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Sample records for pyrolysis products

  1. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  2. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  3. Molecular products from the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2013-05-01

    The thermal degradation of tyrosine at a residence time of 0.2s was conducted in a tubular flow reactor in flowing N2 and 4% O2 in N2 for a total pyrolysis time of 3min. The fractional pyrolysis technique, in which the same sample was heated continuously at each pyrolysis temperature, was applied. Thermal decomposition of tyrosine between 350 and 550°C yielded predominantly phenolic compounds (phenol, p-cresol, and p-tyramine), while decomposition between 550 and 800°C yielded hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene as the major reaction products. For the first time, the identification of p-tyramine, a precursor for the on of formation of p-tyramine and its degradation to phenol and p-cresol, and toxicological discussion of some of the harmful reaction products is also presented.

  4. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  5. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  6. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products.

  7. Detecting pyrolysis products from bacteria on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Schubert, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Kminek, Gerhard; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-02-01

    A pyrolysis/sublimation technique was developed to isolate volatile amine compounds from a Mars soil analogue inoculated with ˜10 billion Escherichia coli cells. In this technique, the inoculated soil is heated to 500°C for several seconds at Martian ambient pressure and the sublimate, collected by a cold finger, then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Methylamine and ethylamine, produced from glycine and alanine decarboxylation, were the most abundant amine compounds detected after pyrolysis of the cells. A heating cycle similar to that utilized in our experiment was also used to release organic compounds from the Martian soil in the 1976 Viking gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) pyrolysis experiment. The Viking GC/MS did not detect any organic compounds of Martian origin above a level of a few parts per billion in the Martian surface soil. Although the Viking GC/MS instruments were not specifically designed to search for the presence of living cells on Mars, our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected.

  8. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  9. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  10. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270°C, densification, and torrefaction at 270°C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700°C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270°C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700°C as compared to 500°C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  11. Molecular products and radicals from pyrolysis of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, J; Khachatryan, L; Dellinger, B

    2012-12-04

    Thermal degradation of lignin under two reaction regimes (pyrolysis in N(2) and oxidative pyrolysis in 4% O(2) in N(2)) has been investigated in a tubular, isothermal, flow-reactor over the temperature range 200-900 °C at a residence time of 0.2 s. Two experimental protocols were adopted: (1) Partial pyrolysis in which the same lignin sample was continuously pyrolyzed at each temperature and (2) conventional pyrolysis, in which new lignin samples were pyrolyzed at each pyrolysis temperature. The results identified common relationships between the two modes of experiments, as well as some differences. The majority of products from partial pyrolysis peaked between 300 and 500 °C, whereas for conventional pyrolysis reaction products peaked between 400 and 500 °C. The principal products were syringol (2,6-dimethoxy phenol), guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol), phenol, and catechol. Of the classes of compounds analyzed, the phenolic compounds were the most abundant, contributing over 40% of the total compounds detected. Benzene, styrene, and p-xylene were formed in significant amounts throughout the entire temperature range. Interestingly, six ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were formed during partial pyrolysis. Oxidative pyrolysis did not result in large differences from pyrolysis; the main products still were syringol, guaiacol, phenol, the only significant difference being the product distribution peaked between 200 and 400 °C. For the first time, low temperature matrix isolation electron paramagnetic resonance was successfully interfaced with the pyrolysis reactor to elucidate the structures of the labile reaction intermediates. The EPR results suggested the presence of methoxyl, phenoxy, and substituted phenoxy radicals as precursors for formation of major products; syringol, guaiacol, phenols, and substituted phenols.

  12. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  13. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  14. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  15. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  16. Production and characterization of chars from cherry pulp via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, E; Özbay, N; Yargıç, A S; Şahin, R Z

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar. Proximate, ultimate, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on cherry pulp and its chars to examine the chemical alterations after the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, based on experimental results. Porous biochars are carbon rich and includes high potassium content. The aromaticity of biochars increased and O/C mass ratio reduced with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature as a result of the development of compact aromatic structure in char. Pyrolysis provides a promising conversion procedure for the production of high energy density char which has promising applications in existing coal-fired boilers without any upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.

    1983-10-01

    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  18. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  19. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-26

    radially outward from the solar corona . The solar wind is deflected by magnetic fields but absorbed by surface materials on a body like the Moon. Solar...very high temperature crucible for pyrolysis. A zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic crucible was selected to provide thermal stability at high temperatures, shown...in Figure 20. Two zirconia crucibles were used. One of the zirconia crucibles was poorly manufactured and could not withstand the high thermal

  20. Variability in pyrolysis product yield from novel shrub willow genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis is becoming a more attractive conversion option for the production of biofuels, due to the potential for directly producing hydrocarbon fuels seamlessly compatible with petroleum products (drop-in fuels). Dedicated bioenergy crops, like perennial grasses and short-rotation woody crop...

  1. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  2. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  3. Biopolymers production from mixed cultures and pyrolysis by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, R; Lemos, P C

    2012-02-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from low value substrates and/or byproducts represents an economical and environmental promising alternative to established industrial manufacture methods. Bio-oil resulting from the fast-pyrolysis of chicken beds was used as substrate to select a mixed microbial culture (MMC) able to produce PHA under feast/famine conditions. In this study a maximum PHA content of 9.2% (g/g cell dry weight) was achieved in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated for culture selection. The PHA obtained with bio-oil as a carbon source was a copolymer composed by 70% of hydroxybutyrate (HB) and 30% of hydroxyvalerate (HV) monomers. Similar results have been reported by other studies that use real complex substrates for culture selection indicating that bio-oil can be a promising feedstock to produce PHAs using MMC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrated the use of bio-oil resulting from fast pyrolysis as a possibly feedstock to produce short chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

  4. On-line catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHU XiFeng; LI WenZhi; ZHANG Ying; CHEN DengYu

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of biomass and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Four biomass materials (poplar wood, fir wood, cotton straw and rice husk) were pyrolyzed to reveal the difference among their products. Moreover, catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors from cotton straw was performed by using five catalysts, including two microporous zeolites (HZSM-5 and HY) and three mesoporous catalysts (ZrO2&TiO2, SBA-15 and AI/SBA-15). The results showed that the distribution of the pyrolytic products from the four materials differed a little from each other, while catalytic cracking could significantly alter the pyrolytic products. Those important primary pyrolytic products such as levoglucosen, hydroxyacetaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone were decreased greatly after catalysis. The two microporous zeolites were ef-fective to generate high yields of hydrocarbons, while the three mesoporous materials favored the formation of furan, furfural and other furan compounds, as well as acetic acid.

  5. Comprehensive model for predicting elemental composition of coal pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricahrds, Andrew P. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Shutt, Tim [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-04-23

    Large-scale coal combustion simulations depend highly on the accuracy and utility of the physical submodels used to describe the various physical behaviors of the system. Coal combustion simulations depend on the particle physics to predict product compositions, temperatures, energy outputs, and other useful information. The focus of this paper is to improve the accuracy of devolatilization submodels, to be used in conjunction with other particle physics models. Many large simulations today rely on inaccurate assumptions about particle compositions, including that the volatiles that are released during pyrolysis are of the same elemental composition as the char particle. Another common assumption is that the char particle can be approximated by pure carbon. These assumptions will lead to inaccuracies in the overall simulation. There are many factors that influence pyrolysis product composition, including parent coal composition, pyrolysis conditions (including particle temperature history and heating rate), and others. All of these factors are incorporated into the correlations to predict the elemental composition of the major pyrolysis products, including coal tar, char, and light gases.

  6. Heterogeneous Ozonolysis of Surface Adsorbed Lignin Pyrolysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass combustion releases semi-volatile organic compounds into the troposphere, including many phenols and methoxyphenols as the result of lignin pyrolysis. Given their relatively low vapor pressures, these compounds readily adsorb on inorganic and organic aerosol substrates where they may alter aerosol properties and undergo heterogeneous chemistry. We use infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS and ATR-FTIR) to monitor the adsorption and subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis of model lignin pyrolysis products, including catechol, eugenol, and 4-propylguaiacol. Ozonolysis reaction kinetics were compared on various inorganic substrates - such as Al2O3 and NaCl, which serve as mineral and sea salt aerosol substrates, respectively - and as a function of ozone concentration and relative humidity. Following in situ FTIR analysis, the adsorbed organics were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify reaction products and quantify product branching ratios. Ozonolysis of catechol and 4-propylguaiacol readily resulted in ring cleavage forming dicarboxylic acids (e.g., muconic acid). Eugenol ozonolysis proceeded rapidly at the alkene side chain producing homovanillic acid and homovanillin in an approximate 2:1 branching ratio at 0% RH; ring cleavage was also observed. For all lignin pyrolysis products, heterogeneous ozonolysis was faster on NaCl versus Al2O3. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of semi-volatile methoxylphenols adsorbed on aerosol substrates will be discussed.

  7. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of temperature on pyrolysis products of oil sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo LIU; Wei SONG; Yongfeng NIE

    2008-01-01

    Temperature is the determining factor of pyrolysis, which is one of the alternative technologies for oil sludge treatment. The effects of final:operating temperature ranging from 350 to 550℃ on pyrolysis products of oil sludge were studied in an externally-heating fixed bed reactor. With an increase of temperature, the mass fraction of solid residues, liquids, and gases in the final product is 67.00%-56.00%, 25.60%-32.35%, and 7.40%-11.65%, and their coresponding heat values are 34.4-13.8 MJ/kg, 44.41-46.6 MJ/kg, and 23.94-48.23 MJ/Nm3, respectively. The mass and energy tend to shift from solid to liquid and gas phase (especially to liquid phase) during the process, and the optimum temperature for oil sludge pyrolysis is 500℃. The liquid phase is mainly composed of alkane and alkene (C5.-C29), and the gas phase is dominantly HCs and H2.

