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Sample records for pyrolysis techniques quarterly

  1. Organosulphur compounds in coals as determined by reaction with Raney nickel and microscale pyrolysis techniques. Fifth quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R.P.

    1996-01-31

    This project is designed to study the nature of sulphur-containing organic compounds and their respective linkages in coals and related materials using a variety of microscale pyrolysis techniques combined with gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The majority of the work will be undertaken using a PYRAN pyrolysis system purchased with funds from the DOE University Instrumentation Program. Since the last report, we have reached the point in the project that we are satisfied with the nickel boride chemical degradation method, and are now working our way through the large amounts of data collected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. While we have tentatively identified a variety of compounds produced by the chemical degradation method with spectra from the literature, we have yet to confirm many of these identifications with pure standards or specialized oil samples. As a result we will present in this report chromatograms of one of the coals (Illinois No. 6) and compare the free aliphatic hydrocarbons with those compounds cleaved from the polar extract, asphaltenes and pre-extracted coal matrix.

  2. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis - Techniques and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-07-04

    While pyrolysis reactions have been performed since ancient times and been crucial for the invention of several technologies, the methodology now commonly known as flash vacuum pyrolysis, FVP (or flash vacuum thermolysis, FVT) had its early beginnings in the 1940s and1950s, mainly through mass spectrometric detection of pyrolytically formed free radicals. In the 1960s many organic chemists started performing FVP experiments with the purpose of isolating new and interesting compounds and understanding pyrolysis processes. Meanwhile, many different types of apparatus and techniques have been developed, and it is the purpose of this review to present the most important methods as well as a survey of typical reactions and observations that can be achieved with the various techniques. This includes preparative FVP, chemical trapping reactions, matrix isolation and low temperature spectroscopy of reactive intermediates and unstable molecules, the use of online mass, photoelectron, microwave and millimeterwave spectroscopies, gas-phase laser pyrolysis, pulsed pyrolysis with supersonic jet expansion, very low pressure pyrolysis for kinetic investigations, solution-spray and falling-solid FVP for involatile compounds, and pyrolysis over solid supports and reagents. Moreover, the combination of FVP with matrix isolation and photochemistry is a powerful tool for investigations of reaction mechanism. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Organosulphur compounds in coals as determined by reaction with Raney nickel and microscale pyrolysis techniques. Quarterly report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R.P.; Stalker, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report briefly descibes a method for cleaving organosulfur compounds from coal, kerogens and asphaltenes. The technique utilized nickel chloride and sodium borohydride. Experiments were performed on Illinois No. 6 coal. The method was also used in a deuterium labelling technique for investigating sulfur bonds.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of YSZ by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, L.D., E-mail: ldjadhav.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Rajaram College, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Jamale, A.P. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Bharadwaj, S.R.; Varma, Salil [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhosale, C.H. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YSZ thin film has been successfully deposited at 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition at 400 Degree-Sign C significantly limits the growth mechanism along (1 0 1). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhancement in conductivity exhibits the YSZ as a thin solid electrolyte. - Abstract: The conventional zirconium based yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte has been synthesized from aqueous solution by cost effective air atomized spray pyrolysis technique (SPT). The films show well developed dense, nanocrystalline material. The thermal analysis of zirconyl nitrate reveals the possibility of crystalline YSZ film formation only above 400 Degree-Sign C, which is confirmed from the XRD pattern. The activation energy of 1.14 eV clarifies its conductivity behavior, verified from DC and AC conductivity measurements.

  5. Pyrolysis behavior of selected manures using TG-FTIR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, D.; Dong, H.; Shang, B. [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: donghm@cjac.org.cn

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the pyrolysis properties of animal manures using a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Experimental results showed that an animal manure pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: dehydration, pyrolysis, and carbonization. These stages may produce differed features on end residuum, weight loss rate, and peak features, as indicated by thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The produced gases detected by FTIR are H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid. An infrared spectrum analysis has unveiled the evolving properties of each gas. The water curve had two peaks corresponding to free moisture loss and combined crystal water. The carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide curves produced two similar peaks corresponding to pyrolysis and carbonization, though carbon dioxide had a weaker second peak compared with carbon monoxide. The methane curves came up with a single peak corresponding to the terminal stage of pyrolysis and the early stage of carbonization. Other hydrocarbon curves displayed a single peak corresponding to pyrolysis. (author)

  6. Photocatalytic ability of TiO2 porous film prepared by modified spray pyrolysis deposition technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SUGIYAMA, Osamu; OKUYA, Masayuki; KANEKO, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    In a spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique, deposition of film material and formation of surface structure are simultaneously occur, therefore, it is suitable for the preparation of microstructure-controlled thin films...

  7. Acoustic emission technique for monitoring the pyrolysis of composites for process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittmann, B R; Yen, C E

    2008-11-01

    Carbonization is the first step in the heat and pressure treatment (pyrolysis) of composites in preparing carbon-carbon parts. These find many uses, including aircraft brakes, rocket nozzles and medical implants. This paper describes the acoustic emissions (AE) from various stages of the manufacturing process of carbon-carbon composites. This process involves carbonization at a high temperature and this results in both thermal expansion and volume change (due to pyrolysis in which a sacrificial polymer matrix is converted to carbon). Importantly the resultant matrix is porous and has a network of small intra-lamina cracks. The formation of these microcracks produces AE and this paper describes how this observation can be used to monitor (and eventually control) the manufacturing process. The aim is to speed up manufacture, which is currently time-consuming. The first section of the paper describes the design of unimodal waveguides to enable the AE to propagate to a cool environment where a transducer can be located. The second part of the paper describes various experimental observations of AE under a range of process conditions. In particular, this paper presents a technique based on detecting acoustic emissions and (1) uses wire waveguides to monitor parts within the autoclave to 800 degrees C, (2) monitors microcracking during pyrolysis, (3) uses a four-level threshold to distinguish between low- and high-amplitude cracking events, (4) recognizes the occurrence of harmful delaminations, and (5) guides the control of the heating rate for optimum efficiency of the pyrolysis process. In addition, supporting data are presented of in situ measurements of porosity, weight loss, cross-ply shrinkage, and mass spectroscopy of gases emitted. The process evolution is illustrated by the use of interrupted manufacturing cycle micrographs obtained by optical, scanning acoustic (SAM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy. The technique promotes in-process monitoring and

  8. Synthesis of MgO Nanoparticles by Solvent Mixed Spray Pyrolysis Technique for Optical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Nemade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent mixed spray pyrolysis technique has attracted a global interest in the synthesis of nanomaterials since reactions can be run in liquid state without further heating. Magnesium oxide (MgO is a category of the practical semiconductor metal oxides, which is extensively used as catalyst and optical material. In the present study, MgO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a solvent mixed spray pyrolysis. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of MgO phase with an excellent crystalline structure. Debye-Scherrer equation is used for the determination of particle size, which was found to be 9.2 nm. Tunneling electron microscope analysis indicated that the as-synthesized particles are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 9 nm. Meanwhile, the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of the resulting product was evaluated to study its optical property via measurement of the band gap energy value.

  9. A pirólise como técnica analítica Pyrolysis as an analytical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviano Oliveira Silvério

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper historical aspects of analytical pyrolysis, the equipment used, the fundamentals and the mechanisms of pyrolysis of different polymeric materials are discussed. The latest work on analytical pyrolysis applied to various types of synthetic and natural samples is reviewed. Current applications of this technique that are discussed include identification of microorganisms, analysis of trace compounds by forensic laboratories, investigation of food and agricultural products, study of the chemical composition of wood, authentication and conservation of artworks, and the study of environmental and geochemical samples.

  10. Study of photoconductivity in Ni doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patidar, Manju Mishra, E-mail: manjumishra.iuc@gmail.com; Gangrade, Mohan; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandawa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Ajay, Akhil [Physics Department, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Wala, Arwa Dewas [Holkar Science College, Indore - 452001 (India); N, Kiran [Physics Department, University of Mysore, Mysore-570005 (India); Panda, Richa [AITR, Bhopal-462044 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Ni-doped cadmium sulphide [Cd{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S, (x=0, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.20)] thin films were investigated for photoconductive properties. The films were prepared by spray Pyrolysis technique (SPT). AFM and two probe resistivity measurements were carried out to analyze the morphological and electrical properties of the films. AFM shows the note worthy changes in the morphology where the nanorod structures in CdS is changed into nano particles with the Ni doping. The presence of persistence photo current is demonstrated and extensive photoconductivity analysis has been studied on these films.

  11. Synthesis of LiVO{sub 3} thin films by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzidi, A., E-mail: bouzidi_attou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire d' Elaboration et de Caracterisations des Materiaux, Departement d' Electronique, Universite Djillali Liabes, BP89, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Benramdane, N.; Medles, M.; Khadraoui, M. [Laboratoire d' Elaboration et de Caracterisations des Materiaux, Departement d' Electronique, Universite Djillali Liabes, BP89, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Bresson, S. [Laboratoire de Biochimie, INSERM, ERI 12, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Place Victor Pauchet, F-80000 Amiens (France); Mathieu, C.; Desfeux, R. [Universite d' Artois, Faculte Jean Perrin, Rue Jean Souvraz, SP18, 62307 Lens (France); Marssi, M. El. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2010-08-06

    Lithium metavanadate thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique at substrate temperature of 250 {sup o}C. 0.2 M spraying solution was prepared by mixing appropriate volumes of LiCl and VCl{sub 3} solutions. Structural, vibrational and optical properties of deposited film are discussed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy have revealed that LiVO{sub 3} with monoclinic symmetry was obtained. Optical properties of thin film were studied from transmission measurement in the range UV-Visible.

  12. Characterization of molybdenum-doped indium oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Rozati; Z Bargebidi

    2013-08-01

    In this research, indium oxide nanostructure undoped and doped with Mo were prepared on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. Various parameters such as dopant concentration and deposition temperatures were studied. Structural properties of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Electrical and optical properties have been studied by Hall effect and UV–Visible spectrophotometer, respectively. The thickness of the films was determined by PUMA software. The variation of refractive index, extension coefficient and bandgap of these films also were investigated.

  13. Influence of zinc precursor concentration on properties zinc sulphide thin films using spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, E.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2017-07-01

    Stoichiometric high transparent n-zinc sulphide thin films were prepared using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The concentration of the cationic precursor played a major role to obtain stoichiometry, regardless of various deposition parameters. Zinc sulphide films deposited at 450˚C for the ratio 0.33:1 (Zn:S) resulted in well oriented, stoichiometric polycrystalline cubic structure. The variation in crystallite size associated with the cationic precursor concentration provides significant control over the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The optical band gap and activation energy of stoichiometric ZnS films were found to be 3.54 ± 0.02eV and 0.82 ± 0.05eV, respectively. The absorption coefficient of the films was found to be 102 cm-1.

  14. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Thin Films Using Nebulizer Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mariappan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available thin films have been deposited on glass substrates at substrate temperature 400°C through nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis shows that the films structure is changed from hexagonal to tetragonal. The high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM studies reveal that the substrate is well covered with a number of grains indicating compact morphology with an average grain size 50–79 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX reveals the average ratio of the atomic percentage. Optical transmittance study shows the presence of direct transition. Band gap energy decreases from 3.33 to 2.87 eV with respect to the rise of Sn content. The electrical resistivity of the thin films was found to be 106 Ω-m.

  15. Application of pyrolysis gas chromatography technique to evaluation of coal-generated hydrocarbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永革; 盛国英; 傅家谟

    1997-01-01

    Based on kerogen-generated hydrocarbon model, a new method to calculate hydrocarbon yields for coals and coaly samples was put forward by means of pyrolysis technique. At the same time, the empirical criteria suggested by Powell were revised. The threshold value was preliminarily defined as HC yields >30 mg HC per gram TOC for effective gas source rocks and >60 mg HC per gram TOC for effective oil source rocks. Additionally, it was also confirmed that the relative compositions of the three ranges of C1-C5 total hydrocarbons, C6-C14 n-alkanes plus n-alkenes and C15+ n-alkanes plus n-alkenes from pyrolysates can be effectively used to distinguish the coal-generated hydrocarbon types.

  16. Effect of indium doping on zinc oxide films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Girjesh Singh; S B Shrivastava; Deepti Jain; Swati Pandya; T Shripathi; V Ganesan

    2010-10-01

    We report the conducting and transparent In doped ZnO films fabricated by a homemade chemical spray pyrolysis system (CSPT). The effect of In concentration on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties have been studied. These films are found to show (0 0 2) preferential growth at low indium concentrations. An increase in In concentration causes a decrease in crystalline quality of films as confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique which leads to the introduction of defects in ZnO. Indium doping also significantly increased the electron concentrations, making the films heavily type. However, the crystallinity and surface roughness of the films decreases with increase in indium doping content likely as a result of the formation of smaller grain size, which is clearly displayed in AFM images. Typical optical transmittance values in the order of (80%) were obtained for all films. The lowest resistivity value of 0.045 -m was obtained for film with 5% indium doping.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of Ag-ZnO thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarwal, N.L. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Patil, P.S., E-mail: psp_phy@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Synthesis of Ag-ZnO nanocomposites by spray pyrolysis technique. > Examine the effect of Ag doping on the structural, morphological optical, and photoelectrochemical properties. > Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon of the spray deposited Ag-ZnO nanocomposites. > Enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance of ZnO thin films after Ag doping. - Abstract: Silver doped zinc oxide (Ag-ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass and tin doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates by using pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) at 450 deg. C from aqueous solutions of zinc acetate and silver nitrate precursors. The effect of silver doping on structural, morphological and optical properties of films was studied. The XRD spectra of the Ag-ZnO films indicate the polycrystalline nature having hexagonal crystal structure. SEM micrographs show the uniform distribution of spherical grains of about 80-90 nm grain size for the pure ZnO thin films. The Ag nanoparticles are clearly visualized in SEM images of Ag-ZnO samples. The optical band gap energy decreases as the percentage of silver doping increases. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) related phenomena are observed and correlated to the optical properties of Ag-ZnO thin films. The overall photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the samples was investigated and discussed. Moreover, the samples are more photoactive as compare to the pure ZnO sample and the sample ZnOAg{sub 15} shows the highest current. The photocurrent increases upto 249 {mu}A cm{sup -2} and 303 {mu}A cm{sup -2} in visible light and in UV illumination, respectively, and then decreases as the Ag doping increases into the film.

  18. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  19. Photoluminescence and photoelectrochemical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarwal, N.L.; Shinde, V.V.; Kamble, A.S.; Jadhav, P.R.; Patil, D.S.; Patil, V.B. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Patil, P.S., E-mail: psp_phy@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) was employed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films onto soda lime glass and tin doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures ranging from 300 deg. C to 500 deg. C. The synthesized films were polycrystalline, with a (0 0 2) preferential growth along c-axis. SEM micrographs revealed the uniform distribution of spherical grains of about 80-90 nm size. The films were transparent with average visible transmittance of 85% having band gap energy 3.25 eV. All the samples exhibit room temperature photoluminescence (PL). A strong ultraviolet (UV) emission at 398 nm with weak green emission centered at 520 nm confirmed the less defect density in the samples. Moreover, the samples are photoelectrochemically active and exhibit the highest photocurrent of 60 {mu}A, a photovoltage of 280 mV and 0.23 fill factor (FF) for the Zn{sub 450} films in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, when illuminated under UV light.

  20. 18O/16O ratio measurements of inorganic and organic materials by elemental analysis-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry continuous-flow techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Lécuyer, Christophe; Kupka, Hans-Joachim; Lange, Lutz; Ojeimi, Charles; Seed, Mike

    2011-10-15

    We have used a high-precision, easy, low-cost and rapid method of oxygen isotope analysis applied to various O-bearing matrices, organic and inorganic (sulfates, nitrates and phosphates), whose (18)O/(16)O ratios had already been measured. It was first successfully applied to (18)O analyses of natural and synthetic phosphate samples. The technique uses high-temperature elemental analysis-pyrolysis (EA-pyrolysis) interfaced in continuous-flow mode to an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) system. Using the same pyrolysis method we have been able to generate a single calibration curve for all those samples showing pyrolysis efficiencies independent of the type of matrix pyrolysed. We have also investigated this matrix-dependent pyrolysis issue using a newly developed pyrolysis technique involving 'purge-and-trap' chromatography. As previously stated, silver phosphate being a very stable material, weakly hygroscopic and easily synthesized with predictable (18)O/(16)O values, could be considered as a good candidate to become a reference material for the determination of (18)O/(16)O ratios by EA-pyrolysis-IRMS. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Investigation on vanadium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margoni, Mudaliar Mahesh; Mathuri, S.; Ramamurthi, K., E-mail: krmurthin@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: ramamurthi.k@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur – 603 203, Kancheepuram Dt., Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, K. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-06

    Vanadium oxide thin films were deposited at 400 °C by spray pyrolysis technique using 0.1 M aqueous precursor solution of ammonium meta vanadate (AMV) with two different pH values. X-ray diffraction results showed that the film prepared using aqueous precursor AMV solution (solution A; pH 7) is amorphous in nature and the film prepared by adding HNO{sub 3} in the AMV aqua solution A (solution B; pH 3) is polycrystalline in nature. Vanadium oxide film prepared from the precursor solution B is in the mixed phases of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 4}O{sub 7}. Crystallinity is improved for the film prepared using solution B when compared to film prepared from solution A. Crystallite size, strain and dislocation density calculated for the film prepared from solution B is respectively 72.1 nm, 0.4554 × 10{sup −3} lin.{sup −2}m{sup −4} and 1.7263 × 10{sup 14} lin.m{sup −2}. Morphology study revealed that the size of the flakes formed on the surface of the films is influenced by the pH of the precursor solution. Average Visible Transmittance and maximum transmittance of the deposited films exceed 70% and the direct optical band gap value calculated for the films deposited from A and B solution is 1.91 eV and 2.08 eV respectively.

  2. Characterization of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louardi, A.; Rmili, A.; Ouachtari, F.; Bouaoud, A. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Elidrissi, B., E-mail: e.bachir@mailcity.com [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Erguig, H. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films show a micro porous structure. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are formed with spherical grains less than 50 nm in diameter. > The porous structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films is expected to have promising application in electrochromism. - Abstract: Cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of hydrated cobalt chloride salt (CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O) as source of cobalt. The films were deposited onto the amorphous glass substrates kept at different temperatures (300-500 deg. C). The influences of molar concentration of the starting solution and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were studied. It was found from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the films prepared with molar concentration greater than 0.025 M/L were polycrystalline spinel type cubic structure. The preferred orientation of the crystallites of these films changes gradually from (6 2 2) to (1 1 1) when the substrate temperature increases. By Raman spectroscopy, five Raman active modes characteristic of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel type cubic structure were found and identified at 194, 484, 522, 620 and 691 cm{sup -1}. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed micro porous structure with very fine grains less than 50 nm in diameter. These films exhibited also a transmittance value of about 70% in the visible and infra red range.

  3. Investigations of superparamagnetism in magnesium ferrite nano-sphere synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique for hyperthermia application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Harinarayan; Sakamoto, Naonori; Aono, Hiromichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hisao; Wakiya, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesized of magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nano-spheres by a single-step ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique from the aqueous metal nitrate precursor solution without any organic additives or post-annealing processes. The effects of different pyrolysis temperatures on the particles size, morphology and their superparamagnetic behavior have been investigated to evaluate the heat generation efficiency in an AC magnetic field. The X-ray powder diffraction spectra of MgFe2O4 nano-spheres synthesized at the pyrolysis temperatures of 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C exhibited single phase cubic structure and obtained mean crystallite size (primary particles) of 4.05, 9.6, 15.97 and 31.48 nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirms that the particles consisted of aggregates of the primary crystallite had densely congested spherical morphology with extremely smooth surface appearance. Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) reveals that the shape and size of the nano-spheres (secondary particles) does not change significantly but the degree of agglomeration between the secondary particles was reduced with increasing the pyrolysis temperature. The average size and size distribution of nano-spheres measured using electrophoretic scattering photometer have found very low polydispersity index (PDI) for all samples. The field dependent magnetization studies indicated superparamagnetic nature for the particles having crystallite size i.e. 4.05 and 9.6 nm and exhibited ferromagnetic nature for 15.97 and 31.48 nm. It is also demonstrated that, as the pyrolysis temperature increases, the saturation magnetization of the MgFe2O4 nanopowders increases due to enhancement of crystallites. The shift in Curie temperature is well described by the finite-size scaling formula. The magnetically loss heating values of selected samples in crystallite size of 9.6 and 15.97 nm were investigated by measuring the time dependent temperature

  4. Synthesis of conductive semi-transparent silver films deposited by a Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Balderas-Xicoténcatl, R. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico); Arrieta, M.L. Pérez [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Académica de Física, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Meza-Rocha, A.N.; Rivera-Álvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C., E-mail: cfalcony@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • We deposited metallic silver films without post-deposition annealing. • The spray pyrolysis technique is of low cost and scalable for industrial applications. • We obtained deposition rate of 60 nm min{sup −1} at 300 °C. • The average resistivity was 1E−7 Ω m. • Semi-transparent silver films were obtained at 350 °C and deposition time of 45 s. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of nanostructured silver films deposited on corning glass by a deposition technique called Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis are reported. Silver nitrate and triethanolamine were used as silver precursor and reducer agent, respectively. The substrate temperatures during deposition were in the range of 300–450 °C and the deposition times from 30 to 240 s. The deposited films are polycrystalline with cubic face-centered structure, and crystalline grain size less than 30 nm. Deposition rates up to 600 Å min{sup −1} were obtained at substrate temperature as low as 300 °C. The electrical, optical, and morphological properties of these films are also reported. Semi-transparent conductive silver films were obtained at 350 °C with a deposition time of 45 s.

  5. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium chloride doped ZnO films synthesized by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E., E-mail: ezaleta@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camargo-Martinez, J.; Ramirez-Garibo, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Perez-Arrieta, M.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Fisica, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Mexico (Mexico); Balderas-Xicohtencatl, R.; Rivera-Alvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-12-01

    Indium chloride doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using zinc acetate by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis technique. The effect of substrate temperature, deposition time and acetic acid added to the spraying solution on the structural, electrical and optical properties of these ZnO:In films is reported. The films were in all cases polycrystalline with a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, a transparency over 80% and resistivity of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} Ohm-Sign {center_dot}cm. The resistivity was dependent on the volume % of acetic acid added to the spraying solution. The minimum resistivity value was obtained with a 5 vol.% acetic acid (pH = 3.71) at substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. The deposition rates obtained were as high as 180 A{center_dot}min{sup -1} at a substrate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive ZnO:In thin films were deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is of low cost, high growth rates and scalable for industrial applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer USP is appropriate for the deposition of metallic oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effect of acetic acid, time deposition and substrate temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc acetate and indium chloride were used as precursor materials.

  6. Techniques in gas-phase thermolyses - Part 7. Direct surface participation in gas-phase Curie-point pyrolysis: The pyrolysis of phenyl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1986-01-01

    The possible direct participation of the hot reactor surface in the formation of pyrolysis products was elucidated through the pyrolytic decomposition of phenyl azide. It is demonstrated that the intermediate phenyl nitrene generated reacts with elemental carbon at the filament surface, leading...

  7. Synthesis of ZnO Hexagonal Micro Discs on Glass Substrates Using the Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.; Zbib, Mohamad B.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an important transparent conducting oxide of potential use in solar cells, electronics, photoelectronics, and sensors. In this work ZnO micro discs were synthesized in thin film form on glass substrates using the low cost spray pyrolysis method. The films were prepared from a precursor solution of ZnCl2 in distilled water at a substrate temperature of 300 ± 5°C. The as-synthesized samples were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The morphology of the films showed randomly distributed micro discs of hexagonal shape. The EDS reports showed that the films contained Cl and Fe. Size analysis was performed using ImageJ software, where the average diameter was found to be 4.8 ± 0.9 μm, and the average thickness was found to be 254 ± 43 nm.

  8. Photovoltaic properties of undoped ZnO thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikhmayies, S.J. [Applied Science Private Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics; Abu El-Haija, N.M.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N. [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used as a window material, transparent electrode and active layer in different types of solar cells, UV emitters, and UV sensors. In addition to being low cost, ZnO is more abundant than indium tin oxide. ZnO is non toxic and has a high chemical stability in reduction environments. When ZnO films are made without any intentional doping, they exhibit n-type conductivity. ZnO thin films can be prepared by reactive sputtering, laser ablation, chemical-vapour deposition, laser molecular-beam epitaxy, thermal evaporation, sol-gel, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis, with the latter being simple, inexpensive and adaptable to large area depositions. In this work ZnCl{sub 2} was used as a source of Zn where it was dissolved in distilled water. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated due to their important characteristic for solar cell applications. Polycrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis using a home-made spraying system at substrate temperature of 450 degrees C. The films were characterized by recording and analyzing their I-V plots, their transmittance, X-ray diffraction and SEM micrographs. There resistivity was found to be about 200 ohms per cm and their bandgap energy about 3.27 eV. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure and are highly ordered with a preferential orientation (002). SEM images revealed that the substrates are continuously covered and the surface of the film is uniform. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  9. S-Rich CdS1−yTey Thin Films Produced by the Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia J. Ikhmayies

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the properties of CdSTe ternary alloys is important because they always form at the interface between the CdS window layer and CdTe absorber layer in CdS/CdTe solar cells due to the intermixing. This interdiffusion is necessary because it improves the device performance. Experimental work has been devoted to studying Te rich p-type CdSxTe1−x alloys, but there is a lack of studies on S-rich n-type CdS1−yTey solid solutions. In this work, a review of the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the S-rich n-type CdS1−yTey thin films produced by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates is presented.

  10. Spin wave study and optical properties in Fe-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lmai, F.; Moubah, R.; El Amiri, A.; Abid, Y.; Soumahoro, I.; Hassanain, N.; Colis, S.; Schmerber, G.; Dinia, A.; Lassri, H.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the magnetic and optical properties of Zn1-xFexO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique. The magnetization as a function of temperature [M (T)] shows a prevailing paramagnetic contribution at low temperature. By using spin wave theory, we separate the M (T) curve in two contributions: one showing intrinsic ferromagnetism and one showing a purely paramagnetic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the spin wave theory is consistent with ab-initio calculations only when oxygen vacancies are considered, highlighting the key role played by structural defects in the mechanism driving the observed ferromagnetism. Using UV-visible measurements, the transmittance, reflectance, band gap energy, band tail, dielectric coefficient, refractive index, and optical conductivity were extracted and related to the variation of the Fe content.

  11. Investigations of superparamagnetism in magnesium ferrite nano-sphere synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique for hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Harinarayan, E-mail: hn_das@yahoo.com [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Sakamoto, Naonori [Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Aono, Hiromichi [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-85770 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kazuo [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, Hisao; Wakiya, Naoki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we present the synthesized of magnesium ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nano-spheres by a single-step ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique from the aqueous metal nitrate precursor solution without any organic additives or post-annealing processes. The effects of different pyrolysis temperatures on the particles size, morphology and their superparamagnetic behavior have been investigated to evaluate the heat generation efficiency in an AC magnetic field. The X-ray powder diffraction spectra of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-spheres synthesized at the pyrolysis temperatures of 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C exhibited single phase cubic structure and obtained mean crystallite size (primary particles) of 4.05, 9.6, 15.97 and 31.48 nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirms that the particles consisted of aggregates of the primary crystallite had densely congested spherical morphology with extremely smooth surface appearance. Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) reveals that the shape and size of the nano-spheres (secondary particles) does not change significantly but the degree of agglomeration between the secondary particles was reduced with increasing the pyrolysis temperature. The average size and size distribution of nano-spheres measured using electrophoretic scattering photometer have found very low polydispersity index (PDI) for all samples. The field dependent magnetization studies indicated superparamagnetic nature for the particles having crystallite size i.e. 4.05 and 9.6 nm and exhibited ferromagnetic nature for 15.97 and 31.48 nm. It is also demonstrated that, as the pyrolysis temperature increases, the saturation magnetization of the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanopowders increases due to enhancement of crystallites. The shift in Curie temperature is well described by the finite-size scaling formula. The magnetically loss heating values of selected samples in crystallite size of 9.6 and 15.97 nm were investigated by measuring

  12. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1975-01-01

    Progress during the second quarter of the contractual effort is described. The work performed related mainly to ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique and to ribbon characterization. Actual progress in the crystal growth area includes the evaluation of 10 potential die materials other than carbon and the process development for 25-mm-wide ribon. From the die study it is concluded that boron carbide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride may warrant further investigation as die materials. Process development for 25-mm ribbon growth resulted in ribbons of superior surface quality. Potential ribbongrowth problems encountered and discussed include a boron doping anomaly and frozen-in stresses in ribbons. The characterization effort concentrated on the development of a solar-cell process to be used for ribbon characterization. Material requirements and detailed process procedures are given. Solar cells fabricated by this process are compared with commercially available solar cells and compare favorably. A transmission electron microscopy study of planar boundaries frequently observed in ribbon crystals is reported. (auth)

  13. Thickness-Dependent Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of In2O3 Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A. Majeed; Khan, Wasi

    2016-08-01

    In this work, nanostructured In2O3 thin films with thickness in the range of 40-160 nm were deposited on glass substrates by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The microstructural, surface morphology and optical properties were investigated as a function of film thickness through x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with a cubic structure having (222) as preferred orientation. The morphological analyses of the samples exhibited uniform and smooth surface of the films with systematical increments in the surface roughness with increasing film thickness. The grain size increased from 9 nm to 13 nm with increasing film thickness. Raman spectroscopy has been employed to study the crystalline quality and the structural disorder of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap ( E g) from 3.74 eV to 3.98 eV was observed with the increase of film thickness. Moreover, photoluminescence peaks of the In2O3 films appeared at 443 nm and 527 nm for all films. The thickness had a substantial influence on the microstructural and optical properties as well as on the luminescence intensity of the films. The strategy presented here indicates that the prepared films could be suitable candidates for optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thirumoorthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique for different Sn concentrations on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that all the films are polycrystalline of cubic structure with preferentially oriented along (222 plane. SEM images show that films exhibit uniform surface morphology with well-defined spherical particles. The EDX spectrum confirms the presence of In, Sn and O elements in prepared films. AFM result indicates that the surface roughness of the films is reduced as Sn doping. The optical transmittance of ITO thin films is improved from 77% to 87% in visible region and optical band gap is increased from 3.59 to 4.07 eV. Photoluminescence spectra show mainly three emissions peaks (UV, blue and green and a shift observed in UV emission peak. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding was analyzed by FTIR. Hall effect measurements show prepared films having n-type conductivity with low resistivity (3.9 × 10−4 Ω-cm and high carrier concentrations (6.1 × 1020 cm−3.

