thomas, Fabien


    We present a theoretical investigation of the titratable charge of clays with various structural charge (sigma(b)): pyrophyllite (sigma(b) = 0 e x nm(-2)), montmorillonite (sigma(b) = -0.7 e x nm(-2)) and illite (sigma(b) = -1.2 e x nm(-2)). The calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo method in the Grand Canonical ensemble and in the framework of the primitive model. The clay particle was modeled as a perfect hexagonal platelet, with an "ideal" crystal structure. The only fitting parameters used are the intrinsic equilibrium constants (pK(0)) for the protonation/deprotonation reactions of the broken-bond sites on the lateral faces of the clay particles, silanol, =SiO(-) + H(+) --> =SiOH, and aluminol, =AlO(-1/2) + H(+) --> =AlOH(+1/2). Simulations are found to give a satisfactory description of the acid-base titration of montmorillonite without any additional fitting parameter. In particular, combining the electrostatics from the crystal substitutions with ionization constants, the simulations satisfactorily catch the shift in the titration curve of montmorillonite according to the ionic strength. Change in the ionic strength modulates the screening of the electrostatic interactions which results in this shift. Accordingly, the PZNPC is found to shift toward alkaline pH upon increasing the permanent basal charge. Unlike previous mean field model results, a significant decrease in PZNPC values is predicted in response to stack formation. Finally, the mean field approach is shown to be inappropriate to study the acid-base properties of clays.

  15. Absolute acidity of clay edge sites from ab-initio simulations (United States)

    Tazi, Sami; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore


    We provide a microscopic understanding of the solvation structure and reactivity of the edges of neutral clays. In particular we address the tendency to deprotonation of the different reactive groups on the (0 1 0) face of pyrophyllite. Such information cannot be inferred directly from titration experiments, which do not discriminate between different sites and whose interpretation resorts to macroscopic models. The determination of the corresponding pKa then usually relies on bond valence models, sometimes improved by incorporating some structural information from ab-initio simulations. Here we use density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations, combined with thermodynamic integration, to compute the free energy of the reactions of water with the different surface groups, leading to a deprotonated site and an aqueous hydronium ion. Our approach consistently describes the clay and water sides of the interface and includes naturally electronic polarization effects. It also allows to investigate the structure and solvation of all sites separately. We find that the most acidic group is SiOH, due to its ability to establish strong hydrogen bonds with adsorbed water, as it also happens on the quartz and amorphous silica surfaces. The acidity constant of AlOH2 is only 1 pKa unit larger. Finally, the pKa of AlOH is outside the possible range in water and this site should not deprotonate in aqueous solution. We show that the solvation of surface sites and hence their acidity is strongly affected by the proximity of other sites, in particular for AlOH and AlOH2 which share the same Al. We discuss the implications of our findings on the applicability of bond valence models to predict the acidity of edge sites of clays.

  16. Retention of contaminants Cd and Hg adsorbed and intercalated in aluminosilicate clays: A first principles study (United States)

    Crasto de Lima, F. D.; Miwa, R. H.; Miranda, Caetano R.


    Layered clay materials have been used to incorporate transition metal (TM) contaminants. Based on first-principles calculations, we have examined the energetic stability and the electronic properties due to the incorporation of Cd and Hg in layered clay materials, kaolinite (KAO) and pyrophyllite (PYR). The TM can be (i) adsorbed on the clay surface as well as (ii) intercalated between the clay layers. For the intercalated case, the contaminant incorporation rate can be optimized by controlling the interlayer spacing of the clay, namely, pillared clays. Our total energy results reveal that the incorporation of the TMs can be maximized through a suitable tuning of vertical distance between the clay layers. Based on the calculated TM/clay binding energies and the Langmuir absorption model, we estimate the concentrations of the TMs. Further kinetic properties have been examined by calculating the activation energies, where we found energy barriers of ˜20 and ˜130 meV for adsorbed and intercalated cases, respectively. The adsorption and intercalation of ionized TM adatoms were also considered within the deprotonated KAO surface. This also leads to an optimal interlayer distance which maximizes the TM incorporation rate. By mapping the total charge transfers at the TM/clay interface, we identify a net electronic charge transfer from the TM adatoms to the topmost clay surface layer. The effect of such a charge transfer on the electronic structure of the clay (host) has been examined through a set of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) simulations, characterizing the changes of the XANES spectra upon the presence of the contaminants. Finally, for the pillared clays, we quantify the Cd and Hg K-edge energy shifts of the TMs as a function of the interlayer distance between the clay layers and the Al K-edge spectra for the pristine and pillared clays.

  17. Molecular dynamics of interfacial water and cations associated with clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Daemen, Luke L.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay mineral interfaces, including interlayer and external surfaces, play an essential role in many geochemical processes. Adsorption, dissolution, precipitation, nucleation, and growth mechanisms, in particular, are controlled by the interplay of structure, thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport at clay mineral-water interfaces. Molecular details of these geochemical processes are especially important in evaluating the fate of radionuclide waste in the environment. Such details are typically beyond the sensitivity of experimental and analytical methods and therefore require accurate models and simulations. Also, the basal surfaces and interlayers of clay minerals offer structurally constrained interfacial environments to better evaluate the local molecular chemistry. We have developed and used classical and quantum methods to examine the complex behavior of clay mineral-water interfaces and dynamics of interlayer species. Bulk structures, swelling behavior, diffusion, and adsorption processes are evaluated and compared to experimental and spectroscopic findings. In particular, inelastic neutron scattering methods provide a successful probe of vibrational behavior of interlayer species to help guide the simulations. Librations involving rock, wag, and twist motions of water molecules are particularly sensitive to the interlayer environment of smectite minerals such as montmorillonite and beidellite. Trends in librational modes for interlayer water as a function of clay structure and cation hydration energy are readily explained using structural and vibrational analysis derived from molecular simulation. Molecular dynamics simulations of virtual phases, including hydrated pyrophyllite, help to explain the behavior of interlayer water that is not associated with cation species. Additionally, we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of other layered minerals, such as muscovite, to evaluate adsorption

  18. Very low-temperature metamorphism in Ordovician metasedimentary rocks above and below the Sardic unconformity, SW Sardinia, Italy (United States)

    Franceschelli, M.; Battaglia, S.; Cruciani, G.; Pasci, S.; Puxeddu, M.