  9. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  10. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G.;Andries, J.;Spliethoff, H.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based o...

  11. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  12. Conventional and microwave induced pyrolysis of coffee hulls for the production of a hydrogen rich fuel gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Antonio; Menendez, Angel; Fernandez, Yolanda; Pis, Jose; Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of coffee hulls at 500, 800 and 1000 8C. The influence of the pyrolysis method and temperature on the product yields and on the characteristics of the pyrolysis products is discussed. It was found that the pyrolysis of this particular residue gives rise to a larger yield of the gas fraction compared to the other fractions, even at relatively low temperatures. A comparison of microwave-assisted pyrolysis and conven...

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  15. Fast pyrolysis of biomass : an experimental study on mechanisms influencing yield and composition of the products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil originating from biomass has the potential to replace ‘crude fossil oil’ and to produce fuels and chemicals in a more sustainable way. The favorable perspective of fast pyrolysis as biomass pre-treatment step is directly related to the production of a liquid as main product and the sig

  16. Pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shell: Quality of pyrolysis products and study on the preparation of activated carbon from biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Fu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar. In addition, it was noticed that the activation conditions had a significant effect on the yield and adsorption performance of the activated carbon. As a result, activated carbon with elevated specific surface area reaching 1057.8m(2)/g was obtained at the optimal conditions of 850°C activation temperature, 80min activation time, and 1.5 steam/biochar ratio.

  17. Production of fuel by pyrolysis of the bagasse of grapes: yield and high thermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foussard, J.N.; Talayrach, B.; Besombes Vailhe, J.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid fuel of high calorific value was obtained by the pyrolysis of grape bagasse, with the pyrolysis temperature being the factor determining the product composition. Grape bagasse is produced in distilleries and is thus a practical and readily available material.

  18. Efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures: chicken litter; swine solids; and swine solids blended with rye grass. Eight to 19 liters of dried manures were used as feedstocks for the skid-mounted pyrolysis ste...

  19. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  20. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1995-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the feed stream with the catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide in the first temperature range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of the high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomer constituent of styrene; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis to a different derived high value product of polyphenylene oxide from the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of the plastic into a polyphenylene oxide derived product; and separating the different derived high value polyphenylene oxide product.

  2. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling

  3. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  4. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  5. The effect of online catalytic pyrolysis on the yield of light liquid products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gangwei

    2014-06-01

    Hydro-catalytic pyrolysis on Yunnan lignite were studied in a fixed bed to determine their effects on high-value raw materials, such as BTX, PCX and lower naphthalene, in liquid products. Ni and Mo were chosen as active pyrolysis centers through thermogravimetry, after which their catalytic effects were analyzed in a fixed bed. The results showed that different concentrations of impregnated Ni and Mo solution can significantly increase the yield of high-value products and enable catalyst separating and recycling with this method of online catalytic pyrolysis.

  6. Pyrolysis of brown coal mixed with heavy products of coal and petroleum processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhorev, A.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Akhmedov, N.A.

    1987-03-01

    Investigates effect of various additives on yield of liquid product from pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk (Berezovsk deposit) brown coal mixed with organic additives: waste from caprolactam plant consisting mostly of saturated oxygen containing compounds and mono- and di-carboxylic acid esters, waste from sabatic acid plant consisting predominantly of unsaturated acids, distillation residue of synthetic fatty acids, heavy residue from Arlansk oil refineries containing mainly condensed naphtheno-aromatic systems and heavy tar from rapid pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk coal. Finds that joint pyrolysis of brown coal with organic additives increases yield of liquid products and that intensive decomposition begins at lower temperatures. 4 refs.

  7. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the

  8. Bio-oil production from palm fronds by fast pyrolysis process in fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Nino; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.; Kiky Corneliasari, S.

    2017-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis process of palm fronds has been conducted in the fluidized bed reactor to yield bio-oil product (pyrolysis oil). The process employed sea sand as the heat transfer medium. The objective of this study is to design of the fluidized bed rector, to conduct fast pyrolysis process to product bio-oil from palm fronds, and to characterize the feed and bio-oil product. The fast pyrolysis process was conducted continuously with the feeding rate around 500 g/hr. It was found that the biomass conversion is about 35.5% to yield bio-oil, however this conversion is still minor. It is suggested due to the heating system inside the reactor was not enough to decompose the palm fronds as a feedstock. Moreover, the acids compounds ware mostly observed on the bio-oil product.

  9. Bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Ryu, Changkook; Suh, Dong Jin; Suh, Young-Woong; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The amount of waste furniture generated in Korea was over 2.4 million tons in the past 3 years, which can be used for renewable energy or fuel feedstock production. Fast pyrolysis is available for thermo-chemical conversion of the waste wood mostly into bio-oil. In this work, fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust was investigated under various reaction conditions (pyrolysis temperature, particle size, feed rate and flow rate of fluidizing medium) in a fluidized-bed reactor. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for increased yields of bio-oil was 450 degrees C. Excessively smaller or larger feed size negatively affected the production of bio-oil. Higher flow and feeding rates were more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not greatly affect the bio-oil yields within the tested ranges. The use of product gas as the fluidizing medium had a potential for increased bio-oil yields.

  10. Detecting Pyrolysis Products from Bacteria in a Mars Soil Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Cleaves, H. J.; Schubert, M.; Aubrey, A.; Buch, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Bada, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the 1976 Viking missions was to determine whether organic compounds, possibly of biological origin, were present in the Martian surface soils. The Viking gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments found no evidence for any organic compounds of Martian origin above a few parts per billion in the upper 10 cm of surface soil, suggesting the absence of a widely distributed Martian biota. However, it is now known that key organic compounds important to biology, such as amino acids, carboxylic acids and nucleobases, would likely have been missed by the Viking GCMS instruments. In this study, a Mars soil analogue that was inoculated with approx. 10 billion Escherichia coli cells was heated at 500 C under Martian ambient pressure to release volatile organic compounds from the sample. The pyrolysis products were then analyzed for amino acids and nucleobases using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GCMS. Our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS instruments. Upcoming strategies for Mars exploration will require in-situ analyses by instruments that can assess whether any organic compounds, especially those that might be associated with life, are present in Martian surface samples.

  11. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  12. Co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate with brown coal and effect on monomer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Orinak; L. Halas; I. Amar; J.T. Andersson; M. Adamova [University of P.J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia). Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis capillary gas chromatography has been applied to the study of the co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with Slovakian brown coal with the aim of finding pyrolysis conditions yielding a maximum amount of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Effects of pyrolysis temperature and PMMA-coal weight ratios were investigated. Capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detector (cGC-MS) was used for MMA identification. The highest yield of MMA in the pyrolysate was obtained at 750{sup o}C. The optimal PMMA-coal weight ratio for maximum MMA production lies in the interval 0.5 mg PMMA and 0.6-0.8 mg brown coal with an MMA yield of 64%. Coal addition to the sample affects species recombination in gaseous phase, augments MMA production at higher temperatures and eliminates degradation products of PMMA and coal pyrolysis. Different conversion diagrams are characteristic for thermal degradation of single PMMA and in the mixture with coal. Detailed mechanism of synergetic effects arisen during co-pyrolysis are not yet known. It was also found that lower pyrolysis temperatures are more suitable to study degradation mechanism and kinetics while higher temperatures are more applicable for identification purposes. MMA decomposes completely at 900{sup o}C. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  14. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  15. Influence of Crystal Allomorph and Crystallinity on the Products and Behavior of Cellulose during Fast Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukarakate, Calvin; Mittal, Ashutosh; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Budhi, Sridhar; Thompson, Logan; Iisa, Kristiina; Nimlos, Mark R.; Donohoe, Bryon S.

    2016-09-06

    Cellulose is the primary biopolymer responsible for maintaining the structural and mechanical integrity of cell walls and, during the fast pyrolysis of biomass, may be restricting cell wall expansion and inhibiting phase transitions that would otherwise facilitate efficient escape of pyrolysis products. Here, we test whether modifications in two physical properties of cellulose, its crystalline allomorph and degree of crystallinity, alter its performance during fast pyrolysis. We show that both crystal allomorph and relative crystallinity of cellulose impact the slate of primary products produced by fast pyrolysis. For both cellulose-I and cellulose-II, changes in crystallinity dramatically impact the fast pyrolysis product portfolio. In both cases, only the most highly crystalline samples produced vapors dominated by levoglucosan. Cellulose-III, on the other hand, produces largely the same slate of products regardless of its relative crystallinity and produced as much or more levoglucosan at all crystallinity levels compared to cellulose-I or II. In addition to changes in products, the different cellulose allomorphs affected the viscoelastic properties of cellulose during rapid heating. Real-time hot-stage pyrolysis was used to visualize the transition of the solid material through a molten phase and particle shrinkage. SEM analysis of the chars revealed additional differences in viscoelastic properties and molten phase behavior impacted by cellulose crystallinity and allomorph. Regardless of relative crystallinity, the cellulose-III samples displayed the most obvious evidence of having transitioned through a molten phase.