  15. Growth of tin oxide thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloly, Abdul Rasheed; Satheesh, M.; Martínez-Tomás, M. Carmen; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente; Rajappan Achary, Sreekumar; Bushiri, M. Junaid

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth of tin oxide (SnO2) thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophobic (siliconized) and hydrophilic (non-siliconized) glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of SnO2 thin films with tetragonal rutile-phase structure. Average particle size of nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 3-4 nm measured from the front view images obtained by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM), while the size of nanoparticle clusters, when present, were in the range of 11-20 nm. Surface morphology of SnO2 films grown over hydrophobic substrates revealed larger isolated particles which are less crowded compared to the highly crowded and agglomerated smaller particles in films on hydrophilic substrates. Blue shift in the band gap is observed in samples in which the average particle size is slightly larger than the exciton Bohr radius. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of samples grown over hydrophobic substrates exhibited an intense defect level emission and a weak near band edge emission. The enhanced visible emission from these SnO2 thin films is attributed to lattice defects formed during the film growth due to the mismatch between the film and the hydrophobic substrate surface.

  16. Gas-phase thermal dissociation of uranium hexafluoride: Investigation by the technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1987-04-01

    In the gas-phase, uranium hexafluoride decomposes thermally in a quasi-unimolecular reaction to yield uranium pentafluoride and atomic fluorine. We have investigated this reaction using the relatively new technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis, in which a megawatt infrared laser is used to generate short pulses of high gas temperatures under strictly homogeneous conditions. In our investigation, SiF/sub 4/ is used as the sensitizer to absorb energy from a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser and to transfer this energy by collisions with the reactant gas. Ethyl chloride is used as an external standard ''thermometer'' gas to permit estimation of the unimolecular reaction rate constants by a relative rate approach. When UF/sub 6/ is the reactant, CF/sub 3/Cl is used as reagent to trap atomic fluorine reaction product, forming CF/sub 4/ as a stable indicator which is easily detected by infrared spectroscopy. Using these techniques, we estimate the UF/sub 6/ unimolecular reaction rate constant near the high-pressure limit. In the Appendix, we describe a computer program, written for the IBM PC, which predicts unimolecular rate constants based on the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel theory. Parameterization of the theoretical model is discussed, and recommendations are made for ''appropriate'' input parameters for use in predicting the gas-phase unimolecular reaction rate for UF/sub 6/ as a function of temperature and gas composition and total pressure. 85 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Growth of tin oxide thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloly, Abdul Rasheed; Satheesh, M. [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Martínez-Tomás, M. Carmen; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain); Rajappan Achary, Sreekumar [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Bushiri, M. Junaid, E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films were grown on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates. • Samples on hydrophobic substrates are having comparatively larger lattice volume. • Films on hydrophobic substrates have larger particles and low density distribution. • Substrate dependent photoluminescence emission is observed and studied. • SnO{sub 2} thin films grown over hydrophobic substrates may find potential applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophobic (siliconized) and hydrophilic (non-siliconized) glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of SnO{sub 2} thin films with tetragonal rutile-phase structure. Average particle size of nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 3–4 nm measured from the front view images obtained by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM), while the size of nanoparticle clusters, when present, were in the range of 11–20 nm. Surface morphology of SnO{sub 2} films grown over hydrophobic substrates revealed larger isolated particles which are less crowded compared to the highly crowded and agglomerated smaller particles in films on hydrophilic substrates. Blue shift in the band gap is observed in samples in which the average particle size is slightly larger than the exciton Bohr radius. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of samples grown over hydrophobic substrates exhibited an intense defect level emission and a weak near band edge emission. The enhanced visible emission from these SnO{sub 2} thin films is attributed to lattice defects formed during the film growth due to the mismatch between the film and the hydrophobic substrate surface.

  18. Transparent conducting properties of Ni doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaoud, A.; Rmili, A.; Ouachtari, F.; Louardi, A.; Chtouki, T. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Elidrissi, B., E-mail: e.bachir@mailcity.com [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Erguig, H. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquees de Kenitra (ENSAK) (Morocco)

    2013-01-15

    Undoped and Ni doped zinc oxide (Ni-ZnO) thin films were prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of anhydrous zinc acetate (Zn(CH{sub 3}COOH){sub 2} and hexahydrated nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O) as sources of zinc and nickel, respectively. The films were deposited onto the amorphous glass substrates kept at (450 Degree-Sign C). The effect of the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Ni doped ZnO thin film was studied. It was found from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that both the undoped and Ni doped ZnO films were crystallized in the hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation of the crystallites along the [002] direction perpendicular to the substrate. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a relatively dense surface structure composed of crystallites in the spherical form whose average size decreases when the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio increases. The optical study showed that all the films were highly transparent. The optical transmittance in the visible region varied between 75 and 85%, depending on the dopant concentrations. The variation of the band gap versus the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio showed that the energy gap decreases from 2.95 to 2.72 eV as the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio increases from 0 to 0.02 and then increases to reach 3.22 eV for [Ni]/[Zn] = 0.04. The films obtained with the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio = 0.02 showed minimum resistivity of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm at room temperature. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical transmittance of Ni doped ZnO varies between 75 and 85%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The energy gap of these films decreases from 2.95 to 2.72 eV as the [Ni]/[Zn] ratio increases from 0 to 0.02. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The energy gap increases to reach 3.22 eV for [Ni]/[Zn] = 0.04. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films obtained with [Ni]/[Zn] ratio = 0.02 show minimum resistivity of 2

  19. Statistical Techniques Used in Three Applied Linguistics Journals: "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics" and "TESOL Quarterly," 1980-1986: Implications for Readers and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleni, Vicki; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    A study investigated the statistical techniques used by applied linguists and reported in three journals, "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics," and "TESOL Quarterly," between 1980 and 1986. It was found that 47% of the published articles used statistical procedures. In these articles, 63% of the techniques used could be called basic, 28%…

  20. Classification and mass production technique for three-quarter shoe insoles using non-weight-bearing plantar shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuh-Ping; Chou, Yi-Jiun; Sue, Chun-Chia

    2009-07-01

    We have developed a technique for the mass production and classification of three-quarter shoe insoles via a 3D anthropometric measurement of full-size non-weight-bearing plantar shapes. The plantar shapes of fifty 40-60-year-old adults from Taiwan were categorized and, in conjunction with commercially available flat or leisure shoe models, three-quarter shoe-insole models were generated using a CAD system. Applying a rapid prototype system, these models were then used to provide the parameters for manufacturing the shoe insoles. The insoles developed in this study have been classified into S, M and L types that offer user-friendly options for foot-care providers. We concluded that these insoles can mate tightly with the foot arch and disperse the pressure in the heel and forefoot over the foot arch. Thus, practically, the pressure difference over the plantar region can be minimised, and the user can experience comfort when wearing flat or leisure shoes.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cell based on optically transparent TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline electrode prepared by atomized spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, H.M.N., E-mail: hmnb@pdn.ac.l [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Rajapakse, R.M.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Murakami, K. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Kumara, G.R.R.A.; Anuradha Sepalage, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > Transparent TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by the atomized spray pyrolysis method. > These films contain 3-5 nm discrete particles, interconnected to give a crack-free thin film structure. > Dye-absorption of the TiO{sub 2} film is 2.16 times higher than those used in conventional DSCs. > Conversion efficiency of 8.2% can be achieved with 1000 W m{sup -2} irradiation. - Abstract: Preparation of crack-free thin films of interconnected and non-agglomerated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on electronically conducting fluorine doped tin oxide surfaces is instrumental in designing and developing transparent dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A novel technique called 'Atomized Spray Pyrolysis' (ASP) has been designed and developed to achieve such perfectly transparent thin films. Optical transmittance of TiO{sub 2} films produced on FTO surface by this ASP method has been compared with those obtained by doctor-blading and by hand spray methods and found that the atomized spray pyrolysis technique give films with high transparency. Dye adsorption per gram of TiO{sub 2} is 2.16 times higher in the sample produced by the ASP method when compared to the film produced by the hand spray method and is 1.60 times higher than that produced by the doctor-blading method using a commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline paste. SEM studies show the presence of interconnected discrete particles in the film produced by the ASP method. The fill factor (ff) remains almost constant for the cells with thickness from 6 {mu}m to 13 {mu}m but the highest photovoltage and photocurrent were found in {approx}10 {mu}m film based DSC which gave 8.2% conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 irradiation for cells of 0.25 cm{sup 2} active area.

  2. Thermal degradation behavior of waste video cards using thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Li, Jinhui

    2010-05-01

    The thermal degradation characteristics of a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA), specifically video cards from waste computers, was studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The video-card waste was dismantled into substrate, integrated circuits (ICs), and plastic slots for comparable investigation. The results by TGA revealed that the initial temperature at which degradation began was 300 degrees C for substrate, but it was 330 degrees C for ICs and plastic slots. For a given type of scrap, the initial temperature leading to degradation is the same under air and N2 atmosphere. However, the degradation rate was lower using air than N2 during the weight-loss stage. Further Py-GC/MS application revealed that pyrolysis products derived from substrate consisted mainly of acetone, bromotoluene, and phenol that came from the brominated epoxy resins present in substrate. Unlike substrate, the relative amounts of some products (e.g., phenol) were higher in the ICs, and cyclotetrasiloxane was released; these were released from the phenolic resins and Si mixture present in that type of waste. Benzoic acid, rather than acetone or phenol, was the main product released from plastic slots. It was proved that this scrap was a mixture of various polyesters, cracking of which predicatively generated aromatic products. The results will be useful in developing pyrolysis or starved-air incineration systems for thermosetting plastic and PCBA waste and helpful to control pollution during the treatment of this waste.

  3. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  4. Tin sulfide (SnS) nanostructured films deposited by continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique for dye-sensitized solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Firoz; Dutta, Viresh, E-mail: vdutta@ces.iitd.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Single phase, perfectly stoichiometric tin sulfide (SnS) films have been deposited by continuous spray pyrolysis technique. • Structural and morphological investigations show the orthorhombic SnS with nanoflakes. • SnS film shows excellent electrochemical stability. • SnS films have been used as a counter electrode (CE) in an I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} based dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Tin sulfide (SnS) nanostructured films have been deposited on transparent conducting glass substrate using continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique using aqueous spray solution of tin chloride and thiourea. Structural, morphological and optical properties of as-synthesized SnS nanostructured films showed the formation of (1 0 1) oriented orthorhombic SnS with nanoflakes having a direct band gap of 1.40 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirms the formation of pure SnS with Sn in +2 oxidation state. The SnS nanostructured film has also been characterized using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) technique to determine the surface area and pore volume which are found to be 11.4 m{sup 2}/g and 0.02 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The film has been used as a counter electrode (CE) in a triiodide/iodide (I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −}) based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSCs of 0.25 cm{sup 2} area with SnS nanostructured CE exhibits a lower power conversion efficiency (2.0 ± 0.06%) than that for the cell with standard platinum (Pt) CE (4.5 ± 0.13%). However, the usefulness of the CoSP technique for deposition of nanostructures SnS CE film has been established in the present study.

  5. High-precision determination of 18O/16O ratios of silver phosphate by EA-pyrolysis-IRMS continuous flow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécuyer, Christophe; Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Amiot, Romain; Bernard, Aurélien; Daux, Valérie; Escarguel, Gilles; Morrison, John

    2007-01-01

    A high-precision, and rapid on-line method for oxygen isotope analysis of silver phosphate is presented. The technique uses high-temperature elemental analyzer (EA)-pyrolysis interfaced in continuous flow (CF) mode to an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Calibration curves were generated by synthesizing silver phosphate with a 13 per thousand spread in delta(18)O values. Calibration materials were obtained by reacting dissolved potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) with water samples of various oxygen isotope compositions at 373 K. Validity of the method was tested by comparing the on-line results with those obtained by classical off-line sample preparation and dual inlet isotope measurement. In addition, silver phosphate precipitates were prepared from a collection of biogenic apatites with known delta(18)O values ranging from 12.8 to 29.9 per thousand (V-SMOW). Reproducibility of +/- 0.2 per thousand was obtained by the EA-Py-CF-IRMS method for sample sizes in the range 400-500 microg. Both natural and synthetic samples are remarkably well correlated with conventional (18)O/(16)O determinations. Silver phosphate is a very stable material and easy to degas and, thus, could be considered as a good candidate to become a reference material for the determination of (18)O/(16)O ratios of phosphate by high-temperature pyrolysis. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic components. Fifth quarterly report, October--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The adequacy of several nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for the detection of flaws in SiC heat-exchanger tubing are discussed. Experimental results regarding adaptability to ceramic tubing and minimum detectable flaw size have been obtained for conventional ultrasonic testing, acoustic microscopy, conventional and dye-enhanced radiography, holographic interferometry, infrared scanning and internal-friction measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of overload proof testing are also discussed. No single NDE technique will be sufficient to detect all types of critically sized flaws. Preservice inspection should include traditional visual and dye-penetrant examinations for outer-wall surface defects, and possibly overload proof testing to screen weak ceramic tubing. Further examinations should employ dye-enhanced radiography for inner-wall surface defects and acoustic microscopy or conventional ultrasonic testing at 20 MHz (and possible holographic interferometry) for subsurface defects. Anomalous heat-transport characteristics may be detected by infrared techniques. For in-service examinations, where is is assumed that access to the tube is from the bore side only, inspection employing 20-MHz longitudinal and transverse waves appears to be the most practical technique. Infrared scanning through the bore could possibly provide data with regard to hot spots, wall thinning and anomalous heat-transport characteristics. Holographic interferometry, while requiring extensive development, may be capable of providing inner-wall crack-detection data not generated by other techniques.The attributes of the various techniques evaluated to date are tabulated.

  7. Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yang; Aijun Zeng; Xiangzhao Wang; Hua Wang; Feng Tang

    2008-01-01

    Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique is presented. The simultaneous phase shifting function is realized by an orthogonal grating, a diaphragm, an analyzer array, and a 4-quadrant detector. The intensities of the light beams from the four analyzers with different azimuths are measured simultaneously. The fast axis angle of the quarter-wave plate is obtained through the four light intensity values. In this method, rotating elements are not required, so real-time measurement is achieved.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic components. Eighth quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Progress in research on nondestructive techniques for detecting defects in high-temperature structural ceramics is reported. These techniques include dye-enhanced radiography, acoustic microscopy, conventional ultrasonic testing, acoustic-emission detection, acoustic impact testing, holographic interferometry, infrared scanning, internal friction measurements and overload proof testing. The effect of varying microstructure on flaw detectability was demonstrated by comparing ultrasonic signal amplitudes from notches in siliconized and sintered SiC tubes. Signal amplitudes were approx. 4 dB higher in the sintered material. Knoop dents with depths as small as 25 ..mu..m, not detectable at conventional operating frequency (10 MHz), were clearly resolved by use of a 75-MHz transducer. The velocity of sound was measured as a function of the volume fraction of silicon in Carborundum KT samples. The results suggest that measurement of the velocity of sound may be adequate for indicating silicon content. Initial data have been presented on flaw detection in SiC tubing with the bore-side ultrasonic probe and acoustic microscope stage. Preliminary results were encouraging. A novel dynamic holography technique was demonstrated. A 100 x 50-mm-deep Knoop indent in a SiC bar could clearly be seen by this technique, which is a significant improvement over previous optical methods. (LCL)

  9. Effect of Sm doping on the physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, P.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Aparna, K. T.

    2017-05-01

    Undoped and Sm doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method on a glass substrate at 430°C. The physical properties of undoped and Sm doped ZnO thin films are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, Hall measurement and PL analysis. XRD pattern reveals that all the films are polycrystalline nature. The FE-SEM study of CdO shows the smooth and uniform surface with the spherical shaped particle. The electrical study reveals the n-type semiconductor and the optical study shows that Sm doped ZnO thin films about 92% transparency and optical band gap vary between 3.266-3.276 eV. Sm doped ZnO thin films have strong green emission behavior.

  10. Effect of Mn doping on the electrical and optical properties of SnO{sub 2} thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira Gandhi, T. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramesh Babu, R., E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India); Arivanandhan, M. [Nanodevices and Nanomaterials Division, Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432 8011 (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Manganese doped tin oxide (Mn:SnO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis technique adding various concentrations of manganese acetate (0–8 at.%) in the spray solution of tin chloride. X-ray diffraction studies show the preferred growth along (301) direction for 0.0–2.0 at.% concentration of manganese acetate in the spray solution. Higher doping concentration of manganese acetate (4 and 8 at.%) in the solution shifts the preferred growth direction along (200) plane. Scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the change in the surface morphology of the films due to various levels of Mn doping. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis shows that in the prepared thin film manganese atoms exist in Mn{sup 3+} state. The sheet resistance of SnO{sub 2} film decreases from ~ 23.5 Ω/□ to 22.8 Ω/□ for 0.4 at.% doping concentration and increases with increasing Mn concentration in the solution. The average optical transmittance of SnO{sub 2} thin film increases from 34% to 55% in the wavelength region of 550–850 nm with increase in Mn concentration. Mn concentration in the films influences the intensity of the photoluminescence emission peak observed for SnO{sub 2} film at 398 nm. - Highlights: • Mn:SnO2 thin films deposited with different doping concentration by spray pyrolysis technique • Structural information confirms that all the films are polycrystalline and tetragonal crystal structure. • XPS studies confirm the oxidation state of Mn (3 +) and Sn (4 +) in Mn:SnO{sub 2} thin film. • 0.4 at.% of Mn:SnO{sub 2} thin film shows lowest sheet resistance 22.8 Ω/□. • Optical band gap of 1.2 at.% Mn:SnO{sub 2} thin film is about 3.70 eV.

  11. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, H.M. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Torres, J., E-mail: njtorress@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Lopez Carreno, L.D. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  12. Yttrium doped BaCeO{sub 3} thin films by spray pyrolysis technique for application in solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubal, S.U.; Jamale, A.P.; Jadhav, S.T.; Patil, S.P.; Bhosale, C.H. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Jadhav, L.D., E-mail: ldjadhav.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Rajaram College, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • BCY20 thin electrolyte was deposited by economical spray pyrolysis technique. • Solution concentration and annealing temperature affects structure and morphology. • Excellent agreement with XRD data of lattice parameter. • The dc conductivity in argon at 600 °C was 4.25 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Yttrium doped barium cerate (BCY) a solid state ion conductor which exhibits proton conductivity under proper atmospheric conditions, is used as an electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCs). In present work, nanocrystalline BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.9} (BCY20) thin films were successfully deposited onto alumina substrates by simple and economical spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) at 250 °C. The effect of solution concentration and annealing on physico-chemical properties of BCY20 thin film has been studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of spray pyrolysed BCY20 films revealed polycrystalline (crystallite size 35 nm) orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters a = 8.77 Å, b = 6.234 Å and c = 6.223 Å. The scanning electron micrographs showed dense morphology which is very useful for electrolyte. The stoichiometry was confirmed by elemental analysis and the estimated atomic ratio was in good agreement with that of the precursor solution ratio. The most intense band at 353.26 cm{sup −1} observed in room temperature Raman spectrum of BCY20 film was due to vibrational mode of barium cerate. The FTIR spectra with heat treatment shows no carbon based vibration bonds, revealing absence of carbon based surface impurities in the sample. The dc conductivities measured in air and argon atmospheres at 600 °C were 1.7 × 10{sup −3} and 4.25 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  13. Effect of deposition conditions on the physical properties of SnxSy thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. R. Fadavieslam; N. Shahtahmasebi; M. Rezaee-Roknabadi; M. M. Bagheri-Mohagheghi

    2011-01-01

    Tin sulfide thin films (SnxSy ) with an atomic ratio of y / x =0.5 have been deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis.The effects of deposition parameters,such as spray solution rate (R),substrate temperature (Ts) and film thickness (t),on the structural,optical,thermo-electrical and photoconductivity related properties of the films have been studied.The precursor solution was prepared by dissolving tin chloride (SnCl4,5H2O)and thiourea in propanol,and SnxSy thin film was prepared with a mole ratio of y/x =0.5.The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy.It is indicated that the XRD patterns of SnxSy films have amorphous and polycrystalline structures and the size of the grains has been changed from 7 to 16 nm.The optical gap of SnxSy thin films is determined to be about 2.41 to 3.08 eV by a plot of the variation of (ohv)2 versus hv related to the change of deposition conditions.The thermoelectric and photo-conductivity measurement results for the films show that these properties are depend considerably on the deposition parameters.

  14. Ethanol sensing of V2O5 thin film prepared by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of substrate to nozzle distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, P.; Prakash, A. Arockia; Mohan, C. Raja

    2017-05-01

    In the present investigation V2O5 thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis by varying substrate to nozzle distance (SND) from 20 to 35 cm in steps of 5 cm. The structural studies by XRD results indicates that the crystallinity increases with increase in SND along (101), (201) orientation and for the film prepared at 30 cm gives a good crystallinity. The SEM image shows that the change in morphology, which strongly depends on the SND. Above 30 cm it slightly affects the surface morphology of the V2O5 thinfilm due to agglomeration. The presence of elemental constituents is confirmed from EDAX analysis. The band gap of the film prepared at 30 cm has a lowest value of 2.1 eV. The electrical studies like I-V, Hall Effect measurement and the conductivity is maximum for the film prepared at 30 cm. The ethanol sensing of the prepared film has been studied using Keithley source meter and the detailed results are presented and discussed.

  15. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF Al:ZnO THIN FILM DEPOSITED BY DIFFERENT SOL-GEL TECHNIQUES: ULTRASONIC SPRAY PYROLYSIS AND DIP-COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Gungor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Undoped and Al-doped ZnO polycrystalline thin films have been fabricated on glass substrates by using a computer-controlled dip coating (DC and ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP systems. The film deposition parameters of DC process were optimized for the samples. In this technique, the substrate was exposed to temperature gradient using a tube furnace. In the study, the other solvent-based technique was conventional USP. The zinc salt and Al salt concentrations in the solution were kept constant as 0.1 M and 2% of Zn salt’s molarity, respectively. The optical properties were compared for the films deposited two different techniques. The optical transmission of Al:ZnO/Glass/Al:ZnO sample dip coated and  the optical transmission of Al:ZnO/Glass sample ultrasonically sprayed were determined higher than 80% in the visible and near infrared region. Experimental optical transmittance spectra of the films in the forms of FilmA/Glass/FilmA and FilmA/glass were used to determine the optical constants. It was observed that the optical band gaps of Al doped ZnO films onto glass substrate were increases with increase of Al content and the absorption edge shifted to the shorter wavelength (blue shift compared with the undoped ZnO thin film.

  16. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods: Bio-oil Analytical Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge TN USA; Stankovikj, Filip [Washington State University (WSU), Pullman WA USA; Meier, Dietrich [Thünen Institute of Wood Research (TI), Hamburg Germany; Paasikallio, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), Espoo Finland

    2016-07-05

    In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

  17. Molecular products from the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2013-05-01

    The thermal degradation of tyrosine at a residence time of 0.2s was conducted in a tubular flow reactor in flowing N2 and 4% O2 in N2 for a total pyrolysis time of 3min. The fractional pyrolysis technique, in which the same sample was heated continuously at each pyrolysis temperature, was applied. Thermal decomposition of tyrosine between 350 and 550°C yielded predominantly phenolic compounds (phenol, p-cresol, and p-tyramine), while decomposition between 550 and 800°C yielded hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene as the major reaction products. For the first time, the identification of p-tyramine, a precursor for the on of formation of p-tyramine and its degradation to phenol and p-cresol, and toxicological discussion of some of the harmful reaction products is also presented.

  18. Influence of substrate temperature on physical properties of (111 oriented CdIn2S4 thin films by nebulized spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Raj Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the substrate temperature influenced change in the structural, optical, morphological, and electrical conductivity properties of CdIn2S4 thin films deposited on amorphous glass substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP technique. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the as-deposited CdIn2S4 thin films had a cubic structure with a preferred orientation along (111 plane. The reduced strain by increasing the substrate temperature from 200 to 350 °C increased the average crystalline size from 17 to 33 nm while the formation of secondary phases such as CdIn2O4 and In2O3 reduced it to 21 nm after the substrate temperature at 450 °C. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX studies confirmed the presence of Cd, In, and S. The absorption coefficient, direct band gap energy, Urbach energy, skin depth, and extinction coefficient of CdIn2S4 films were analyzed by optical absorption spectra. The better conductivity and mobility noticed at Ts = 350 °C are explained by carrier concentration and crystalline size. Better optical and electrical conductivity behavior of CdIn2S4 thin film sample suggests for effective PEC solar cell fabrication.

  19. Raman spectroscopy of Cu-Sn-S ternary compound thin films prepared by the low-cost spray-pyrolysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Viktor V; Babichuk, Ivan S; Orletskyi, Ivan G; Maryanchuk, Pavlo D; Yukhymchuk, Volodymyr O; Dzhagan, Volodymyr M; Yanchuk, Igor B; Solovan, Mykhailo M; Babichuk, Iryna V

    2016-04-20

    Cu-Sn-S (CTS) thin films were deposited onto bare and molybdenum (Mo) coated glass substrates by means of the spray pyrolysis technique under different conditions. The CTS thin films obtained are shown, by means of Raman spectroscopy, to consist of two main phases: Cu2SnS3 and Cu3SnS4 as well as of the secondary phase of Cu2-xS. The electrical conductivity of the spray-deposited p-type CTS thin films under investigation is determined by two shallow acceptor levels: Ev+0.07  eV at T334  K. The material of the CTS thin films was established to be a direct-band semiconductor with the bandgap Eg=1.89  eV. The SEM and x-ray energy dispersive analysis show the surface and cross section of the CTS thin film deposited onto molybdenum-coated glass ceramics substrate with the actual atomic ratios of Cu:Sn:S being 2.9:1:2.64, which is in good agreement with the Raman spectra. Also, a small content of residual Cl atoms was found in the CTS thin films under investigation as the by-product of the pyrolytic reactions.

  20. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd–Alghafour, N. M., E-mail: na2013bil@gmail.com [Iraqi Ministry of Education, Anbar (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl{sub 3} in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films’ crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  1. Sulphur functionality study of steam pyrolyzed 'Mequinenza' lignite using reductive pyrolysis technique coupled with MS and GC/MS detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, S.P.; Stefanova, M.; Stamenova, V. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Carleer, R.; Yperman, J. [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, CMK, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2005-02-25

    Atmospheric pressure-temperature programmed reduction (AP-TPR) and its analogous in oxidative atmosphere coupled 'on-line' with a mass spectrometer (MS) were used to study the behaviour of organic sulphur forms of 'Mequinenza' lignite during their mild steam pyrolysis. The obtained data were confirmed and completed by the AP-TPR-GC/MS 'off-line' analysis. Samples under study were pyrolyzed at different processing parameters (temperature and flow gas). Some peculiarities in the distribution of non-thiophenic sulphur forms depending on experimental conditions were found. Namely, their amounts decreased with temperature increase at the steam treatment. The experiment performed at 500 {sup o}C in water vapor flow proved the C-S bond splitting in dibenzothiophene with biphenyl formation. Sulphonic acid compounds were also systematically removed. At higher temperature of the steam pyrolyzed treatment, this effect was more pronounced. At the same time, a relative increase in sulphones was found.The following organic sulphur species in demineralised lignite were detected by the 'off-line' AP-TPR-GC/MS technique: methyl- and benzenethiols; mono- and disulphides; alkylthiolanes; alkenyl thiophenes; alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes and alkyldibenzo[bd]thiophenes. Their relative intensities as a function of temperature were followed. A strong preponderance of benzo[b]thiophene and its alkylated homologues above 450 {sup o}C were observed. Thiophene presence was temperature independent.

  2. Structural and luminescent properties of europium doped TiO{sub 2} thick films synthesized by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E; Zapata-Torres, M; Aguilar-Frutis, M; Alarcon-Flores, G; Guzman-Mendoza, J [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C, E-mail: ezaletaa@ipn.m [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-05-07

    The structural and luminescent properties of trivalent europium-doped titanium dioxide films synthesized by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique at several substrate temperatures are reported. These films are nanocrystalline and present a mixture of tetragonal (anatase and rutile) crystal structures of the titania as determined by x-ray diffraction. The rutile crystal structure became predominant as the substrate temperature during deposition was increased. Under UV and electron beam excitation, these coatings showed strong luminescence due to f-f transitions and the dominant transition was the hypersensitive {sup 5}D{sub 0} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 2} red emission of Eu{sup 3+}. The photo- and cathodoluminescence characteristics of these films were studied as a function of growth parameters such as substrate temperature and europium concentration. Excitation with a wavelength of 396 nm resulted in photoluminescent emission peaks located at 557, 580, 592, 615, 652 and 703 nm, associated with the electronic transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ion. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity as a whole is observed to decrease as the deposition temperature is increased. Also, with increasing doping concentration, a quenching of the PL is observed. The chemical composition and surface morphology characteristics of the films are also reported.

  3. Effect of Surface Passivation on Electrical Properties of Pd-F:SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mwathe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pd-F:SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Optimization has been done by doping SnO2 with palladium at varying levels of concentration and then recording sheet resistance. The sheet resistivity has been observed to decrease gradually as at% Pd concentration is increased; an optimum sheet resistivity value of 2.71 × 10−2 Ω cm has been recorded. The decrease in sheet resistivity has been attributed to presence of Pd ions which contribute in increment of charge carrier density. Using the optimum value of at% Pd doping, the same procedure has been repeated to study the effect of fluorine on Pd:SnO2; an optimum value of 1.64 × 10−4 Ω cm sheet resistivity has been recorded. This decrease has been attributed to substitution of O− with those of fluorine hence improving charge carrier density. The effect of passivation has been studied by comparing as prepared, annealed and passivated Pd-F:SnO2 thin films. Annealing has been observed to decrease the sheet resistivity to 1.21 × 10−4 Ω cm, while passivation has the effect of increasing the sheet resistivity to 1.53 × 10−4 Ω cm which is attributed to effects resulting from annealing the samples in nitrogen gas atmosphere.