    In the Iglesiente region, the Cabitza and Monte Argentu Formations are separated by an angular unconformity known as the Sardic unconformity. This is related to an early Ordovician mild compressional phase, known as the "Sardic phase". The pelitic samples from the structurally lower Cabitza Formation consist of alternating reddish phyllosilicate-rich and whitish phyllosilicate-poor, sialic layers, whose S0 bedding plane is parallel to a pre-Variscan S1P schistosity overprinted by the Variscan S1V schistosity. Pelitic samples from the Monte Argentu Formation are characterized by a Variscan S1V axial plane schistosity. Samples from the two formations consist of quartz and phyllosilicates. The latter are potassic white mica, chlorite, paragonite, locally kaolinite, and pyrophyllite. The illite crystallinity values determined for the Cabitza samples are 0.25-0.31, with an average of 0.29; meanwhile, the Monte Argentu samples produce values of 0.33-0.38, with an average of 0.35. The chlorite crystallinity and b0 of potassic white mica values show greater heterogeneity in the Cabitza than the Monte Argentu samples. The b0 values and P-T pseudosections allow us to confirm that there is no significant difference in the P-T metamorphism conditions between the Cabitza and Monte Argentu samples. The Iglesiente region, which is considered to be the rift zone behind the Middle Ordovician Sarcidano-Barbagia volcanic arc, underwent the "Sardic phase", giving rise to E-W folds. These were first overprinted by weak E-W, and then by stronger N-S-oriented Variscan deformation events.

  19. Extraction of hydrothermal alterations from ASTER SWIR data from east Zanjan, northern Iran (United States)

    Azizi, H.; Tarverdi, M. A.; Akbarpour, A.


    The use of satellite images for mineral exploration has been very successful in pointing out the presence of minerals such as smectite and kaolinite which are important in the identification of hydrothermal alterations. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with the wavelength of ASTER SWIR bands between 1.65 and 2.43 μm has a good potential for mapping a hydrothermal alteration minerals such as alunite, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite-muscovite-sericite, and carbonate. In this range, hydroxide minerals which have been produced by hydrothermal alteration exhibit good absorption compared to shorter or longer wavelengths. In this research which aims to remove atmospheric and topographic effects from ASTER SWIR data, the authors used the log-residual method (LRM) with the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation to create a pixel purity index (PPI) which was used to extract the most spectrally pure pixels from multispectral images. Spectral analyses of the clay mineralogy of the study area (east Zanjan, in northern Iran) were obtained by matching the unknown spectra of the purest pixels to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral library. Three methods, spectral feature fitting (SFF), spectral angle mapping (SAM), and binary encoding (BE) were used to generate a score between 0 and 1, where a value of 1 indicates a perfect match showing the exact mineral type. In this way, it was possible to identify certain mineral classes, including chlorite, carbonate, calcite-dolomite-magnesite, kaolinite-smectite, alunite, and illite. In this research, two main propylitic and phyllic-argillic zones could be separated using their compositions of these minerals. These two alteration zones are important for porphyry copper deposits and gold mineralization in this part of Iran.

  20. The Totumo mud volcano and its near-shore marine sedimentological setting (North Colombia) - From sedimentary volcanism to epithermal mineralization (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Kaufhold, S.


    The Holocene mud volcano exposed at Totumo (younger than 4150 ± 50 yr BP) lines up together with some other landforms of its kind along the Caribbean Coast in northern Colombia. It currently vents a mud of the silicate-phosphate-bearing sulfur-sodium chloride type. The mud volcanoes evolved in an active continental margin setting of the South American Cordillera with high seismicity and affected by pervasive neotectonic structural disturbances. During the Neogene and Quaternary linear terrigenous shoreline sediments alternating with delta deposits evolved on this mobile crustal segment between the Andes and ancient Precambrian cratons. Meso- to microtidal sedimentary settings during transgression and progradation created meta- to instable sedimentary and petrophysical conditions (e.g. overpressure and gas-bearing bubble sands), favorable for the formation of mud volcanoes, whose lithofacies is subdivided into (1) footwall facies (detritus from metabasic, -pelitic source rocks), (2) mud volcano plus lateral facies (material from deep-seated hydrothermal sources, hydrocarbon plays, and brine reflux from the sea), (3) hanging wall facies, sand characterized by a strong longshore drift. The sedimentary volcanism in the area is characterized by different temperatures of formation: (1) pre-stage (oxides, garnet, alumosilicates, tourmaline, zircon, barite, Fe sulfides and -sulfates), light (Ca sulfates, calcite, quartz, feldspar) and clay minerals (kaolinite, mica, pyrophyllite, chlorite, vermiculite) are efficient tools to determine the source of mud, to subdivide the mud volcano system as to its facies and describe its physical-chemical regime as to the temperature of formation, pH and Eh values. The mud volcano system of Totumo bridges the gap between sedimentary "volcanism" and epithermal hot spring deposits of intermediate to high sulfidation and forms a useful "guide" to hydrocarbon accumulation.

  1. Helium isotope data from the Goldfield epithermal system, Nevada: Evidence for volatile input from a primitive mantle source during ore formation (United States)

    Hofstra, A. H.; Manning, A. H.


    Goldfield is the largest high sulfidation epithermal gold mining district in the United States with over 130 t of gold production and 23 sq. km. of argillic alteration (with alunite, pyrophyllite, or kaolinite). It formed at 20.0×0.5 Ma in an andesite to rhyolite volcanic field in the ancestral Cascades continental magmatic arc. Previous stable isotope studies of quartz, alunite, and sulfide minerals suggest that the gold ores formed in a magmatic vapor plume derived from a subjacent porphyry intrusion, which displaced and mixed with meteoric groundwater at shallow levels. The isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar trapped in fluid inclusions in hydrothermal minerals (Cu-sulfides and sulfosalts, pyrite, quartz) were measured to further constrain volatile source and migration processes. Gases were released by thermal decrepitation at 300°C and analyzed using a high resolution static sector mass spectrometer. The isotopic compositions of Ne and Ar are typical of air-saturated water (ASW), indicating that the samples contain little nucleogenic Ne or radiogenic Ar derived from underlying old crustal sources. In contrast, He/Ne and He/Ar ratios are much greater than ASW, indicating that a component of He was produced in the subsurface. The wide range of He R/Ra values, 0.4 to 20, suggests that He was derived from both crustal and mantle sources. 4He/40Ar* and 4He/21Ne* systematics are characteristic of magma degassing. The highest R/Ra values (15-20) are well above those previously reported for modern volcanic rocks and geothermal fluids in subduction-related arcs. Such R/Ra values indicate a primitive mantle source, perhaps below the subducting slab. We hypothesize that the discharge of metal-laden fluids from the subjacent porphyry intrusion was influenced by the input of hot volatiles from mafic mantle-derived magmas. This scenario implies a magma column that remained open to the flux of volatiles over a considerable depth range, from the mantle to the shallow

  2. Use of new raw materials and industrial wastes to improve the possibilities of using ceramic materials from Bailén (Jaén, southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán-Arboledas, R. J.