  16. Influence of pretreatment for deashing of sugarcane bagasse on pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyali Das; Anuradda Ganesh [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering; Pramod Wangikar [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports the studies made on the vacuum pyrolysis of deashed sugarcane bagasse, on the pyrolysis products. The present work is with an objective to understand the change in the quantity and quality of the oil fraction obtained from pyrolysis, upon pretreatment for deashing of original biomass. Ash, in the entrained char is believed to be catalysing the polymerization reaction in the oils and thereby increases the viscosity. Three different pre- treatment processes used for deashing are water leaching, mild acid treatment with HCl and mild acid treatment with HF. The study indicates the remarkable influence of pretreatment process for deashing, by enhancing the total energy distribution in oil fraction of the pyrolysis products. This is attributed to selective removal of ash elements along with removal of extractives and hemicellulose in different proportions. However, it was found that the pre- treatments do not improve the stability of oil. The water leachate, as expected, showed potential of making ethanol via fermentation. (author)

  17. Pyrolysis oil production, properties, and utilization; Pyrolyysioeljyn valmistus, ominaisuudet ja kaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Kuoppala, E.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Solantausta, Y.; Levander, J. VTT Energia

    1995-12-31

    The main tasks for 1995 were: design and assembling of experimental reactors, and physical and chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oils. A PDU-unit (20 kg/h) has been designed and it will be assembled in April 1996. A 1 kg/h pyrolyzer has been constructed with a hot-filtration system (a ceramic candle filter) and direct quenching with a hydrocarbon oil. The equipment has worked well. Pine saw dust has been used as a feed and a good-quality solids-free product oil has been obtained. In addition to this, a smaller (150 g/h) pyrolyzer has been bought from Canada (University of Waterloo). The small equipment will be used for example for catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapours. Chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil has been carried out 1995. Water extraction has been developed for a fractionation method. Pyrolysis oil samples produced from mixed hardwood, eucalyptus and straw have been employed. The objective of the study has been to develop a simple characterisation method for comparison of different pyrolysis oils. For example reactive compounds have been identified. Main analytical method for analysing the water-soluble fraction has been GC-MS. The research will be continued 1996. A literature review of chemical and physical characterization of pyrolysis oils has been published 1995. Testing of fuel oil analyses has been continued within the IEA pyrolysis project. VTT Energy is responsible for fuel oil analytical methods

  18. Influence of gas-phase reactions on the product yields obtained in the pyrolysis of polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Nicolella, C.; Rovatti, M. [Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo G.B. Bonino

    1997-02-01

    The amount of plastic wastes is growing year after year, and the fraction of plastics in municipal solid wastes (MSW) and in refuse-derived fuels (RDF) is progressively increasing. Pyrolysis and gasification processes appear to be promising routes for the upgrading of solid wastes to more usable and energy dense materials such as gas fuel and/or fuel oil or to high-value feedstocks for the chemical industry. The characterization of the product fractions obtained from the pyrolysis of polyethylene (PE) in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor was performed. The experimental system allowed quantitative information to be obtained on the global tar, char, and gas yields. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures ranging between 500 and 800 C. The influence of the residence times in the reactor of the primary volatiles generated by the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The secondary reactivity of the tar originated from PE pyrolysis was examined. A lumped-parameters approach was used in order to evaluate the global kinetic parameters for the gas-phase tar-cracking process. PE tars resulted to be more refractory to thermal decomposition than those obtained in the pyrolysis of biomass and lignocellulosic materials, but more reactive than tars obtained in the pyrolysis of coal.

  19. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i) characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)-biochar morphology, (ii) estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii) determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis s...

  20. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Joy Ashworth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.-biochar morphology, (ii estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis system versus batch pyrolysis systems for terminal use as a soil amendment. Auger system chars produced at 600°C had the greatest lignin portion by weight among the biochars produced from the continuous system. On the other hand, a batch pyrolysis system (400 °C – 3h yielded biochar with 73.10% lignin (12 fold increases, indicating higher recalcitrance, whereas lower production temperatures (400 °C yielded greater hemicellulose (i.e. greater mineralization promoting substrate. Under both pyrolysis methods, increasing biochar soil application rates resulted in linear decreases in bulk density (g cm-3. Increases in auger-char (400 °C applications increased soil water-holding capacities; however, application rates of >2 Mt ha-1 are required. Pyrolysis batch chars did not influence water-holding abilities (P>0.05. Biochar macro and micronutrients increased, as the pyrolysis temperature increased in the auger system from 400 to 600 °C, and the residence time increased in the batch pyrolysis system from 1 to 3 h. Conversely, nitrogen levels tended to decrease under the two previously mentioned conditions. Consequently, not all chars are inherently equal, in that varying operation systems, residence times, and production conditions greatly affect uses as a soil amendment and overall rate of efficacy.

  1. Production and characterization of pyrolysis liquids from sunflower-pressed bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu University (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Pyrolysis experiments on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.10 wt.% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with flow rate of 50 ml min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C with a heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization results showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks. (author)

  2. Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and products properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing heating rate. The heating rate has different effects on the pyrolysis products properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, heating value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough.

  3. Examination of zinc adsorption capacity of soils treated with different pyrolysis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rétháti Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter input into soils is essential regarding agricultural, environmental and soil science aspects as well. However, the application of the pyrolysed forms of biochars and materials with different organic matter content gained more attention in order to decrease the emission of the green house gases (CO2, N2O from the soil. During pyrolysis, the materials containing high organic matter (biomass-originated organic matter are heated in oxygen-free (or limited amount of oxygen environment. As a result, the solid phase, which remains after eliminating the gases and liquid phase, is more stable compared to the original product, it cannot be mineralized easily in the soil and its utilization is more beneficial in terms of climatic aspects. Furthermore, it can improve soil structure and it can retain soil moisture and cations in the topsoil for long periods of time, which is very important for plants. In our experiment, the effects of biochar and bone char were examined on soils by zinc adsorption experiments. Based on our experiments, we concluded that the pyrolysis products can have significant Zn adsorption capacity compared to the soil. Bone ash can adsorb more Zn than the charcoal product. The Zn adsorption capacity of soils treated by pyrolysis products can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. However, based on the amount of pyrolysis products, one or two term Langmuir isotherm fits well on the experiment data, which depends on the time the pyrolysis product has spent in the soil.

  4. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  5. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  6. Effects of Acid Characteristics of Nanoporous MCM-48 on the Pyrolysis Product Distribution of Waste Pepper Stem

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Kwon Park; Myung Lang Yoo; Sung Hoon Park

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous catalysts Si-MCM-48 and Al-MCM-48 were applied for the first time to the catalytic pyrolysis of waste pepper stem. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 550°C using Py-GC/MS to examine the product distribution rapidly. Phenolics were shown to be the most abundant product species of noncatalytic pyrolysis, whereas aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were produced marginally. On the other hand, much larger quantities of furans and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were produced f...

  7. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  8. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered.

  9. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  10. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  11. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  12. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  13. Experimental determination of the yield of pyrolysis products of polyethene and polypropene. Influence of reaction conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of temperature, residence time, concentration level of reactants and products, polymer type, and composition of the polymer mixture on the product spectra obtained from pyrolysis of polyethene (PE) and polypopene (PP) was determined. In our study the temperature was varied between 650

  14. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  15. Effect of the fast pyrolysis temperature on the primary and secondary products of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Garcia Perez, Manuel; Pecha, Brennan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; McDonald, Armando G.; Westerhof, Roel J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results on the primary pyrolysis products of organosolv lignin at temperatures between 360 and 700 °C. To study the primary products, a vacuum screen heater (heating rate of 8000 °C/s, deep vacuum of 0.7 mbar, and very fast cooling at the wall temperature of −100 °C) was used. Th

  16. Cannabis—XV . Pyrolysis of cannabidiol. Structure elucidation of four pyrolytic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppers, F.J.E.M.; Bercht, C.A.L.; Salemink, C.A.; Lousberg, R.J.J.Ch.

    1975-01-01

    Pyrolysis of cannabidiol in nitrogen atmosphere affords at least six more products with longer GC-retention times than CBD, next to unconverted CBD. Two of these could be identified as Δ1(2)THC and CBN Two further products were investigated and their mass spectrometrical fragmentations and structure

  17. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  18. Study on biomass catalytic pyrolysis for production of bio-gasoline by on-line FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Bo Lu; Jian Zhong Yao; Wei Gang Lin; Wen Li Song

    2007-01-01

    The pyrolysis of biomass is a promising way for production of bio-gasoline if the stability and quality problems of the bio-crudeoil can be solved by catalytic cracking and reforming. In this paper, an on-line infrared spectrum was used to study the characteristics of catalytic pyrolysis with the following preliminary results. The removal of C=O of organic acid is more difficult than that of aldehydes and ketones. HUSY/γ-Al2O3 and REY/γ-Al2O3 catalysts exhibited better deoxygenating activities while HZSM-5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited preferred selectivities for production of iso-alkanes and aromatics. Finally, possible mechanisms of biomass catalytic pyrolysis are discussed as well.

  19. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.

  20. Synthesis of advanced materials for bio-oil production from rice straw by pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Le, Gia Hy; Thu Giang Pham, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Canh Dao, Duc; Vu, Thi Minh Hong; Thu Thuy Hoang, Thi; Hoa Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2011-12-01

    Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by pyrolysis with and without solid acid catalysts. Solid acid catalysts used in rice straw pyrolysis synthesis were the diatomite acidified by an 'atomic implantation method' and nano-sized porous Al-SBA1SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous type mesoporous silica.-15. Catalysts were characterized by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), N2 adsorption/desorption, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The obtained results revealed that a similar bio-oil yield (liquid product) of 44-48% can be reached by pyrolysis in the presence of solid acid catalysts at 450 °C compared to that of pyrolysis without catalyst at 550 °C. Moreover, a low yield of gas product was observed. These results show significant potential applications of solid acid catalysts for the improvement of bio-oil yield in the pyrolysis of rice straw.