  4. Effect of variation of precursor concentration on structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalchand A Patil; Dinesh N Suryawanshi; Idris G Pathan; Dhanashri G Patil

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of variation of precursor concentration (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 M) on the structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of TiO2 thin films. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were prepared from aqueous solution of titanium chloride (TiCl3.6H2O, 99.9%pure, Merckmade, Germany) onto the glass substrates heated at a temperature of 350 °C by the spray pyrolysis technique. Bandgap energy of the films vary from 3.28 to 3.29 eV. X-ray diffraction shows that films to be nanocrystalline with anatase phase having tetragonal crystal structure. The values calculated from electron diffraction patterns (TEM) were observed to be matching with values calculated from XRD. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveled that grain sizes were observed to increase (10–29 nm) with an increase in the concentration of precursor solution. The gas sensing performance of the films was tested.

  5. Physical properties of Zn doped TiO2 thin films with spray pyrolysis technique and its effects in antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, A; Dhanapandian, S; Manoharan, C; Sivakumar, G

    2015-03-05

    Zinc doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2: Zn) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique with the substrate temperature 450°C. The structural, optical, photoluminescence (PL) properties and morphological studies were investigated for the films deposited with various doping concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8at.%) of zinc. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) had shown the presence of anatase peak with a strong orientation along (101) plane at 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed the uniform distribution of grains with porous nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations indicated the tetragonal shape at 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 with the particle size and decrease in surface roughness. The emission at 398nm was observed at the 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 thin film. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility was increased with doping. The antibacterial activity was highly yielded for the Zn-doped TiO2 thin films.

  6. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products.

  7. Organosulphur compounds in coals as determined by reaction with Raney nickel and microscale pyrolysis techniques. Quarterly report, 1 July 1995--31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalker, L.; Philp, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    As well as studying coal samples from Oklahoma and Missouri States, we have now completed the preliminary part of a study of a well known high organosulphur containing coal, Illinois No. 6. As a number of other research groups have used Illinois No. 6 for study, we thought it wise to also analyse this coal for comparison of our method with existing data reported in the literature. To date, analyses of the aliphatic fractions of the free maltene components and the aliphatic hydrocarbons isolated following desulphurization of the free maltene polar fraction, asphaltenes and pre-extracted coal matrix have been performed in duplicate. So far, most of these samples have been analysed by GC and subsequently quantified using n-C{sub 24}D{sub 50}. As Figures 1 and 2 show, the duplicates for the desulphurized products (e.g. Figure 2a and 2b of desulphurized asphaltenes) while showing broad similarities, do not appear to be identical. This is emphasized by differences in the yields of n-alkanes generated, quantified in Table 1. Abundance of corresponding n-alkanes are often quite variable for duplicate analyses, which have been normalized to the quantity of original starting material. While inhomogeneity of sampling can easily explain the variation in abundance of products generated for the asphaltenes and coal matrix, the same cannot be said for the free polar compounds, which dissolve easily in the methanol/tetrahydrofuran solvent system used in the desulphurization process. It would therefore appear that desulphurization experiments should be performed at the very least, in duplicate to gain a clear impression of the distribution and abundance of aliphatic products cleaved from organosulphur compounds. The GC analysis also appears to show that there are different organosulphur compound precursors trapped in the different fractions of the coals.

  8. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  9. Structural, photoconductive, thermoelectric and activation energy measurements of $V$-doped transparent conductive $SnO_{2}$ films fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R NASIRAEI; M R FADAVIESLAM; H AZIMI-JUYBARI

    2016-08-01

    This report investigated the structural, optical and electrical properties of V-doped $SnO_{2}$ thin films deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. The $SnO_{2}$:$V$ films, with different $V$-content, were deposited on glasssubstrates at a substrate temperature of $550\\deg C$ using an aqueous ethanol solution consisting of tin and vanadium chloride. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the $SnO_{2}$:$V$ films were polycrystalline only with tin oxide phasesand the preferred orientations are along (1 1 0), (1 0 1), (2 1 1) and (3 0 1) planes. Using Scherrer formula, the grain sizes were estimated to be within the range of 25--36 nm. The variation in sheet resistance and optical direct band gap are functions of vanadium doping concentration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the surface morphology to be very smooth, yet grainy in nature. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency of about $\\approx 69--90%$ in the visible region, decreasing with increase in $V$-doping. The direct band gap for undoped $SnO_{2}$ films was found to be 3.53 eV, while for higher V-doped films it shifted toward lower energies in the range of 3.27--3.53 eV and then increased again to 3.5 eV. The Hall effect and Seebeck studies revealed that the films exhibit n-type conductivity. The thermal activation energy, Seebeck coefficient and maximum of photosensitivity in the films were found to be in the range of 0.02--0.82 eV (in thelow-temperature range), $0.15--0.18 {\\rm mV K^{−1}}$ (at $T = 350 K$) and 0.96--2.84, respectively.

  10. Investigations on MgO-dielectric GaN/AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs by using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Wen-Ching; Wei, Sung-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Min

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates GaN/Al0.24Ga0.76N/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) grown on a Si substrate with MgO gate dielectric by using the non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) technique. The oxide layer thickness is tuned to be 30 nm with the dielectric constant of 8.8. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), C-V, low-frequency noise spectra, and pulsed I-V measurements are performed to characterize the interface and oxide quality for the MOS-gate structure. Improved device performances have been successfully achieved for the present MOS-HEMT (Schottky-gate HEMT) design, consisting of a maximum drain-source current density (I DS, max) of 681 (500) mA/mm at V GS = 4 (2) V, I DS at V GS = 0 V (I DSS0) of 329 (289) mA/mm, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 2.2 (1.6) V, two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BV GD) of -123 (-104) V, turn-on voltage (V on) of 1.7 (0.8) V, three-terminal off-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BV DS) of 119 (96) V, and on/off current ratio (I on/I off) of 2.5 × 108 (1.2 × 103) at 300 K. Improved high-frequency and power performances are also achieved in the present MOS-HEMT design.

  11. Study of acoustic fingerprinting of nitromethane and some triazole derivatives using UV 266 nm pulsed photoacoustic pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Yehya, F.; Kumar, A. Sudheer

    2015-08-01

    We report a comparative study of acoustic fingerprints of nitromethane, nitrobenzene and some nitro rich triazole derivatives using pulsed photoacoustic technique. UV 266 nm wavelength i.e. Fourth harmonic of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser having pulse duration 7 ns and 10 Hz repetition rate is employed to record the time resolved PA spectrum. The PA fingerprint is produced due to absorption of incident UV light by molecule itself and photo dissociation of nitromethane and nitrobenzene at room temperature while in case of triazole it is attributed to the combination of thermal and photo-dissociation process. The entire dissociation process follows the root of cleavage of C-NO2 bond to produce free NO, NO2 and other by product gases due to π∗ ← n excitation. In addition, we have studied the thermal stability criteria of nitro rich triazoles based on the quality factor of acoustic resonance frequencies of the PA cavity. We have also studied the effect of data acquisition time to ascertain the decay behavior of HEMs samples.

  12. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January 1995--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-05-05

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 to March 31, 1995.

  13. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Technical progress for this quarter are discussed for subsurface and engineering studies.

  14. Mechanism Study of Rice Straw Pyrolysis by Fourier Transform Infrared Technique%基于FTIR分析的稻草热解机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付鹏; 胡松; 向军; 孙路石; 杨涛; 张安超; 张军营

    2009-01-01

    The pyrolysis mechanism of rice straw (RS) was investigated using a tube reactor with Fourier trans-form infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thcrmogravimetric analyzer. The results show that the maximum pyrolysis rate increases with increasing heating rate and the corresponding temperature also increases. The thrce-pseudocomponent model could describe the pyrolysis behavior of rice straw accurately. The main pyrolysis gas products are H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, HCHO (formaldehyde), HCOOH (formic acid), CH3OH (mcthanol), C6H5OH (phenol), etc. The releasing of H2O, CO2, CO and CH4 mainly focuses at 220-400℃. The H2O formation process is separated into two stages corresponding to the evaporation of free water and the formation of primary volatiles. The release of CO2 first increases with increasing temperature and gets the maximum at 309℃. The releasing behavior of CO is similar to H2O and CO2 between 200 and 400℃. The production of CH4 happens, compared to CO2 and CO, at higher temperatures of 275 400℃ with he maximum at 309℃. When the temperature exceeds 200℃, hy-droxyl and aliphatic C-H groups decrease significantly, while C=O, olcfinic C=C bonds and ether structures in-crease first in the chars and then the aromatic structure develops with rising temperature. Above 500℃, the material becomes increasingly more aromatic and the ether groups decreases with an increase of temperature. The aromati-zation process starts at≈:350oC and continues to higher temperatures.

  15. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  16. Computational Analysis for Morphological Evolution in Pyrolysis for Micro/Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeongseok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is recently proposed as an efficient fabrication technique of micro/nanoscale carbon structures. In order to understand the morphological evolution in pyrolysis and design the final shape of carbon structure, this study proposes a comprehensive model that incorporates the essential mechanisms of pyrolysis based on the phase field framework. Computational analysis with the developed model provides information about the effect of interface energy and kinetic rate on the morphological evolution in pyrolysis.

  17. Development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger components. Tenth quarterly report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Yuhas, D.; Caines, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    The effectiveness of several conventional and unconventional NDE techniques for specific high-temperature ceramic components was determined. Techniques under study at ANL include dye-enhanced radiography, acoustic microscopy, conventional ultrasonic testing, acoustic-emission detection, acoustic impact testing, holography, interferometry, infrared scanning, internal friction measurements, and overload proof testing. The current effort involves SiC heat-exchanger tubes; previous ceramic NDE efforts at ANL have involved silicon-nitride gas-turbine rotors. Recent results on inspection of SiC heat-exchanger tubing by means of ultrasonic acoustic microscopy techniques and efforts initiated and planned for NDE of ceramic joints are discussed.

  18. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  19. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...

  20. Development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger components. Twelfth quarterly report, July-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Detection of electric-discharge machined notches in a silicon carbide tube by an ultrasonic bore-side probe under microcomputer control has been demonstrated. Use of the reflection mode has been shown to enhance the sensitivity of flaw detection with an acoustic microscope. In this configuration, the transducer and laser-scanned coverslip are both on the tube outer surface, eliminating the need to fill the tube with water. A conceptual design is presented for inspecting tubes up to seven feet long in both through-transmission and reflection-mode configurations. A comparison of NDE techniques for ceramic butt joints showed holographic interferometry to be generally better than dye-penetrant, radiographic, or ultrasonic techniques for characterizing a crack-like inner-wall defect. Pitch-catch and pulse-echo ultrasonic techniques also indicated the presence of an anomaly in the region identified as flawed via holography, while radiographic and penetrant-testing results were ambiguous.

  1. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  2. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  3. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  4. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  5. Behavior of chlorine during coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Cao, H.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of chlorine in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by combined thermo-gravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-ion chromatography (TG-FTIR-IC) techniques. It was found that more than 90% of chlorine in Illinois coals (IBC-103, 105, 106, and 109) was liberated as HCl gas during pyrolysis from 300 to 600??C, with the rate reaching a maximum at 440 ??C. Similarity of the HCl and NH3 release profiles during pyrolysis of IBC-109 supports the hypothesis that the chlorine in coal may be associated with nitrogen and the chlorine is probably bonded to the basic nitrogen sites on the inner walls of coal micropores. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films grown by the spray-pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandel, Tarun, E-mail: tarunchandel777@yahoo.com; Singh, Joginder; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Spray pyrolysis was used to deposit Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films on soda lime glass substrates at 300 °C. Aqueous solutions of copper chloride, zinc chloride, stannous chloride and thiourea were mixed together to form the spray liquid. The sprayed films were annealed under vacuum at 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. Structural and optical characterization was performed on the CZTS films using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. XRD results indicate that the films are single phase nanocrystalline CZTS. Optical studies show that the optical gap values are 1.44 eV for the as-grown film and 1.46 eV, 1.48 eV and 1.49 eV for the films annealed at 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C, respectively.

  7. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

  8. Influence of solvent on the morphology and microstructure of YSZ films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique; Influencia do solvente na morfologia e microestrutura de filmes de YSZ obtidos pela tecnica spray pirolise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcade, T.; Oliveira, G.B.; Mueller, I.L.; Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: tiagocoti@gmail.co, E-mail: celia.malfatti@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Minas. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao; Tarrago, D.P.; Sousa, V.C.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Minas; Souza, M.M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to investigate the influence of solvent used for the deposition of thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on porous substrate. The films were obtained directly on the porous LSM substrate by spray pyrolysis technique, which consists of spraying a precursor solution containing salts of zirconium (Zr (C{sub 6}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}) 4) and yttrium (YCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), dissolved in specific solvents, on the heated substrate. The use of solvents with different boiling points and viscosity aims the optimization of experimental operating parameters to obtain homogeneous and dense films suitable for application as electrolyte in fuel cells, solid oxide (SOFC). The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  9. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Progress reports are presented by Task 3 conduct full-scale experimental field test and Task 4 data processing studies. For Task 3, interwell seismic experiments were conducted in the month of September at the University of Oklahoma Gypsy test site which is located in Pawnee County, Oklahoma. During the field test a full suite of interwell seismic data were acquired and will be used to extract rock porosity and permeability. In particular, interwell seismic experiments were conducted using two borehole hydrophone arrays (streamers) consisting of twelve detector channels (i.e., simultaneous source-to-detector measurements were made in two boreholes pairs having different separation distances) for source-independent seismic attenuation and dispersion studies.

  10. Development and application of analytical techniques to chemistry of donor solvent liquefaction. Quarterly progress report, April 1980-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, H. C.; Taylor, L. T.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we focus on our continuing efforts to develop new fluorine reagents useful for characterizing heteroatom (e.g., O, N and S) containing organic compounds present in coal and/or other fuel fractions. Although the utility of trifluoroacetyl chloride and trifluorodiazoethane as fluorine tagging reagents for studies of this type have been previously discussed, we describe further techniques utilizing these reagents which are under present study. It should be mentioned that the advantage of the fluorine tagging approach is the high sensitivity of the /sup 19/F nuclide to NMR detection and the high sensitivity of the /sup 19/F chemical shift parameter to subtle changes in molecular structure. Recently, workers at Exxon have reported the use of a silicon tagging reagent utilizing /sup 29/Si NMR to characterize various heteroatom containing organic moieties present in fuel samples. Silicon containing reagents have some of the same advantages as fluorine reagents. Namely the low levels of either fluorine or silicon in most samples of interest avoid obvious spectral background problems associated with hydrogen or carbon tagging reagents. Furthermore, like /sup 19/F, /sup 29/Si chemical shifts would be expected to be sensitive to subtle changes in molecular structure, however /sup 29/Si suffers from low NMR sensitivity.

  11. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different

  12. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different co

  13. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Role of molar concentration in structural, optical and gas sensing performance of anatase phase TiO2 nanofilms: automated nebulizer spray pyrolysis (ANSP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishnan, V.; Elango, P.; Ganesan, V.

    2017-07-01

    TiO2 nanofilms were deposited on a glass substrate at 500 °C using automated nebulizer spray pyrolysis. The anatase polycrystalline structure with increased grain size and variations of surfactant planes ( T c) were influenced by molar concentration on XRD study. AFM study shows the average roughness values were increased with increase in molar concentration. A granular domain like microstructure with crack and void-free particle was examined by FESEM. The maximum transmittance 95.5% (529.6 nm) for x = 0.05 M/L, further increment of molar concentration showed the decremented transmittance with red shift absorption edge and the calculated band gap values ( E g = 3.53-3.20 eV) also noted. The gas sensing performances of films were studied with respect to various gas sensing parameters and the ammonia (NH3) gas showed better sensing response ( S max = 89%) at 150 °C for 300 ppm gas concentration against other gases (C2H6O, CH4O, C3H8O and C3H6O).

  15. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...

  16. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  17. Subsurface investigation on Quarter 27 of May 15th city, Cairo, Egypt using electrical resistivity tomography and shallow seismic refraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Awad Sultan Araffa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical tools such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and shallow seismic (both P-wave seismic refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW are interesting techniques for delineating the subsurface configurations as stratigraphy, structural elements, caves and water saturated zones. The ERT technique is used to delineate the contamination, to detect the buried objects, and to quantify some aquifer properties. Eight 2-D (two dimensional electrical resistivity sections were measured using two different configurations (dipole–dipole and Wenner. The spread length is of 96 m and the electrodes spacing are 2, 4 and 6 m, respectively to reach a depth ranging from 13 to 17 m. The results indicate that, the subsurface section is divided into main three geo-electrical units, the first is fractured marl and limestone which exhibits high resistivity values ranging from 40 to 300 ohm m. The second unit is corresponding to marl of moderate resistivity values and the third unit, which is the deeper unit, exhibits very low resistivity values corresponding to clayey marl. The fourth layer is marly clay with water. The presence of clay causes the most geotechnical problems. Fourteen shallow seismic sections (both for P-wave and MASW were carried out using spread of 94 m and geophone spacing of 2 m for each P-wave section. The results demonstrate that the deduced subsurface section consists of four layers, the first layer exhibits very low P-wave velocity ranging from 280 to 420 m/s, the second layer reveals P-wave velocity ranging from 400 to 1200 m/s, the third layer has P-wave velocity ranging from 970 to 2000 m/s and the fourth layer exhibits high velocity ranging from 1900 to 3600 m/s. The ERT and shallow seismic results, reflect the presence of two parallel faults passing through Quarter 27 and trending NW-SE.

  18. Studies on characteristics of producer gas from sewage sludge pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Haiying; Zhang Guijie [Coll. of Metallurgy and Energy, Heibei Polytechnic Univ., Tangshan (China); Zhang Shuting; Chen Guanyi [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin Univ., Nankai District, TJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The pyrolysis experiments of sewage sludge at low and middle temperature range from 250 C to 700de;C were carried out in a {phi} 200mm laboratory fixed bed external-heat reactor. The influence of final pyrolysis temperature on product yield of gases was studied. It was found that the gases yield increased with increasing the final pyrolysis temperature. But the productive rate increased above 450 C. The results indicated the secondary pyrolysis of intermediate product occurred about 450 C. According to the analysis of NCG, the yield of CO{sub 2} was maximum at lower pyrolysis temperature but the yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} were higher at elevated pyrolysis temperature and the maximum caloric value of gaseous emissions were 16712 kJ/m{sup 3}. According the TG-DTA curves the decomposition of sewage sludge had three stages. The first stage was deprivation of interstitial moisture (100 C-110 C), the second stage was the depolymerization reactions of lipid and the generation of large molecular intermediate fragments (110 C-325 C), the last stage was cracking of the large molecular and the decomposition of protein and saccharide (325 C-600 C). All the results can offer reliable base data for the application of pyrolysis technique of sewage sludge. (orig.)

  19. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  20. Thermal and hydraulic effects of coke deposit in hydrocarbon pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Fuel pyrolysis can be of benefit for regenerative cooling techniques due to its endothermic effect in ensuring the thermal resistance of hypersonic vehicles and structures. Among pyrolysis species production, there is that of coke formation. A numerical code is used in this paper to investigate the related phenomena, based on two experiments using Titanium (Ti) and Stainless Steel (SS) reactors, which present different pyrolysis rates under similar operating conditions...

  1. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  2. Thickness dependent optical properties of PEMA and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique on ITO substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Anjna, E-mail: anjna56@gmail.com; Thakur, Priya; Yadav, Kamlesh, E-mail: kamlesh.yadav001@gmail.com [Centre for Physical Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, poly (ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films for 2, 3, 4 and 5 minutes have been deposited by spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated substrate. The effect of thickness of the film on the morphological and optical properties of PEMA and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films are studied. The morphological and optical properties of pure PEMA and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films are compared. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows that as the thickness of film increases, uniformity of films increases. It is found from UV-Visible spectra that the energy band gap decreases with increasing the deposition time and refractive index increases with increasing the thickness of the film. The band gap of the nanocomposites is found less than the pure polymer film and opposite trend is observed for refractive index. The optical absorption of PEMA/ZnO nanocomposite films is higher than pure PEMA film. The thickness of the nanocomposite film plays a significant role in the tunability of the optical properties.

  3. Reliability and accuracy of real-time visualization techniques for measuring school cafeteria tray waste: validating the quarter-waste method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S; Wansink, Brian; Just, David R

    2014-03-01

    Measuring food waste is essential to determine the impact of school interventions on what children eat. There are multiple methods used for measuring food waste, yet it is unclear which method is most appropriate in large-scale interventions with restricted resources. This study examines which of three visual tray waste measurement methods is most reliable, accurate, and cost-effective compared with the gold standard of individually weighing leftovers. School cafeteria researchers used the following three visual methods to capture tray waste in addition to actual food waste weights for 197 lunch trays: the quarter-waste method, the half-waste method, and the photograph method. Inter-rater and inter-method reliability were highest for on-site visual methods (0.90 for the quarter-waste method and 0.83 for the half-waste method) and lowest for the photograph method (0.48). This low reliability is partially due to the inability of photographs to determine whether packaged items (such as milk or yogurt) are empty or full. In sum, the quarter-waste method was the most appropriate for calculating accurate amounts of tray waste, and the photograph method might be appropriate if researchers only wish to detect significant differences in waste or consumption of selected, unpackaged food.

  4. Detecting pyrolysis products from bacteria on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Schubert, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Kminek, Gerhard; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-02-01

    A pyrolysis/sublimation technique was developed to isolate volatile amine compounds from a Mars soil analogue inoculated with ˜10 billion Escherichia coli cells. In this technique, the inoculated soil is heated to 500°C for several seconds at Martian ambient pressure and the sublimate, collected by a cold finger, then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Methylamine and ethylamine, produced from glycine and alanine decarboxylation, were the most abundant amine compounds detected after pyrolysis of the cells. A heating cycle similar to that utilized in our experiment was also used to release organic compounds from the Martian soil in the 1976 Viking gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) pyrolysis experiment. The Viking GC/MS did not detect any organic compounds of Martian origin above a level of a few parts per billion in the Martian surface soil. Although the Viking GC/MS instruments were not specifically designed to search for the presence of living cells on Mars, our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected.

  5. Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Yolanda; Arenillas, Ana; Menendez, J. Angel

    2011-01-01

    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materials

  6. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  7. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  8. Recent progress on biomass co-pyrolysis conversion into high-quality bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H; Lim, J K; Hameed, B H

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass with abundantly available materials could be an economical method for production of bio-fuels. However, elimination of oxygenated compounds poses a considerable challenge. Catalytic co-pyrolysis is another potential technique for upgrading bio-oils for application as liquid fuels in standard engines. This technique promotes the production of high-quality bio-oil through acid catalyzed reduction of oxygenated compounds and mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This work aims to review and summarize research progress on co-pyrolysis and catalytic co-pyrolysis, as well as their benefits on enhancement of bio-oils derived from biomass. This review focuses on the potential of plastic wastes and coal materials as co-feed in co-pyrolysis to produce valuable liquid fuel. This paper also proposes future directions for using this technique to obtain high yields of bio-oils.

  9. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization.

  10. Kinetics Analysis of Coconut Shell Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xue-mei; JIANG; Jian-chun; SUN; Kang; XU; Fan; XU; Yu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study kinetics analysis of coconut shell pyrolysis. [Method] Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to study the pyrolysis characteristic of coconut shell at different pyrolysis rates (5, 10, 20 K/min). [Result] The pyrolysis process included 3 stages, water loss, pyrolysis, and thermal condensation. The pyrolysis process can be described through first-order reaction model. With the increasing pyrolysis rate, activation energy in the first stage rose, but activation energy in the second stage reduced. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for the promotion and application of biomass energy.

  11. Coal flash pyrolysis. 5. Pyrolysis in an atmosphere of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, W.H.; Bonifaz, C.

    1984-12-01

    Flash pyrolysis of coal at temperatures above 700/sup 0/C and in the presence of methane produces substantially more ethylene and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons than are produced by pyrolysis of coal in the presence of nitrogen alone. Evidence is presented to show that the increase is due to pyrolysis of the methane quite independently of the coal, except with the possible catalysis by the coal, coke or mineral matter in the coal ash. This is contrary to recent reports in the literature.

  12. Pyrolysis Oil Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dietrich

    2017-03-14

    In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis have a great potential to be used as renewable fuel and/or a source for chemical feedstocks. Existing technical reactor designs are presented together with actual examples. Bio-oil characterization and various options for bio-oil upgrading are discussed based on the potential end-use. Existing and potential utilization alternatives for bio-oils are presented with respect to their use for heat and power generation as well as chemical and material use.

  13. Structural, morphological, optical and opto-thermal properties of Ni-doped ZnO thin films using spray pyrolysis chemical technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rajeh; A Barhoumi; A Mhamdi; G Leroy; B Duponchel; M Amlouk; S Guermazi

    2016-02-01

    Nickel-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO : Ni) at different percentages were deposited on glass substrates using a chemical spray technique. The effect of Ni concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the ZnO : Ni thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films consist of single phase ZnO and was well crystallized in würtzite phase with the crystallites preferentially oriented towards the (002) direction parallel to the c-axis. The optical transmittance measurement was found to be higher than 90%, the optical band gap values of ZnO thin films decreased after doping from 3.29 to 3.21 eV. A noticeable change in optical constants was observed between undoped and Ni-doped ZnO. Room-temperature PL is observed for ZnO, and Ni-doped ZnO thin films.

  14. Environmental control technology for biomass flash pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Seward, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies will raise questions concerning the environmental impacts of these systems and the associated costs for appropriate control technologies. This study concentrates on characterizing the effluent emissions and control technologies for a dual fluid-bed pyrolysis unit run by Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. The ASU system produces a raw product gas that is passed through a catalytic liquefaction system to produce a fuel comparable to No. 2 fuel oil. Argonne National Laboratory is conducting a program that will survey several biomass systems to standardize the sampling techniques, prioritize standard analyses and develop a data base so that environmental issues later may be addressed before they limit or impede the commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies. Emissions will be related to both the current and anticipated emissions standards to generate material balances and set design parameters for effluent treatment systems. This will permit an estimate to be made of the capital and operating costs associated with these technologies.

  15. Comparative studies on AlGaN/GaN/Si MOS-HFETs with Al2O3/TiO2 stacked dielectrics by using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Chiang, Bo-Jung; Liu, Han-Yin; Lee, Hsin-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Al0.26Ga0.74N/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) grown on a Si substrate with Al2O3/TiO2 stacked gate dielectrics formed by using non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) technique are investigated. High permittivity (k) values of Al2O3 and TiO2 were characterized to be 9 and 46.1, respectively, with an equal layer thickness of 10 nm. The present MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) design has demonstrated enhanced device characteristics at 300 K, including maximum drain-source current density (I DS,max) of 725 (530) mA/mm, I DS at V GS = 0 V (I DSS0) of 471 (383) mA/mm, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 2.5 (1.6) V, two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BV GD) of -182 (-121) V, turn-on voltage (V on) of 4.9 (3.2) V, three-terminal off-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BV DS) of 174 (103) V, on/off current ratio (I on/I off) of 5.6 × 107 (3.7 × 103), unity-gain cut-off frequency (f T ) of 10.3 (6.8) GHz, maximum oscillation frequency (f max) of 14.8 (8.6) GHz, and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.) of 38.5% (31.7%) at 2.4 GHz. High temperature device characteristics up to 450 K are also discussed.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB plus AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu with fly ash LOI values of approximately 8 percent. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at full-load, NO{sub x} emissions and fly ash LOI are near 0.40 lb/MBtu and 8 percent, respectively. However, it is believed that a substantial portion of the incremental change in NO{sub x} emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations is the result of additional burner tuning and other operational adjustments and is not the result of the AOFA system. During this quarter, LNB+AOFA testing was concluded. Testing performed during this quarter included long-term and verification testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration.

  17. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  18. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  19. Spray pyrolysis for high T{sub c} superconductors films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odier, P [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Supardi, Z [Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, 60231 (Indonesia); De-Barros, D [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Vergnieres, L [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ramirez-Castellanos, J [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Gonzales-Calbet, J M [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vallet-Regi, M [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Bioinorganica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Villard, C [CRTBT, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peroz, Ch [CRTBT, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Weiss, F [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique (LMGP), INPG, 38406 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2004-11-01

    Spray pyrolysis at high temperature is reviewed and applied to the formation of epitaxial thick layers of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO). The necessary conditions to enhance the texture quality and the critical current density are discussed. High critical current densities, over 1.0 MA cm{sup -2} (at 77 K, self-field), are reported, making this technique very promising for low cost applications. This emphasizes the need for more comprehensive studies regarding the chemical phenomena involved in film deposition by spray pyrolysis at high temperature, especially those concerning local equilibrium and reactions occurring in the area involved in the deposition.

  20. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  1. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  2. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  3. Study on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Polycarbosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenyi; ZHOU Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of polycarbosilane (PCS) and chemical reaction mechanism during the pyrolysis process were studied by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) combined with X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods. The experimental results indicate that the main gas phase products generated during pyrolysis of PCS in nitrogen atmosphere include H2, -CH3 and CH4. The heating rate has a large effect on the pyrolysis process of PCS, the lower heating rate releases more small molecule gases and gets bigger rate of pyrolysis mass loss, demonstrating that the lower heating rate is beneifcial to fully pyrolysis of PCS and obtain ceramics products with better microstructure.

  4. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Thermal Kinetics of Degradable Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Developing degradable films is an important means for resolving the problem of film pollution; however, in recent years,there have been only few studies related to the thermal analysis of degradable plastic films. This research detailed the composition and pyrolysis of one kind of ordinary and three kinds of degradable plastic films using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique. The results showed that degradable films and ordinary film had similar DTA curves, which reflected their similar compositions; however, small differences were measured, which were due to the added constituents of the degradable films. The pyrolysis reaction orders of each film were about 0.93. The pyrolysis activation energies and pre-exponential factors followed the order of ordinary film > photodegradable film > photodegradable calcium carbonate film > biodegradable film. The results of this research laid the foundation for new theories for harnessing soil pollution caused by plastic films.