    Full Text Available Raw materials used by the ceramic industry in Jaén (southern Spain consist of mixtures of carbonated clays from the Guadalquivir Basin and red clays from the Iberian Massif. The mixtures formulation usually obeys empirical experience developed by this industry for many generations. This work evaluates different possibilities of using these raw materials to manufacture new ceramic products on the basis of clay physical-chemical properties and analyzes limitations to produce high added value products. As an alternative to overcome these limitations, the mixture of these clays with raw materials from near regions (pyrophyllite clay and with different industrial wastes is proposed. These wastes are screen glass from monitors and oil impregnated diatomaceous earth. The study of the technological properties shows that the new mixtures are suitable for the processing of ceramic products in which structural and thermal insulating properties are improved or kept.La materia prima empleada por la industria cerámica de Jaén consiste en mezclas de margas de la Depresión del Guadalquivir con arcillas rojas del Macizo Ibérico. La formulación de estas mezclas responde generalmente a la experiencia empírica desarrollada por esta industria durante generaciones. El presente trabajo evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de estas materias primas para fabricar nuevos productos cerámicos de construcción basándose en sus propiedades físico-químicas y analiza las limitaciones que presentan para la fabricación de productos de mayor valor añadido. Como alternativa para superar estas limitaciones se propone la mezcla con arcillas pirofilíticas de áreas geográficamente cercanas y con diferentes residuos industriales. Estos residuos son vidrio de pantalla descontaminado y tierras diatomeas impregnadas con aceites vegetales. El estudio de caracterización tecnológica muestra que las nuevas mezclas permiten el procesamiento de piezas cerámicas y que en

  3. Thermodynamic modelling of clay dehydration, stability and compositional evolution with temperature, pressure and H2O activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, O.; Dubacq, B.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The evaluation of the performance of clay-rich barrier considered for the disposal of radioactive waste and a reliable prediction of the impact of repository-induced disturbances upon the confinement properties of clay-rich geological formations requires reliable thermodynamic models for clay minerals. Such models have to take into account the variation of the hydration state of smectite as a function of temperature, pressure and water activity. We propose the first macroscopic thermodynamic model that account for the stepwise dehydration with increasing temperature or decreasing H 2 O activity of K, Na, Ca and Mg-smectite. The model relies on the relative stability of the different solid-solutions that describe the hydration of di- or tri-octahedral-smectites containing 0, 1, 2 or 3 interlayer water layers. The inclusion of anhydrous mica end-members makes it possible to cover, with the same solid-solution model, the entire range of composition from low-charge to high-charge smectite, through illite to mica. Non-ideal Margules parameters were used to describe the non-ideality of the solid solutions between the hydrated and dehydrated smectite end-members. Standard state properties of all smectite end-members as well as Ca- and Mg-muscovite and -phlogopite were initially estimated by oxide summation. These values were then refined and the other non-ideal interactions were estimated on the basis of different experimental data. The stepwise dehydration of smectite, and its stability and compatibility relations were calculated by Gibbs free energy minimizing. Our results account for the progressive evolution of smectite to inter-layered illite/smectite and then to mica, as observed in nature and experiments, and our model provides an explanation for the thermodynamic stability of smectite and illite/ smectite compared to mica + kaolinite or pyrophyllite assemblages. The results

  4. The Effect of Fracture Filler Composition on the Parameters of Shear Deformation Regime (United States)

    Pavlov, D.; Ostapchuk, A.; Batuhtin, I.


    Geomechanical models of different slip mode nucleation and transformation can be developed basing on laboratory experiments, in which regularities of shear deformation of gouge-filled faults are studied. It's known that the spectrum of possible slip modes is defined by both macroscopic deformation characteristics of the fault and mesoscale structure of fault filler. Small variations of structural parameters of the filler may lead to a radical change of slip mode [1, 2]. This study presents results of laboratory experiments investigating regularities of shear deformation of discontinuities filled with multicomponent granular material. Qualitative correspondence between experimental results and natural phenomena is detected. The experiments were carried out in the classical "slider model" statement. A granite block slides under shear load on a granite substrate. The contact gap between rough surfaces was filled with a discrete material, which simulated the principal slip zone of a fault. The filler components were quartz sand, salt, glass beads, granite crumb, corundum, clay and pyrophyllite. An entire spectrum of possible slip modes was obtained - from stable slip to slow-slip events and to regular stick-slip with various coseismic displacements realized per one act of instability. Mixing several components in different proportions, it became possible to trace the gradual transition from stable slip to regular stick-slip, from slow-slip events to fast-slip events. Depending on specific filler component content, increasing the portion of one of the components may lead to both a linear and a non-linear change of slip event moment (a laboratory equivalent of the seismic moment). For different filler compositions durations of equal-moment events may differ by more than two orders of magnitude. The findings can be very useful for developing geomechnical models of nucleation and transformation of different slip modes observed at natural faults. The work was supported by

  5. Composición y propiedades cerámicas de las pizarras de la Zona Centro Ibérica del Macizo Ibérico Meridional (Norte de Jaén, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, M.


    Full Text Available The suitability of shale materials from the Iberian Massif in the Jaén province (Spain to make ceramic materials has been evaluated. The main components of these shales are illite, kaolinite, quartz and feldspars, with lesser amounts of chlorite, pyrophyllite, paragonite and chlorite/vermiculite mixed-layers. The materials contain high amounts of alumina (17-21 %, and iron oxide vary over a wide range (1.33-9.21 %. Grain-size analysis shows that more than 90% is <20 μm. Most of these materials are only potentially suitable for shaping by pressing, due to the low plasticity related with the high quartz and feldspar content. The linear shrinkage and water absorption values of the materials fired at around 1000ºC suggest they might be suitable for making some types of porous tiles like majolica or cottoforte. In addition, this study has revealed that the Iberian shales from norther Jaén can be used to make red and white stoneware tiles by firing at temperatures between 1150 ºC and 1250 ºC.

    En este trabajo se ha evaluado la aplicabilidad para fabricar materiales cerámicos de las pizarras del Macizo Ibérico de la provincia de Jaén. Los principales componentes de estas pizarras son illita, caolinita, cuarzo y feldespatos, con menores contenidos de clorita, pirofilita, paragonita e interestratificado clorita/vermiculita. Estos materiales tienen altos contenidos de alúmina (17-21%, mientras el oxido de hierro varía en un amplio intervalo (1.33-9.21%. Los análisis granulométricos muestran que más del 90% de las partículas son <20 μm. La mayoría de estos materiales son sólo potencialmente apropiados para el moldeo por presión, debido a la baja plasticidad relacionada con el alto contenido en cuarzo y feldespatos. Los valores de contracción lineal y absorción de agua de estas pizarras, cocidas alrededor de 1000º C, sugieren que pueden ser apropiadas para fabricar algunos tipos de baldosas porosas, tales como mayólica o

  6. New constraints on the P–T path of HT/UHT metapelites from the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Dharmapriya


    The pre-melting, original rock composition was calculated through stepwise re-integration of melt into the residual, XRF based composition, allowing the early prograde metamorphic evolution to be deduced from petrographical observations and pseudosections. The earliest recognizable stage occurred in the sillimanite field at around 575 °C at 4.5 kbar. Subsequent collision associated with Gondwana amalgamation led to crustal thickening along a P–T trajectory with an average dP/dT of ∼30 bar/°C in the kyanite field, up to ∼660 °C at 6.5 kbar, before crossing the wet-solidus at around 675 °C at 7.5 kbar. The highest pressure occurred at P > 10 kbar and T around 780 °C before prograde decompression associated with further heating. At 825 °C and 10.5 kbar, the rock re-entered into the sillimanite field. The temperature peaked at 900 °C at ca. 9–9.5 kbar. Subsequent near-isobaric cooling led to the growth of Grt4 and rutile at T ∼880 °C. Local pyrophyllite rims around sillimanite suggest a late stage of rehydration at T < 400 °C, which probably occurred after uplift to upper crustal levels. U–Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICPMS of the khondalite yielded two concordant 206Pb/238U age groups with mean values of 542 ± 2 Ma (MSWD = 0.24, Th/U = 0.01–0.03 and 514 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.50, Th/U = 0.01–0.05 interpreted as peak metamorphism of the khondalite and subsequent melt crystallization during cooling.