  1. Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii characterize the bio-char obtained under different pyrolysed temperatures. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of EFB was conducted using a fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield was investigated. The pyrolysis temperature used ranged from 300-700°C. The elemental analysis, calorific value, surface area and total pore volume of the bio-char were determined. Results: The highest bio char yield of 41.56% was obtained at an optimum pyrolysis temperature of 300°C with particle size of 91-106 μm and the heating rate of 30°C min-1. The calorific values of bio-char ranged from 23-26 MJ kg-1. Conclusion: It was found that the bio-char products can be characterized as carbon rich, high calorific value and potential solid biofuels.

  2. Techno-economic and uncertainty analysis of in situ and ex situ fast pyrolysis for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Ou, Longwen; Dang, Qi; Meyer, Pimphan; Jones, Susanne; Brown, Robert; Wright, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the techno-economic uncertainty in cost estimates for two emerging technologies for biofuel production: in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis. The probability distributions for the minimum fuel-selling price (MFSP) indicate that in situ catalytic pyrolysis has an expected MFSP of $1.11 per liter with a standard deviation of 0.29, while the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has a similar MFSP with a smaller deviation ($1.13 per liter and 0.21 respectively). These results suggest that a biorefinery based on ex situ catalytic pyrolysis could have a lower techno-economic uncertainty than in situ pyrolysis compensating for a slightly higher MFSP cost estimate. Analysis of how each parameter affects the NPV indicates that internal rate of return, feedstock price, total project investment, electricity price, biochar yield and bio-oil yield are parameters which have substantial impact on the MFSP for both in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis.

  3. Flash pyrolysis of sunflower oil cake for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoez, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2001-06-01

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) press oil cake were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges 450-700C, D{sub p}<0.224, 0.224-0.425, 0.425-0.850 mm and 25-600 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum oil yield of ca. 45% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550C, with the sweep gas flow rate of 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the pyrolysis oil were determined, and then the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.

  4. Influence of impregnation by inorganic substances on the yield of pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevkoplyas, V.N.; Saranchuk, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Donetsk (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii i Uglekhimii

    1998-09-01

    In papers was shown that fossil coals impregnation by aqueous solution of inorganic substances with a subsequent pyrolysis leads to the rise of the rate and depth of its organic mass destruction into liquid and gaseous products. This is, apperently, conditioned by changes in coals structure already on the stage of treatment. But, there are few papers that study an activating effect of inorganic reactants upon natural coals structure and their behaviour at pyrolysis. One of the methods which allows to judge structural transformation in coals at their impregnation by inorganic substances is an X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  5. Continuous production of inorganic magnetic nanocomposites for biomedical applications by laser pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: sabino@icmm.csic.es; Leconte, Yann [SPAM/LFP Bat 522 (URA CEA-CNRS 2453), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Costo, Rocio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, Oscar [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bouchet-Fabre, Brigitte [SPAM/LFP Bat 522 (URA CEA-CNRS 2453), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Morales, M. Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bonville, Pierre [CEA, CE Saclay, Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Perez-Rial, Sandra [Unidad de RMN (UCM), Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Ignacio [Unidad de RMN (UCM), Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herlin-Boime, Nathalie [SPAM/LFP Bat 522 (URA CEA-CNRS 2453), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    Magnetic composites of Fe-based nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon/silica (C/SiO{sub 2} at Fe) or carbon (C at Fe) matrices were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of aerosols. The powders were dispersed in aqueous solutions at pH 7 resulting in biocompatible colloidal dispersions with a high resistance to biodegradation. Structural and magnetic properties and the suitability of aqueous dispersions as contrast agent for MRI were analyzed. The results of these characterizations and the NMR relaxivity data are very encouraging for application of laser pyrolysis products in the field of living tissues.

  6. Continuous production of inorganic magnetic nanocomposites for biomedical applications by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Leconte, Yann; Costo, Rocío; Bomati-Miguel, Oscar; Bouchet-Fabre, Brigitte; Morales, M. Puerto; Bonville, Pierre; Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic composites of Fe-based nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon/silica (C/SiO 2@Fe) or carbon (C@Fe) matrices were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of aerosols. The powders were dispersed in aqueous solutions at pH 7 resulting in biocompatible colloidal dispersions with a high resistance to biodegradation. Structural and magnetic properties and the suitability of aqueous dispersions as contrast agent for MRI were analyzed. The results of these characterizations and the NMR relaxivity data are very encouraging for application of laser pyrolysis products in the field of living tissues.

  7. Broadband Microwave Study of Reaction Intermediates and Products Through the Pyrolysis of Oxygenated Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Fritz, Sean; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing list of potential plant-derived biofuels creates a challenge for the scientific community to provide a molecular-scale understanding of their combustion. Development of accurate combustion models rests on a foundation of experimental data on the kinetics and product branching ratios of their individual reaction steps. Therefore, new spectroscopic tools are necessary to selectively detect and characterize fuel components and reactive intermediates generated by pyrolysis and combustion. Substituted furans, including furanic ethers, are considered second-generation biofuel candidates. Following the work of the Ellison group, an 8-18 GHz microwave study was carried out on the unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition of the smallest furanic ether, 2-methoxy furan, and it`s pyrolysis intermediate, the 2-furanyloxy radical, formed in a high-temperature pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion. Details of the experimental setup and analysis of the spectrum of the radical will be discussed.

  8. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process.Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed.Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3.Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  9. Production and characterization of bio-oil from catalytic biomass pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonakou Eleni V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flash pyrolysis is a very promising thermochemical process for the production of bio-fuels and/or chemicals. However, large-scale applications are still under careful consideration, because of the high bio-liquid upgrading cost. In this paper the production of bio-liquids from biomass flash pyrolysis in a single stage catalytic process is being investigated using a novel once through fluid bed reactor. This biomass pyrolysis unit was constructed in Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute and comprises of a catalyst regenerator, a biomass-vibrating hopper, a fluidization reactor (that consists of an injector and a riser reactor, a product stripper along with a hot cyclone and a filter housing and finally a product condensation/recovery section. The unit can process up to 20 g/min. of biomass (50-800 mm and can circulate up to 300 g/min. of catalyst or inert material. The experiments performed in the pilot plant showed that the unit operates without problems and with satisfactory mass balances in a wide range of experimental conditions both in the absence and presence of catalyst. With the incorporation of an FCC catalyst in the pyrolysis, the physical properties of the bio-oil produced changed, while more stable bio-oil was produced. .

  10. Stable bio-oil production from proteinaceous cyanobacteria: tail gas reactive pyrolysis of spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of Spirulina, a cyanobacteria with high levels of protein (74 wt %) and low levels of lipid (0.8 wt %) content, has the potential to produce fuels and platform chemicals that differ from those produced from lignocellulosic materials. The yields and product distribution from fluidized-bed p...

  11. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walkton, C. W. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Elliott, D. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-02-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case is the first to establish detailed cost targest for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock from biomass via a fast pyrolysis process.

  12. Activated Carbon Derived from Fast Pyrolysis Liquids Production of Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis is a thermochemical method that can be used for processing energy crops such as switchgrass, alfalfa, soybean straw, corn stover as well as agricultural residuals (broiler litter) for bio-oil production. Researchers with the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the USDA developed a 2...

  13. Geochemical characterization of the hydrous pyrolysis products from a recent cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, N.; Mendoça-Filho, J.G.; Silva, T.F.; Stojanovic, K.; Fontana, L.F.; Carvalhal-Gomes, S.B.V.; Silva, F.S.; Furukawa, G.G.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis experiments were performed on a recent microbial mat sample from Lagoa Vermelha, Brazil, to determine whether crude oil can be generated and expelled during artificial maturation of the Organic Matter (OM). The experiments were conducted at 280ºC, 330ºC and 350ºC during 20h. Two types of liquid pyrolysis products, assigned as free oil and bitumen, were isolated and analyzed. Free oil represents free organic phase released by hydrous pyrolysis, whereas bitumen was obtained by extraction from the solid pyrolysis residue with dichloromethane. Changes in the OM maturity were determined using Rock-Eval parameters and biomarker maturity ratios of original sample and pyrolysis products. Biomarker compositions of original sample extract and liquid pyrolysates were used for determination of dominant bacterial source. The yields of free oil and bitumen showed that a microbial mat OM has a high liquid hydrocarbons generation potential. Rock-Eval maturity parameters, biopolymer and biomarker compositions indicate a significant increase of the OM maturity during hydrous pyrolysis. At 280ºC the release of free, adsorbed and occluded compounds was observed; however, without a cracking of the OM. At 330ºC the generation of bitumen and free oil is mostly related to the OM cracking. The highest yield of free oil was recorded at this temperature. Distribution of biomarkers in the extract of original sample and liquid pyrolysates confirms cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mats, whereas the identification of long chain n-alkane series, with maximum at C26, and prominent C30 hop-17(21)-ene additionally suggest the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of co-pyrolysis petrochemical wastewater sludge with lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed-bed reactor: Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetics, and products analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin; Chen, Jianbiao; Yao, Pikai; Zhou, Dapeng; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Hongchao

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge and Huolinhe lignite were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer and packed-bed reactor coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and gas chromatography. The pyrolysis characteristics of the blends at various sludge blending ratios were compared with those of the individual materials. Thermogravimetric experiments showed that the interactions between the blends were beneficial to generate more residues. In packed-bed reactor, synergetic effects promoted the release of gas products and left less liquid and solid products than those calculated by additive manner. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis showed that main functional groups in chars gradually disappeared with pyrolysis temperatures increasing, and H2O, CH4, CO, and CO2 appeared in volatiles during pyrolysis. Gas compositions analysis indicated that, the yields of H2 and CO clearly increased as the pyrolysis temperature and sludge blending ratio increasing, while the changes of CH4 and CO2 yields were relatively complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamical study on production of acetylene from coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Guo, W.K.; Yuan, X.Q.; Zhao, T.Z. [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Inst. for Modern Physics

    2006-05-15

    The chemical thermodynamic equilibrium of acetylene production by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma was studied. The thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained by using the method of free energy. Calculated results show that the hydrogen concentration in the equilibrium system is very important for the acetylene production by coal conversion and the energy consumption for the production of acetylene per-kilogram strongly depends on the hydrogen concentration and the temperature.