  5. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  6. Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, A.R.F.; Drummond, I.W. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste product. The role of the important pyrolysis parameters, peak temperature and heating rate, in defining the ultimate tar yield is investigated, with the value for bagasse being 54.6% at 500 C and 1,000 C/s. The pyrolysis yields, under similar conditions, of another biomass material, silver birch, are also reported and compared to those of bagasse.

  7. Technique for isolating isoprene from pyrolysis benzine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, C.; Laba, M.; Mihalcescu, M.; Moldovan, E.; Pandele, G.

    1979-10-30

    A patent for isolating isoprene (I) from benzine pyrolyzed by distillation; to inhibit polymerization of I, distillation is carried out with an inhibitor. The latter is N-phenyl-N'-cyclohexyl- or N,N'-di-secondary-butyl-p-phenylene diamine and phenaol compounds that contain 55% 2.4 dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol and 15% 4-methyl-2,6di-tert-butylphenol and 30% residual alkylphenols with inhibiting properties. Phenol compound may be substituted with quinoline like 6-etoxy-2.2, 4-trimethyl-1.2-dihydroquinoline. Ration of both components in mixture 1:1. Inhibitor is added to mixture in the form of a solution in pyrolyzed benzine or in isoprene; solution has a concentration of 150-400 p/per mil. Example: pyrolyzed benzine composition,%: isoprene 5.12, piperylene 10.89, cyclopentadiene 3.6, hydrocarbons C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ 2, benzol 29, hydrocarb. C/sub 9/ 0.08, toluene 3.87, C/sub 10/+ xylol 3.12, dicyclopentadiene 18.15, other elements 3.29. A mixture of N,N'-di-secondary-butyl-p-phenylene-amine is added to the benzine, and the above shown phenols in the amt. of 50 p/per mill. Induction period is derived (using ASTMD-525-55 method), 70 min., while addition of each component separately in the same amount gives a corresponding induction period of 37 and 22 min.

  8. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study on pyrolysis of representative medical waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-feng; Wang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    To obtain detailed information on the pyrolysis characteristics, a thermogravimetric study on the pyrolysis of 14 typical medical waste compositions was carried out in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment using dynamic techniques in a stream of N2. An index representing pyrolysis reactivity of waste was presented. Kinetic parameters were obtained by Coats-Redfern method and used to model the TG curve. The results showed that: (a) Plastic, protein, cellulosic material, synthetic fibre, and rubber entered pyrolysis process in succession. (b) There was one decomposition stage in the pyrolysis of one-off medical glove, operating glove, cellulosic waste, absorbable catgut suture and adhesive plaster, while other components had two obvious weight loss stages. (c) The obtained apparent activation energy for second stage pyrolysis was comparably higher than that for first stage. (d) Each stage was controlled by only one kinetic mechanism, in which kinetic parameters were constant. (e) The degradation kinetics of medical waste may be affected by special physical and chemical treatment in the product manufacturing process. (f) Among 13 waste samples, the pyrolysis index of cellulosic matter was the highest, which indicated cellulosic matter had strong pyrolysis reactivity. (g) With increasing heating rate, TG curve and DTG peak shifted to high temperatures and main reaction interval of the sample became longer.

  9. Finding the chemistry in biomass pyrolysis: Millisecond chemical kinetics and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Christoph

    Biomass pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical method for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable sources. Development of a fundamental understanding of biomass pyrolysis chemistry is difficult due to the multi-scale and multi-phase nature of the process; biomass length scales span 11 orders of magnitude and pyrolysis phenomena include solid, liquid, and gas phase chemistry in addition to heat and mass transfer. These complexities have a significant effect on chemical product distributions and lead to variability between reactor technologies. A major challenge in the study of biomass pyrolysis is the development of kinetic models capable of describing hundreds of millisecond-scale reactions of biomass into lower molecular weight products. In this work, a novel technique for studying biomass pyrolysis provides the first- ever experimental determination of kinetics and rates of formation of the primary products from cellulose pyrolysis, providing insight into the millisecond-scale chemical reaction mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of heat and mass transport limitations for cellulose pyrolysis chemistry and are used to identify the length scales at which transport limitations become relevant during pyrolysis. Through this technique, a transition is identified, known as the reactive melting point, between low and high temperature depolymerization. The transition between two mechanisms of cellulose decompositions unifies the mechanisms that govern low temperature char formation, intermediate pyrolysis conditions, and high temperature gas formation. The conditions under which biomass undergoes pyrolysis, including modes of heat transfer, have been shown to significantly affect the distribution of biorenewable chemical and fuel products. High-speed photography is used to observe the liftoff of initially crystalline cellulose particles when impinged on a heated surface, known as the Leidenfrost effect for room-temperature liquids. Order

  10. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  11. Pyrolysis of Cigarette Ingredients Labelled with Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stotesbury S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know how tobacco additives behave when cigarettes are smoked, whether they transfer intact to the smoke or whether there is any decomposition during smoking. Pyrolysis-GC-MS is a technique that can be focussed upon the effects of combustion from a single material free from interference from the complex mixture of different components present in the smoke. However, because pyrolysis is a model technique, the results need to be validated by comparison with cigarette smoke chemistry. In a previous paper we presented such a method for modelling the smoke chemistry from a burning cigarette using pyrolysis-GC-MS. The transfer and the extent of degradation of anisole, p-anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, isoamylisovalerate, methyl trans-cinnamate and vanillin within a burning cigarette were estimated using this pyrolysis method. When these data were compared with results from smoke studies from 14C-analogues of the materials, the high levels of transfer predicted by pyrolysis were found to be generally consistent with the smoke chemistry data. However, there were still two outstanding issues. Firstly, there was some ambiguity in the labelled study about whether vanillin actually transferred without degradation or not. Furthermore, the results from the 14C-labelled study showed a greater extent of degradation for p-anisaldehyde than that indicated from the pyrolysis experiments. The purpose of the current study was to present some new information obtained to address these questions by better understanding the effect upon the smoke chemistry from adding vanillin and p-anisaldehyde, and the relationship between the smoke chemistry and the pyrolysis results. Components were identified in the smoke from cigarettes loaded with p-anisaldehyde and vanillin labelled with 18O and 13C. The extent of degradation from each additive was estimated by identifying labelled degradation products in the smoke. Because there was a clear distinction between the

  12. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy

  13. Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Martynov, V.Y.; Chilachava, K.B.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900 {degree}C and contact time of 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbon, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component composition of the liquid products and pyrolysis gas were determined. The main groups of compounds in liquid products were analysed.

  14. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy con

  15. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-25

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  16. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Biomass Pyrolysis has been an increasing topic of research, in particular as a replacement for crude oil. This process utilizes moderate temperatures to thermally deconstruct the biomass which is then condensed into a mixture of liquid oxygenates to be used as fuel precursors. Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60 percent of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during the condensation and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors, many challenges must be overcome. Sampling must occur within a narrow range of temperatures to reduce product composition changes from overheating or partial condensation or plugging of lines from condensed products. Residence times must be kept at a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Pyrolysis vapors also form aerosols that are carried far downstream and can pass through filters resulting in build-up in downstream locations. The co-produced bio-char and ash from the pyrolysis process can lead to plugging of the sample lines, and must be filtered out at temperature, even with the use of cyclonic separators. A practical approach for considerations and sampling system design, as well as lessons learned are integrated into the hot analytical sampling system of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) to provide industrially relevant demonstrations of thermochemical transformations of biomass feedstocks at the pilot scale.

  17. Carbon Coating Of Copper By Arc-Discharge Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Jopek, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Adherent, abrasion-resistant coat deposited with existing equipment. Carbon formed and deposited as coating on copper substrate by pyrolysis of hydrocarbon oil in electrical-arc discharges. Technique for producing carbon deposits on copper accomplished with electrical-discharge-machining equipment used for cutting metals. Applications for new coating technique include the following: solar-energy-collecting devices, coating of metals other than copper with carbon, and carburization of metal surfaces.

  18. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  19. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, J. H.; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); David, D. E. [Integrated Instrument Development Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Daily, J. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  20. Method for Hot Real-Time Analysis of Pyrolysis Vapors at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60% of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during quenching and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors at the pilot scale, many challenges must be overcome.

  1. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  2. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  3. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  4. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  5. Biofuel from jute stick by pyrolysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Parveen, M.; Islam, M. R.; Haniu, H.; Takai, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the conversion of jute stick into biofuels and chemicals by externally heated fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor have been taken into consideration. The solid jute stick was characterized through proximate and ultimate analysis, gross calorific values and thermo-gravimetric analysis to investigate their suitability as feedstock for this consideration. The solid biomass particles were fed into the reactor by gravity feed type reactor feeder. The products were oil, char and gases. The liquid and char products were collected separately while the gas was flared into the atmosphere. The process conditions were varied by fixed-bed temperature; feed stock particle size, N2 gas flow rate and running time. All parameters were found to influence the product yields significantly. The maximum liquid yields were 50 wt% of solid jute stick at reactor temperature 425°C for N2 gas flow rate 6 l/min, feed particle size 1180-1700 µm and running time 30 min. Liquid products obtained at these conditions were characterized by physical properties, chemical analysis and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtained liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from the selected biomass if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly.

  6. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

  7. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste.

  8. Soot morphology in laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ion C.; Pasuk, I.; Morjan, Ion G.; Voicu, Ion N.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Fleaca, Claudiu T.; Ciupina, Victor; Dumitrache, Florian V.; Soare, Iuliana; Ploscaru, Mihaela I.; Daniels, H.; Westwood, A.; Rand, B.

    2004-10-01

    Soots obtained by laser pyrolysis of different gaseous/vapor hydrocarbons were investigated. The morphology variation of carbon soot versus process parameters and nature of reactants was analyzed and discussed. The role of oxygen is essential in obtaining soot particles having considerable curved-layer content.

  9. [Application of analytical pyrolysis in air pollution control for green sand casting industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-jue; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Cheng-wen

    2010-02-01

    Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the raw materials of green sand would experience during metal casting process. The volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. The major compositions of the emissions included benzene, toluene and phenol. The relative changes of emission levels that were observed in analytical pyrolysis of the various raw materials also showed similar trends with those observed in actual metal casting processes. The emission testing results of both analytic pyrolysis and pre-production foundry have shown that compared to the conventional phenolic urethane binder, the new non-naphthalene phenolic urethane binder diminished more than 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, and the protein-based binder diminished more than 90% of HAP emissions. The similar trends in the two sets of tests offered promise that analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a fast and accurate way to establish the emission inventories, and to evaluate the relative emission levels of various raw materials of casting industry. The results of analytical pyrolysis could provide useful guides for the foundries to select and develop proper clean raw materials for the casting production.

  10. Pyrolysis mechanisms of thiophene and methylthiophene in asphaltenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinli; Parish, Carol A

    2011-04-07

    The pyrolysis mechanisms of thiophene in asphaltenes have been investigated theoretically using density functional and ab initio quantum chemical techniques. All of the possible reaction pathways were explored using B3LYP, MP2, and CBS-QB3 models. A comparison of the calculated heats of reaction with the available experimental values indicates that the CBS-QB3 level of theory is quantitatively reliable for calculating the energetic reaction paths of the title reactions. The pyrolysis process is initiated via four different types of hydrogen migrations. According to the reaction barrier heights, the dominant 1,2-H shift mechanism involves two competitive product channels, namely, C(2)H(2) + CH(2)CS and CS + CH(3)CCH. The minor channels include the formation of CS + CH(2)CCH(2), H(2)S + C(4)H(2), HCS + CH(2)CCH, CS + CH(2)CHCH, H + C(4)H(3)S, and HS + C(4)H(3). The methyl substitution effect was investigated with the pyrolysis of 2-methylthiophene and 3-methylthiophene. The energetics of such systems were very similar to that for unsubstituted thiophene, suggesting that thiophene alkylation may not play a significant role in the pyrolysis of asphaltene compounds.

  11. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, Samuel V.; Coleman, Dennis D.; Liu, Jack Chao-li; Brown, Johnie

    2003-11-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and δ 13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and δ 13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent.

  12. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.

    1997-12-31

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  13. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-05-13

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin will is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil- bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluefell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Data (net pay thickness, porosity, and water saturation) of more than 100 individuals beds in he lower Green River and Wasatch Formations were used to generate geostatistical realization (numerical- representation) of the reservoir properties. The data set was derived from the Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike demonstration wells and 22 other wells in a 20 (52 km{sup 2}) square-mile area. Beds were studied independently of each other. Principles of sequential Gaussian simulations were used to generate geostatistical realizations of the beds.

  14. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  15. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  16. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  18. Effect of combined slow pyrolysis and steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse on hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Prakash; Narayanan, Sheeba [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    The present work aims at improving the generation of H2 from sugarcane bagasse in steam gasification process by incorporating slow pyrolysis technique. As a bench scale study, slow pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse is performed at various pyrolysis temperature (350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 .deg. C) and feed particle size (90pyrolysis of biomass followed by steam gasification of char), first slow pyrolysis is carried out at the effective conditions (pyrolysis temperature and particle size) of char generation (determined from bench scale study) and steam gasification is at varying gasification temperature (600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 .deg. C) and steam to biomass (S/B) ratio (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) to determine the effective conditions of H{sub 2} generation. The effect of temperature and S/B on gas product composition and overall product gas volume was also investigated. At effective conditions (gasification temperature and S/B) of H2 generation, individual slow pyrolysis and steam gasification were also experimented to evaluate the performance of combined process. The effective condition of H{sub 2} generation in combined process was found to be 800 .deg. C (gasification temperature) and 5 (S/B), respectively. The combined process produced 35.90% and 23.60% more gas volume (overall) than slow pyrolysis and steam gasification process, respectively. With respect to H{sub 2} composition, the combined process generated 72.37% more than slow pyrolysis and 17.91% more than steam gasification process.

  19. Dissolved phosphorus speciation of flash carbonization, slow pyrolysis, and fast pyrolysis biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of waste biomass is a promising technology to produce sterile and renewable organic phosphorus fertilizers. Systematic studies are necessary to understand how different pyrolysis platforms influence the chemical speciation of dissolved (bioavailable) phosphorus. This study employed solut...

  20. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained...... at temperatures of 500−550 °C, reactor gas residence time of 0.8 s, and feed rate of 5.6 g/min. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography were used to characterize the Chemical properties of the lignin oils. Acetic acid, levoglucosan, guaiacol, syringols, and p-vinylguaiacol are found...... to be major chemical components in the lignin oil. The maximal yields of 0.62, 0.67, and 0.38 wt % db were obtained for syringol, p-vinylguaiacol, and guaiacol, respectively. The reactor temperature effect was investigated in a range of 450−600 °C and has a considerable effect on the observed chemical...

  1. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--september 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    Bluebell field ill tile Uinta Basin, Utah, is a rich petroleum reserve. The field has produced over 125 million barrels of oil from the lacustrine rocks of the Green River Formation. Standard completion techniques, which consist of perforating up to thousands of feet of section at one time, have resulted in opening thief, water-producing and non-productive zones. Low recoverabilitv is largely due to the lack of understanding of the relationship between heterolithic facies, reservoir fracture systems and clay migration. These areas were investigated by analyzing over 1,500 feet of core from the Bluebell area. Approximately 60% of the core consists of carbonates and 40% consists of clastics (predominantly sandstones). The carbonate rocks in general have good porosity and randomly oriented, interconnected macrofractures, whereas the macrofractures in the sandstones are more vertical and isolated. The sandstones however, do have the best reservoir capacity due to inherent interparticle porosity. Some shales display overpressured hydro-microfractures. Preliminary analysis of clay types indicates swelling illite-smectite mixed layer clays as well as kaolinite in both the clastic and carbonate rocks. These swelling, clay types combine with the high pour point waxy oils to reduce production efficiency and total recovery.

  2. Pyrolysis Model Development for a Multilayer Floor Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. McKinnon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive pyrolysis models that are integral to computational fire codes have improved significantly over the past decade as the demand for improved predictive capabilities has increased. High fidelity pyrolysis models may improve the design of engineered materials for better fire response, the design of the built environment, and may be used in forensic investigations of fire events. A major limitation to widespread use of comprehensive pyrolysis models is the large number of parameters required to fully define a material and the lack of effective methodologies for measurement of these parameters, especially for complex materials. The work presented here details a methodology used to characterize the pyrolysis of a low-pile carpet tile, an engineered composite material that is common in commercial and institutional occupancies. The studied material includes three distinct layers of varying composition and physical structure. The methodology utilized a comprehensive pyrolysis model (ThermaKin to conduct inverse analyses on data collected through several experimental techniques. Each layer of the composite was individually parameterized to identify its contribution to the overall response of the composite. The set of properties measured to define the carpet composite were validated against mass loss rate curves collected at conditions outside the range of calibration conditions to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model. The mean error between the predicted curve and the mean experimental mass loss rate curve was calculated as approximately 20% on average for heat fluxes ranging from 30 to 70 kW·m−2, which is within the mean experimental uncertainty.

  3. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-06-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes.

  4. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes. PMID:28660882

  5. Steam Pyrolysis of Polyimides: Effects of Steam on Raw Material Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Hosaka, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-11-17

    Aromatic polyimides (PIs) have excellent thermal stability, which makes them difficult to recycle, and an effective way to recycle PIs has not yet been established. In this work, steam pyrolysis of the aromatic PI Kapton was performed to investigate the recovery of useful raw materials. Steam pyrolysis significantly enhanced the gasification of Kapton at 900 °C, resulting in 1963.1 mL g(-1) of a H2 and CO rich gas. Simultaneously, highly porous activated carbon with a high BET surface area was recovered. Steam pyrolysis increased the presence of polar functional groups on the carbon surface. Thus, it was concluded that steam pyrolysis shows great promise as a recycling technique for the recovery of useful synthetic gases and activated carbon from PIs without the need for catalysts and organic solvents.

  6. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  7. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  8. Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Rozental, D.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group composition of the liquid products were determined. The total analysis of the major groups of compounds present in the liquid products was performed, and the optimal conditions of pyrolysis, from the viewpoint of preparation of particular compounds, were recommended.

  9. Modeling pyrolysis of charring material in fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A modified model of pyrolysis for charring materials in fire has been proposed in this note. In this model some special factors which show the effect on pyrolysis are considered, i.e. heat loss by convection and radiation caused by surface temperature rise and shrinkage of char surface are considered. Experimental device is designed specially for validating the reliability of the model. Effects of density of materials and heat radiation on pyrolysis of materials have also been investigated.

  10. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Almeida; Maria de Fátima Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolit...

  11. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1999 is enclosed. The data presented in this constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and merged into the database during the first quarter of 1999. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during first quarter 1999 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  12. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  13. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  14. Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Ann-Christine; Iisa, Kristiina; Sandström, Linda; Ben, Haoxi; Pilath, Heidi; Deutch, Steve; Wiinikka, Henrik; Öhrman, Olov G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture of different chemical compounds with a wide range of molecular weights and boiling points. Due to its complexity, an efficient fractionation of the oil may be a more promising approach of producing liquid fuels and chemicals than treating the whole oil. In this work a sampling system based on fractional condensation was attached to a cyclone pyrolysis pilot plant to enable separation of the produced pyrolysis vapors into five oil fractions. The sampling system was composed of cyclonic condensers and coalescing filters arranged in series. The objective was to characterize the oil fractions produced from three different Nordic feedstocks and suggest possible applications. The oil fractions were thoroughly characterized using several analytical techniques including water content; elemental composition; heating value, and chemical compound group analysis using solvent fractionation, quantitative 13C NMR and 1H NMR and GC x GC - TOFMS. The results show that the oil fractions significantly differ from each other both in chemical and physical properties. The first fractions and the fraction composed of aerosols were highly viscous and contained larger energy-rich compounds of mainly lignin-derived material. The middle fraction contained medium-size compounds with relatively high concentration of water, sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbonyls and acids and finally the last fraction contained smaller molecules such as water, aldehydes, ketones and acids. However, the properties of the respective fractions seem independent on the studied feedstock types, i.e. the respective fractions produced from different feedstock are rather similar. This promotes the possibility to vary the feedstock depending on availability while retaining the oil properties. Possible applications of the five fractions vary from oil for combustion and extraction of the pyrolytic lignin in the early fractions to extraction of sugars from the early and middle fractions, and

  15. Pyrolysis characteristic of tobacco stem studied by Py-GC/MS, TG-FTIR, and TG-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis characteristics and mechanism of tobacco stem were studied by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS, thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (TG-FTIR and TG-MS techniques. The composition of evolved volatiles from fast pyrolysis of tobacco stem was determined by Py-GC/MS analysis, and the evolution patterns of the major products were investigated by TG-FTIR and TG-MS. Py-GC/MS data indicated that furfural and phenol were the major products in low temperature pyrolysis, and these were generated from depolymerization of cellulose. Indene and naphthalene were the major products in high temperature pyrolysis. TG-FTIR and TG-MS results showed that CO, CO2, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were released between 167ºC and 500ºC; at temperatures >500ºC, CO and CO2 were the main gaseous products.

  16. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  17. Research Advances in Directly Heated Cracking of Hydrocarbonsby Heat Carrier Gas——Ⅰ.Pyrolysis Apparatuses and Techniques%热载气体直接加热石油烃裂解研究进展——Ⅰ.裂解装置和技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓东; 赵月红; 温浩; 许志宏

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in directly heated cracking using heat carrier gas together with the wide applications in industry are reviewed, focusing on the composition, operating conditions, product yields and the progress of pyrolysis apparatuses of directly heated cracking using heat carrier gas. In addition, the decoking techniques, mechanism and kinetics of hydrocarbons pyrolysis are also summarized up. Finally, the outlook for the future development of directly heated cracking using heat carrier gas is provided and a conclusion is drawn that directly heated cracking using superheated steam produced by combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as heat carrier gas will be one of the most promising techniques for it has the advantages of high feedstock and products flexibility, higher heat efficiency, and lower CO2 emission, and production of synthesis gas by coupling the decoking and pyrolysis processes.%概述了以气体为热载体的石油烃直接加热裂解技术及其应用:介绍了热载气体直接加热石油烃裂解的装置组成、运行条件、产物产率、技术改进及发展状况,分析了裂解反应机理和反应动力学;指出热载气体直接加热裂解具有原料适用性广、产物分布灵活、热效率较高和受结焦影响小等优点,但同时也有裂解装置结构较复杂、缺乏系统性研究数据等不足.最后对热载气体直接加热石油烃裂解的研究进行了展望,指出以氢氧燃烧产生的过热水蒸汽作为热载气体的直接加热裂解技术,在提高换热效率、降低碳排放、扩大原料范围和耦合制取合成气等方面有很大优势,发展前景广阔.

  18. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  19. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  20. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  1. Western Research Institute quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Accomplishments for the quarter are described briefly for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers process studies. Tar sand research is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE{sup TM}) Process. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  2. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  3. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process...... in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...... that the reacting particle continuously shed the formed char layer....

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  5. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  6. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  7. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP OF BIOMASS PART I. SIFP OF PINE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López Rivilli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP, focusing on the search of reaction conditions to obtain chemicals in good yields from biomass. SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained by SIFP of pine sawdust between 200 and 600°C using 100°C intervals under vacuum (0.2 mm, using nitrogen as carrier gas. Both sets of reactions made it possible to obtain most of the compounds that have been previously described in conventional fast pyrolysis experiments; however this system produces a smaller number of chemical compounds in each isothermal FP, making it easier to obtain determined chemicals with industrial or research value. Maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300°C, giving around 30% of bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols and furan derivatives. Liquid-Liquid extraction led to a rich mixture of phenol derivatives. Results showed that SIFP is an interesting technique to obtain enriched fractions of products derived from biomass pyrolysis.

  8. A steady state model of agricultural waste pyrolysis: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, M; Jovović, A; Stojiljković, D

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural waste is one of the main renewable energy resources available, especially in an agricultural country such as Serbia. Pyrolysis has already been considered as an attractive alternative for disposal of agricultural waste, since the technique can convert this special biomass resource into granular charcoal, non-condensable gases and pyrolysis oils, which could furnish profitable energy and chemical products owing to their high calorific value. In this regard, the development of thermochemical processes requires a good understanding of pyrolysis mechanisms. Experimental and some literature data on the pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and several other agricultural residues under inert atmosphere were structured and analysed in order to obtain conversion behaviour patterns of agricultural residues during pyrolysis within the temperature range from 300 °C to 1000 °C. Based on experimental and literature data analysis, empirical relationships were derived, including relations between the temperature of the process and yields of charcoal, tar and gas (CO2, CO, H2 and CH4). An analytical semi-empirical model was then used as a tool to analyse the general trends of biomass pyrolysis. Although this semi-empirical model needs further refinement before application to all types of biomass, its prediction capability was in good agreement with results obtained by the literature review. The compact representation could be used in other applications, to conveniently extrapolate and interpolate these results to other temperatures and biomass types.

  9. Quantitative Insights into the Fast Pyrolysis of Extracted Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, and Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Marion; Windt, Michael; Ziegler, Bernhard; Appelt, Jörn; Saake, Bodo; Meier, Dietrich; Bridgwater, Anthony

    2017-08-24

    The transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into bio-based commodity chemicals is technically possible. Among thermochemical processes, fast pyrolysis, a relatively mature technology that has now reached a commercial level, produces a high yield of an organic-rich liquid stream. Despite recent efforts to elucidate the degradation paths of biomass during pyrolysis, the selectivity and recovery rates of bio-compounds remain low. In an attempt to clarify the general degradation scheme of biomass fast pyrolysis and provide a quantitative insight, the use of fast pyrolysis microreactors is combined with spectroscopic techniques (i.e., mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy) and mixtures of unlabeled and (13) C-enriched materials. The first stage of the work aimed to select the type of reactor to use to ensure control of the pyrolysis regime. A comparison of the chemical fragmentation patterns of "primary" fast pyrolysis volatiles detected by using GC-MS between two small-scale microreactors showed the inevitable occurrence of secondary reactions. In the second stage, liquid fractions that are also made of primary fast pyrolysis condensates were analyzed by using quantitative liquid-state (13) C NMR spectroscopy to provide a quantitative distribution of functional groups. The compilation of these results into a map that displays the distribution of functional groups according to the individual and main constituents of biomass (i.e., hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin) confirmed the origin of individual chemicals within the fast pyrolysis liquids. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  11. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    This Ph.D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations of fast high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. Suspension firing of biomass is widely used for power generation and has been considered as an important step in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by using less fossil fuels. Fast...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...... and shape, composition, reactivity and burnout depend significantly on the operating conditions of the fast pyrolysis. Biomass fast pyrolysis experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale wire mesh reactor and bench scale atmospheric pressure drop tube / entrained flow reactors with the aim...

  12. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  13. STUDY ON PYROLYSIS OF POLYPHENYLSILSESQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ma; Liang-he Shi; Jian-min Zhang; Bai-yu Li; De-yan Shen; Jian Xu

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical change ofpolyphenylsilsesquioxane (PPSQ) during pyrolysis in flowing nitrogen. Two temperature ranges were found for pyrolysedPPSQ below and above 600℃, respectively. The former is related to the rearrangement of PPSQ backbone and the latterreflects that most of backbone structure of PPSQ might be broken down and unorganized. Carbon formed in carbonization ofPPSQ sample pyrolysed at 900℃ should be sp3 bonded carbon with crystallite size effects or defects.

  14. Flash flow pyrolysis: mimicking flash vacuum pyrolysis in a high-temperature/high-pressure liquid-phase microreactor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, David; Sheibani, Hassan; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-03-02

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) is a gas-phase continuous-flow technique where a substrate is sublimed through a hot quartz tube under high vacuum at temperatures of 400-1100 °C. Thermal activation occurs mainly by molecule-wall collisions with contact times in the region of milliseconds. As a preparative method, FVP is used mainly to induce intramolecular high-temperature transformations leading to products that cannot easily be obtained by other methods. It is demonstrated herein that liquid-phase high-temperature/high-pressure (high-T/p) microreactor conditions (160-350 °C, 90-180 bar) employing near- or supercritical fluids as reaction media can mimic the results obtained using preparative gas-phase FVP protocols. The high-T/p liquid-phase "flash flow pyrolysis" (FFP) technique was applied to the thermolysis of Meldrum's acid derivatives, pyrrole-2,3-diones, and pyrrole-2-carboxylic esters, producing the expected target heterocycles in high yields with residence times between 10 s and 10 min. The exact control over flow rate (and thus residence time) using the liquid-phase FFP method allows a tuning of reaction selectivities not easily achievable using FVP. Since the solution-phase FFP method does not require the substrate to be volatile any more--a major limitation in classical FVP--the transformations become readily scalable, allowing higher productivities and space-time yields compared with gas-phase protocols. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and extensive DFT calculations provided essential information on pyrolysis energy barriers and the involved reaction mechanisms. A correlation between computed activation energies and experimental gas-phase FVP (molecule-wall collisions) and liquid-phase FFP (molecule-molecule collisions) pyrolysis temperatures was derived.

  15. Oxidative and inert pyrolysis on-line coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection: On the pyrolysis products of tobacco additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    According to European legislation, tobacco additives may not increase the toxicity or the addictive potency of the product, but there is an ongoing debate on how to reliably characterize and measure such properties. Further, too little is known on pyrolysis patterns of tobacco additives to assume that no additional toxicological risks need to be suspected. An on-line pyrolysis technique was used and coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the pattern of chemical species formed upon thermal decomposition of 19 different tobacco additives like raw cane sugar, licorice or cocoa. To simulate the combustion of a cigarette it was necessary to perform pyrolysis at inert conditions as well as under oxygen supply. All individual additives were pyrolyzed under inert or oxidative conditions at 350, 700 and 1000°C, respectively, and the formation of different toxicants was monitored. We observed the generation of vinyl acrylate, fumaronitrile, methacrylic anhydride, isobutyric anhydride and 3-buten-2-ol exclusively during pyrolysis of tobacco additives. According to the literature, these toxicants so far remained undetectable in tobacco or tobacco smoke. Further, the formation of 20 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular weights of up to 278Da was monitored during pyrolysis of cocoa in a semi-quantitative approach. It was shown that the adding of cocoa to tobacco had no influence on the relative amounts of the PAHs formed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. 催化热解调控热解产物的研究进展%Research Advancement on Catalytic Pyrolysis Control of Pyrolysis Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴栋; 陆江银.