  7. Adsorption of nucleotides onto ferromagnesian phyllosilicates: Significance for the origin of life (United States)

    Pedreira-Segade, Ulysse; Feuillie, Cécile; Pelletier, Manuel; Michot, Laurent J.; Daniel, Isabelle


    The concentration of prebiotic organic building blocks may have promoted the formation of biopolymers in the environment of the early Earth. We therefore studied the adsorption of RNA monomers AMP, GMP, CMP, and UMP, and DNA monomers dGMP, dCMP, and TMP, on minerals that were abundant in the early Earth environment as the result of aqueous or hydrothermal alteration of the primitive oceanic crust. We focused our study on swelling clays, i.e. nontronite and montmorillonite, and non-swelling phyllosilicates, i.e. pyrophyllite, chlorite, lizardite and chrysotile suspended in an aqueous saline solution analog to seawater. In this reference study, adsorption experiments were carried out under standard conditions of pressure and temperature and controlled pH. Under such conditions, this work is also relevant to the preservation of nucleic acids in Fe-Mg-rich terrestrial and Martian soils. We compared the adsorption of the different monomers on individual minerals, as well as the adsorption of single monomers on the whole suite of minerals. We found that DNA monomers adsorb much more strongly than RNA monomers, and that any monomer containing the G nucleobase adsorbed more strongly than one containing the C nucleobase. At high surface loadings (greater than about 1 mM monomer in aqueous solution) we also found a dramatic increase in the slope of adsorption isotherm on the swelling clays, leading to large increases in the amounts adsorbed. Data were processed in order to understand the adsorption mechanism of nucleotides onto mineral surfaces. We infer that all nucleotides behave as homologous molecules in regard to their adsorption onto the studied mineral surfaces. At low to moderate surface loadings, their adsorption is best explained by a single mechanism common to the suite of minerals of the present study. At pH 7, adsorption certainly proceeds by ligand exchange between the phosphate group and the hydroxyls of the broken edges of phyllosilicates leading to the

  8. Field Integration of Worldview-3 as new Frontier of Mineral Exploration for Tropical Zone (United States)

    Mahanta, P.; Maiti, S.


    Worldview-3 (WV-3) is a newly launched satellite program (2014) with total of 8 VNIR bands and 8 SWIR bands covering all possible absorption features of alteration minerals. Therefore integration of WV-3 dataset with conventional geological studies can be new frontier for mineral exploration. In the present study, we successfully accomplished that by identifying alteration mineral assemblage, field investigation, XRD, XRF and microscopic study etc. The chosen study area SPSZ, 120km long and 4-5km width corridor of highly sheared and deformed rock masses is unexplored in comparison to adjacent Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ). It demarcates the boundary between Proterozoic Chottanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC) in north and Paleo proterozoic North Singhbhum Mobile belt (NSMB) in south. Discrete local studies indicated the presence of U, REE, Clay, Fe & Mn along with some Au and other polymetallic deposits of low concentration. Earlier attempts of remote sensing studies were hindered due to coarse spatial resolution, similarity between spectra of vegetation and alteration group of minerals like clay and mica, and lack of ground truthing with field spectra and laboratory analysis. Here involving WV-3, we identified and mapped alteration minerals kaolinite, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, white mica, sericite, goethite, lemonite, hematite and quartz with better resolution and accuracy (78%). Further, field spectra and XRD analyses supports these results and confirm the presence of alterations. XRF analysis identified the presence of Cu (0.06±0.03), Ti (1.7±1), and V (0.03±0.02) anomaly pointing towards possible mineralization. Occurrences of alteration as vertically dipping and alternating with iron (red and black) and mica rich (white and gray) zones in hills as well as microscopic evidences of chloritization and sericitization of feldspars were collectively pointing towards their hydrothermal origin. Finally, we conclude that WV-3 will add a new direction to

  9. Reconstruction of Ancestral Hydrothermal Systems on Mount Rainier Using Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Holocene Debris Flows and Tephras (United States)

    John, D. A.; Breit, G. N.; Sisson, T. W.; Vallance, J. W.; Rye, R. O.


    Mount Rainier is the result of episodic stages of edifice growth during periods of high eruptive activity and edifice destruction during periods of relative magmatic quiescence over the past 500 kyr. Edifice destruction occurred both by slow erosion and by catastrophic collapses, some of which were strongly influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Several large-volume Holocene debris-flow deposits contain abundant clasts of hydrothermally altered rocks, most notably the 4-km3 clay-rich Osceola Mudflow which formed by collapse of the northeast side and upper 1000+ m of the edifice about 5600 ya and flowed >120 km downstream into Puget Sound. Mineral assemblages and stable isotope data of hydrothermal alteration products in Holocene debris-flow deposits indicate formation in distinct hydrothermal environments, including magmatic-hydrothermal, steam-heated (including a large fumarolic component), magmatic steam (including a possible fumarolic component), and supergene. The Osceola Mudflow and phreatic components of coeval tephras contain the highest-temperature and inferred most deeply formed alteration minerals; assemblages include magmatic-hydrothermal quartz-alunite, quartz-topaz, quartz-pyrophyllite and quartz-illite (all +pyrite), in addition to steam-heated opal-alunite-kaolinite and abundant smectite-pyrite. In contrast, the Paradise lahar, which formed by a collapse of the surficial upper south side of the edifice, contains only steam-heated assemblages including those formed largely above the water table from condensation of fumarolic vapor (opal-alunite-jarosite). Younger debris-flow deposits on the west side of the volcano (Round Pass lahar and Electron Mudflow) contain only smectite-pyrite alteration, whereas an early 20th century rock avalanche on Tahoma Glacier also contains magmatic-hydrothermal alteration that is exposed in the avalanche headwall of Sunset Amphitheater. Mineralogy and isotopic composition of the alteration phases, geologic and

  10. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F.