  16. Thermodynamical Study on Production of Acetylene from Coal Pyrolysis in Hydrogen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Guo, Wenkang; Yuan, Xingqiu; Zhao, Taize

    2006-05-01

    The chemical thermodynamic equilibrium of acetylene production by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma was studied. The thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained by using the method of free energy. Calculated results show that the hydrogen concentration in the equilibrium system is very important for the acetylene production by coal conversion and the energy consumption for the production of acetylene per-kilogram strongly depends on the hydrogen concentration and the temperature.

  17. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material.

  18. Pyrolysis of casein, characterization and properties of obtained solid and liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Purevsuren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Have been determined the technical characteristics and elemental composition of milk casein. Pyrolysis experiments of casein carried out at different heating temperatures and determined the yields of obtained solid (biochar, liquid (tar and pyrolysis water and gas products. A temperature around 550ºC determined as an optimal heating temperature of pyrolysis and approximately 28.33% biochar, 37.38% tar, 13.23% pyrolysis water and 20.84% gas obtained after pyrolysis. First time a biochar with higher content of nitrogen was obtained by pyrolysis of casein and determined it is elemental composition and technical specifications. The porous structure of casein biochar was characterized by mercury porosimeter and SEM analysis confirmed that casein biochar has mostly meso and macro pores. The casein tar had the elemental composition: C-66.7%, H-8.3%, N-12.1%, O-12.9% and was completely soluble in 1-methyl-2-pyrroldinone. The tar consisted mostly of moderate molecular mass components with SEC elution times between 18-26 min and an estimated mass range up to 3000-5000 mass units as well as some larger size components, possibly 3-dimentional. The property and determined chemical composition of casein tar by GC/MS analysis were an evidence for using it as a curing agent for crosslinking reactions of epoxy resins. The necessary amount of tar for curing reaction of epoxy resin was determined experimentally as a 15-20% for the stoichiometric amount of reactive epoxy groups (15-20% epoxy group content in epoxy resin and obtained cured epoxy resin with 95% degree of crosslinking reaction. Have been suggested several curing reaction schemes of epoxy resin with amines, nitriles and phenols of the casein tar

  19. Oxidative and inert pyrolysis on-line coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection: On the pyrolysis products of tobacco additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    According to European legislation, tobacco additives may not increase the toxicity or the addictive potency of the product, but there is an ongoing debate on how to reliably characterize and measure such properties. Further, too little is known on pyrolysis patterns of tobacco additives to assume that no additional toxicological risks need to be suspected. An on-line pyrolysis technique was used and coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the pattern of chemical species formed upon thermal decomposition of 19 different tobacco additives like raw cane sugar, licorice or cocoa. To simulate the combustion of a cigarette it was necessary to perform pyrolysis at inert conditions as well as under oxygen supply. All individual additives were pyrolyzed under inert or oxidative conditions at 350, 700 and 1000°C, respectively, and the formation of different toxicants was monitored. We observed the generation of vinyl acrylate, fumaronitrile, methacrylic anhydride, isobutyric anhydride and 3-buten-2-ol exclusively during pyrolysis of tobacco additives. According to the literature, these toxicants so far remained undetectable in tobacco or tobacco smoke. Further, the formation of 20 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular weights of up to 278Da was monitored during pyrolysis of cocoa in a semi-quantitative approach. It was shown that the adding of cocoa to tobacco had no influence on the relative amounts of the PAHs formed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of phenol-rich bio-oil during catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoriyekomwan, Joy Esohe; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) as catalysts and microwave receptors are investigated. The effects of process parameters including temperature and biomass:catalyst ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were studied. The addition of catalyst increased the bio-oil yield, but decreased the selectivity of phenol in fixed-bed. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of PKS significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenol production. The highest concentration of phenol in bio-oil of 64.58 %(area) and total phenolics concentration of 71.24 %(area) were obtained at 500°C using AC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that concentration of OH, CH, CO and CO functional groups in char samples decreased after pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis clearly indicated the development of liquid phase in biomass particles during microwave pyrolysis, and the mechanism is also discussed.

  1. Co-Pyrolysis Behaviors of the Cotton Straw/PP Mixtures and Catalysis Hydrodeoxygenation of Co-Pyrolysis Products over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derun Hua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The doping of PP (polypropylene with cotton straw improved the bio-oil yield, which showed there was a synergy in the co-pyrolysis of the cotton straw and PP at the range of 380–480 °C. In a fixed-bed reactor, model compounds and co-pyrolysis products were used for reactants of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO over Ni-Mo/Al2O3. The deoxygenation rate of model compounds decreased over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 in the following order: alcohol > aldehyde > acetic acid > ethyl acetate. The upgraded oil mainly consisted of C11 alkane.

  2. Diffusion of Biomass Pyrolysis Products in H-ZSM-5 by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Lintao; Nimlos, Mark R.; Robichaud, David J.; Kim, Seonah

    2017-01-12

    Diffusion of biomass pyrolysis vapors and their upgraded products is an essential catalytic property of zeolites during catalytic fast pyrolysis and likely plays a critical role in the selectivity of these catalysts. Characterizing the diffusivities of representative biofuel molecules is critical to understand shape selectivity and interpret product distribution. Yet, experimental measurements on the diffusivities of oxygenated biofuel molecules at pyrolysis temperatures are very limited in the literature. As an alternative approach, we conducted MD simulations to measure the diffusion coefficients of several selected molecules that are representative of biomass pyrolysis vapors, namely water, methanol, glycolaldehyde, and toluene in H-ZSM-5 zeolite. The results show the diffusion coefficients calculated via MD simulations are consistent with available NMR measurements at room temperature. The effect of molecular weight and molecular critical diameter on the diffusivity among the chosen model compounds is also examined. Furthermore, we have characterized the diffusivities of representative biofuel molecules, namely xylene isomers, in H-ZSM-5. Our calculations determined that the ratio of the diffusion coefficients for xylene isomers is p-xylene:o-xylene:m-xylene almost equal to 83:3:1 at 700 K. Additionally, our results also demonstrate the different diffusivity between p-xylene and toluene is due to the molecular orientations when the molecules diffuse along the channels in H-ZSM-5 and provide deep insight into the effect of molecular orientation on its diffusivity.

  3. Study on vacuum pyrolysis of coffee industrial residue for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2017-03-01

    Coffee industrial residue (CIR) is a biomass with high volatile content (64.94 wt.%) and heating value (21.3 MJ·kg-1). This study was carried out to investigate the pyrolysis condition and products of CIR using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and vacuum tube furnace. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, time, pressure and heating rate on the yield of pyrolysis products were discussed. There was an optimal pyrolysis condition: CIR was heated from normal temperature to 400 °C for 60 min, with 10 °C·min-1 heating rate and a pressure of 30 kPaabs. In this condition, the yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas were 42.29, 33.14 and 24.57 wt.%, respectively. The bio-oil contained palmitic acid (47.48 wt.%), oleic acid (17.45 wt.%), linoleic acid (11.34 wt.%), octadecanoic acid (7.62 wt.%) and caffeine (5.18 wt.%).

  4. 'Smoking' mephedrone: the identification of the pyrolysis products of 4-methylmethcathinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Pierce; O'Brien, John; Power, John D; Talbot, Brian; McDermott, Seán D

    2013-05-01

    The ring-substituted cathinone - mephedrone - has gained popularity among recreational drug users over the past several years. It is generally consumed orally or by snorting but reports indicate that it is also ingested by vaporization/inhalation. This study examines the pyrolysis products produced by heating mephedrone under using simulated 'meth pipe' conditions. Thirteen pyrolysis products were identified, the major ones being iso-mephedrone, 4-methylpropiophenone, 4-methylphenylacetone, two pyrazine derivatives formed by dimerization of mephedrone, N-methylated mephedrone (N,N,4-trimethylcatinone), two hydroxylated oxidation products and a diketone. Other minor products formed were identified as 4-methylacetophenone, two α-chloro ketones and N-methylated iso-mephedrone.