    2012-01-01

    The techniques of improving the tar quality in coal pyrolysis process were reviewed, and the catalytic pyrolysis and parameters of changing reaction atmosphere and process conditions were analyzed and summarized, and summed up the optimal method of improving tar quality, the future research focus on catalytic pyrolysis was also discussed.%综述了煤和生物质催化裂解技术对热解产物的影响作用,分析了不同催化剂对热解气体和煤焦油的催化效果,对热解产物催化裂解技术进行了分析,展望了未来煤催化裂解的研究重点。

  17. Distinguishing primary and secondary reactions of cellulose pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Pushkaraj R; Dalluge, Dustin L; Shanks, Brent H; Brown, Robert C

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate primary and secondary reactions of cellulose pyrolysis, which was accomplished by comparing results from a micro-pyrolyzer coupled to a GC-MS/FID system and a 100 g/hr bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The residence time of vapors in the micro-pyrolyzer was only 15-20 ms, which precluded significant secondary reactions. The fluidized bed reactor had a vapor residence time of 1-2 s, which is similar to full-scale pyrolysis systems and is long enough for secondary reactions to occur. Products from the fluidized bed pyrolyzer reactor were analyzed using a combination of micro-GC, GC-MS/FID, LC-MS and IC techniques. Comparison between the products from the two reactor systems revealed that the oligomerization of leglucosan and decomposition of primary products such as 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, anhydro xylopyranose and 2-furaldehyde were the major secondary reactions occurring in the fluidized bed reactor. This study can be used to build more descriptive pyrolysis models that can predict yield of specific compounds.

  18. Effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis yields of rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    The pyrolysis yields of rapeseed were investigated applying thermogravimetric analysis technique. The pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 1273K at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50K/min in a dynamic nitrogen flow of 40cc/min. Effects of heating rate on the mass losses from the rapeseed were examined using the derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles. This study showed that important differences on the pyrolytic behavior of rapeseed are observed when heating rate is changed. At the lower heating rates, the maximum rates of mass losses were relatively low. When the heating rate was increased, maximum rates of mass losses also increased. These variations were interpreted by the heterogeneous structure of biomass. Heating rates also concluded to affect the shape of the peaks. Increase in the heating rate shifted the main peak on the DTG profile to the lower temperatures. At low heating rates, there is probably resistance to mass or heat transfer inside the biomass particles. However, increase in heating rate overcame these restrictions, and led to higher conversion rates. The final pyrolysis temperatures were also affected from the variation of the heating rate. Activation energy values were first increased and then decreased depending on the heating rates. (author)

  19. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Quarters of Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when...

  20. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  1. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  2. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the ot...

  3. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste print circuit board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Ge; CHEN Lie-qiang; PENG Shao-hong; CAI Ming-zhao

    2005-01-01

    Waste print circuit board containing 11.38% Br was pyrolyzed in vacuum.Thermal stability of waste print circuit board was studied under vacuum condition by thermo-gravimetry(TG). Vacuum pyrolysis of WPCB was studied emphasizing on the kinetics of WPCB pyrolysis reactions. Based on the TG results, a kinetic model was proposed. Kinetic parameters were calculated for reaction with this model including all stages of decomposition. The average activation energy is 68 k J/mol with reaction order 3. These findings provide new insights into the WPCB thermal decomposition and useful data for rational design and operation of pyrolysis.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  5. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of microalgae via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): A state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Quang-Vu; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2017-06-19

    Pyrolysis is a promising route for biofuels production from microalgae at moderate temperatures (400-600°C) in an inert atmosphere. Depending on the operating conditions, pyrolysis can produce biochar and/or bio-oil. In practice, knowledge for thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of microalgae during pyrolysis is essential for pyrolyzer design and pyrolysis optimization. Recently, the pyrolysis kinetics of microalgae has become a crucial topic and received increasing interest from researchers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been employed as a proven technique for studying microalgae pyrolysis in a kinetic control regime. In addition, a number of kinetic models have been applied to process the TGA data for kinetic evaluation and parameters estimation. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the art review on recent research activities in pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of various microalgae. Common kinetic models predicting the thermal degradation of microalgae are examined and their pros and cons are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  7. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  8. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K. Akalin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the other. The compositions of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of the two samples were found to be very similar. N-containing compounds were found to be the major compounds identified in ether extracts for both samples.

  9. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  10. Characterization of Sr{beta}-alumina prepared by sol-gel and spray pyrolysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal; Seo, Dae Jong; Park, Seung Bin

    2004-06-15

    Eu{sup 2+} doped {beta}-alumina, Sr{sub 1-x}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17} Eu{sub x}{sup 2+} (x=0.01-0.07) were successfully prepared by sol-gel and spray pyrolysis techniques with the same precursor materials. Sr{beta}-alumina doped with Eu{sup 2+} (SrMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) prepared from sol-gel method showed three photoluminescence (PL) peaks at 390, 418 and 459 nm after excitation wavelength at 254 nm and one PL peak at 461 nm when excitation was at 365 nm. The same powder was prepared from spray pyrolysis technique showed the six PL peaks at 323, 397, 415, 443, 480 and 508 nm after excitation at 254 nm. Also two PL peaks at 440 and 480 nm were observed after the excitation at 365 nm. These PL peaks were dependent on the excitation wavelength. The effect of different annealing temperatures of sol-gel powders, preparation conditions of spray pyrolysis powders and reduction atmospheres of both sol-gel and spray pyrolysis powders of various compositions of Eu{sup 2+} doped Sr{beta}-alumina were also studied. Both the powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and PL techniques and comparison between the two preparation methods. Sol-gel prepared powder had eight times higher PL intensity and brightness than the spray pyrolysis prepared powder. The suggested good composition of Sr{beta}-alumina is Sr{sub 0.93}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sub 0.07} for both sol-gel and spay pyrolysis methods.

  11. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  12. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Igor Ying; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2011-06-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  13. Surface Pyrolysis of High Energy Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Deluca

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arrhenius zero-order phenomenological pyrolysis law, commonly used in conjunction with the Vieille ballistic law to study pressure-driven burning of energetic materials, is revisited. Motivated by experimental and theoretical work performed in 1984 in this Laboratory , a relationship among several interplaying parameters is found under steady-state conditions. This relationship corresponds to the Jacobian of the pyrolysis sensitivity parameters used in the Zeldovich-Novozhilov approach. The Arrhenius pyrolysis is still expressed in terms of a global surface activation energy, but consistency with the experimental ballistic law may require an explicit pressure dependence as well. This conclusion is supported by a variety of arguments drawn from different areas. The linear dependence of the pre-exponential factor on surface activation energy (known as kinetic compensation is proved and extended to the pressure exponent, for any given experimental data set under steady burning. Experimental results are reported for about a dozen solid propellants of different nature. The effects of surface pyrolysis explicit pressure dependence, although modest on steady-state burning, are potentially far-reaching for unsteady regime and/or unstable burning. The paper is mainly focussed on pressure-driven burning and Arrhenius pyrolysis, but the implemented method is believed to apply in general. Thus, enforcing KTSS zero-order phenomenological pyrolysis with the Vieille ballistic law yields similar results and requires an explicit pressure dependence. In case, the Zeldovich ballistic law is enforced instead of the classical Vieille law, no explicit pressure dependence is required. The unifying concept for these different trends is the pyrolysis Jacobian as a consistency requirement between the implemented steady pyrolysis and ballistic laws."

  14. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  15. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shen; Igor Ying Zhang; Gang Fu; Xin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of spray pyrolysis Zinc Oxide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alver, U. [Department of Physics, Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam University, 46100, K. Maras (Turkey)]. E-mail: alver@ksu.edu.tr; Kilinc, T. [Department of Physics, Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam University, 46100, K. Maras (Turkey); Bacaksiz, E. [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon (Turkey); Kuecuekoemeroglu, T. [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon (Turkey); Nezir, S. [Department of Physics, Kirikkale University, 71450, Kirikkale (Turkey); Mutlu, I.H. [Department of Physics, Harran University, 63300, S.Urfa (Turkey); Aslan, F. [Department of Physics, Harran University, 63300, S.Urfa (Turkey)

    2007-02-26

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) microrods were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that obtained rods are composed of wurtzite-type ZnO with diameters of about 1-3 {mu}m and lengths ranging from 1 to 3 {mu}m. The XRD patterns also show that hexagonal ZnO rods mainly grow along the [002] direction. The optical measurements reveal that films have a maximum transmittance of about 80% and a direct band gap of 3.6 eV.

  17. Characterization of acrylic resins used for restoration of artworks by pyrolysis-silylation-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with hexamethyldisilazane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa

    2006-09-15

    A procedure based on the technique of the pyrolysis-GC/MS has been applied, in this work, in order to determine the composition of synthetic acrylic resins employed in artworks. The method is based on the on line derivatization of these resins using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Results obtained have been compared with those others from direct pyrolysis and in situ thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Sensitivity using HMDS as derivatising reagent is found similar to that from direct pyrolysis and methylation with TMAH. Better resolution of the most representative peaks has been also obtained. Additionally, this method reduces the formation of free acrylic acid molecules during the pyrolysis process and, in consequence, more simplified and well-resolved chromatograms are obtained. Finally, the reported procedure has been successfully used for characterizing several acrylic-based varnishes and binding media currently used in Fine Arts and real pictorial samples from graffiti performed on a Middle Ages bridge.

  18. Controlled manufacturing of nanoparticles by the laser pyrolysis: Application to cementite iron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Fleaca, C.; Dumitrache, F.; Soare, I.; Popovici, E.; Gavrila, L.; Vasile, E.; Ciupina, V.; Popa, N. C.

    2009-09-01

    The laser pyrolysis is an attractive technique for the synthesis of different nanostructures from gas-phase precursors. The characteristics of this synthesized method are here exemplified by the production of almost pure cementite Fe 3C nanomaterials, obtained by the pyrolysis of methyl methacrylate and iron pentacarbonyl (vapors). Those nanopowders exhibited core (Fe 3C)-shell (MMA polymer-based) morphologies and mean particle diameters of about 8-9 nm. Preliminary magnetic measurements indicate rather high values for the saturation magnetization. By irradiating the same reactive mixture with a lower intensity radiation, the chemical content of nanopowders shifts towards mixtures of iron and maghemite/magnetite iron oxides.

  19. Photochemistry Aspects of the Laser Pyrolysis Addressing the Preparation of Oxide Semiconductor Photocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrescu, R; Morjan, I.; F. Dumitrache; M. Scarisoreanu; I. Soare; Fleaca, C.; Birjega, R.; E POPOVICI; Gavrila, L; G. Prodan; Ciupina, V.; G. Filoti; Kuncser, V.; Vekas, L.

    2008-01-01

    The laser pyrolysis is a powerful and a versatile tool for the gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. In this paper, some fundamental and applicative characteristics of this technique are outlined and recent results obtained in the preparation of gamma iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) and titania (TiO2) semiconductor nanostructures are illustrated. Nanosized iron oxide particles (4 to 9 nm diameter values) have been directly synthesized by the laser-induced pyrolysis of a mixture containing iron penta...

  20. Electron microscopic study on pyrolysis of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T.; Bronsveld, P.M; Vystavel, T.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Kakitani, T.; Otono, A.; Imamura, Y.

    The effectiveness of pyrolysis as a possible technique for disposing of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood was studied. A CCA-treated sample given an extra heat treatment at 450 degreesC for 10 min was thoroughly investigated in order to establish the details of the reaction in

  1. Formation of tungsten oxide nanostructures by laser pyrolysis: stars, fibres and spheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This report focuses on the production of multi-phase WO3 and WO3-x (where x could vary between 0.2 and 0.33) nanostructures synthesized by CO2-laser pyrolysis technique at varying laser wavelengths (9.22-10.82 mm) and power densities (17-110 W/cm2...

  2. Electron microscopic study on pyrolysis of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T.; Bronsveld, P.M; Vystavel, T.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Kakitani, T.; Otono, A.; Imamura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of pyrolysis as a possible technique for disposing of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood was studied. A CCA-treated sample given an extra heat treatment at 450 degreesC for 10 min was thoroughly investigated in order to establish the details of the reaction in wh

  3. Electron microscopic study on pyrolysis of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T.; Bronsveld, P.M; Vystavel, T.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Kakitani, T.; Otono, A.; Imamura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of pyrolysis as a possible technique for disposing of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood was studied. A CCA-treated sample given an extra heat treatment at 450 degreesC for 10 min was thoroughly investigated in order to establish the details of the reaction in wh

  4. Self-assembly onto solid surface of some nanopowders synthesized by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, I.; Morjan, I.; Voicu, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Soare, I.; Fleaca, C. T.; Albu, L.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Popovici, E.

    2006-06-01

    Lateral capillary forces may play an important role in the self-assembly of some nanoparticles onto substrates. Carbon, iron, and carbon coated iron nanoparticles synthesized by the laser pyrolysis technique form 2D structures on a Si surface when a drop of suspension evaporates; this is the effect of the minimization of capillary forces.

  5. Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; R. Gupta; B. Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The knowledge of biomass char gasification kinetics has considerable importance in the design of advanced biomass gasifiers, some of which operate at high pressure. The char gasification kinetics themselves are influenced by char structure. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the char structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, digital cinematography, and surface area analysis. Char samples were prepared at pressures between 1 and 20 bar, temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000{degree}C, and heating rates between 20 and 500{degree}C/s. Our results indicate that pyrolysis conditions have a notable impact on the biomass char morphology. Pyrolysis pressure, in particular, was found to influence the size and the shape of char particles while high heating rates led to plastic deformation of particles (i.e. melting) resulting in smooth surfaces and large cavities. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The effect of mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis of lignite and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School; Usta, C.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of lignite on the yield and chemical structure of bio-oil produced from rapeseed using a fast pyrolysis technique. The rapeseed and lignite mixtures were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. Heating rates and temperatures were controlled by a PID controller. Char yield after pyrolysis was determined from the overall weight losses of the reactor tube, while the liquid phase was collected in a glass liner. Experiments were conducted using a range of blending ratios. While final pyrolysis temperatures were set at 550 degrees C. An elemental analyzer was used to characterize the rapeseed and pyrolysis bio-oils. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) was used to conduct functional group compositional analyses. The study showed that conversion degree increased with temperature increases. Yields of both conversion and oil increased with biomass concentration. However, distribution between conversion and oil was influenced by the blending ratio. A maximum yield of oil was obtained with a 5 per cent blending ratio of lignite. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis of rapeseed and coal at a temperature of 550 degrees C increases production by more than 11 per cent. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin as matrix precursor for new carbon materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometric coupling technique (TG-MS) were used to study the pyrolysis behavior of furfural-acetone resin used for new carbon materials.The curing and carbonization mechanisms of furfural-acetone resin were mainly investigated;structural changes and volatile products evolved during pyrolysis were analyzed.The results indicate that,during pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin adding 7% (mass fraction) phosphorous acid as curing agent,the rupture of C-O bond in the five-membered heterocycle firstly takes place to release oxygen atoms and then does the C--H bond,which enable the molecular chain to cross-link and condense,then lead to the formation of three dimensional networking structure.With the increase of pyrolyzing temperature,the scission of methyl and the opening of furan ring are generated.As a result,the recomposition of molecular chain structure isgenerated and a hexatomic fused ring containing double bonds is built.The main volatile products during pyrolysis of furfuralacetone resin are H2O,and a small mount of CO,CO2 and CH4.At elevated temperatures,dehydrogenation takes place and hydrogen gas is evolved.

  8. Flash pyrolysis of sunflower oil cake for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoez, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2001-06-01

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) press oil cake were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges 450-700C, D{sub p}<0.224, 0.224-0.425, 0.425-0.850 mm and 25-600 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum oil yield of ca. 45% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550C, with the sweep gas flow rate of 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the pyrolysis oil were determined, and then the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.

  9. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  10. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  11. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  12. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  13. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  14. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  15. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  17. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  18. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  19. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H(2), C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, CO(2), CO and H(2)S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  20. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the first quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base, and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES&H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} data occur. All data received and verified during the first quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those detailed below. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were none for springs or surface water. The following discussion offers a brief summary of the data merged during the first quarter that exceeded the above normal criteria and updates on past reported above normal data. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the data base during the first quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs. Graphs showing concentrations of selected contaminants of concern at some of the critical locations have also been included in this QEDS. The graphs are discussed in the separate sections.

  1. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  2. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis...

  3. Cellulose-Lignin interactions during slow and fast pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Wang, Z.; Pecha, B.; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between lignin and cellulose during the slow pyrolysis of their blends were studied by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fast pyrolysis was studied using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (Py–GC/MS). Crystalline cellulose

  4. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogens were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.

  5. Temperature and time influence on the waste plastics pyrolysis in the fixed bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papuga Saša V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis as a technique of chemical recycling of plastic materials is causing an increasing level of interest as an environmentally and economically acceptable option for the processing of waste materials. Studies of these processes are carried out under different experimental conditions, in different types of reactors and with different raw materials, which makes the comparison of different processes and the direct application of process parameters quite complex. This paper presents the results of investigation of the influence of temperature in the range of 450°C to 525°C, on the yield of the process of pyrolysis of waste plastics mixture, composed of 45% polypropylene, 35% low density polyethylene and 25% high density polyethylene. Also, this paper presents results of the investigation of the effect of the reaction, atintervals of 30-90 [min], on the yield of pyrolysis of the mentioned waste plastics mixture. Research was conducted in a fixed bed pilot reactor, which was developed for this purpose. The results of the research show that at a temperature of 500°C, complete conversion of raw materials was achieved, for a period of 45 [min], with a maximum yield of the pyrolysis oil of 32.80%, yield of the gaseous products of 65.75% and the solid remains of 1.46%. Afurther increase of temperature increases the yield of gaseous products, at the expense of reducing the yield of pyrolysis oil. Obtained pyrolysis oil has a high calorific value of 45.96 [MJ/kg], and in this regard has potential applications as an alternative fuel.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  7. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  8. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  9. A review on thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Antelava, A; Constantinou, A; Manos, G; Dutta, A

    2017-04-03

    Plastic plays an important role in our daily lives due to its versatility, light weight and low production cost. Plastics became essential in many sectors such as construction, medical, engineering applications, automotive, aerospace, etc. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. Hence, a sustainable and an efficient plastic waste treatment is essential to avoid such issues. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical plastic waste treatment technique which can solve such pollution problems, as well as, recover valuable energy and products such as oil and gas. Pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW) has gained importance due to having better advantages towards environmental pollution and reduction of carbon footprint of plastic products by minimizing the emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide compared to combustion and gasification. This paper presents the existing techniques of pyrolysis, the parameters which affect the products yield and selectivity and identify major research gaps in this technology. The influence of different catalysts on the process as well as review and comparative assessment of pyrolysis with other thermal and catalytic plastic treatment methods, is also presented.

  10. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  11. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  12. Influence of Bark Pyrolysis Technology on Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong; YAN Zhen; LIU Yurong; WANG Shu

    2006-01-01

    With the self-made pyrolysis equipment in miniature,we experimented in different pyrolysis conditions to get different pyrolyzate yields (carbon,vinegar and gas).It proved that with the rise of temperature,the average yield of carbon descends gradually while the yields of vinegar and gas rise gradually.As the temperature rises,the yield of gas increases much more than that of vinegar.When speeding up the rising temperature,yield of carbon goes down while yields of vinegar and gas go up.

  13. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  14. Thermal/Pyrolysis Gas Flow Analysis of Carbon Phenolic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2001-01-01

    Provided in this study are predicted in-depth temperature and pyrolysis gas pressure distributions for carbon phenolic materials that are externally heated with a laser source. Governing equations, numerical techniques and comparisons to measured temperature data are also presented. Surface thermochemical conditions were determined using the Aerotherm Chemical Equilibrium (ACE) program. Surface heating simulation used facility calibrated radiative and convective flux levels. Temperatures and pyrolysis gas pressures are predicted using an upgraded form of the SINDA/CMA program that was developed by NASA during the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP). Multispecie mass balance, tracking of condensable vapors, high heat rate kinetics, real gas compressibility and reduced mixture viscosity's have been added to the algorithm. In general, surface and in-depth temperature comparisons are very good. Specie partial pressures calculations show that a saturated water-vapor mixture is the main contributor to peak in-depth total pressure. Further, for most of the cases studied, the water-vapor mixture is driven near the critical point and is believed to significantly increase the local heat capacity of the composite material. This phenomenon if not accounted for in analysis models may lead to an over prediction in temperature response in charring regions of the material.

  15. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; S. Schreurs; G. Reggers; R. Carleer; J. Yperman [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Lab of Applied Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The Global Warming, the Kyoto Protocol and the emission of greenhouse gasses such as CO{sub 2} are the topics of environmental pleadings. The world's energy supply is limited due to the depletion of fossil fuels, which are still the most important energy sources consumed. The development of new and renewable energies is the key to change. The flash pyrolysis of biomass is a promising route for the production of solid, liquid and gaseous products. A high liquid production requires very low vapour residence time to minimise secondary reactions. Flash co-pyrolytic techniques, at low temperature, provide an alternative way to dispose and convert waste (like plastics) and biomass into high value feedstock. The specific benefits of this method potentially include: the reduction of the volume of the waste, the recovery of chemicals and the replacement of fossil fuels. Co-pyrolysing of PLA (although a biologically degradable polymer, polylactic acid), with biomass (such as willow) may be an alternative waste treatment option. This research indicates that during the flash co-pyrolysis of PLA and willow (even when contaminated with high amounts of heavy metals) a synergy is attained, resulting in a higher yield of bio-oil with a lower water content. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  17. Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Stanger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described. The thermal and other properties are measured dynamically as a function of temperature of the coal without the need for equilibration at temperature. In particular, the technique allows for continuous elemental characterisation of tars as they are evolved during pyrolysis and afterwards as a function of boiling point. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the properties of maceral concentrates from a coal. The variation in heats of reaction, thermal conductivity and expansion as a function of maceral composition is described. Combined with the elemental analysis, the results aid in the interpretation of the chemical processes contributing to the physical and thermal behaviour of the coal during pyrolysis. Potential applications in cokemaking studies are discussed.

  18. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  19. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国志; 张廷安; 王龙; 马思达; 豆志河; 刘燕

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pyrolysis mode and pyrolysis parameters on Cl content in alumina were investigated, and the alumina products were characterized by XRD, SEM and ASAP. The experimental results indicate that the spray pyrolysis efficiency is higher than that of static pyrolysis process, and the reaction and evaporation process lead to a multi-plot state of the alumina products by spray pyrolysis. Aluminum phase starts to transform intoγ-Al2O3 at spray pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C, which is about 200 °C lower than that of static pyrolysis process. The primary particle size of γ-Al2O3 product is 27.62 nm, and Cl content in alumina products is 0.38%at 800 °C for 20 min.

  1. Characterization of Hydrotreated Fast Pyrolysis Liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oasmaa, A.; Kuoppala, E.; Ardiyanti, A.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on analytical methods to determine the composition of hydrotreated fast pyrolysis liquids. With this information, it is possible to gain insights in the chemical transformations taking place during catalytic hydrotreatment (hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation, H DO) of pyrolys

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  3. Speculations on the nature of cellulose pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J. Kilzer; A. Broido

    1965-01-01

    Consideration of the available data on cellulose pyrolysis suggests that, with relative importance depending upon heating rate in the temperature range 200-400°C, very pure cellulose decomposes by two competitive endothermic processes. lt is postulated that an unzipping reaction produces 1,4-anhydro-α-D-glucopyranose which rearranges to give levoglucosan. The other...

  4. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  5. The pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Zhijia Liu; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Yan Yu; Xing’e. Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the research, thermogravimetry (TG), a combination of thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG–FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). The Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Coats–Redfern (modified) methods were used to determine the apparent activation energy (

  6. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  7. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  8. Pyrolysis of Rubber in a Screw Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnik, A. V.; Savchin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of an analysis of thermal methods described in the literature and from the results of experimental investigations of steam conversion, the authors have developed and created a facility for thermal processing of rubber waste. Rubber crumb was used as the raw material; the temperature in the reactor was 500°C; nitrogen, steam, and a mixture of light hydrocarbons (noncondensable part of pyrolysis products) represented the working medium. The pyrolysis yielded 36-38% of a solid fraction, 54-56% of a liquid hydrocarbon fraction, and 6-9% of noncondensable gases. Changes in the composition of the gas mixture have been determined at different stages of processing. Gas chromatography of pyrolysis gases has shown that the basic gases produced by pyrolysis are H2 and hydrocarbons C2H4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H8, C2H6, C3H6O2, and C4H10, and a small amount of H2S, CO, and CO2. Noncondensable gases will be used as a fuel to heat the reactor and to implement the process.

  9. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  11. Characterization of Source Signatures of Fine Roadway Particles by Pyrolysis-GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, S. K.; Holmén, B. A.

    2001-12-01

    Fine particulate matter, defined as particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μ m (PM2.5), is of growing concern due to its detrimental effects on human health and the environment. Roadway traffic generates a significant fraction of PM2.5 in urban areas. Since exposure to fine particles derived from mobile sources commonly occurs, understanding the physicochemical processes that contribute to the generation, transport and atmospheric reactivity of roadway PM is important. Factors that influence the properties of roadway PM include: the mass, number and size distribution of the particles as well as their chemical composition. These factors are partially determined by the sources of the roadway particles. The focus of this effort is to identify unique organic chemical profiles of known roadway sources of PM using a new rapid characterization technique. A pyrolysis GC-MS analytical method is being developed to uniquely characterize the sources of roadway PM2.5 such as brake dust, tire wear, and direct emissions from diesel and gasoline engines. The source profiles will be used in conjunction with measurements of the composition of ambient roadway PM to determine the importance of the various roadway sources. The advantages of this technique over conventional solvent extractions include: smaller (mg) sample mass requirements, short extraction times and minimal sample handing. Preliminary two-step pyrolysis results will be presented for PM samples from individual sources and an ambient roadway. Specific analytical issues that will be discussed include: modifications of commercial pyrolysis hardware to improve reproducibility; desorption versus pyrolysis; developing appropriate pyrolysis programs for heterogenous sample materials; and method detection limits.

  12. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  13. Confined-Pyrolysis as an Experimental Method for Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Roald N.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1995-01-01

    A closed pyrolysis system has been developed as a tool for studying the reactions of organic compounds under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Small high pressure stainless steel vessels in which the ratio of sediment or sample to water has been adjusted to eliminate the headspace at peak experimental conditions confines the organic components to the bulk solid matrix and eliminates the partitioning of the organic compounds away from the inorganic components during the experiment. Confined pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally driven catagenetic changes in sedimentary organic matter using a solids to water ratio of 3.4 to 1. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated the hydrothermal transformations observed in nature. Molecular probe experiments using alkadienes, alkenes and alkanes in H2O and D2O elucidated the isomerization and hydrogenation reactions of aliphatic and the competing oxidative reactions occurring under hydrothermal conditions. This confined pyrolysis technique is being applied to test experiments on organic synthesis of relevance to chemical evolution for the origin of life.

  14. Confined-pyrolysis as an experimental method for hydrothermal organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Roald N.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1995-10-01

    A closed pyrolysis system has been developed as a tool for studying the reactions of organic compounds under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Small high pressure stainless steel vessels in which the ratio of sediment or sample to water has been adjusted to eliminate the headspace at peak experimental conditions confines the organic components to the bulk solid matrix and eliminates the partitioning of the organic compounds away from the inorganic components during the experiment. Confined pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally driven catagenetic changes in sedimentary organic matter using a solids to water ratio of 3.4 to 1. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated the hydrothermal transformations observed in nature. Molecular probe experiments using alkadienes, alkenes and alkanes in H2O and D2O elucidated the isomerization and hydrogenation reactions of aliphatic compounds and the competing oxidative reactions occurring under hydrothermal conditions. This confined pyrolysis technique is being applied to test experiments on organic synthesis of relevance to chemical evolution for the origin of life.

  15. A Study on Hydrocarbon—Generating Potential and Kinetics of Source—Rock Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查明; 毛超林; 等

    1995-01-01

    A study on the potential and kinetics of hydrocarborn(HC) generation of 30 source-rock samples from a certain depression has been made by means of ROCK-EVAL technique .In the pyrolysis experiment, the source material types, maturation and hydrocarbon-generating potential of source rocks from three Upper Jurassic horizons of that area have been evaluated in terms of such indicators as the type-index, hydrocarbon-generating potential and maximum pyrolysis temperaturw(Tmax) .The results show that the pyrolysis HC yield of immature source rocks is much higher than that of mature rocks in case that the source mateuial is of high quantity and organic matter is abundant, which suggests that it is important for evaluating the HC-generating potential to use immature samples for pyrolysis.In the pyrolytic simulation experiments on other two immature samples,it was found that the hydrocarbon yield is temperature-dependent, and thereafter the kinetical parameters for source rocks, such as reactional grade, appearant activation energy and frequency factor were calculated.

  16. Study of kinetics of co-pyrolysis of coal and waste LDPE blends under argon atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumedha Sharma; Aloke K. Ghoshal [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati (India). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Co-pyrolysis of coal with waste plastic is increasingly being looked upon as a potential technique to counter the present day challenges in energy and waste management by harnessing the multiple benefits associated with the same. In the present work, the kinetics of co-pyrolysis of waste LDPE carried out with coal of Ledo origin from the coalfields of Assam (India) has been studied. A thermo-gravimetric (TG) study of the co-pyrolysis has been carried out taking waste LDPE-coal mixtures in ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 by weight and at five varying heating rates from 5 to 25 K min{sup -1} with a 5 K increment. Experiments were also carried out for the individual components at all the five heating rates. This TG analysis data was used to evaluate the kinetics parameters such as the activation energy, pre-exponential factors, and the reaction orders, applying a model fitting approach. The results of the kinetics analysis indicate higher activation energy for the mixtures. With increase in the coal percentage, the reaction order is found to increase. Also the synergistic effect between the two sample species in the mixtures has been studied and found to indicate presence of interaction between coal and LDPE. The effect of sample composition on the products of co-pyrolysis has also been compared. 48 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Thermal behavior and kinetic study for catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Lei, Hanwu; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Xiaolu; Qian, Moriko; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Wu, Joan; Chen, Shulin

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to investigate the thermal decomposition behaviors and kinetics of biomass (cellulose/Douglas fir sawdust) and plastics (LDPE) in a non-catalytic and catalytic co-pyrolysis over ZSM-5 catalyst by using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was found that there was a positive synergistic interaction between biomass and plastics according to the difference of weight loss (ΔW), which could decrease the formation of solid residue at the end of the experiment. The first order reaction model well fitted for both non-catalytic and catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastics. The activation energy (E) of Cellulose-LDPE-Catalyst and DF-LDPE-Catalyst are only 89.51 and 54.51kJ/mol, respectively. The kinetics analysis showed that adding catalyst doesn't change the decomposition mechanism. As a result, the kinetic study on catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastics was suggested that the catalytic co-pyrolysis is a promising technique that can significantly reduce the energy input.