    Clay minerals are aluminium phyllosilicates, mostly products of the chemical alteration and mechanical breakdown of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Their physical and chemical properties can be directly related to their layered, fine-grained (large surface area) structure. These properties such as large water retention, low hydraulic conductivity, heat resistance and ionic exchange capacities, make clays ideal for many different applications, e.g. as sealing material for the underground disposal of radioactive waste. The long-term disposal of radioactive waste in an underground geological repository is based on a multibarrier concept. In the barrier of highly compacted clay, water is intercalated and confined between the clay layers. The narrow pores are responsible that under natural hydraulic gradients, molecular diffusion through water is the dominant transport mechanism for released radionuclides. The properties of water at the water-clay interface differ from that of bulk water. Therefore, a good and deep understanding of the water structure and dynamics in compacted clay systems is fundamental. This knowledge is the base for the progressing research about transport of pollutants through the compacted clays and argillaceous rock of radioactive waste barriers. This study focusses on four different types of pure clays, two of them charged, namely montmorillonite and illite (both in a Na and Ca form), and two uncharged, namely kaolinite and pyrophyllite. Their structural differences result in a significantly different behaviour in contact with water. In case of montmorillonite, water is located in between particles and in the interlayer space. In illite, water is found only in between particles, because the interlayer surfaces are tightly linked by potassium cations. The layers of kaolinite and pyrophyllite are uncharged and, consequently, water is located only in between particles. The clay powders were compacted to reach a high bulk dry density of about 1.9 g

  11. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F


    Clay minerals are aluminium phyllosilicates, mostly products of the chemical alteration and mechanical breakdown of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Their physical and chemical properties can be directly related to their layered, fine-grained (large surface area) structure. These properties such as large water retention, low hydraulic conductivity, heat resistance and ionic exchange capacities, make clays ideal for many different applications, e.g. as sealing material for the underground disposal of radioactive waste. The long-term disposal of radioactive waste in an underground geological repository is based on a multibarrier concept. In the barrier of highly compacted clay, water is intercalated and confined between the clay layers. The narrow pores are responsible that under natural hydraulic gradients, molecular diffusion through water is the dominant transport mechanism for released radionuclides. The properties of water at the water-clay interface differ from that of bulk water. Therefore, a good and deep understanding of the water structure and dynamics in compacted clay systems is fundamental. This knowledge is the base for the progressing research about transport of pollutants through the compacted clays and argillaceous rock of radioactive waste barriers. This study focusses on four different types of pure clays, two of them charged, namely montmorillonite and illite (both in a Na and Ca form), and two uncharged, namely kaolinite and pyrophyllite. Their structural differences result in a significantly different behaviour in contact with water. In case of montmorillonite, water is located in between particles and in the interlayer space. In illite, water is found only in between particles, because the interlayer surfaces are tightly linked by potassium cations. The layers of kaolinite and pyrophyllite are uncharged and, consequently, water is located only in between particles. The clay powders were compacted to reach a high bulk dry density of about 1.9 g

  12. Efecto del tratamiento mecánico por molienda en las propiedades texturales de pirofilita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Soto, P. J.


    Full Text Available It has been investigated the effect of mechanical treatment by dry grinding, using a ball mill, on the textural properties of pyrophyllite. The nitrogen gas adsorption-desorption isotherms, obtained at -195 ºC in the original and ground samples, have not showed pronounced hysteresis. However, it has ben found that the gas adsorbed volumes increase gradually at increasing grinding time, with a maximum at 30 min. After this, these values decrease up to a situation very similar to the original unground sample. The evolution of specific surface area (SBET, determined using the BET equation, has showed a rapid increase as increasing grinding time from a value of 2 m2xg-1 (original up to a maximum of 60 m2xg-1 at 30 min, being 7.5 m2xg-1 at 325 min. This behaviour is explained considering the decrease of particle size of the layered silicate as influenced by grinding, but untill a limit. Above this limit, the particles start to a re-aggregate and agglomerate by a mechanochemical process of cold-welding, which is originated by their high surface reactivity. Consequently, the values of SBET decrease progressively, which coincides with the greater structural degree produced in this silicate and the subsequent amorphization process. Even so, the present textural study has showed the ausence of micropores in these ground materials by fisisorption of nitrogen gas, concluding that this process is produced by multilayers. The pore size distribution of ground pyrophyllite samples has proved a contribution of sizes ranging between 20-50 Å to the increase of SBET. Above 30 min, this contribution decreases progressively by the re-aggregation process of the particles, with an important contribution of size pores lower than 40 Å.

    Se ha investigado el efecto del tratamiento mecánico por molienda en seco, empleando un molino de bolas, en las propiedades

  13. Alteration of submarine volcanic rocks in oxygenated Archean oceans (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D.; Watanabe, Y.


    Most submarine volcanic rocks, including basalts in diverging plate boundaries and andesites/dacites in converging plate boundaries, have been altered by low-temperature seawater and/or hydrothermal fluids (up to ~400°C) under deep oceans; the hydrothermal fluids evolved from shallow/deep circulations of seawater through the underlying hot igneous rocks. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMSDs) and banded iron formations (BIFs) were formed by mixing of submarine hydrothermal fluids with local seawater. Therefore, the behaviors of various elements, especially of redox-sensitive elements, in altered submarine volcanic rocks, VMSDs and BIFs can be used to decipher the chemical evolution of the oceans and atmosphere. We have investigated the mineralogy and geochemistry of >500 samples of basalts from a 260m-long drill core section of Hole #1 of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP #1) in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The core section is comprised of ~160 m thick Marble Bar Chert/Jasper Unit (3.46 Ga) and underlying, inter-bedded, and overlying submarine basalts. Losses/gains of 65 elements were quantitatively evaluated on the basis of their concentration ratios against the least mobile elements (Ti, Zr and Nb). We have recognized that mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of many of these samples are essentially the same as those of hydrothermally-altered modern submarine basalts and also those of altered volcanic rocks that underlie Phanerozoic VMSDs. The similarities include, but are not restricted to: (1) the alteration mineralogy (chlorite ± sericite ± pyrophyllite ± carbonates ± hematite ± pyrite ± rutile); (2) the characteristics of whole-rock δ18O and δ34S values; (3) the ranges of depletion and enrichment of Si, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe, Mn, and P; (4) the enrichment of Ba (as sulfate); (5) the increases in Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios; (6) the enrichment of U; (7) the depletion of Cr; and (8) the negative Ce anomalies. Literature data

  14. Roymillerite, Pb24Mg9(Si9AlO28)(SiO4)(BO3)(CO3)10(OH)14O4, a new mineral: mineralogical characterization and crystal chemistry (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Jonsson, Erik; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.; Van, Konstantin V.