  5. Effect of ZSM-5 Acidity on Aromatic Product Selectivity during Upgrading of Pine Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Mukarakate, Calvin; Starace, Anne K.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Rogers, Allyson K.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of catalyst acidity on the selectivity of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products was studied by passing pine pyrolysis vapors over five ZSM-5 catalysts of varying acidity at 500 degrees C. The SiO2-to-Al2O3 ratio (SAR) of the ZSM-5 zeolite was varied from 23 to 280 to control the acidity of the catalyst and the composition of upgraded products. The upgraded product stream was analyzed by GCMS. Additionally, catalysts were characterized using temperature programmed desorption, diffuse-reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the biomass pyrolysis vapors were highly deoxygenated to form a slate of aromatic hydrocarbons over all of the tested ZSM-5 catalysts. As the overall acidity of the ZSM-5 increased the selectivity toward alkylated (substituted) aromatics (e.g., xylene, dimethyl-naphthalene, and methyl-anthracene) decreased while the selectivity toward unsubstituted aromatics (e.g., benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene) increased. Additionally, the selectivity toward polycyclic aromatic compounds (2-ring and 3-ring) increased as catalyst acidity increased, corresponding to a decrease in acid site spacing. The increased selectivity toward less substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds with increasing acidity is related to the relative rates of cyclization and alkylation reactions within the zeolite structure. As the acid site concentration increases and sites become closer to each other, the formation of additional cyclization products occurs at a greater rate than alkylated products. The ability to adjust product selectivity within 1-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatic families, as well as the degree of substitution, by varying ZSM-5 acidity could have significant benefits in terms creating a slate of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products to meet specific target market demands.

  6. Identification and quantification of phencyclidine pyrolysis products formed during smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, L.P.; Scimeca, J.A.; Thomas, B.F.; Martin, B.R.

    As a result of frequent phencyclidine (PCP) abuse, pyrolysis studies were conducted to further investigate its fate during smoking. Marijuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with /sup 3/H-PCP HCl and burned under conditions simulating smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters as well as acidic and basic traps. Approximately 90% of the starting material could be accounted for in the first glass wool trap and cigarette holder. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of these glass wool traps revealed the presence of 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (47% of the starting material) > PCP (40%) > piperidine (15%) > N-acetylpiperidine (9%). It was not possible to fully account for the remainder of the piperidine moiety. It has been reported that at high temperatures PCP is converted to numerous polynuclear aromatic compounds which include styrene, ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene, naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, cyclohexylbenzene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These compounds were not formed from PCP under smoking conditions.

  7. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yields and composition of gaseous products were investigated. The temperatures of pyrolysis used were in the range of 300-600°C. The gaseous products from pyrolysis of (EFB were analyzed using a dual-channel micro-GC with Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD. The highest and lowest gas yields obtained were 42.98 and 31.55% at 600 and 300°C, respectively. The gases detected were Carbon Monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, Methane (CH4, Ethane (C2H6 and Ethylene (C2H4. At 300 and 400°C, the gas mixture comprised mainly CO2 (20% and CO (20%. Other gases such as CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 only evolved at higher temperature starting from 400°C with the yield of the latter two gases in very low concentration.

  8. Life cycle analysis of fuel production from fast pyrolysis of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Dunn, Jennifer B; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-04-01

    A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of pyrolysis-based gasoline was conducted and compared with petroleum gasoline. To address the variation and uncertainty in the pyrolysis pathways, probability distributions for key parameters were developed with data from literature. The impacts of two different hydrogen sources for pyrolysis oil upgrading and of two bio-char co-product applications were investigated. Reforming fuel gas/natural gas for H2 reduces WTW GHG emissions by 60% (range of 55-64%) compared to the mean of petroleum fuels. Reforming pyrolysis oil for H2 increases the WTW GHG emissions reduction up to 112% (range of 97-126%), but reduces petroleum savings per unit of biomass used due to the dramatic decline in the liquid fuel yield. Thus, the hydrogen source causes a trade-off between GHG reduction per unit fuel output and petroleum displacement per unit biomass used. Soil application of biochar could provide significant carbon sequestration with large uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    centrifugel reactor (PCR) at 475, 525, 575, and 625 °C. Maxima of both organic oil yield of 41 wt % on a dry ash free feedstock basis (daf) and a sludge oil energy recovery of 50% were obtained at 575 °C. The water-insoluble fraction, molecular-weight distribution, higher heating value (HHV), and thermal......Fast pyrolysis may be used for sewage sludge treatment with the advantages of a significant reduction of solid waste volume and production of a bio-oil that can be used as fuel. A study of the influence of the reaction temperature on sewage sludge pyrolysis has been carried out using a pyrolysis...... behaviors of sludge oils were found to be considerably influenced by the applied pyrolysis temperatures. The sludge oil properties obtained at the optimal temperature of 575 °C were a HHV of 25.5 MJ/kg, a water-insoluble fraction of 18.7 wt %, a viscosity of 43.6 mPa s at 40 °C, a mean molecular weight...

  10. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via an integrated pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A J; Ren, S; Ye, X; Kim, P; Labbe, N; Borole, A P

    2015-11-01

    A new approach to hydrogen production using an integrated pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L anode-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50±3.2% to 76±0.5% while anode Coulombic efficiency ranged from 54±6.5% to 96±0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustainable Production of Bio-Combustibles from Pyrolysis of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Volpe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the sustainability of biomass pyrolysis requires a thorough assessment of the product yields and energy densities. With this purpose, a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor (FBR was adapted from the standard Gray-King (GK assay test on coal to conduct fixed bed pyrolysis experiments on agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. The present study provides results on the pyrolysis of two types of biomass: chipped olive tree trimmings (OT and olive pomace (OP. Solid (char and liquid (tar product yields are reported. Mass yields are determined and compared with values obtained in similar works. Results indicate that char yield decreases from 49% (OT-db and 50% (OP-db at 325 °C to 26% (OT db and 30% (OP-db at 650 °C. Tar yield is almost constant (42% at different reaction temperatures for OT, while it decreases slightly from 42% to 35% for OP. Energy density of the products at different peak temperatures is almost constant for OT (1.2, but slightly increases for OP (from a value of 1.3 to a value of 1.4.

  12. Comparision of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part I: product yields, gas and pyrolysis oil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Funda; Miskolczi, Norbert; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-04-01

    Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) and municipal plastic waste (MPW) have been investigated in batch reactor at 500, 550 and 600°C both in absence and presence of catalysts (Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3). The effect of the parameters on the product properties was investigated. Products were characterized using gas-chromatography, GC/MS, (13)C NMR. Yields of volatile fractions increased, while reaction time necessity for the total cracking decreased in the presence of catalysts. Catalysts have productivity and selectivity in converting aliphatic hydrocarbons to aromatic and cyclic compounds in oil products. Gases from MSW consisted of hydrogen CO, CO2, while exclusively hydrogen and hydrocarbons were detected from MPW. Catalyst efficiency was higher using MPW than MSW. Pyrolysis oils contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, cyclic compounds and less ketones, alcohols, acids or esters depending on the raw materials.

  13. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  14. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of

  15. Fractional pyrolysis of Cyanobacteria from water blooms over HZSM-5 for high quality bio-oil production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Li; Linling Li; Rui Zhang; Dongmei Tong∗; Changwei Hu∗

    2014-01-01

    Fractional pyrolysis and one-step pyrolysis of natural algae Cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake were comparatively studied from 200 to 500◦C. One-step pyrolysis produced bio-oil with complex composition and low high heating value (HHV630.9 MJ/kg). Fractional pyrolysis separated the degradation of different components in Cyanobacteria and improved the selectivity to products in bio-oil. That is, acids at 200◦C, amides and acids at 300◦C, phenols and nitriles at 400◦C, and phenols at 500◦C, were got as main products, respectively. HZSM-5 could promote the dehydration, cracking and aromatization of pyrolytic intermediates in fractional pyrolysis. At optimal HZSM-5 catalyst dosage of 1.0 g, the selectivity to products and the quality of bio-oil were improved obviously. The main products in bio-oil changed to nitriles (47.2%) at 300◦C, indoles (51.3%) and phenols (36.3%) at 400◦C. The oxygen content was reduced to 7.2 wt%and 9.4 wt%, and the HHV was raised to 38.1 and 37.3 MJ/kg at 300 and 400◦C, respectively. Fractional catalytic pyrolysis was proposed to be an efficient method not only to provide a potential solution for alleviating environmental pressure from water blooms, but also to improve the selectivity to products and obtain high quality bio-oil.

  16. Prediction of product distribution in fine biomass pyrolysis in fluidized beds based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    A predictive model was satisfactorily developed to describe the general trends of product distribution in fluidized beds of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. The model was made of mass balance based on proximate analysis and an empirical relationship with operating parameters including fluidization hydrodynamics. The empirical relationships between product yields and fluidization conditions in fluidized bed pyrolyzers were derived from the data of this study and literature. The gas and char yields showed strong functions of temperature and vapor residence time in the pyrolyzer. The yields showed a good correlation with fluidization variables related with hydrodynamics and bed mixing. The predicted product yields based on the model well accorded well with the experimental data.

  17. Biomass pyrolysis: use of some agricultural wastes for alternative fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Lygia Maestri; Santos, Larissa Cardoso; Vieira, Paula Fraga; Parreira, Priciane Martins; Henrique, Humberto Molinar, E-mail: lygiamk@gmail.com, E-mail: larinha_cardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: paulavieira88@gmail.com, E-mail: priciane.mp@bol.com.br, E-mail: humberto@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The use of biomass for energy generation has aroused great attention and interest because of the global climate changes, environmental pollution and reduction of availability of fossil energy. This study deals with pyrolysis of four agricultural wastes (sawdust, sugarcane straw, chicken litter and cashew nut shell) in a fixed bed pyrolytic reactor. The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 deg C and the temperature and pressure effects were investigated. Pyrolytic liquids produced were separated into aqueous and oil phases. XRF spectroscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the liquids and solids produced at whole temperature range. Calorific value analysis of liquids and solids were also performed for energy content evaluation. Experimental results showed sawdust, sugarcane straw and cashew nut waste have very good potential for using in pyrolysis process for alternative fuel production. (author)

  18. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification.