  18. Confined-Pyrolysis as an Experimental Method for Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Roald N.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1995-01-01

    A closed pyrolysis system has been developed as a tool for studying the reactions of organic compounds under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Small high pressure stainless steel vessels in which the ratio of sediment or sample to water has been adjusted to eliminate the headspace at peak experimental conditions confines the organic components to the bulk solid matrix and eliminates the partitioning of the organic compounds away from the inorganic components during the experiment. Confined pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally driven catagenetic changes in sedimentary organic matter using a solids to water ratio of 3.4 to 1. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated the hydrothermal transformations observed in nature. Molecular probe experiments using alkadienes, alkenes and alkanes in H2O and D2O elucidated the isomerization and hydrogenation reactions of aliphatic and the competing oxidative reactions occurring under hydrothermal conditions. This confined pyrolysis technique is being applied to test experiments on organic synthesis of relevance to chemical evolution for the origin of life.

  19. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  20. 基于 TG - DTG 技术的废旧轮胎裂解行为研究%Research on pyrolysis behavior of waste tyres by TG-DTG technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建胜

    2015-01-01

    随着汽车业的快速发展,汽车废旧轮胎的回收及二次利用显得尤为重要。采用 TG - DTG技术研究废旧轮胎的裂解行为,对卡车外轮胎、卡车内胎和自行车外胎等废旧轮胎微观尺度下的裂解行为进行分析。结果表明,轮胎裂解过程可分为三个阶段:第一阶段约200℃开始,是一个缓慢失重的过程,主要是少量水分、轮胎制作过程中加入的增塑剂及其他有机助剂受热析出所致;第二阶段为天然橡胶的热分解;第三阶段是合成橡胶的热分解。对于卡车外轮胎样品,第二峰和第三峰是主要失重峰,对于卡车内胎和自行车外胎样品,第二峰是主要失重峰。建立了废旧轮胎裂解动力学模型:1n 1-α=1n dαdT Aβ-Ea RT 。通过对相关数据进行处理,得到废旧轮胎裂解动力学参数中的反应活化能 Ea 与频率因子 A,证明此方法的实用性。%With the rapid deve1opment of automobi1e industry,the recyc1ing and secondary uti1ization auto waste tires are particu1ar1y important. The cracking behavior of waste tires were investigated by using TG-DTG technique. The cracking behavior of waste tyres such as truck tyres,inner tubes of truck tyres and bi-cyc1e tyres was ana1yzed at micro-sca1e. The resu1ts showed that the tyre pyro1ysis process was divided into three stages:the first stage beginning approximate1y at 200 ℃ was a s1ow weight1essness course,which was main1y caused by heating and then vo1ati1ization of the sma11 amount of water,p1asticizer and other organic additives added during the tyre production;the second stage was therma1 decomposition for natura1 rub-ber;the third stage was the therma1 decomposition of synthetic rubber. The second and the third peaks for truck tyres were the main weight1essness peaks,and for inner tubes of truck tyres and bicyc1e tyres sam-p1es,the second peaks were the main weight1essness peaks. The dynamics mode1 for waste tyres pyro1ysis was

  1. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium...

  2. Apprentices & Trainees: September Quarter, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the September quarter 2012. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.74 (December 2012 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the March…

  3. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Crime QuArterly No. 59 • mArCh ... Section 77 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 deals with the treatment of persons who are unable to ..... resource considerations alone.36 .... membership of groups; as demonstrated in. President of ...

  4. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  5. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  6. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiaton Ali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrap printed circuit boards (PCBs are the most abundant wastes that can be found in the landfills in Malaysia and this disposal certainly poses serious detrimental to the environment. This research aims to investigate optimum temperature for pyrolyzing waste PCBs, find out the best catalyst to be used in accelerating PCBs’ pyrolysis, select suitable ratio of catalyst to PCBs for higher oil yield and examine kinetics pyrolysis of the waste PCBs’ decomposition. Operating temperatures ranged from 200 to 350 ˚C of PCB’s pyrolysis were conducted with the optimum temperature obtained was 275 ˚C. Fluid cata-lytic cracking (FCC catalyst, zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5, H-Y-type zeolite and dolomite were used to accelerate PCB’s pyrolysis at 275 ˚C and FCC was identified as the best catalyst to be used. Differ-ent ratios of FCC to waste PCBs such as 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 were applied in the pyro-lysis at 275 ˚C and ratio of 10:90 was selected as the suitable ratio to be utilized for maximum yield. The kinetic study was done through thermogravimetric analysis on waste PCBs under various heating rates and different particle sizes. The GC-MS analysis revealed that compounds detected in the pyro-oil have the potential to be used as fuel. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd July 2014; Revised: 14th August 2014; Accepted: 14th August 2014 How to Cite: Ng, C.H., Salmiaton, A., Hizam, H. (2014. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 224-240. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240

  7. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  8. Surface morphology engineering of metal-oxide films by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.; Solis, J.L.; Estrada, W. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, San Borja, Lima (Peru); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima (Peru); Gomez, M. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima (Peru)

    2007-07-01

    The Chemical Spray Pyrolysis technique and a combination of sol-gel and spray pyrolysis techniques have been used in order to monitor the morphology of metal-oxide-based thin films to be used as functional materials. We can obtain surfaces from specular to rough-porous according to the physico-chemical conditions of the precursor/spraying solution. We have produced coatings of ZnO-based and NiO{sub x}-based coatings from alcoholic and aqueous solutions. A single glass, ITO-precoated glass or alumina was used as the substrate. Porous materials of WO{sub 3}, WO{sub 3}-SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} have been produced by spraying either inorganic or metal alkoxide gels over a hot substrate. The morphologies of coatings were evaluated by either SEM or optical measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Cyclopentadiene evolution during pyrolysis-gas chromatography of PMR polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Gluyas, Richard E.; Snyder, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of formulated molecular weight (FMW), extent of cure, and cumulative aging on the amount of cyclopentadiene (CPD) evolved from Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) polyimides were investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromotography (PY-GC). The PMR polyimides are additional crosslinked resins formed from an aromatic diamine, a diester of an aromatic tetracarboxylic acid and a monoester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid. The PY-GC results were related to the degree of crosslinking and to the thermo-oxidative stability (weight loss) of PMR polyimides. Thus, PY-GC has shown to be a valid technique for the characterization of PMR polyimide resins and composites via correlation of the CPD evolved versus the thermal history of the PMR sample.

  10. Co-pyrolysis of different type coals with hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzade Haykiri-Acma; Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of different rank coals such as peat, lignite, and anthracite in the presence of hybrid poplar. For this purpose, non-isothermal thermogravimetry technique was applied up to 900{sup o}C with a heating rate of 40{sup o}C/min under dynamic nitrogen flow of 40 mL/min. Hybrid poplar was added into each coal as much as 10 wt % of the coal sample and the experiments were repeated. Pyrolytic properties such as the char yields, gasification rates, and reactivity of the original samples and the blends were compared from the thermal analysis data, and interpreted. Addition of hybrid poplar to coal had some influences on the pyrolytic properties of coals that might be explained by the synergistic interaction approach. 15 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Modelling of an ASR countercurrent pyrolysis reactor with nonlinear kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarioni, A.; Reverberi, A.P.; Dovi, V.G. [Universita degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' ; El-Shaarawi, A.H. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ont. (Canada)

    2003-10-01

    The main objective of this work is focused on the modelling of a steady-state reactor where an automotive shredder residue (ASR) is subject to pyrolysis. The gas and solid temperature inside the reactor and the relevant density profiles of both phases are simulated for fixed values of the geometry of the apparatus and a lumped kinetic model is adopted to take into account the high heterogeneity of the ASR material. The key elements for the simulation are the inlet solid temperature and the outlet gas temperature. The problem is modelled by a system of first-order boundary-value ordinary differential equations and it is solved by means of a relaxation technique owing to the nonlinearities contained in the chemical kinetic expression. (author)

  12. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  13. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  14. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  15. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  16. Field emission property of ZnO nanowires prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The field emission property of cold cathode emitters utilizing the ZnO nanowires with various conditions prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique was discussed. It is found that the emission current was enhanced in the emitters having higher aspect ratio as well as smaller sheet resistance. Applying of post-annealing process, utilization of additional Mo back electrode in the cathode, and coating of Moon the ZnO nanowires resulted in the improvement of the emission current and lowerin...

  17. Optimised In2S3 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hristina Spasevska; Catherine C. Kitts; Cosimo Ancora; Giampiero Ruani

    2012-01-01

    Indium sulphide has been extensively investigated as a component for different kind of photovoltaic devices (organic-inorganic hybrid devices, all inorganic, dye sensitized cells). In this paper, we have optimised the growth conditions of indium sulphide thin films by means of a low cost, versatile deposition technique, like spray pyrolysis. The quality of the deposited films has been characterised by micro-Raman, vis-UV spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Substrate deposition temperat...

  18. Optimised In2S3 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hristina Spasevska; Kitts, Catherine C.; Cosimo Ancora; Giampiero Ruani

    2012-01-01

    Indium sulphide has been extensively investigated as a component for different kind of photovoltaic devices (organic-inorganic hybrid devices, all inorganic, dye sensitized cells). In this paper, we have optimised the growth conditions of indium sulphide thin films by means of a low cost, versatile deposition technique, like spray pyrolysis. The quality of the deposited films has been characterised by micro-Raman, vis-UV spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Substrate deposition temperat...

  19. Ceria based protective coatings for steel interconnects prepared by spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    . One of the promising coating materials for the hydrogen side is ceria. Using standard sintering techniques, ceria sinters at around 1400°C which even for a very short exposure would destroy the interconnect. Therefore in this paper a low temperature deposition method, i.e. spray pyrolysis, is used...... to deposit thin (~400 nm), continuous CeO2 layers on Crofer 22 APU steel substrates. Influence of the deposition parameters on layer quality is elucidated in this work....

  20. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and electroless deposition for the synthesis of nanostructured metal / carbon microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to synthesis various nano-metallic carbon microsphere composite materials for environmental and catalytic applications. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and electroless deposition techniques were used to achieve this. The composites materials were characterised and their subsequent activity was demonstrated. TARA (Trinity’s Access to Research Archive) has a robust takedown policy. Please contact us if you have any concerns:

  1. Development of a Novel Type Catalyst SY-2 for Two-Stage Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Linmei; Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua; Wang Fucun

    2004-01-01

    By using the group ⅢB or groupⅦB metals and modulating the characteristics of electric charges on carrier surface, improving the catalyst preparation process and techniques for loading the active metal components, a novel type SY-2 catalyst earmarked for two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline has been developed. The catalyst evaluation results have indicated that the novel catalyst is characterized by a better hydrogenation reaction activity to give higher aromatic yield.

  2. Mixed phases of TiO2 nanopowders prepared by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Florian V.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Morjan, Ion G.; Sandu, Ion C.; Soare, Iuliana; Voicu, Ion N.; Fleaca, Claudiu T.; Ploscaru, Mihaela I.; Savoiu, M.; Vasile, Eugen; Ciupina, Victor

    2004-10-01

    TiO2 nano powder was prepared by laser pyrolysis of gas phase reactants. TiCl4 (vapor) was used as titanium precursor. The crystalline structures and morphologies of the powder have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAD) and Raman spectrometry. The different characterization techniques suggest that a nano-crystalline mixture of anatase and rutile is obtained.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pyrolysis polygeneration of poplar wood: Effect of heating rate and pyrolysis temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Cen, Kehui; Luo, Min; Li, Hongyan; Lu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    The pyrolysis of poplar wood were comprehensively investigated at different pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, and 600°C) and at different heating rates (10, 30, and 50°C/min). The results showed that BET surface area of biochar, the HHV of non-condensable gas and bio-oil reached the maximum values of 411.06m(2)/g, 14.56MJ/m(3), and 14.39MJ/kg, under the condition of 600°C and 30°C/min, 600°C and 50°C/min, and 550°C and 50°C/min, respectively. It was conducive to obtain high mass and energy yield of bio-oil at 500°C and higher heating rate, while lower pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed towards obtaining both higher mass yield and energy yield of biochar. However, higher pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed to obtain both higher mass yield and energy yield of the non-condensable gas. In general, compared to the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature had more effect on the product properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas.

  6. Pyrolysis of Polytrimethylene Terephthalate (PTT) Fiber by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN He-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) fiber has been investigated by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the temperature range from 400℃ to 750℃ in order to observe the possible effect of the temperature on its composition of pyrolysates. At 400℃, pyrolysis of molecular chain could occur, only 13 pyrolysates could be identified. The trimethylene moieties bound to the macromolecular core by ester bonds are cleaved at around 400℃. At 550℃ -750℃, pyrolysis of molecular chain could completely take place, 46 pyrolysates could be found. As the temperature increases, the compositions of pyrolysate are distinctly increased. Several compounds, especially benzoic acid, monopropenyl-p-phthalate, 2 - propenyl benzoate, di - 2 - propenyl ester, 1,4 -benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzene, 1, 5 - hexadiene, biphenyl and 1, 3 - propanediol dibenzoate could be formed. The thermal degradation mechanism, which is determined by structure and amount of the thermal decomposition products, are described. During pyrolysis of polytrimethylene terephthalate, polymeric chain scissions take place a peeling reaction as a successive removal of the dimer units from the polymeric chain. The chain scissions are followed by the elimination reaction, linkage action and secondary reactions, which bring about a variety fragment.

  7. Characterization of hydrocarbon emissions from green sand foundry core binders by analytical pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yujue Wang; Fred S. Cannon; Magda Salama; Jeff Goudzwaard; James C. Furness [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to compare the hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions of three foundry sand binders: (a) conventional phenolic urethane resin, (b) biodiesel phenolic urethane resin, and (c) collagen-based binder. These binders are used in the metal casting industry to create internal cavities within castings. Green sand contains silica sand, clay, carbonaceous additives (eg bituminous coal) and water. The core samples were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920{sup o}C with a heating rate of about 3000{sup o}C/sec. This simulated some key features of the fast heating conditions that the core binders would experience at the metal-core interface when molten metal is poured into green sand molds. The core samples were also pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000{sup o}C with a heating rate of 30{sup o}C/min, and this simulated key features of the slow heating conditions that the core binders would experience at distances that are further away from the metal-core interface during casting cooling. Hydrocarbon emissions from flash pyrolysis were analyzed with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, while hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions from TGA pyrolysis were monitored with mass spectrometry. The prominent hazardous air pollutant emissions during pyrolysis of the three binders were phenol, cresols, benzene, and toluene for the conventional phenolic urethane resin and biodiesel resin, and benzene and toluene for the collagen-based binder. Bench-scale analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a useful screening tool for the foundries to compare the relative emissions of alternative core binders and to choose proper materials in order to comply with air-emission regulations. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  9. Calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Paige A; Truong, Chi; Wheeler, M Clayton; DeSisto, William J

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of calcium pretreatment on pyrolysis of individual lignocellulosic compounds. Previous work has demonstrated that the incorporation of calcium compounds with the feedstock prior to pyrolysis has a significant effect on the oxygen content and stability of the resulting oil. The aim of this work was to further explore the chemistry of calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis. Bench-scale pyrolysis of biomass constituents, including lignin, cellulose and xylan is performed and compared to the oils produced from pyrolysis of the same components after calcium pretreatment. The resulting oils were analyzed by quantitative GC-MS and SEC. These analyses, together with data collected from previous work provide evidence which was used to develop proposed reaction pathways for pyrolysis of calcium-pretreatment biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270°C, densification, and torrefaction at 270°C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700°C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270°C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700°C as compared to 500°C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  11. Low Temperature Dechlorination of Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; XIE Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Study on behavior of chlorine contained in oval-shaped densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) prepared from unicipal solid waste in pyrolysis was carried out by means of temperature-programmed electrical furnace, and the gasevolving from pyrolysis was investigated by FTIR. De-HCl rate was calculated by determining the emission fraction of HCl in the flue gas and the fraction of Cl left in the pyrolysis residue. The results show that Cl in the d-RDF releases primarily in the form of HCl during the pyrolysis, and the initial releasing temperature of HCl enhances with the increase of heating rate. Meanwhile, the higher the end temperature of pyrolysis, the more the Cl released. De-HCl rate is about 70% when the end temperature of pyrolysis is around 600℃. Besides, mechanism of Cl release is discussed.

  12. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  13. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  14. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  15. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  16. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  17. Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. Yields and structural analysis of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezcan, A.; Puetuen, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yunusemre Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of hazelnut shells to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and well-sweep gas atmosphere (N{sub 2}) on the pyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 23.1 wt.% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 500C and heating rate of 7 K min{sup -1}. The pyrolysis products were characterised by elemental analysis and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and also compared with currently utilised transport fuels by simulated distillation. Bio-oil was then fractionated into pentane soluble and insoluble compounds (asphaltenes). Pentane soluble was then solvent fractionated into pentane, toluene, ether and methanol subfractions by fractionated column chromatography. The aliphatic and low-molecular-weight aromatic subfractions of the bio-oil were then analyzed by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography and GC/MS. Further structural analysis of bio-oil and aromatic and polar subfractions FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra were obtained. The chemical characterization has shown that the bio-oil obtained from hazelnut shells was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil

  18. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  19. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2017-09-12

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil. A method includes contacting a pyrolysis oil with a deoxygenation catalyst in a first reactor at deoxygenation conditions to produce a first reactor effluent. The first reactor effluent has a first oxygen concentration and a first hydrogen concentration, based on hydrocarbons in the first reactor effluent, and the first reactor effluent includes an aromatic compound. The first reactor effluent is contacted with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a second reactor at conditions that deoxygenate the first reactor effluent while preserving the aromatic compound to produce a second reactor effluent. The second reactor effluent has a second oxygen concentration lower than the first oxygen concentration and a second hydrogen concentration that is equal to or lower than the first hydrogen concentration, where the second oxygen concentration and the second hydrogen concentration are based on the hydrocarbons in the second reactor effluent.

  20. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  2. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  3. Improved Pyrolysis Micro reactor Design via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    NUMBER (Include area code) 23 May 2017 Briefing Charts 25 April 2017 - 23 May 2017 Improved Pyrolysis Micro-reactor Design via Computational Fluid... PYROLYSIS MICRO-REACTOR DESIGN VIA COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS Ghanshyam L. Vaghjiani* DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release...Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. PA Clearance 17247 Chen-Source (>240 references from SciFinder as of 5/1/17): Flash pyrolysis

  4. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  5. Temperature Jump Pyrolysis Studies of RP 2 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 December 2016 – 11 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Temperature Jump Pyrolysis Studies of RP-2 Fuel...Rev. 8- 98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 1 TEMPERATURE JUMP PYROLYSIS STUDIES OF RP-2 FUEL Owen Pryor1, Steven D. Chambreau2, Ghanshyam L...Mixture Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. PA Clearance 17026 4 RP-2 Pyrolysis /Combustion Chemistries? • Recent

  6. Methane Pyrolysis and Disposing Off Resulting Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rapp, D.; Rahotgi, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) is a leading process for producing methane and oxygen for application to Mars ISPP. One significant problem with this process is that it produces an excess of methane for combustion with the amount of oxygen that is produced. Therefore, one must discard roughly half of the methane to obtain the proper stoichiometric methane/oxygen mixture for ascent from Mars. This is wasteful of hydrogen, which must be brought from Earth and is difficult to transport to Mars and store on Mars. To reduced the problem of transporting hydrogen to Mars, the S/E process can be augmented by another process which reduces overall hydrogen requirement. Three conceptual approaches for doing this are (1) recover hydrogen from the excess methane produced by the S/E process, (2) convert the methane to a higher hydrocarbon or other organic with a lower H/C ratio than methane, and (3) use a separate process (such as zirconia or reverse water gas shift reaction) to produce additional oxygen, thus utilizing all the methane produced by the Sabatier process. We report our results here on recovering hydrogen from the excess methane using pyrolysis of methane. Pyrolysis has the advantage that it produces almost pure hydrogen, and any unreacted methane can pass through the S/E process reactor. It has the disadvantage that disposing of the carbon produced by pyrolysis presents difficulties. Hydrogen may be obtained from methane by pyrolysis in the temperature range 10000-12000C. The main reaction products are hydrogen and carbon, though very small amounts of higher hydrocarbons, including aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. The conversion efficiency is about 95% at 12000C. One needs to distinguish between thermodynamic equilibrium conversion and conversion limited by kinetics in a finite reactor.

  7. Pyrolysis Processing of Waste Peanuts Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes are the most frequent "by-product" of human society. The Czech Republic still has a considerable room for energy reduction and material intensiveness of production in connection with the application of scientific and technical expertise in the context of innovation cycles. Pyrolysis waste treatment is a promising alternative to the production of renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. It can also reduce the environmental burden and the amount of waste in the environment at the same time.

  8. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  9. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-26

    radially outward from the solar corona . The solar wind is deflected by magnetic fields but absorbed by surface materials on a body like the Moon. Solar...very high temperature crucible for pyrolysis. A zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic crucible was selected to provide thermal stability at high temperatures, shown...in Figure 20. Two zirconia crucibles were used. One of the zirconia crucibles was poorly manufactured and could not withstand the high thermal

  10. 75 FR 17919 - Submission for OMB Review; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Quarterly Reporting for Prime...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors AGENCY: Department of... requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors... those who are to respond, through the use of appropriate technological collection techniques or...

  11. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 °C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process.

  12. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  13. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  14. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  15. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene.

  16. Thermogravimetric analysis and fast pyrolysis of Milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Agblevor, Foster A

    2014-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Milkweed was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Total liquid yield of Milkweed pyrolysis was between 40.74% and 44.19 wt% between 425 °C and 550 °C. The gas yield increased from 27.90 wt% to 33.33 wt% with increasing reaction temperature. The higher heating values (HHV) of the Milkweed bio-oil were relatively high (30.33-32.87 MJ/kg) and varied with reaction temperature, feeding rate and fluidization velocity. The selectivity for CO2 was highest within non-condensable gases, and the molar ratio of CO2/CO was about 3 at the different reaction conditions. The (13)C NMR analysis, of the bio-oil showed that the relative concentration carboxylic group and its derivatives was higher at 425 °C than 475 °C, which resulted in slightly higher oxygen content in bio-oil. The pH of aqueous phase obtained at 475 °C was 7.37 which is the highest reported for any lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  18. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is...

  1. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  2. Coal pyrolysis. VII. Economic viability of pyrolysis. Pirolisis del carbon. VII. Viabilidad economica de la pirolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinar, R.; Adanez, J.; Miranda, J.L.; Ibarra, J.V. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1989-04-01

    Analyses the most important economic parameters of the main pyrolysis processes. Considers the markets available for semi-coke and tars. Concludes that no single technology or process has clear advantages over the others because all depends on the type of coal being used and the purpose for which the end product is to be used. Refers to studies carried out in Canada and the USA on the same subject and reports their findings. Concludes optimistically that coal pyrolysis shows promise of being economically viable in the future because although initially, costs reflect the high financial outlay necessary to begin operations, after a certain period, these costs fall and the end product can be sold at a lower price. A further point in favour of pyrolysis is that coal prices are likely to rise more slowly than oil prices. 5 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, E V; Kalogiannis, K G; Stephanidis, S D; Triantafyllidis, K S; Lappas, A A; Achilias, D S

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  4. Strategic Studies Quarterly- Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bordering Afghanistan. A number of analysts agree that if conflict breaks out with India, Pakistan would immediately rede - ploy...the military should not risk its capacity to fight just to become an instrument of social progress but at the same rook pride in ending the...the " social experiments" conducted during his tenure are not yet known. The former Secretary STRATEGIC STUDIES QuARTERLY + SPRING 2016 [ 149] Book

  5. Theoretical study of the pyrolysis of vanillin as a model of secondary lignin pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition reactions in processes of vanillin pyrolysis were theoretically investigated by employing density functional theory (DFT) method at M06-2X/6-31 G+(d,p) level. The result shows that the homolytic cleavage of O-CH3 bond could be the dominant initial step in the pyrolysis of vanillin. The hydrogen abstractions from functional groups of vanillin by the formed radicals play important roles in the formation of main products. Both formyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl group contribute to the formation of CO. Benzene is formed from the hydrogen addition reaction between hydrogen radical and phenol at high temperature.

  6. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  7. Molecular products and radicals from pyrolysis of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, J; Khachatryan, L; Dellinger, B

    2012-12-04

    Thermal degradation of lignin under two reaction regimes (pyrolysis in N(2) and oxidative pyrolysis in 4% O(2) in N(2)) has been investigated in a tubular, isothermal, flow-reactor over the temperature range 200-900 °C at a residence time of 0.2 s. Two experimental protocols were adopted: (1) Partial pyrolysis in which the same lignin sample was continuously pyrolyzed at each temperature and (2) conventional pyrolysis, in which new lignin samples were pyrolyzed at each pyrolysis temperature. The results identified common relationships between the two modes of experiments, as well as some differences. The majority of products from partial pyrolysis peaked between 300 and 500 °C, whereas for conventional pyrolysis reaction products peaked between 400 and 500 °C. The principal products were syringol (2,6-dimethoxy phenol), guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol), phenol, and catechol. Of the classes of compounds analyzed, the phenolic compounds were the most abundant, contributing over 40% of the total compounds detected. Benzene, styrene, and p-xylene were formed in significant amounts throughout the entire temperature range. Interestingly, six ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were formed during partial pyrolysis. Oxidative pyrolysis did not result in large differences from pyrolysis; the main products still were syringol, guaiacol, phenol, the only significant difference being the product distribution peaked between 200 and 400 °C. For the first time, low temperature matrix isolation electron paramagnetic resonance was successfully interfaced with the pyrolysis reactor to elucidate the structures of the labile reaction intermediates. The EPR results suggested the presence of methoxyl, phenoxy, and substituted phenoxy radicals as precursors for formation of major products; syringol, guaiacol, phenols, and substituted phenols.

  8. Optimization of Paper Discoloration via Pyrolysis Using Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Alhashem, Mayadah M.

    2017-04-01

    Printing ink is a main component of the modern printer, and it has always been throughout the history of printing. Ink and toners are expensive replaceable components that inkjet and laser printers cannot function without. The digital printing industry, which is majorly composed of monochrome printing, is expected to increase by 225% by 2024 from a 2013 baseline (Smithers et al., 2014). Expenses aside, toner cartridges and ink cartridges pose an overlooked threat to the environment. Manufacturing, packaging, transporting, and waste disposal of printer ink and toners result in carbon dioxide emissions. The complete elimination of ink in monochrome printing is potentially viable with the patented new discoloration technique. The patent studies a discoloration method by carbonizing a paper’s surface (Alhashem et al., 2015). The printing method optimizes surface paper pyrolysis via laser heating. The aim is obtaining the darkest possible shade without compromising paper quality. The challenge is in creating a printed area from the paper material itself, rather than depositing ink on paper. A 75-watt CO2 laser engraving machine emitting a 10.6 μm wavelength beam for heating is used with low power settings to carbonize a fraction of the paper surface. The carbonization is essentially a combustion reaction. Solid fuel burns in three stages: drying, devolatilization (pyrolysis, or distillation phase), and lastly, the char (charcoal) combustion. These stages are driven by heat from the CO2 laser. Moving the laser rapidly above the paper surface arrests the reaction at the second stage, after the formation of blackened char. The control variables in the experimental method are laser power, speed, and the vertical position that affects the laser intensity. Computer software controls these variables. The discoloration of paper is quantified by measuring the light absorptivity using a UV-Vis-IR Spectrometer.

  9. Structural study of ZnS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, H.H. [Minai Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Phys.; Mahmoud, S.A. [Minai Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Phys.; Ashour, A. [Minai Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Phys.

    1995-06-15

    Thin films of ZnS were prepared by spray pyrolysis. The effect of substrate temperature as well as deposition time and annealing in air and in a nitrogen atmosphere on some structural features was investigated by X-ray diffraction. At a substrate temperature of 300 C, ZnS appears almost in amorphous form. With rising substrate temperature, the crystallinity was improved. At 550 C, a well-crystallized cubic phase of ZnS was obtained. The films were preferably oriented with the left angle 111 right angle direction perpendicular to the surface. Annealing in air created ZnO, no evidence for oxides was found when annealing was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere. Therefore, using a spray pyrolysis technique with a substrate temperature of 500 C and annealing in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for about 120 min, one can obtain well-crystallized single-phase cubic ZnS thin films. ((orig.))

  10. Application of infrared spectroscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatography for characterisation of adhesive tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, Janina; Nowińska, Sabina; Kowalski, Rafał

    2016-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy and pyrolysis GC/MS were applied in the comparative analysis of adhesive tapes. By providing information about the polymer composition, it was possible to classify both backings and adhesives of tapes into defined chemical classes. It was found that samples of the same type (of backings and adhesives) and similar infrared spectra can in most cases be effectively differentiated using Py-GC/MS, sometimes based only on the presence of peaks of very low intensity originating from minor components. The results obtained enabled us to draw the conclusion that Py-GC/MS appears to be a valuable analytical technique for examining tapes, which is complementary to infrared spectroscopy. Identification of pyrolysis products enables discrimination of samples. Both methods also provide crucial information that is useful for identification of adhesive tapes found at the crime scene.