    The new mineral roymillerite Pb24Mg9(Si9AlO28)(SiO4)(BO3)(CO3)10(OH)14O4, related to britvinite and molybdophyllite, was discovered in a Pb-rich assemblage from the Kombat Mine, Grootfontein district, Otjozondjupa region, Namibia, which includes also jacobsite, cerussite, hausmannite, sahlinite, rhodochrosite, barite, grootfonteinite, Mn-Fe oxides, and melanotekite. Roymillerite forms platy single-crystal grains up to 1.5 mm across and up to 0.3 mm thick. The new mineral is transparent, colorless to light pink, with a strong vitreous lustre. Cleavage is perfect on (001). Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 5.973 g/cm3. Roymillerite is optically biaxial, negative, α = 1.86(1), β ≈ γ = 1.94(1), 2 V (meas.) = 5(5)°. The IR spectrum shows the presence of britvinite-type tetrahedral sheets, {CO}3^{2 - }, {BO}3^{3 - }, and OH- groups. The chemical composition is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O and CO2 determined by gas chromatography, the content of B2O3 derived from structural data): MgO 4.93, MnO 1.24, FeO 0.95, PbO 75.38, B2O3 0.50, Al2O3 0.74, CO2 5.83, SiO2 7.90, H2O 1.8, total 99.27. The empirical formula based on 83 O atoms pfu (i.e. Z = 1) is Pb24.12Mg8.74Mn1.25Fe0.94B1.03Al1.04C9.46Si9.39H14.27O83. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is triclinic, space group P \\bar{1}, with a = 9.315(1), b = 9.316(1), c = 26.463(4) Å, α = 83.295(3)°, β = 83.308(3)°, γ = 60.023(2)°, V = 1971.2(6) Å3. The crystal structure of roymillerite is based built by alternating pyrophyllite-type TOT-modules Mg9(OH)8[(Si,Al)10O28] and I-blocks Pb24(OH)6O4(CO3)10(BO3,SiO4). The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å (I, %) ( hkl)] are: 25.9 (100) (001), 13.1 (11) (002), 3.480 (12) (017, 107, -115, 1-15), 3.378 (14) (126, 216), 3.282 (16) (-2-15, -1-25), 3.185 (12) (-116, 1-16), 2.684 (16) (031, 301, 030, 300, 332, -109, 0-19, 1-18), 2.382 (11) (0.0.-11). Roymillerite is

  15. Characteristics and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Erdenet Cu-Mo deposit, Mongolia (United States)

    Kavalieris, Imants; Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Morgan, Leah; Undrakhtamir, Alexander; Borohul, Adiya


    50 to 200 m from the granodiorite porphyry contact, although D veins (and chalcopyrite) extend outward to the propylitic zone.The Erdenet porphyry system, was overprinted by advanced argillic alteration, which outcrops 2 km northwest of the pit, and forms a lithocap that extends over 10 × 2.5 km. It is characterized by residual quartz, andalusite, Na-Ca and K-alunite, diaspore, pyrophyllite, zunyite, topaz, dickite, and kaolinite. The upper part of the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (removed by mining), comprised a bornite-chalcocite enriched zone up to 300 m thick with an average grade of 0.7 wt % Cu and up to 5 wt % Cu locally. Based on hypogene bornite-chalcocite mineral textures and high-sulfidation state mineralogy, the enriched zone is inferred to be of hypogene origin, but modified by supergene processes. Consequently, it may be related to formation of the lithocap.Previous Re-Os dates of 240.4 and 240.7 ± 0.8 Ma for molybdenite in quartz veins are comparable to new 40Ar/39Ar dates of 239.7 ± 1.6 and 240 ± 2 Ma for muscovite that envelops D veins. One 40Ar/39Ar date on K-alunite from the lithocap of 223.5 ± 1.9 Ma suggests that it may be about 16 m.y. younger than Erdenet, but this result needs to be verified by further dating.

  16. Alunite in the Pascua-Lama high-sulfidation deposit: Constraints on alteration and ore deposition using stable isotope geochemistry (United States)

    Deyell, C.L.; Leonardson, R.; Rye, R.O.; Thompson, J.F.H.; Bissig, T.; Cooke, D.R.


    The Pascua-Lama high-sulfidation system, located in the El Indio-Pascua belt of Chile and Argentina, contains over 16 million ounces (Moz) Au and 585 Moz Ag. The deposit is hosted primarily in granite rocks of Triassic age with mineralization occurring in several discrete Miocene-age phreatomagmatic breccias and related fracture networks. The largest of these areas is Brecha Central, which is dominated by a mineralizing assemblage of alunite-pyrite-enargite and precious metals. Several stages of hydrothermal alteration related to mineralization are recognized, including all types of alunite-bearing advanced argillic assemblages (magmatic-hydrothermal, steam-heated, magmatic steam, and supergene). The occurrence of alunite throughout the paragenesis of this epithermal system is unusual and detailed radiometric, mineralogical, and stable isotope studies provide constraints on the timing and nature of alteration and mineralization of the alunite-pyiite-enargite assemblage in the deposit. Early (preore) alteration occurred prior to ca. 9 Ma and consists of intense silicic and advanced argillic assemblages with peripheral argillic and widespread propylitic zones. Alunite of this stage occurs as fine intergrowths of alunite-quartz ?? kaolinite, dickite, and pyrophyllite that selectively replaced feldspars in the host rock. Stable isotope systematics suggest a magmatic-hydrothermal origin with a dominantly magmatic fluid source. Alunite is coeval with the main stage of Au-Ag-Cu mineralization (alunite-pyrite-enargite assemblage ore), which has been dated at approximately 8.8 Ma. Ore-stage alunite has an isotopic signature similar to preore alunite, and ?? 34Salun-py data indicate depositional temperatures of 245?? to 305??C. The ??D and ?? 18O data exclude significant involvement of meteoric water during mineralization and indicate that the assemblage formed from H2S-dominated magmatic fluids. Thick steam-heated alteration zones are preserved at the highest elevations in

  17. Dating quartz: Ar/Ar analyses of coexisting muscovite and fluid inclusion - rich quartz from paleocene amorphic aureole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.J.; Perez de Arce, C.; Cornejo, P.; Cuitino, L; Klein, J


    We present Ar/Ar total fusion and step-heating data for coexisting muscovite and white quartz from the metamorphic aureole of the Lower Paleocene La Copiapina Pluton, 6 km south of Inca de Oro, III Region, Chile. The pluton intrudes the upper clastic sedimentary member of the Punta del Cobre Group (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) and the calcareous sedimentary rocks of the Chanarcillo Group (Neocomian), and comprises fine to coarse grained pyroxene-hornblende-biotite quartz diorites and monzodiorites. Its emplacement was controlled on its north-western side by a subvertical NE-trending fault, along which were developed vertically banded skarns (skarn mylonite), suggesting syntectonic intrusion. Biotite K-Ar ages for the pluton fall in the range 61-63 Ma, relating it to a latest Cretaceous to Lowest Paleocene syn-compressional intrusive belt which is present in the area (Matthews and Cornejo, 2000). A metamorphic / metasomatic aureole is developed within the sandstones of the Punta del Cobre Group, on the extreme northern limit of the pluton. In this area, the sedimentary rocks have been replaced by quartz-sericite and quartz-muscovite assemblages, with minor hematite and tourmaline, and late supergene kaolinite and pyrophyllite. A coarse muscovite-quartz-tourmaline-hematite assemblage is developed in and around older (early Upper Cretaceous) andesitic dykes, in the form of replacement / fracture fill veins and replacement zones. Further from the contact with the pluton, fine-grained quartz-sericite rock with coarser muscovite-rich replacement veins represents the dominant lithology. Quartz in the coarse replacement rock is very rich in fluid inclusions. Primary inclusions are mainly of two coexisting types; bi-phase (liquid and gas bubble) and tri-phase (liquid, gas bubble and halite crystal), indicating that the quartz formed in the presence of a boiling fluid. Some inclusions also contain sylvite and occasional hematite daughter crystals. Secondary inclusions

  18. Paleoproterozoic high-sulfidation mineralization in the Tapajós gold province, Amazonian Craton, Brazil: geology, mineralogy, alunite argon age, and stable-isotope constraints (United States)

    Juliani, Caetano; Rye, Robert O.; Nunes, Carmen M.D.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Correa, Rafael H.; Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Neumann, Rainer; Neto, Arnaldo A.