  19. Predicting Pyrolysis Products of PE, PP, and PET Using NRTL Activity Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mousa FakhrHoseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using thermodynamic models is a desired method for predicting an equilibrium when occurring in a system. If a thermodynamic model can predict an equilibrium condition in a pyrolysis, for a new way will be open for scientists in predicting equilibrium in a reaction without need to kinetic models. In this work, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephthalate were used instead of feed of pyrolysis process. The process was maintained at 500°C with 5 different temperature raising ratios 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14. Then the process was modeled thermodynamically using NRTL activity coefficient model. Using this model, the binary interaction coefficients were investigated for the system of “char, oil, and gas.” Results showed that polyethylene and polypropylene produced the maximum liquid product. Calculated RMSD objective function was 0.0157; that it is acceptable for this process.

  20. Pyrolysis Products as Soil Fertilizers: Screening of Potentially Hazardous Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frišták Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCM produced from three waste materials during slow pyrolysis at 400 and 500°C. As feedstocks bone meal (BM, biogas slurry (BC and chicken manure (CM were used. As potentially problematic substances 1- and 2- methylnaphthalene were analysed as indicators for methylated hydrocarbons in pyrolysis products. The phytotoxic effect of soil amendments was evaluated by a standard cress germination test with Lepidium sativum L. The analysis showed higher concentrations of the sum of 16 US-EPA PAHs in samples produced at lower temperature and in samples produced from biogas slurry. Concentrations of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene showed similar trends with concentrations in a range of 35-205% of the sum of 16 PAHs. Germination tests showed inhibition effects of products from biogas slurry when applied in concentrations of ≥ 10 % to standard substrate. Apparently pyrolysis of biogas slurry requires special attention to avoid accumulation of PAHs and methylated naphthalenes.

  1. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  2. Optimization of Biofuel and Biochar Production from the Slow Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Gao, B.; Nsf Reu in Water Resources

    2010-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis was performed on biomass samples (i.e., energy cane and air potato) to determine the most energy efficient conditions for producing biofuel and biochar. The potential of air potato as a source of fuel and char was also investigated. Dry biomass samples of 10, 15 and 20 g were heated in a reactor at a final temperatures of 300, 450, or 600 °C, and the minimum amount of time required to complete pyrolysis was recorded. Maximum biochar yield was obtained at 300°C for both energy cane and air potato at all masses, and maximum bio-oil yield was obtained at 450°C for all samples. Pyrolysis required the least amount of time at 450°C. Bio-oil yields for air potato were slightly lower than that of energy cane, while biochar yield was slightly higher. Since air potato showed similar product yields to energy cane, this indicates it has potential to be a good feedstock for biofuel and biochar productions.

  3. Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Ted; Agblevor, Foster; Battaglia, Francine; Klein, Michael

    2013-01-18

    The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

  4. Investigating and modeling the pyrolysis kinetic of leaves and stems of pistachio trees for biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ostad Hoseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The lignocelluloses materials have high potential for producing various types of biofuels. These materials include various parts of plants, especially leaves and stems that are left without a specific usage after annual pruning. These residues can be used through slow or fast pyrolysis process for production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. The slow pyrolysis is taking place at temperatures below 500°C while fast pyrolysis process takes place at a temperature above 700°C. Various studies on production of biofuels from plant residues have shown that the temperature, heating rate and the resident time of pyrolysis process are the main factors that affect the final product quality. At present time, in Iran, there are more than 360 thousands hectares of pistachio growing fields which annually produce over 215 thousands metric tons residues which are mainly leaves and stems. The main objective of this study was to measure the heating properties of the powders prepared from the leaves and the stem of pistachio trees. These properties include higher heating value (HHV, lower heating value (LHV and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders. Then the powders were separately pyrolysed and the kinetic of the pyrolysis process for producing charcoal from them was investigated. Materials and Methods In this research, leaves and stems of pistachio trees were initially analyzed to determine their chemical constituents including moisture content, volatile compounds, carbon (C, hydrogen (H, nitrogen (N, sulfur (S and oxygen (O content. Using these constituents the height heating value and low heating value for the leaves and the stems were determined. The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders was made to select a proper heating temperature for pyrolysis of the powders. In each experiment about 10 g of powder powders were pyrolyzed to produce char. Based on TGA results, the pyrolysis experiments were performed at 350, 400, 450 and

  5. The use of plant-specific pyrolysis products as biomarkers in peat deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Judith; Bradley, Jonathan A.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Fraga, Isabel; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Buurman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands are archives of environmental change that can be driven by climate and human activity. Proxies for peatland vegetation composition provide records of (local) environmental conditions that can be linked to both autogenic and allogenic factors. Analytical pyrolysis offers a molecular fingerprint of peat, and thereby a suite of environmental proxies. Here we investigate analytical pyrolysis as a method for biomarker analysis. Pyrolysates of 48 peatland plant species were compared, comprising seventeen lichens, three Sphagnum species, four non-Sphagnum mosses, eleven graminoids (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae), five Ericaceae and six species from other families. This resulted in twenty-one potential biomarkers, including new markers for lichens (3-methoxy-5-methylphenol) and graminoids (ferulic acid methyl ester). The potential of the identified biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation composition is discussed according to their depth records in cores from six peatlands from boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. The occurrence of markers for Sphagnum, graminoids and lichens in all six studied peat deposits indicates that they persist in peat of thousands of years old, in different vegetation types and under different conditions. In order to facilitate the quantification of biomarkers from pyrolysates, typically expressed as proportion (%) of the total quantified pyrolysis products, an internal standard (5-α-androstane) was introduced. Depth records of the Sphagnum marker 4-isopropenylphenol from the upper 3 m of a Sphagnum-dominated peat, from samples analysed with and without internal standard showed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.72, P < 0.0005, n = 12). This indicates that application of an internal standard is a reliable method to assess biomarker depth records, which enormously facilitates the use of analytical pyrolysis in biomarker research by avoiding quantification of a high number of products.

  6. Microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Alisa; Tahmasebi, Arash; Tian, Lu; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of peanut shell (PT) and pine sawdust (PS) using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil and nanotubes was investigated in this study. The effects of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and biomass/catalyst ratio on the yields and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. Fast heating rates were achieved under microwave irradiation conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bio-oil showed that activated carbon significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenolic compounds in bio-oil. The highest phenolics content in the bio-oil (61.19 %(area)) was achieved at 300°C. The selectivity of phenolics in bio-oil was higher for PT sample compared to that of PS. The formation of nanotubes in PT biomass particles was observed for the first time in biomass microwave pyrolysis.

  7. Optimization of the pyrolysis process for the production of a biomass derived reducing agent and hydrogen-rich gases

    OpenAIRE

    Adrados López de Viñaspre, Aitziber

    2014-01-01

    221 p. [EN] This thesis is devoted to the optimization of the biomass pyrolysis process for the simultaneous production of bioreducing agents and high value gases. The thesis is part of the existing collaborative research work between the Befesa Steel R&D S.L. Company and the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department of the Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao. This company was interested in developing the pyrolysis process at large scale to produce biocoke to be used as reducing agent...

  8. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel; van Rossum, Guus; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when compared to dried distillers grains (DDG), the main by-product of corn ethanol. Fast pyrolysis is an alternative thermal conversion technology for processing biomass. It has recently been optimized to produce a stream rich in levoglucosan, a fermentable glucose precursor for biofuel production. Additional product streams might be of value to the petrochemical industry. However, biomass heterogeneity is known to impact the composition of pyrolytic product streams, as a complex mixture of aromatic compounds is recovered with the sugars, interfering with subsequent fermentation. The present study investigates the feasibility of fast pyrolysis to produce fermentable pyrolytic glucose from two abundant lignocellulosic biomass sources in Ontario, switchgrass (potential energy crop) and corn cobs (by-product of corn industry). Demineralization of biomass removes catalytic centers and increases the levoglucosan yield during pyrolysis. The ash content of biomass was significantly decreased by 82-90% in corn cobs when demineralized with acetic or nitric acid, respectively. In switchgrass, a reduction of only 50% for both acids could be achieved. Conversely, levoglucosan production increased 9- and 14-fold in corn cobs when rinsed with acetic and nitric acid, respectively, and increased 11-fold in switchgrass regardless of the acid used. After pyrolysis, different configurations for upgrading the pyrolytic sugars were assessed and the presence of potentially inhibitory compounds was approximated at each step as double integral of the UV spectrum signal of an HPLC assay. The results showed that water extraction followed by acid hydrolysis and solvent extraction was the best upgrading strategy

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Başak B; Kanmaz, Gülin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41 (10 wt % of the biomass sample) was carried out in order to increase the quality of the liquid product at the various pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550(o)C. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was obtained as 42% at 500(o)C in a fixed-bed reactor system. In the catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was decreased to 37.48, 30.04 and 29.23% in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41, respectively. The obtained pyrolysis oils were analyzed by various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. It was determined that the use of a catalyst decreased acids and increased valuable organics found in the bio-oil. The removal of oxygen from bio-oil was confirmed with the results of the elemental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal and products from coal liquefaction and pyrolysis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.; Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are given for analysis of coal, coal liquefaction products, and coal pyrolysis products. Proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) using the Fisher Coal Analyzer Model 490, and ultimate analysis (determination of C, H, N, S, O, and occasionally Cl) using the Perkin-Elmer Elemental Analyzer are described. Determination of calorific value of coal using the oxygen bomb calorimeter is also detailed, as well as procedures for trace element analysis and for removal of halogenated solvents from gravity separation fractions of coal. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Combined pretreatment with torrefaction and washing using torrefaction liquid products to yield upgraded biomass and pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Mei, Jiaming; Li, Haiping; Li, Yiming; Lu, Mengting; Ma, Tingting; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-03-01