  11. Fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus waste in a conical spouted bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutio, Maider; Lopez, Gartzen; Alvarez, Jon; Olazar, Martin; Bilbao, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The fast pyrolysis of a forestry sector waste composed of Eucalyptus globulus wood, bark and leaves has been studied in a continuous bench-scale conical spouted bed reactor plant at 500°C. A high bio-oil yield of 75.4 wt.% has been obtained, which is explained by the suitable features of this reactor for biomass fast pyrolysis. Gas and bio-oil compositions have been determined by chromatographic techniques, and the char has also been characterized. The bio-oil has a water content of 35 wt.%, and phenols and ketones are the main organic compounds, with a concentration of 26 and 10 wt.%, respectively. In addition, a kinetic study has been carried out in thermobalance using a model of three independent and parallel reactions that allows quantifying this forestry waste's content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin.

  12. Controlled manufacturing of nanoparticles by the laser pyrolysis: Application to cementite iron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morjan, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, POB MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Alexandrescu, R., E-mail: ralexandrescu2001@yahoo.co.uk [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, POB MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, M.; Fleaca, C.; Dumitrache, F.; Soare, I.; Popovici, E.; Gavrila, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, POB MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, E. [METAV-CD, 31 Dr. C.A. Roseti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania); Ciupina, V. [' Ovidius' University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania); Popa, N.C. [Romanian Academy-Timisoara Branch, Magnetic Fluids Laboratory, Timisoara (Romania)

    2009-09-30

    The laser pyrolysis is an attractive technique for the synthesis of different nanostructures from gas-phase precursors. The characteristics of this synthesized method are here exemplified by the production of almost pure cementite Fe{sub 3}C nanomaterials, obtained by the pyrolysis of methyl methacrylate and iron pentacarbonyl (vapors). Those nanopowders exhibited core (Fe{sub 3}C)-shell (MMA polymer-based) morphologies and mean particle diameters of about 8-9 nm. Preliminary magnetic measurements indicate rather high values for the saturation magnetization. By irradiating the same reactive mixture with a lower intensity radiation, the chemical content of nanopowders shifts towards mixtures of iron and maghemite/magnetite iron oxides.

  13. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  14. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  15. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  16. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  17. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  20. Pyrolysis thermocatalytic of the residues generated in the process of oil refining; Pirolise termocatalitica de residuos gerados no processo de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Lima, Cicero de Souza; Araujo, Aruzza Mabel de Morais; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The pyrolysis process is a catalytic thermal defined as the degradation of waste which occurs by the action of temperature and presence of catalysts. Thus promoting disruption of the original molecular structure of a given compound by the catalytic action in an environment with little or no oxygen. Investigations have been developed in the pyrolysis due to be a promising technique, due to the application of catalytic materials. In this work, the catalyst used Al/MCM-41 was synthesized in a ratio Si / Al = 50 by the hydrothermal method. Being in this promising oil industry because of their structural characteristics. This material was characterized by XRD analysis, which was observed three major peaks typical of mesoporous materials. The analysis of the adsorption / desorption of nitrogen this material was performed to determine the textural parameters, which are peculiar to the mesoporous materials. The residue samples were characterized with a view to meet some properties such as through elemental analysis of the compounds and saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. The pyrolysis reaction system catalytic thermal residue is mounted to test the pyrolysis of residue pure and the Al-MCM-41. For both pyrolysis liquid fractions were obtained, gaseous and solid. And only the liquid fractions were characterized by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Thus, there was an increase in the range hydrocarbons (C6-C12 and C13-C17) for products obtained from the pyrolysis catalyst. (author)

  1. Magnetic carbon nanostructures: microwave energy-assisted pyrolysis vs. conventional pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Pallavkar, Sameer; Chen, Minjiao; Yerra, Narendranath; Luo, Zhiping; Colorado, Henry A; Lin, Hongfei; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Khasanov, Airat; Ho, Thomas C; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-01-11

    Magnetic carbon nanostructures from microwave assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shells from conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including nanotubes, nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite phase from the conventional process.

  2. Pyrolysis of hydrochar from digestate: Effect of hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis temperatures on pyrochar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapalli, Ravinder K; Wirth, Benjamin; Reza, M Toufiq

    2016-11-01

    Digestate from anaerobic digestion of biomass often contains more than 90% of water, which is economically unfavorable for pyrolysis. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has potential to treat very wet biomass, however, the hydrochar may be acidic, contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and toxic organic substances (e.g., phenolic compounds), and has very low Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. In this study, pyrolysis of digestate derived hydrochar is performed at various pyrolysis and HTC temperatures. Solid chars were characterized for elemental analysis, pH, PAH, BET, pore size and volume, and phenolic substances, while HTC process liquids were characterized for pH, organic acids, furfural derivatives, and phenolic substances. Physicochemical characteristics of pyro-HTC char were compared with corresponding pyrochar and hydrochar. Pyro-HTC chars produced at higher HTC (i.e., 260°C) and pyrolysis temperatures (i.e., 800°C) showed highest BET surface area (63.5m(2)g(-1)), no PAH, relatively mild basic pH (9.34), and no phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  4. Catalyst studies on the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Melian-Cabrera, I.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is considered an attractive technology for fast pyrolysis oil upgrading to liquid transportation fuels. We here report an experimental study to gain insights in catalyst stability when using Ru/C catalysts for the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil (350 degrees C and 200 b

  5. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  6. Pyrolysis oil upgrading by high pressure thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure thermal treatment (HPTT) is a new process developed by BTG and University of Twente with the potential to economically reduce the oxygen and water content of oil obtained by fast pyrolysis (pyrolysis oil), properties that currently complicate its co-processing in standard refineries. D

  7. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur; Bijl, Anton; Alst, van Niek; Bramer, Eddy; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  8. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  9. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  10. Preparation, properties, and bonding utilization of pyrolysis bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid increase in energy consumption, limited fossil fuel resource, and environmental concerns have stimulated the research need for biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation process of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The liquid product from pyrolysis is known as ...

  11. Delay of biomass pyrolysis by gas–particle interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    We apply a biomass pyrolysis model, based on the model developed by Haseli et al. , which can be used in combination with Direct Numerical Simulation. The pyrolysis model is combined with a model for particle tracking to simulate 3D turbulent particle-laden channel flow with biomass particles

  12. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been

  13. Catalyst studies on the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Melian-Cabrera, I.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is considered an attractive technology for fast pyrolysis oil upgrading to liquid transportation fuels. We here report an experimental study to gain insights in catalyst stability when using Ru/C catalysts for the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil (350 degrees C and 200 b

  14. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  15. Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters on the Performance of CMSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campo, Marta C.; Visser, Tymen; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Wessling, Matthias; Magalhaes, Fernao D.; Mendes, Adelio M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon hollow fiber membranes have been prepared by pyrolysis of a P84/S-PEEK blend. Proximate analysis of the precursor was performed using thermogravimetry (TGA), and a carbon yield of approximately 40% can be obtained. This study aimed at understanding the influence of pyrolysis parameters—end te

  16. Orientation-dependent low field magnetic anomalies and room-temperature spintronic material – Mn doped ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality un-doped and Mn-doped ZnO films deposited by a simple aerosol spray pyrolysis technique for 20 and 30 min were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques...

  17. Flash Pyrolysis and Fractional Pyrolysis of Oleaginous Biomass in a Fluidized-bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Brook

    Thermochemical conversion methods such as pyrolysis have the potential for converting diverse biomass feedstocks into liquid fuels. In particular, bio-oil yields can be maximized by implementing flash pyrolysis to facilitate rapid heat transfer to the solids along with short vapor residence times to minimize secondary degradation of bio-oils. This study first focused on the design and construction of a fluidized-bed flash pyrolysis reactor with a high-efficiency bio-oil recovery unit. Subsequently, the reactor was used to perform flash pyrolysis of soybean pellets to assess the thermochemical conversion of oleaginous biomass feedstocks. The fluidized bed reactor design included a novel feed input mechanism through suction created by flow of carrier gas through a venturi which prevented plugging problems that occur with a more conventional screw feeders. In addition, the uniquely designed batch pyrolysis unit comprised of two tubes of dissimilar diameters. The bottom section consisted of a 1" tube and was connected to a larger 3" tube placed vertically above. At the carrier gas flow rates used in these studies, the feed particles remained fluidized in the smaller diameter tube, but a reduction in carrier gas velocity in the larger diameter "disengagement chamber" prevented the escape of particles into the condensers. The outlet of the reactor was connected to two Allihn condensers followed by an innovative packed-bed dry ice condenser. Due to the high carrier gas flow rates in fluidized bed reactors, bio-oil vapors form dilute aerosols upon cooling which that are difficult to coalesce and recover by traditional heat exchange condensers. The dry ice condenser provided high surface area for inertial impaction of these aerosols and also allowed easy recovery of bio-oils after natural evaporation of the dry ice at the end of the experiments. Single step pyrolysis was performed between 250-610°C with a vapor residence time between 0.3-0.6s. At 550°C or higher, 70% of

  18. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin over nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Wook; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Lee, See Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin was performed using nanoporous catalysts. AI-MCM-41 and Meso-MFI, which had different acid characteristics, were used. In addition, the characteristics of Pt/Meso-MFI were compared with those of Meso-MFI. To analyze the characteristics of the catalyst samples, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses were performed. In addition, pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to facilitate the direct analysis of the pyrolytic products. The products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis contained a greater amount of valuable components than did those obtained from non-catalytic pyrolysis, indicating that catalytic pyrolysis improved the quality of the bio-oil. Additionally, valuable products such as furan and aromatic compounds were produced in greater quantities when Meso-MFI was used. When Pt/Meso-MFI was used, the amounts of furan and aromatic compounds produced increased even further.

  20. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  1. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  2. Pyrolysis of furan in a microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urness, Kimberly N.; Guan, Qi; Golan, Amir; Daily, John W.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Stanton, John F.; Ahmed, Musahid; Ellison, G. Barney

    2013-09-01

    A silicon carbide microtubular reactor has been used to measure branching ratios in the thermal decomposition of furan, C4H4O. The pyrolysis experiments are carried out by passing a dilute mixture of furan (approximately 0.01%) entrained in a stream of helium through the heated reactor. The SiC reactor (0.66 mm i.d., 2 mm o.d., 2.5 cm long) operates with continuous flow. Experiments were performed with a reactor inlet pressure of 100-300 Torr and a wall temperature between 1200 and 1600 K; characteristic residence times in the reactor are 60-150 μs. The unimolecular decomposition pathway of furan is confirmed to be: furan (+ M) rightleftharpoons α-carbene or β-carbene. The α-carbene fragments to CH2=C=O + HC≡CH while the β-carbene isomerizes to CH2=C=CHCHO. The formyl allene can isomerize to CO + CH3C≡CH or it can fragment to H + CO + HCCCH2. Tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectrometry is used to monitor the products and to measure the branching ratio of the two carbenes as well as the ratio of [HCCCH2]/[CH3C≡CH]. The results of these pyrolysis experiments demonstrate a preference for 80%-90% of furan decomposition to occur via the β-carbene. For reactor temperatures of 1200-1400 K, no propargyl radicals are formed. As the temperature rises to 1500-1600 K, at most 10% of the decomposition of CH2=C=CHCHO produces H + CO + HCCCH2 radicals. Thermodynamic conditions in the reactor have been modeled by computational fluid dynamics and the experimental results are compared to the predictions of three furan pyrolysis mechanisms. Uncertainty in the pressure-dependency of the initiation reaction rates is a possible a source of discrepancy between experimental results and theoretical predictions.

  3. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Co - pyrolysis of biomass and Polish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordylewski, Wlodzimierz; Stojanowska, Grazyna [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland); Jones, Jenny [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Inst.

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents results of studies of the chemical decomposition of coal, biomass and their blends during low rate heating gasification in atmosphere of air or nitrogen. Polish lignite (Turow), sawdust of pine and blends of these two fuels have been used in the research and it has been investigated the influence of ion exchanged calcium on their pyrolysis. The primary products of devolatilization provided important information for understanding subsequently the leading to toxic organic compounds and synergistic effects of these fuels. The influence of blending ratio and influence of calcium catalysts was discussed.

  5. [Characterization of pyrolysis of waste printed circuit boards by high-resolution pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Hong; Xia, Zhengbin; Chen, Huanqin

    2008-07-01

    Thermal degradation of pyrolysis of waste circuit boards was investigated by high-resolution pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGC-MS) and thermogravimetry (TG). In helium atmosphere, the products of FR-4 waste printed circuit board were pyrolyzed at 350, 450, 550, 650, and 750 degrees degrees C, separately, and the pyrolysis products were identified by online MS. The results indicated that the pyrolysis products of the FR-4 waste circuit board were three kinds of substances, such as the low boiling point products, phenol, bisphenol and their related products. Moreover, under 300 degrees degrees C, only observed less pyrolysis products. As the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the relative content of the low boiling point products increased. In the range of 450-650 degrees degrees C, the qualitative analysis and character were similar, and the relative contents of phenol and bisphenol were higher. The influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolyzate yields was studied. On the basis of the pyrolyzate profile and the dependence of pyrolyzate yields on pyrolysis temperature, the thermal degradation mechanism of brominated epoxy resin was proposed.

  6. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  7. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  8. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of

  9. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  10. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, E.A.; Seshan, K.; Brem, G.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatm

  11. Suspension Combustion of Wood: Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Yield, Morphology, and Reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperatur...

  12. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  13. Influence of minerals and added calcium on the pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanowska, G.; Jones, J.M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2005-09-01

    The pyrolysis behaviour was studied of two types of biomass (pine and wheat) and a Polish lignite (Turow) in the presence of minerals and ion-exchanged calcium using a variety of laboratory-scale methods including pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a FTIR spectrometer (TGA-FTIR). The degree of catalysis displayed by the calcium during pyrolysis of the ion-exchanged samples varied with the fuel used. Significant catalysis by calcium was observed in pyrolysis of pine, but only a small effect was seen for wheat and very little for coal. The inherent minerals also play a catalytic role in all the samples studied, but potassium is by far the most important in the pyrolysis of the raw wheat straw. The gases and light volatiles are influenced by the presence of catalytic metal. For catalysed pyrolysis of pine, a shift was seen in the gas evolution profiles of all monitored species (H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid) and the shape of the profiles of the volatile organics and methane also changed. In addition, new peaks were seen in the pyrolysis-GC-MS of the ion-exchanged pine, indicative of a different pyrolysis mechanism. In TGA experiments of co-pyrolysis, a lower char yield was measured from pine/coal mixtures than expected on an additive basis. However, the presence of calcium in one fuel did not appear to catalyse pyrolysis in the other fuel.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  16. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  17. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the thermal reactivities of isolated lignin and holocellulose during pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Woody shells of Turkish hazelnuts which are rich in lignin content offer an important potential as a renewable energy source. Hence, this study focuses on the investigation of the thermal reactivities of the real macromolecular ingredients of this biomass species. Hazelnut shells were treated with chemicals to isolate its holocellulose (hemicelluloses + cellulose) and lignin. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images revealed the significant differences between the physical features of the untreated biomass and its isolated ingredients. Thermal properties of the biomass and these ingredients were examined by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques under non-isothermal pyrolysis conditions from ambient to 900 C. It was found that unlike holocellulose, lignin slowly decomposes in a wider temperature range, and its decomposition is associated with exothermic heat flow. It was also concluded that the hemicellulosics in holocellulose have very important effects with respect to the char yield and the exothermicity of the process. Besides, inorganics in biomass play a catalytic role during pyrolysis. The activation energies calculated according to Borchardt-Daniels' kinetic model were 64.8 and 51.8 kJ/mol for the pyrolysis of holocellulose and lignin, respectively, and each of them is higher than that for the untreated biomass. (author)

  20. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Başak B; Kanmaz, Gülin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41 (10 wt % of the biomass sample) was carried out in order to increase the quality of the liquid product at the various pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550(o)C. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was obtained as 42% at 500(o)C in a fixed-bed reactor system. In the catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was decreased to 37.48, 30.04 and 29.23% in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41, respectively. The obtained pyrolysis oils were analyzed by various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. It was determined that the use of a catalyst decreased acids and increased valuable organics found in the bio-oil. The removal of oxygen from bio-oil was confirmed with the results of the elemental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  2. A newly designed ultrasonic spray pyrolysis device to fabricate YBCO tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Zhou, M. L.; Zhai, L. H.; Liu, D. M.; Gao, X.; Liu, W.

    2003-04-01

    A newly designed ultrasonic spray pyrolysis device has been manufactured to fabricate YBCO tapes. The apparatus is primarily composed of four zones: the ultrasonic generator, the atomization chamber, the pyrolysis chamber and the rotating equipment. Every part of them is designed and fabricated by us. The whole system costs far less than the ready-made equipment facility in which there is always a vacuum apparatus. This apparatus with processing parameters accurately controlled can fabricate short and long YBCO tapes. In this paper, we mainly focused on how to design and manufacture four parts of the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. We have deposited c-axis aligned short YBCO tapes on biaxially textured Ag {1 1 0} substrates with Jc=10 3 A/cm 2 using this method with our device. The method is very promising in terms of its precise control of metal compositions, high deposition rate and low cost non-vacuum approach. Improvements of this technique are being carried out to fabricate long YBCO tapes.

  3. Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shankar L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuels derived from algae biomass and algae lipids might reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Existing analytical techniques need to facilitate rapid characterization of algal species by phenotyping hydrocarbon-related constituents. Results In this study, we compared the hydrocarbon rich algae Botryococcus braunii against the photoautotrophic model algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using pyrolysis-gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (pyGC-MS. Sequences of up to 48 dried samples can be analyzed using pyGC-MS in an automated manner without any sample preparation. Chromatograms of 30-min run times are sufficient to profile pyrolysis products from C8 to C40 carbon chain length. The freely available software tools AMDIS and SpectConnect enables straightforward data processing. In Botryococcus samples, we identified fatty acids, vitamins, sterols and fatty acid esters and several long chain hydrocarbons. The algae species C. reinhardtii, B. braunii race A and B. braunii race B were readily discriminated using their hydrocarbon phenotypes. Substructure annotation and spectral clustering yielded network graphs of similar components for visual overviews of abundant and minor constituents. Conclusion Pyrolysis-GC-MS facilitates large scale screening of hydrocarbon phenotypes for comparisons of strain differences in algae or impact of altered growth and nutrient conditions.

  4. Pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust: Characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralı, Uğur; Yavuzel, Nazan; Şensöz, Sevgi

    2016-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust was performed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. The operational variables were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (400-600°C), heating rate (10-50°Cmin(-1)) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150cm(3)min(-1)). Physicochemical and thermogravimetric characterizations of hornbeam sawdust were performed. The characteristics of bio-oil and bio-char were analyzed on the basis of various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, 1H NMR, SEM, BET. Higher heating value, density and kinematic viscosity of the bio-oil with maximum yield of 35.28% were 23.22MJkg(-1), 1289kgm(-3) and 0.6mm(2)s(-1), respectively. The bio-oil with relatively high fuel potential can be obtained from the pyrolysis of the hornbeam sawdust and the bio-char with a calorific value of 32.88MJkg(-1) is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment.

  5. Photochemistry Aspects of the Laser Pyrolysis Addressing the Preparation of Oxide Semiconductor Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alexandrescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser pyrolysis is a powerful and a versatile tool for the gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. In this paper, some fundamental and applicative characteristics of this technique are outlined and recent results obtained in the preparation of gamma iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3 and titania (TiO2 semiconductor nanostructures are illustrated. Nanosized iron oxide particles (4 to 9 nm diameter values have been directly synthesized by the laser-induced pyrolysis of a mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl/air (as oxidizer/ethylene (as sensitizer. Temperature-dependent Mossbauer spectroscopy shows that mainly maghemite is present in the sample obtained at higher laser power. The use of selected Fe2O3 samples for the preparation of water-dispersed magnetic nanofluids is also discussed. TiO2 nanoparticles comprising a mixture of anatase and rutile phases were synthesized via the laser pyrolysis of TiCl4- (vapors based gas-phase mixtures. High precursor concentration of the oxidizer was found to favor the prevalent anatase phase (about 90% in the titania nanopowders.

  6. United States housing, fourth quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of 2013, the U.S. housing construction market indicated increases in all sectors; yet, by the fourth quarter’s end, only housing under construction improved. Moderation and declines are to be expected in the fourth quarter, as winter is setting in. Permits, starts, housing under construction, completions, and new and existing house sales all exceeded...

  7. United States housing, second quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. housing market’s quarter two results were disap¬pointing compared with the first quarter. Although overall expected gains did not materialize, certain sectors improved slightly. Housing under construction, completions, and new and existing home sales exhibited slight increases. Overall permit data declined, and the decrease in starts was due primarily to a...

  8. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  10. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  11. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  12. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  13. Mass spectrometric studies of fast pyrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenstein, John; Hurt, Matt; Murria, Priya; Easton, McKay; Choudhari, Harshavardhan; Yang, Linan; Riedeman, James; Carlsen, Mark; Nash, John; Agrawal, Rakesh; Delgass, W.; Ribeiro, Fabio; Kenttämaa, Hilkka

    2015-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis probe/linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer combination was used to study the primary fast pyrolysis products (those that first leave the hot pyrolysis surface) of cellulose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose, as well as of cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan, at 600°C. Similar products with different branching ratios were found for the oligosaccharides and cellulose, as reported previously. However, identical products (with the exception of two) with similar branching ratios were measured for cellotriosan (and cellopentosan) and cellulose. This result demonstrates that cellotriosan is an excellent small-molecule surrogate for studies of the fast pyrolysis of cellulose and also that most fast pyrolysis products of cellulose do not originate from the reducing end. Based on several observations, the fast pyrolysis of cellulose is suggested to initiate predominantly via two competing processes: the formation of anhydro-oligosaccharides, such as cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan (major route), and the elimination of glycolaldehyde (or isomeric) units from the reducing end of oligosaccharides formed from cellulose during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  15. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  16. PYROLYSIS/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY OF A SERIES OF BURIED WOODS AND COALIFIED LOGS THAT INCREASE IN RANK FROM PEAT TO SUBBITUMINOUS COAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Lerch, Harry E.; Kotra, Rama K.; Verheyen, Vincent T.

    1987-01-01

    To better understand the coalification process, we have conducted numerous studies of the chemical structural composition of xylem tissue from gymosperm wood and related woods that has been coalified to varying degrees. The studies presented here, examine the chemical nature of buried and coalified xylem tissue at the molecular level. To achieve this, we employed pyrolysis/gas chromatography (py/gc) and pyrolysis/gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms). Pyrolysis techniques have been used to examine peat, coal, coalified wood, and related substances. However, the technique has not been previously applied to a systematic and histologically-related series of coalified woods. It is particularly useful to compare the results from pyrolytic studies with the data obtained from solid-state **1**3C NMR.

  17. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  18. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  20. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Chang, Jie

    2008-11-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 degrees C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 degrees C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) approximately 205 degrees C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  1. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  2. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  3. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase.

  4. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Isotope Characterization of Organic Intermediaries in Hydrothermal Hydrocarbon Synthesis by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-C-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    We report results of experiments designed to characterize the carbon isotope composition of intermediate organic compounds produced as a result of mineral surface catalyzed reactions. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history. Abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars, and measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible isotope measurements. Our isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Specrometry (Py-GC-MS-C-IRMS). Others have conducted similar pyrolysis-IRMS experiments on low molecular weight organic acids (Dias, et al, Organic Geochemistry, 33 [2002]). Our technique differs in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the organic compounds. A sample of carboxylic acid (mixture of C1 through C6) was pyrolyzed at 100 XC and passed through the GC-MS-C-IRMS (combusted at 940 XC). In order to test the reliability of our technique we compared the _13C composition of different molecular weight organic acids (from C1 through C6) extracted individually by the traditional sealed-tube cupric oxide combustion (940 XC) method with the _13C produced by our pyrolysis technique. Our data indicate that an average 4.3. +/-0.5. (V

  6. Study of the transference rules for bromine in waste printed circuit boards during microwave-induced pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Wenlong; Liu, Zhen; Ma, Chunyuan

    2011-05-01

    The production of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has drawn increasing global concern, especially because the high bromine (Br) content (5-15%) places obstacles in the way of simple disposal techniques. Microwave-induced pyrolysis of WPCBs provides a promising way to dispose of these hazardous and resource-filled wastes. The transference rules for Br during microwave-induced pyrolysis have been investigated experimentally. It was found that the microwave energy could be used more efficiently to accelerate the heating rate and improve the final pyrolysis temperature by adding some activated carbon (AC) as microwave absorbents. The high temperature and rapid pyrolysis process promoted the yields of gaseous products and the decomposition of brominated compounds into hydrogen bromide and then benefited the capture of Br and the debromination of byproducts. The application of a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) layer overhead led to over 95% debromination of the liquid products and over 50% capture of the total Br. It can be concluded that the presented method is suitable for the control of Br transference in the recycling of WPCBs. This method can also be extended to the disposal of the electronic scraps.

  7. PYROLYSIS KINETICS OF WASHED PRECIPITATED LIGNIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gustafsson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the pyrolysis behavior of precipitated washed lignin in a Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor between 700 and 1000°C and at different residence times. Lignin was precipitated by acidification of softwood black liquor using CO2. After acid washing, the solid material was dried and sieved (80-100 μm. This material was then fed into the reactor at a rate of about 0.1 g/min. The formed gases were analyzed with respect to CO, CO2, and CH4, and char was collected and weighed. A traditional first order Arrhenius kinetic expression, based on the temperature of the particles with respect to residence time, was adapted to the experimental results. The activation energy was found to be 32.1 kJ/mol. The low ash content in the washed lignin gave a very low solid material residue after the reactor.

  8. Zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciąg Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we developed and tested spray pyrolysis system for layers deposition. In the system we have used ultrasonic apparatus (nebulizator as a sprayer. A zinc nitrate aqueous solution has been used as a precursor solution. The idea of the method is the decomposition of nitrate on a hot substrate according to the reaction Zn(NO32 → ZnO +2 NO2 +1/2O2. The layers were grown on glass, (001Si and KCl substrates at the temperatures 300 – 500°C. The thickness of the obtained layers was in the range 50 – 500 nm, depending on the growth time and rate. The influence of substrate temperature on the morphology of the layers has been studied by SEM method. The energy gap of the layers was found to be the range of 3.26-3.3 eV from their absorption spectra.

  9. Zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciąg, Andrzej; Sagan, Piotr; Kuźma, Marian; Popovych, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    In this work we developed and tested spray pyrolysis system for layers deposition. In the system we have used ultrasonic apparatus (nebulizator) as a sprayer. A zinc nitrate aqueous solution has been used as a precursor solution. The idea of the method is the decomposition of nitrate on a hot substrate according to the reaction Zn(NO3)2 → ZnO +2 NO2 +1/2O2. The layers were grown on glass, (001)Si and KCl substrates at the temperatures 300 - 500°C. The thickness of the obtained layers was in the range 50 - 500 nm, depending on the growth time and rate. The influence of substrate temperature on the morphology of the layers has been studied by SEM method. The energy gap of the layers was found to be the range of 3.26-3.3 eV from their absorption spectra.

  10. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  11. Biofuel from fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-09-04

    This review addresses recent developments in biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by catalytic hydrotreating. The research in the field has expanded dramatically in the past few years with numerous new research groups entering the field while existing efforts from others expand. The issues revolve around the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Much work in batch reactor tests with precious metal catalysts needs further validation to verify long-term operability in continuous flow systems. The effect of the low level of sulfur in bio-oil needs more study to be better understood. Utilization of the upgraded bio-oil for feedstock to finished fuels is still in an early stage of understanding.

  12. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  13. Limonene ethers from tire pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanciulescu, Maria; Ikura, Michio [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-01

    Tire pyrolysis oil was produced by EnerVision Inc., Halifax, Canada using the continuous ablative reactor (CAR) system. The tire oil was separated by distillation into several fractions. Naphtha and limonene enriched naphtha were reacted with methanol over different catalysts. Batch experiments were carried out to separate limonene as methyl limonene ethers. Whole tire pyrolysis oil was distilled and the resulting distillates were redistilled to separate the limonene (bp about 176{sup o}C). Vacuum distillation yielded on average 25.5wt% naphtha containing 16.3wt% limonene (average). Redistillation increased the limonene concentration to approximately 32-37wt%. The conversion of limonene (mono-terpene) to limonene ethers (terpenoides) shifted the boiling point of the limonene derivatives out of the naphtha boiling range (IBP -190{sup o}C). This allowed the separation of fragrant limonene ethers from foul smelling naphtha. Alkoxylation reactions were performed mostly using methanol and acidic catalysts. The methyl ether [1-methyl-4-({alpha}-methoxy-isopropyl)-1-cyclohexene] has a boiling point of about 198{sup o}C which is higher than the end boiling point of the naphtha cut. Five heterogeneous catalysts (four zeolites and one ion exchange resin) were tested in a batch reactor. {beta}-Zeolite produced excellent results. The reaction of R-(+)-limonene with methanol in the presence of activated {beta}-zeolite yielded methyl ether, 87.5% at selectivity 89.7% with a maximum of 2h reaction time. Limonene conversion from whole naphtha to ethers was also high. (author)

  14. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  15. Hydrogen Generator by Methane Pyrolysis with Carbon Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop, fabricate, and test a system to provide 99.999% hydrogen by efficiently performing methane pyrolysis. The system has three unique...

  16. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...... liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil...... to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability...

  17. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    Lignin, sewage sludge and macroalg ae (nonconventional biomasses) fast pyrolysis properties has been studied through experimental investigations on a la boratory Pyrolysis Centrifugal Reactor (PCR) and a model on lignin pyrolysis have been developed. Fu rthermore the nonconventional biomass...... ethanol plant a bio-oil can be produced with oil yields of 36% (daf) and an oil en ergy recovery of 45%. This is a relatively low bio-oil yield compared to other feedstock’s, however, it may increase the value of the lignin residual product, such that the lignin char is used for combustion on the ethanol...... plant, and the bio-oil is sold for use on heavy oil burners. The macroalgae is a promising feedstock w ith a high bio-oil yield of 54 wt% daf and an energy recovery of 76 % in the liquid oil. Detailed characteriza tion of the pyrolysis products in the form of bio-oil, gas and char has been performed...