    The Brazilian Tapajós gold province contains the first evidence of high-sulfidation gold mineralization in the Amazonian Craton. The mineralization appears to be in large nested calderas. The Tapajós–Parima (or Ventuari–Tapajós) geological province consists of a metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary sequence formed during a 2.10 to 1.87 Ga ocean−continent orogeny. The high-sulfidation mineralization with magmatic-hydrothermal alunite is related to hydrothermal breccias hosted in a rhyolitic volcanic ring complex that contains granitic stocks ranging in age from 1.89 to 1.87 Ga. Cone-shaped hydrothermal breccias, which flare upward, contain vuggy silica and have an overlying brecciated cap of massive silica; the deposits are located in the uppermost part of a ring-structure volcanic cone. Drill cores of one of the hydrothermal breccias contain alunite, natroalunite, pyrophyllite, andalusite, quartz, rutile, diaspore, woodhouseite–svanbergite, kaolinite, and pyrite along with inclusions of enargite–luzonite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and covellite. The siliceous core of this alteration center is surrounded by advanced argillic and argillic alteration zones that grade outward into large areas of propylitically altered rocks with sericitic alteration assemblages at depth. Several occurrences and generations of alunite are observed. Alunite is disseminated in the advanced argillic haloes that envelop massive and vuggy silica or that underlie the brecciated silica cap. Coarse-grained alunite also occurs in branching veins and locally is partly replaced by a later generation of fine-grained alunite. Silicified hydrothermal breccias associated with the alunite contain an estimated reserve of 30 tonnes of gold in rock that grades up to 4.5 g t−1 Au. Seven alunite samples gave 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1.869 to 1.846 Ga, with various degrees of apparent minor Ar loss. Stable isotopic data require a magmatic-hydrothermal origin for the alunite, typical for high

  19. Ethylene glycol intercalation in smectites. molecular dynamics simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, Marek; Klapyta, Zenon; Kalinichev, Andrey


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Intercalation of ethylene glycol in smectites (glycolation) is widely used to discriminate smectites and vermiculites from other clays and among themselves. During this process, ethylene glycol molecules enter into the interlayer spaces of the swelling clays, leading to the formation of two-layer structure (∼17 A) in the case of smectites, or one-layer structure (∼14 A) in the case of vermiculites. In spite of the relatively broad literature on the understanding/characterization of ethylene glycol/water-clays complexes, the simplified structure of this complex presented by Reynolds (1965) is still used in the contemporary X-ray diffraction computer programs, which simulate structures of smectite and illite-smectite. The monolayer structure is only approximated using the assumption of the interlayer cation and ethylene glycol molecules lying in the middle of interlayer spaces. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the structure of ethylene glycol/water-clays complex in more detail using molecular dynamics simulation. The structural models of smectites were built on the basis of pyrophyllite crystal structure (Lee and Guggenheim, 1981), with substitution of particular atoms. In most of simulations, the structural model assumed the following composition, considered as the most common in the mixed layer illite-smectites: EXCH 0.4 (Si 3.96 Al 0.04 )(Al 1.46 Fe 0.17 Mg 0.37 )O 10 (OH) 2 Atoms of the smectites were described with CLAYFF force field (Cygan et al., 2004), while atoms of water and ethylene glycol with flexible SPC and OPLS force fields, respectively. Ewald summation was used to calculate long range Coulombic interactions and the cutoff was set at 8.5 A. Results of the simulations show that in the two-layer glycolate the content of water is relatively small: up to 0.8 H 2 O per half of the smectite unit cell. Clear thermodynamic preference of mono- or two-layer structure of the complex is

  20. Chemical and isotopic investigation of warm springs associated with normal faults in Utah (United States)

    Cole, David R.


    Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO 4 + Cl-rich waters containing 10 3 to 10 4 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by mixing with non-thermal waters. During the summer months at times of maximum flow, selected hot springs exhibit their highest temperatures and maximum enrichments in most chemical constituents. Cation ratios and silica concentrations remain relatively constant through time for selected Utah thermal springs assuring the applicability of the geothermometer calculations regardless of the time of year. Geothermometer calculations utilizing either the quartz (no steam loss), chalcedony or Mg-corrected Na/K/Ca methods indicate that most thermal springs in Utah associated with normal faults have subsurface temperatures in the range of 25 to less than 120°C. This temperature range suggests fluid circulation is restricted to depths less than about three kilometers assuming an average thermal gradient of about 40°C/km. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that most thermal springs are oversaturated with respect to calcite, quartz, pyrophyllite, (Fe, Mg)-montmorillonite, microcline and hematite, and undersaturated with respect to anhydrite, gypsum, fluorite and anorthite. Chalcedony and cristobalite appear to be the only phases consistently at or near saturation in most waters. Theoretical evaluation of mixing on mineral saturation trends indicates that anhydrite and calcite become increasingly more undersaturated as cold, dilute groundwater mixes with a hot (150°C), NaCl-rich fluid. The evolution of these thermal waters issuing from faults appears to be one involving the

  1. Characteristics, extent and origin of hydrothermal alteration at Mount Rainier Volcano, Cascades Arc, USA: Implications for debris-flow hazards and mineral deposits (United States)

    John, D.A.; Sisson, T.W.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.; Vallance, J.W.