  18. High temperature SU-8 pyrolysis for fabrication of carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Yasmin Mohamed; Caviglia, Claudia; Hemanth, Suhith

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the investigation of the pyrolysis parameters at high temperature (1100 °C) for the fabrication of two-dimensional pyrolytic carbon electrodes. The electrodes were fabricated by pyrolysis of lithographically patterned negative epoxy based photoresist SU-8. A central...... composite experimental design was used to identify the influence of dwell time at the highest pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on electrical, electrochemical and structural properties of the pyrolytic carbon: Van der Pauw sheet resistance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon. The results show that the temperature increase from 900 °C to 1100 °C improves the electrical and electrochemical properties. At 1100 °C, longer dwell time leads to lower resistivity, while the variation of the pyrolysis...

  19. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible microwave plasma methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  20. Studies on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Daqing Atmospheric Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥海; 徐春明; 张倩; 高金森

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of Daqing atmospheric residue on catalyst CEP-1 was investigated in a confined fluidized bed reactor. The results show that reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil have significant effects on product distribution and yields of light olefins. The yields of light olefins show the maxima with the increase of reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil, respectively. The optimized operating conditions were determined in the laboratory, and under that condition the yields of ethylene, propylene and total light olefins by mass were 15.9%, 20.7% and 44.3% respectively. The analysis of pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis liquid indicates that CEP-1 has good capacity of converting heavy oils into light olefins, and there is a large amount of aromatics in pyrolysis liquid.

  1. A plasma-arc pyrolysis system for hazardous waste treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A laboratory system for the treatment of medical and hazardous wastes via AC plasma-arc pyrolysis was recently built up by a research team led by Prof. SHENG Hongzhi at the CAS Institute of Mechanics (IMECH) in Beijing.

  2. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery.

  3. Thermal analysis of charring materials based on pyrolysis interface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Charring thermal protection systems have been used to protect hypersonic vehicles from high heat loads. The pyrolysis of charring materials is a complicated physical and chemical phenomenon. Based on the pyrolysis interface model, a simulating approach for charring ablation has been designed in order to obtain one dimensional transient thermal behavior of homogeneous charring materials in reentry capsules. As the numerical results indicate, the pyrolysis rate and the surface temperature under a given heat flux rise abruptly in the beginning, then reach a plateau, but the temperature at the bottom rises very slowly to prevent the structural materials from being heated seriously. Pyrolysis mechanism can play an important role in thermal protection systems subjected to serious aerodynamic heat.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Pyrolysis of Isopsoralen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-zhong Yang; Feng Zhang; Liang-yuan Jia; Li-dong Zhang; Fei Qi; Hai-yan Fan; Ji-bao Cai

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis of isopsoralen was studied by synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry at low pressure.The pyrolysis products were detected at different photon energies,the ratios of products to precursor were measured at various pyrolysis temperatures.The experimental results demonstrate that the main pyrolysis products are primary CO and sequential CO elimination products (C10H6O2 and C9H6O).The decomposition channels of isopsoralen were also studied by the density functional theory,then rate constants for competing pathways were calculated by the transition state theory.The dominant decomposition channels of isopsoralen and the molecular structures for corresponding products were identified bv combined experimental and theoretical studies.

  5. Pyrolysis of biomass briquettes, modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, B; Lammers, G; Beenackers, AACM; Kopetz, H; Weber, T; Palz, W; Chartier, P; Ferrero, GL

    1998-01-01

    Carbonisation of biomass briquettes was studied using a dedicated single briquette carbonisation reactor. The reactor enabled continuous measurement of the briquette mass and continuous measurement of the radial temperature profile in the briquette. Furthermore pyrolysis gas production and compositi

  6. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  7. Econometric Methods within Romanian Quarterly National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Marineta Drăguşin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to synthesise the main econometric methods (including the mathematical and statistical ones used in the Romanian Quarterly National Accounts compilation, irrespectively of Quarterly Gross Domestic Product (QGDP. These methods are adapted for a fast manner to operatively provide information about the country macroeconomic evolution to interested users. In this context, the mathematical and econometric methods play an important role in obtaining quarterly accounts valued in current prices and in constant prices, in seasonal adjustments and flash estimates of QGDP.

  8. The identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern paints and modern paintings using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joanna; Singer, Brian W; Perry, Justin J; Bacon, Anne

    2011-05-01

    A collection of more than 70 synthetic organic pigments were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We report on the analysis of diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole, isoindolinone and perylene pigments which are classes not previously reported as being analysed by this technique. We also report on a number of azo pigments (2-naphthol, naphthol AS, arylide, diarylide, benzimidazolone and disazo condensation pigments) and phthalocyanine pigments, the Py-GC-MS analysis of which has not been previously reported. The members of each class were found to fragment in a consistent way and the pyrolysis products are reported. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of paints used by the artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), to simultaneously identify synthetic organic pigments and synthetic binding media in two samples of paint taken from Bacon's studio and micro-samples taken from three of his paintings and one painting attributed to him.

  9. Comparison for the compositions of fast and slow pyrolysis oils by NMR characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Haoxi; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2013-11-01

    The pyrolysis of softwood (SW) kraft lignin and pine wood in different pyrolysis systems were examined at 400, 500 and 600 °C. NMR including quantitative (13)C and Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC)-NMR, and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize various pyrolysis oils. The content of methoxyl groups decreased by 76% for pine wood and 70% for lignin when using fast pyrolysis system. The carbonyl groups also decreased by 76% and nearly completely eliminated in 600 °C pine wood fast pyrolysis oil. Compared to the slow pyrolysis process, fast pyrolysis process was found to improve the cleavage of methoxyl groups, aliphatic CC bonds and carbonyl groups and produce more polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from lignin and aliphatic CO bonds from carbohydrates. Another remarkable difference between fast and slow pyrolysis oils was the molecular weight of fast pyrolysis oils increased by 85-112% for pine wood and 104-112% for lignin.

  10. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  11. Sulfur Transformation during Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Chen, Lin; Yin, Linlin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-03

    The sulfur distributions and evolution of sulfur-containing compounds in the char, tar and gas fractions were investigated during the microwave and conventional pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Increased accumulation of sulfur in the char and less production of H2S were obtained from microwave pyrolysis at higher temperatures (500-800 °C). Three similar conversion pathways were identified for the formation of H2S during microwave and conventional pyrolysis. The cracking of unstable mercaptan structure in the sludge contributed to the release of H2S below 300 °C. The decomposition of aliphatic-S compounds in the tars led to the formation of H2S (300-500 °C). The thermal decomposition of aromatic-S compounds in the tars generated H2S from 500 to 800 °C. However, the secondary decomposition of thiophene-S compounds took place only in conventional pyrolysis above 700 °C. Comparing the H2S contributions from microwave and conventional pyrolysis, the significant increase of H2S yields in conventional pyrolysis was mainly attributed to the decomposition of aromatic-S (increasing by 10.4%) and thiophene-S compounds (11.3%). Further investigation on the inhibition mechanism of H2S formation during microwave pyrolysis confirmed that, with the special heating characteristics and relative shorter residence time, microwave pyrolysis promoted the retention of H2S on CaO and inhibited the secondary cracking of thiophene-S compounds at higher temperatures.

  12. Experiments and Modelling of Coal Pyrolysis under Fluidized Bed Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYongzhe; XuXiangdong; 等

    1999-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of two Chinese coals has been investigated in a laboratory-scale bubbling fluidized bed system in Siegen University,Germany,Experimental equipment and procedure are introduced.The amounts of pyrolysis species of each coal were measured,calcuated and compared.A new method was presented to determine the needed parameters in FG-DVC model with the experimental results instead of other much more complicated experiments.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis 4th Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 84 reportable events (29 from the 4th quarter fiscal year 2016 and 55 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 39 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (two from this quarter and 37 from the prior three quarters).

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis for the 1st Quarter FY2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 82 reportable events (13 from the 1st quarter (Qtr) of fiscal year (FY) 2017 and 68 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 31 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (seven from this quarter and 24 from the prior three quarters).

  15. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  16. Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Wheat Straw in a Pressurized Entrained Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Gjernes, Erik; Hansen, Lars Kresten

    1996-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been an interest for pressurized combustion and gasification of solid fuels in power plants due to the potential for high efficiency. The utilization of new types of solid fuels for pressurized combustion and gasification depends on char yield and char reactivity...... at relevant conditions. The pressurized entrained now reactor designed at Rise is introduced. Pyrolysis and combustion at 10 and 20 bar pressure have been studied using pulverized wheat straw. Samples of partly reacted particles are collected, and the conversion is calculated using the ash tracer technique...

  17. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of wood: temperature profiles and solid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceamanos, J.; Bilbao, R.; Aldea, M.E.; Betran, M.; Mastral, J.F. [University of Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The development of techniques for the production of electricity by pyrolysis and combustion of biomass must take into account the behaviour of large particles under very different experimental conditions. In this work the influences of the variable heat flux, the moisture content of the sample and the atmosphere surrounding the particle have been studied. The mathematical model developed takes into account variable thermal properties, variation of temperature and enthalpy of water vaporization with water content, and thermal decomposition kinetics previously obtained by thermogravimetry. It predicts temperature and moisture profiles inside the solid as well as the global conversion. The results obtained agree with the experimental results for most conditions. (author)

  18. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  19. Production and characterization of chars from cherry pulp via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, E; Özbay, N; Yargıç, A S; Şahin, R Z

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar. Proximate, ultimate, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on cherry pulp and its chars to examine the chemical alterations after the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, based on experimental results. Porous biochars are carbon rich and includes high potassium content. The aromaticity of biochars increased and O/C mass ratio reduced with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature as a result of the development of compact aromatic structure in char. Pyrolysis provides a promising conversion procedure for the production of high energy density char which has promising applications in existing coal-fired boilers without any upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s......) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at the CHEC center at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. The reactor is a compact design that uses a low flow rate...... constructed as a mobile unit of a tractor-propelled vehicle that is used on straw fields. A lot of work on PCR straw and wood pyrolysis with respect to pyrolysis conditions, moisture feedstock content, bio-oil properties, and PCR modelling is done before this PhD project. The bio-oil yields of approximately...

  1. Study on pyrolysis and gasification of wood in MSW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop municipal solid waste(MSW) pyrolysis/gasification and melting technology with low emission and high efficiency, it was planed that all the main components in MSW and some typical kinds of MSW were pyrolyzed/gasified to propose an expert system for raw MSW. In this paper, wood, which was a prevalent component in MSW, was pyrolyzed and gasified in fluidized-bed reactors at different apparent excess air ratios (EARs), temperatures and fluidizing velocities. For pyrolysis, with temperature increasing from 400℃ to 700℃, the yield of pyrolysis char decreased while that of pyrolysis gas increased (in this paper respectively from 28% to 20% and from 10% to 35%), and when temperature was 500℃, the yield of pyrolysis tar reached the highest,up to 38% in this paper. It was the optimum for gasification when temperature was 600℃ and apparent EAR was 0.4. Under the experimental conditions of this paper, gasification efficiency achieved 73%, lower heat value(LHV) reached 5800 kJ/(Nm3) and yield of syngas was 2.01 Nm3/kg. Lower fluidizing velocity was useful to upgrade gasification efficiency and LHV of syngas for wood gasification. Based on the results, the reactive courses and mechanism were analyzed respectively for wood pyrolysis and gasification.

  2. Preparation of doping titania antibacterial powder by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shun-wen; PENG Bing; CHAI Li-yuan; LIU Yun-chao; LI Zhu-ying

    2008-01-01

    Doping titania powders were synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method from an aqueous solution containing H2TiF6 and AgNO3. The effects of the processing parameters on panicle size distribution, structure, and morphology of doping panicles were investigated. The results show that aggregation-free spherical panicles with average diameter of 200-600 nm are obtained and the particle size of the powder can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of solution. The experimental approach indicates that the size and the value of standard deviation of panicle size increase from 210 nm to 450 nm and from 0.46 to 0.73 respectively with the increase of the titanic ion concentration from 0.05 to 0.4 mol/L. Composite TiOF2 is obtained when the pyrolysis temperature is set to be 400 ℃. With increasing pyrolysis temperature from 400 ℃ to 800 ℃, the crystal size of titania powders increases from 14.1 to 26.5 nm and TiOF2 content of powder decreases dramatically. The property of ion released from powder is affected significantly by the pyrolysis temperature, and the amount of fluorine ion and silver ion released from powder decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The optical property of doping titania powders is not affected by pyrolysis temperature. Antibacterial test results show that composite powders containing more fluorine ions exhibit stronger antibacterial activity against E.coli.

  3. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  4. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.

    1983-10-01

    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  5. Characterization of Undoped and Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited on Glass Substrates by Spray Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Bedir; Mustafa (O)ztas; A. Necmeddin Yazici; E. Vural Kafadar

    2006-01-01

    @@ Undoped and copper doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. The films were doped with copper using the direct method by addition of a copper salt (CuCl2) in the spray solution of ZnO. Variation of structural, electrical, optical and thermoluminescence (TL) properties with doping concentrations is investigated in detail.

  6. In Situ Synthesis and Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles with Different Morphologies on Glass and ITO Substrate by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    María de la Garza; Israel López; Idalia Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and deposited in situ by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. This technique led to the formation of gold nanoparticles with different morphologies without the use of any capping agent. The gold nanoparticles deposited on glass substrate were obtained as nanospheres with an average particle size of 30 nm with some agglomerates; however, the nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were obtained with different morphologi...

  7. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures.

  8. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, N. Ben, E-mail: Nabil.Benmansour@fsg.rnu.tn [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); Najeh, I.; Mansouri, S. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); El Mir, L. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Gabès University, Faculty of Sciences in Gabès, Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in carbon structures. • Presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. • DC conductivity exhibited the presence of conduction percolation phenomenon and the dominance of conduction model 3D-GVRH in the studied materials. • From AC conductance PF/Ni nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. • Appearance of a negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature in the sample treated at 600 °C. - Abstract: Carbon–nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol–gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage–current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model.

  9. Evaluating pyrolysis-GC/MS and 13C CPMAS NMR in conjunction with a molecular mixing model of the Penido Vello peat deposit, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, J.; Baldock, J.A.; Buurman, P.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Pontevedra-Pombal, X.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.

    2007-01-01

    We performed solid state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and pyrolysis¿gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py¿GC/MS) on the Penido Vello peat deposit located in Galicia, NW Spain. Often regarded as complementary techniques, solid st

  10. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  11. 76 FR 22910 - ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Notice... c. Southwest Renewable Energy Development and Historic Preservation Working Group IX. New Business...

  12. Research Progress of Technologies for Tar Production during Coal Pyrolysis%煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺新福; 杨蕾; 吴红菊; 周安宁

    2014-01-01

    Coal pyrolysis was an important technique for coal conversion.Coal tar , one of the products , was an important raw material for liquid fuels and chemicals.The technologies including pretreatment of coal , change of atmosphere , catalytic pyrolysis and catalytic hydropyrolysis , co -pyrolysis with other material and novel integrated pyrolysis technology were stated that can improve tar yield during coal pyrolysis process , the factors that effected tar yield and the mechanisms were discussed , as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each processes.%煤热解是一种重要的煤炭分质利用技术,中低温热解焦油是制取液体燃料和化学品的重要原料。本文从对煤进行预处理、改变热解气氛、催化热解与催化加氢热解、煤与其它物质共热解、新型耦合热解工艺等方面综述了煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展,探讨了影响煤热解过程焦油产率的因素及机理,并对各工艺进行了评价。

  13. Pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment: effect of antinomy trioxide on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W J; Bhaskar, T; Merpati, N M M; Muto, A; Sakata, Y; Williams, P T

    2007-09-01

    This work has investigated the effect that antimony trioxide has on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers and the effect that different types of brominated flame retardants used in plastics have on the composition of the pyrolysis products. Brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) which contained either 5% or 0% antimony trioxide and either decabromodiphenyl oxide (DDO) or decabromodiphenyl ethane (DDE) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 430 degrees C. Some experiments on the fixed bed reactor involved mixing the Br-HIPS with polystyrene. The gaseous products were analysed by GC-FID and GC-TCD and it was found that antimony trioxide caused an increase in the proportion of ethane and ethene and suppressed the proportion of butane and butene. When DDE was the flame retardant increased proportions of ethane and ethene were found in the pyrolysis gas compared to when DDO used. When polystyrene was mixed with the Br-HIPS it suppressed the trends observed in the gas composition during the pyrolysis of Br-HIPS. The pyrolysis oils were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS, GC-FID, and GC-ECD. It was found that the plastic which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form mainly toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cumene, and alpha-methylstyrene. The oils produced from the pyrolysis of the plastic that contained antimony trioxide did not contain any styrene or alpha-methylstyrene, but instead contained greater concentrations of ethylbenzene and cumene. The absence of styrene and alpha-methylstyrene from the pyrolysis oil occurred even when the Br-HIPS was mixed with polystyrene. GC-ECD analysis of the oils showed that the plastics which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form (1-bromoethyl)benzene, which was totally absent from the pyrolysis oils when antimony trioxide was present in the plastic.

  14. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory safeguards and security quarterly progress report to the US Department of Energy, quarter ending March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Strait, R.S.; Mansur, D.L.; Davis, G.

    1993-04-01

    This quarterly report discusses activities in the Safeguards Technology Program (STP) which is a program in LLNL`s Nuclear Chemistry Division that develop advanced, nondestructive-analysis (NDA) technology for measurement of special nuclear materials. The work focuses on R&D relating to x{minus} and gamma-ray spectrometry techniques and to the development of computer codes for interpreting the spectral data obtained by these techniques.

  16. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4

  17. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  19. Current issues and future directions in pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-02-01

    Biomass is a diverse grouping of low energy content, low density and high moisture heterogenous materials. An overview of pyrolysis processes and procedures was presented with a list of potential applications for industrial processes and power generation. The chemical energy content of various fuels was presented and with the advantages of pyrolysis with reference to improved transport, handling and storage. Details of technical requirements were outlined along with some of the undesirable characteristics of biofuel including the highly corrosive nature of the fuel, pungency, high solids content, immiscibility with hydrocarbon fuels and the fact that over time, chemical composition shifts, resulting in increased viscosity and decreased volatility. Various issues concerning pyrolysis regarding current technologies, composition and standards, applications and biorefinery feedstock were summarized. A flow chart presenting the conversion of biomass to biofuel was provided. Various reactor types were also overviewed and included such as fluidized beds, transport, heated augers, vacuum pyrolysis and ablative and rotating cones. Details of pilot plants in Erie and Renfrew, Ontario were provided along with details of a plant in Alabama operating entirely on chicken litter. Various specifications for pyrolysis oils were presented. A chart of biofuel composition in mass fractions was provided, with an accompanying list of commonly quoted pyrolysis oil properties. A series of biofuel combustion tests conducted at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) in Ottawa were described. Photographs of the pre-test refractory were exhibited. Details of current research on drying kiln applications were outlined. The suitability of pyrolytic biofuel for producing microemulsion fuels was discussed. A biorefinery model was included. Challenges to biomass pyrolysis include feed preparation, scale-up issues, heat transfer to reactor rates, char separation, liquid collection, liquid quality

  20. Investigating AGN Variability Using Combined Multi-Quarter Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revalski, Mitchell; Nowak, D.; Wiita, P. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Unwin, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    The study of long and short term variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN) yields deeper insight into the physical nature of their emissions from the accretion disk around, and relativistic jets powered by, a galaxy’s central super-massive black hole. We have now obtained a total of eleven quarters of Kepler data on four radio-loud AGN. Our prior work involved calculating power spectral densities (PSDs) on these data both with and without corrections for various instrumental artifacts. We now focus on combining these data sets into one continuous set for each object which spans approximately 2.5 years at a 30 minute sampling rate with >98% duty cycle. The process of stringing together these data is complicated by the quarterly rolls the Kepler space satellite telescope conducts, which causes each target to fall on a different CCD four times per year. We attempt to overcome this problem with a scaling procedure that maintains the original percentage of variations and scales all eleven quarters to the overall average. We calculate PSDs on these stitched light curves both with and without various end-matching techniques applied to increase the accuracy of the PSDs. The PSDs computed for the stitched light curves allow us to probe a full decade lower in frequency than our previous work and show comparable slopes to the PSDs calculated for individual quarters, suggesting we are linking the quarters appropriately. Our average PSD slopes are consistent with ground based observations of other quasars, falling approximately between -1.6 and -1.9. In addition, we have used original codes to bin and average individual PSDs to reduce the bias introduced on the slope fitting process induced by the uneven population of points in the PSDs. This allows for a more accurate power law fitting and tends to steepen the overall slope by approximately 0.1 in the majority of cases. We note increased flaring in one of our objects on the order of 15%, with our remaining three objects

  1. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  2. Pyrolysis of electrical and electronic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, I.; Caballero, B.M.; Chomon, M.J.; Laresgoiti, M.F.; Torres, A.; Fernandez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela T.S. de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Arnaiz, S. [Centro Tecnologico GAIKER, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 2002, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been carried out. Four type of samples coming from real WEEEs streams, including wires of polyethylene (PE), table phones, mobile phones and printed circuit boards (PCB) have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5 dm{sup 3} autoclave at 500 C for 30 min. PE wires yield 44.1 wt.% of wax-like liquids, 23 wt.% gases and a solid product mainly composed of Cu and Al together with some char formed during the process. Table and mobile phones give quite similar results, 53 and 57 wt.%, respectively of brown-coloured fluid liquids, {approx}12 wt.% gases and a solid which contains several metals (Cu, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, etc.) together with a significant amount of char ({approx}50% with respect to solids). Printed circuit boards yield only 16.2 wt.% brown-coloured fluid liquids and 7.3 wt.% gases, and leave 76.5 wt.% of solids which include a wide variety of metals (from Fe to precious metals) which are present in the original circuit board waste. In all the cases the polymer-free metals may be separated and recycled, the gases may be enough energy sources to self-sustain the process and the liquids may have a potential use as energy or chemicals source. (author)

  3. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is...

  4. Atmospheric Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapor by MoO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Le, Duy Michael

    2016-01-01

    MoO3 has been tested as a catalyst in hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of both model compounds (acetone and guaiacol) and real biomass pyrolysis vapors under atmospheric pressure. The pyrolysis vapor was obtained by fast pyrolysis of wood or lignin in a continuous fast pyrolysis reactor at a fixed...... temperature of 500 °C, and it subsequently passed through a downstream, close coupled, fixed bed reactor containing the MoO3 catalyst. The influences of the catalyst temperature and the concentration of H2 on the HDO of the pyrolysis vapors were investigated. The level of HDO of the biomass pyrolysis vapors...... was not significant at temperatures below 400 °C. At 450 °C catalyst temperature and 93 vol % H2 concentration, the wood pyrolysis vapor was more active toward cracking forming gas species instead of performing the desired HDO forming hydrocarbons. The lignin pyrolysis vapor was more resistant to cracking and yielded...

  5. Measurements of temperature of the tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame using IR camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudau, AE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In laser pyrolysis, temperature measurement and control plays a vital role during the development of nanoparticles. Authors present the results of temperature measurements using infrared camera on a tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame used...

  6. Hot wire and spark pyrolysis as simple new routes to silicon nanoparticle synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available gases, silane and diborane or silane and phosphine were used. While hot wire pyrolysis always results in multifaceted particles, those produced by spark pyrolysis are spherical. Electrical resistance measurements of compressed powders showed that boron...

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 3rd Quarter FY-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (23 from the 3rd Qtr FY-16 and 50 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 45 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (16 from this quarter and 29 from the prior three quarters).

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 1st Quarter FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 74 reportable events (16 from the 1st Qtr FY-16 and 58 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 35 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (15 from this quarter and 20 from the prior three quarters).

  9. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  10. Graphical Interface for the Study of Gas-Phase Reaction Kinetics: Cyclopentene Vapor Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Ronald E.; Wilson, Lenore D.

    2001-06-01

    The undergraduate laboratory experiment on the pyrolysis of gaseous cyclopentene has been modernized to improve safety, speed, and precision and to better reflect the current practice of physical chemistry. It now utilizes virtual instrument techniques to create a graphical computer interface for the collection and display of experimental data. An electronic pressure gauge has replaced the mercury manometer formerly needed in proximity to the 500 °C pyrolysis oven. Students have much better real-time information available to them and no longer require multiple lab periods to get rate constants and acceptable Arrhenius parameters. The time saved on manual data collection is used to give the students a tour of the computer interfacing hardware and software and a hands-on introduction to gas-phase reagent preparation using a research-grade high-vacuum system. This includes loading the sample, degassing it by the freeze-pump-thaw technique, handling liquid nitrogen and working through the logic necessary for each reconfiguration of the diffusion pump section and the submanifolds.

  11. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  12. [Pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Hong-Ting; Wei, Li-Li

    2008-03-01

    To obtain pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride), thermogravimetric study of tube for transfusion (TFT) and sample collector for urine (SCFU) was carried out using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) with N2. The heat change in pyrolysis process was analyzed and the properties of pyrolysis residues are reported. The mathematics model with two-step and four-reaction was established to simulate the pyrolysis process. The results show that: 1) The pyrolysis mechanism of the two samples is in agreement with that of PVC. The decomposition process appears two stages in 200 - 390 degrees C and 390 - 550 degrees C, which are clearly expressed with two prominent peaks with maximum rate of weight loss at about 315 degrees C and 470 degrees C. 2) Complex ingredients in samples result in irregular and uneven shape of DTG peaks, in which plasticizer lowers the antichloration temperature and enhances the weight loss rate. 3) The model could satisfactorily describe the weight loss and differential process of TFT and SCFU.

  13. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    with respect to carbon and oxygen contents, HHV, thermal behaviors and mean molecular weight. The HHV of wood, straw, lignin and algae oils were 24.0, 23.7, 29.7 and 25.7 MJ/kg db, respectively. The distributions of metals, Cl and S in char and bio-oil were investigated for the biomasses. Almost all the metals......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...... these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...

  14. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  15. Synergies in co-pyrolysis of Thai lignite and corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Taro [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Worasuwannarak, Nakorn; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The results from TGA experiments at the temperature range of 300-600 C evidently distinguished the different pyrolysis behaviours of lignite and corncob; however, no clear synergistic effects could be observed for the mixture. The investigation of co-pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor, however, found significant synergies in both pyrolysis product yields and gas product compositions. The solid yield of the 50:50 lignite/corncob blend was much lower (i.e. 9%) than expected from the calculated value based on individual materials under the range of temperatures studied, and coincided with the higher liquid and gas yield. The synergistic effect in product gas composition was highly pronouncing for CH{sub 4} formation, i.e. three times higher than the calculated value at 400 C. Possible mechanisms were described including the interaction between corncob volatiles and lignite particles, and the effect of the heat profiles of lignite and corncob pyrolysis on the temperature dependent reactions. The enhanced devolatilisation of the blend was explained by the transfer of hydrogen from biomass to coal as well as the promotion of low-temperature thermal decomposition of lignite by exothermic heat released from corncob pyrolysis. Moreover, water, which was one of the major components in corncob volatiles produced mainly at around 200-375 C, can also be expected to act as a reactive agent to promote the secondary tar cracking producing more CH{sub 4}. (author)

  16. Experiments on the Conventional Pyrolysis of Oak Sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraschiv, Maria; Tazerout, Mohand; Gerun, Luc; Bellettre, Jerome; Lemoult, Bernard [Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France)

    2006-07-15

    The biomass derived from wood processing (ex. sawdust) can be converted to combustible gas by thermochemical processes as pyrolysis and gasification. The oak sawdust used displays that the powder fraction has the biggest weight, which is difficult for operate and it gives the highest char yield and many particles in gas flow. A good mixture of wood powder and the bigger fractions, which give less char and tar yields, as such or in pellet shape, can be a solution to improve the thermal transformation of particles surface in order to increase gas content and avoid the particles presence in pyrolysis gases. For heat value improvement it can be use a co-pyrolysis compound, such as plastic waste that is an organic material completely mutable in combustible gaseous products. From this point of view the plastic wastes pyrolysis in the same operating conditions as wood pyrolysis were studied. The chemical data reveal that this kind of material gives volatile matters such as water, tars and gases and no solid residue. Also, the reference thermal range for degassing was found to be 480-550 [deg C], when the wood particles are already transformed and char is able to be a catalyst for tar cracking.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating. (author)

  18. Air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for nanoparticles synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shirley C.; Song, Yu L.; Chen, C. Y.; Tseng, T. K.; Tsai, Chen S.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents new findings regarding the effects of precursor drop size and concentration on product particle size and morphology in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of zirconium hydroxyl acetate solutions. Large precursor drops (diameter >30μm) generated by ultrasonic atomization at 120kHz yielded particles with holes. Precursor drops 6-9 μm in diameter, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer at 1.65MHz and 23.5W electric drive power, yielded uniform spherical particles 150nm in diameter under proper control of heating rate and precursor concentration. Moreover, air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at 120kHz and 2.3W yielded spherical particles of which nearly half were smaller than those produced by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of the 6-9 μm precursor drops, desprite the much larger precursor drop sizes (28 μm peak diameter versus 7 μm mean diameter). These particles are much smaller than those predicted by the conventional one particle per drop mechanism, suggesting that a vapor condensation mechanism may also be involved in spray pyrolysis. It may be concluded that through this new mechanism air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can become a viable process for mass production of nanoparticles.

  19. Physi-chemical and sorption properties of biochars prepared from peanut shell using thermal pyrolysis and microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gang; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Fangyuan; Dong, Xudong; Zhou, Dandan; Liang, Ni; Wu, Min; Pan, Bo; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2017-08-01

    Microwave irradiation (MW) is an effective technique in heating and pyrolysis. This study compared the properties of peanut shell-biochars produced using MW and muffle furnace (FN). At the same pyrolysis temperature, MW biochars preserved more biomass (as indicated by their higher yields and higher abundance of functional groups) and possessed larger surface areas due to the high abundance of micropores. MW biochars generally exhibited higher adsorption of carbamazepine (CBZ) and bisphenol A (BPA) than FN biochars. However, their surface area-normalized sorption was lower, suggesting that the inner pores may not be fully available to CBZ and BPA sorption. We observed significant free radical signals in both types of biochars. Although CBZ and BPA did not degrade in the biochar sorption systems, the potential role of stronger free radical signals in MW biochars for organic contaminant control may not be overlooked in studies with other chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.