    Hydrothermal alteration at Mount Rainier waxed and waned over the 500,000-year episodic growth of the edifice. Hydrothermal minerals and their stable-isotope compositions in samples collected from outcrop and as clasts from Holocene debris-flow deposits identify three distinct hypogene argillic/advanced argillic hydrothermal environments: magmatic-hydrothermal, steam-heated, and magmatic steam (fumarolic), with minor superimposed supergene alteration. The 3.8??km3 Osceola Mudflow (5600??y BP) and coeval phreatomagmatic F tephra contain the highest temperature and most deeply formed hydrothermal minerals. Relatively deeply formed magmatic-hydrothermal alteration minerals and associations in clasts include quartz (residual silica), quartz-alunite, quartz-topaz, quartz-pyrophyllite, quartz-dickite/kaolinite, and quartz-illite (all with pyrite). Clasts of smectite-pyrite and steam-heated opal-alunite-kaolinite are also common in the Osceola Mudflow. In contrast, the Paradise lahar, formed by collapse of the summit or near-summit of the edifice at about the same time, contains only smectite-pyrite and near-surface steam-heated and fumarolic alteration minerals. Younger debris-flow deposits on the west side of the volcano (Round Pass and distal Electron Mudflows) contain only low-temperature smectite-pyrite assemblages, whereas the proximal Electron Mudflow and a formed at higher temperatures. The pre-Osceola Mudflow alteration geometry is inferred to have consisted of a narrow feeder zone of intense magmatic-hydrothermal alteration limited to near the conduit of the volcano, which graded outward to more widely distributed, but weak, smectite-pyrite alteration within 1??km of the edifice axis, developed chiefly in porous breccias. The edifice was capped by a steam-heated alteration zone, most of which resulted from condensation of fumarolic vapor and oxidation of H2S in the unsaturated zone above the water table. Weakly developed smectite-pyrite alteration extended into

  2. Characteristics, extent and origin of hydrothermal alteration at Mount Rainier Volcano, Cascades Arc, USA: Implications for debris-flow hazards and mineral deposits (United States)

    John, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Breit, George N.; Rye, Robert O.; Vallance, James W.


    Hydrothermal alteration at Mount Rainier waxed and waned over the 500,000-year episodic growth of the edifice. Hydrothermal minerals and their stable-isotope compositions in samples collected from outcrop and as clasts from Holocene debris-flow deposits identify three distinct hypogene argillic/advanced argillic hydrothermal environments: magmatic-hydrothermal, steam-heated, and magmatic steam (fumarolic), with minor superimposed supergene alteration. The 3.8 km 3 Osceola Mudflow (5600 y BP) and coeval phreatomagmatic F tephra contain the highest temperature and most deeply formed hydrothermal minerals. Relatively deeply formed magmatic-hydrothermal alteration minerals and associations in clasts include quartz (residual silica), quartz-alunite, quartz-topaz, quartz-pyrophyllite, quartz-dickite/kaolinite, and quartz-illite (all with pyrite). Clasts of smectite-pyrite and steam-heated opal-alunite-kaolinite are also common in the Osceola Mudflow. In contrast, the Paradise lahar, formed by collapse of the summit or near-summit of the edifice at about the same time, contains only smectite-pyrite and near-surface steam-heated and fumarolic alteration minerals. Younger debris-flow deposits on the west side of the volcano (Round Pass and distal Electron Mudflows) contain only low-temperature smectite-pyrite assemblages, whereas the proximal Electron Mudflow and a < 100 y BP rock avalanche on Tahoma Glacier also contain magmatic-hydrothermal alteration minerals that are exposed in the avalanche headwall of Sunset Amphitheater, reflecting progressive incision into deeper near-conduit alteration products that formed at higher temperatures. The pre-Osceola Mudflow alteration geometry is inferred to have consisted of a narrow feeder zone of intense magmatic-hydrothermal alteration limited to near the conduit of the volcano, which graded outward to more widely distributed, but weak, smectite-pyrite alteration within 1 km of the edifice axis, developed chiefly in porous breccias

  3. Remote sensing and Aeromagnetic investigations in porphyry copper deposits for identification of areas with high concentration of gold: a case study from the central part of Dehaj-Sarduiyeh belt, Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Hosseinjani Zadeh


    revealed that sericite is the dominant alteration mineral in the area. The discriminated minerals at most occurrences, including Sarcheshmeh, Meiduk, Sereidun, Darrehzar, Abdar and Iju showed a circular to elliptical pattern with sericite as dominant zone, scattered kaolinite and sparse alunite–pyrophyllite, surrounded by a combination of epidote, chlorite, and calcite. Investigation of aeromagnetic data by applying different filters showed that the magnetic intensity is high in areas with a high concentration of gold. For example, the maximum differences in magnetic intensity were observed at the Sar Kuh and Abdar which contain a higher concentration of gold. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the Institute of science and high technology and environmental sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran for their financial support during this study under the contract number 7.395. References Amer, R., Kusky, T. and Mezayen, A.E., 2012. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Advances in Space Research, 49(1: 121–134. Hosseinjani Zadeh, M., Tangestani, M.H., Roldan, F.V. and Yusta, I., 2014. Sub-pixel mineral mapping of a porphyry copper belt using EO-1 Hyperion data. Advances in Space Research, 53(3: 440–451. Kerrich, R., Goldfarb, R., Groves, D. and Garwin, S., 2000. The geodynamics of world-class gold deposits: characteristics, space-time distribution, and origins. In: S.G. Hagemann and P.E. Brown (Editors., Gold in 2000. Society of Economic Geologists, Incorporation. Littleton, Colorado. pp. 501–552. Kesler, S.E., Chryssoulis, S.L. and Simon, G., 2002. Gold in porphyry copper deposits: its abundance and fate. Ore Geology Reviews, 21(1–2: 103–124. Shafiei, B. and Shahabpour, J., 2008. Gold distribution in porphyry copper deposits of Kerman region, Southeastern Iran. Journal of Science, Islamic Republic of Iran, 19(3: 247–260. Shahriari, H., Honarmand, M

  4. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire (United States)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio


    à and Doerr, 2008; Woods and Balfour, 2008; Zavala et al., 2009). The presence of an ash layer may be ephemeral, as it often is quickly removed or redistributed by water and wind erosion, animals or traffic (Zavala et al., 2009a). Many authors have observed that the capacity of ash to protect soil depends on properties as the topography, the meteorological conditions and the thickness of ash coverage (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2013; Woods and Balfour, 2010; Zavala et al., 2009). Taking this into account, in this study we hypothesized that the wettability / hydrophobicity of the ash layer may have a significant effect on the soil response to splash erosion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dispersion of sediments produced by the impact of raindrops in function of ash wettability after a prescribed fire at plot scale. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 20 November 2012, a prescribed fire was carried out in an area located in the public mount "Las Navas", near Almaden de la Plata, Sevilla (approx. 37° 50' 44.44'' N / 6° 3' 7.44''W and 428 masl). Soils are acidic and shallow, developed from acidic metamorphic rocks (schists, slates and pyrophyllites). Vegetation is dominated by shrub legumes (Calicotome villosa and several species of Ulex and Genista). The experimental area was framed and plowed to eliminate the risk of fire spreading during the experiment. Previously to burn, level staffs were installed for determination of flame height. The temperature reached in the soil was monitored during the fire by a set of six thermocouples which were buried in soil (2 cm depth) and connected to a data-logger for monitoring the topsoil temperature every 60 s. The environmental conditions were also monitored during the experiment by a mobile weather station. At the moment of the ignition, the temperature was around 20 °C and the wind speed was near 0.0 m/s. After ignition, the experimental area was allowed to burn during 2.5 h. During burning, flames