    This study presented an approach to upgrade biomass and pyrolysis products using a process based on torrefaction liquid washing combined with torrefaction pretreatment. The torrefaction of cotton stalk was first conducted at 250°C for 30min and then the resulting torrefaction liquid products were collected and reused to wash cottonstalk. The pyrolysis of the original and pretreated cotton stalk was performed at 500°C for 15min in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that the combined pretreatment obviously reduced the metallic species in cotton stalk, decreased the water and acids contents while promoted phenols in bio-oil, declined the ash content in biochar, as well as improved the heating value of non-condensable gas. Overall, the combined pretreatment did not only allow to reuse the liquid products issued from torrefaction pretreatment but also improved the quality of biomass and the pyrolysis products, making it a novel promising pretreatment method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the pyrolysis of sludge and sludge/disposal filter cake mix for the production of value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velghe, Inge; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan; Schreurs, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Slow and fast pyrolysis of sludge and sludge/disposal filter cake (FC) mix are performed to investigate the liquid and solid products for their use as value added products. The obtained slow pyrolysis liquid products separate in an oil, a water rich fraction and a valuable crystalline solid 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin. During fast pyrolysis, mainly an oil fraction is formed. Aliphatic acids and amides present in the water rich fractions can be considered as value added products and could be purified. The oil fractions have properties which make them promising as fuel (25-35 MJ/kg, 14-20 wt% water content, 0.2-0.6 O/C value), but upgrading is necessary. Sludge/FC oils have a lower calorific value, due to evaporation of alcohols present in FC. ICP-AES analyses reveal that almost none of the metals present in sludge or sludge/FC are transferred towards the liquid fractions. The metals are enriched in the solid fractions.

  13. Techno-economic and uncertainty analysis of in situ and ex situ fast pyrolysis for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Boyan; Ou, Longwen; Dang, Qi; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Brown, Robert C.; Wright, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the techno-economic uncertainty in cost estimates for two emerging biorefinery technologies for biofuel production: in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis. Stochastic simulations based on process and economic parameter distributions are applied to calculate biorefinery performance and production costs. The probability distributions for the minimum fuel-selling price (MFSP) indicate that in situ catalytic pyrolysis has an expected MFSP of $4.20 per gallon with a standard deviation of 1.15, while the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has a similar MFSP with a smaller deviation ($4.27 per gallon and 0.79 respectively). These results suggest that a biorefinery based on ex situ catalytic pyrolysis could have a lower techno-economic risk than in situ pyrolysis despite a slightly higher MFSP cost estimate. Analysis of how each parameter affects the NPV indicates that internal rate of return, feedstock price, total project investment, electricity price, biochar yield and bio-oil yield are significant parameters which have substantial impact on the MFSP for both in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis.

  14. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature.

  15. Application of nanostuctured materials as acid-catalysts in rice straw pyrolysis for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong T.; Le, Hy G.; Dinh, Thang C.; Hoang, Thang V.; Bui, Linh H. T.; Hoang, Yen; Tran, Hoa K. T.; Vu, Tuan A.

    2008-12-01

    Rice straw, a waste agro-byproduct, which is abundant lignocellulose products from rice production, is a renewable energy sources in Vietnam. Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by thermal and catalytic pyrolysis using a fixed-bed reactor with heating rate 15oC/min, nitrogen as sweeping gas with flow rate 120ml/min. Final temperature of the pyrolysis reaction is a significantly influence on product yield. The gas yield increased and the solid yield decreased as the pyrolysis temperature increasing from 400oC to 600oC. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 48.3 % at the pyrolysis temperature of 550oC. Mesoporous Al-SBA-15 was used as acid catalyst in pyrolysis of rice straw. The obtained results showed that, in the presence of catalyst, yield of gas products increased, whereas liquid yield decreased and solid product remained the same as compared to the non-catalytic experiments. The effect of nanostructured catalysts on the product yields and distribution was investigated.

  16. Products and bioenergy from the pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma and its kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wen-Kai; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Kuo, Jing T; Shaw, Dai-Gee; You, Yii-Der; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2009-03-01

    The radio frequency plasma pyrolysis technology, which can overcome the disadvantages of common pyrolysis methods such as less gas products while significant tar formation, was used for pyrolyzing the biomass waste of rice straw. The experiments were performed at various plateau temperatures of 740, 813, 843 and 880K with corresponding loading powers of 357, 482, 574 and 664W, respectively. The corresponding yields of gas products (excluding nitrogen) from rice straw are 30.7, 56.6, 62.5 and 66.5wt.% with respect to the original dried sample and the corresponding specific heating values gained from gas products are about 4548, 4284, 4469 and 4438kcalkg(-1), respectively, for the said cases. The corresponding combustible portions remained in the solid residues are about 64.7, 35, 28.2 and 23.5wt.% with specific heating values of 4106, 4438, 4328 and 4251kcalkg(-1) with respective to solid residues, while that in the original dried sample is 87.2wt.% with specific heating value of 4042kcalkg(-1). The results indicated that the amount of combustibles converted into gas products increases with increasing plateau temperature. The kinetic model employed to describe the pyrolytic conversion of rice straw at constant temperatures agrees well with the experimental data. The best curve fittings render the frequency factor of 5759.5s(-1), activation energy of 74.29kJ mol(-1) and reaction order of 0.5. Data and information obtained are useful for the future design and operation of pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma.

  17. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  18. Kinetics and product distribution of end of life tyres (ELTs) pyrolysis: a novel approach in polyisoprene and SBR thermal cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Lettieri, P; Baeyens, J

    2009-12-30

    Thermo-chemical treatments (mainly pyrolysis) directed towards energy and products recovery provide a very promising alternative to open space disposal or landfilling, reducing in the process hazardous waste and potential contamination to soil and water resources. In this communication, we present results of end of life tyres (ELTs) pyrolysis via isothermal and dynamic thermogravimetry of two ELT grades. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing a pre-set temperature (T(c)=500 degrees C) pyrolysis process (conversion time, t(c), of 120 s), to the benefit of intensifying the global product yields recovered. A novel engineering kinetics approach was undertaken to propose a thermal cracking scheme of four primary and two secondary side reactions. Thermal degradation of ELTs was taken from a depolymerization approach of the present polyisoprene polymer in the tyres, resulting in a high regression of 0.959. The products of ELTs pyrolysis were lumped into four categories, namely aromatics, liquids, char and gases. The thermal cracking model evaluation of kinetic rate constants and lumped products showed a regression ranging between 0.90 and 0.94. Dynamic runs were performed to extend the model derived, taking into account heating rate (beta) influence and products prediction and interaction. The results obtained can be used in designing industrial ELTs pyrolysis units.

  19. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Westerhof, Roel; Van Rossum, Guus; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the products was used as the thermochemical process to obtain a pyrolysis-oil rich in anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan) and low in inhibitors. After hydrolysis of these anhydro-sugars, glucose was obtained which was successfully fermented, after detoxification, to obtain bioethanol. Ethanol yields comparable to traditional biochemical processing were achieved (41.3% of theoretical yield based on cellulose fraction). Additional benefits of the proposed biorefinery concept comprise valuable by-products of the thermochemical conversion like bio-char, mono-phenols (production of BTX) and pyrolytic lignin as a source of aromatic rich fuel additive. The inhibitory effect of thermochemically derived fermentation substrates was quantified numerically to compare the effects of different process configurations and upgrading steps within the biorefinery approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterogeneous and Photochemical Reactions Involving Surface Adsorbed Organics: Common Lignin Pyrolysis Products With Nitrogen Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.; Nichols, B. R.; Rapa, C.; Costa, V.

    2009-05-01

    Solid-air interfaces, such as airborne particulate matter and ground level surfaces, provide unique supports for tropospheric heterogeneous chemistry. These interfaces commonly contain surface adsorbed organics, such as lignin pyrolysis products, that can significantly alter their physical and chemical properties. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) provides an ideal tool for monitoring chemical changes in thin organic films during heterogeneous and photochemical reactions. Phenolic compounds, with and without co- adsorbed photosensitizers, were exposed to NO2 concentrations in the parts-per-billion range at 300 K and 20% relative humidity. Catechol, when mixed with benzophenone or dicyclohexylketone, formed 4- nitrocatechol as the dominant product under dark conditions. Deuterating the catechol alcohol groups caused the initial rate of reaction to decrease by a factor of 3.3±0.5, consistent with formation of the ortho- semiquinone radical as the rate determining step. The rate of 4-nitrocatechol formation did not increase under illuminated conditions, even with the presence of benzophenone a well known photosensitizer. UV-A/visible radiation did, however, initiate a photochemical reaction between benzophenone and 4-nitrocatechol, likely forming high molecular weight polymerization products. In contrast, 2-ethoxyphenol displayed no reactivity with NO2, even under illuminated conditions with a photosensitizer. Implications for the fate of lignin pyrolysis products, which are prevalent in biomass combustion smoke, will be discussed.

  1. Classification of photobacteria associated with spoilage of fish products by numerical taxanomy and pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Manfio, G.P.; Goodfellow, M.

    1997-01-01

    , from spoiled products and by using a specific detection method. The data were analysed using the similarity coefficient and the unweighted pair-group with arithmetic averages algorithm. In addition twenty-six of the fish isolates and five reference strains were analysed by Curie-point pyrolysis mass...... sub-groups. One sub-group of psychrotolerant P. phosphoreum strains, which was selected in modified atmosphere packed fish stored at low temperature, was also highlighted using each of the methods. The importance of classifying food spoilage bacteria has been shown and a simple key generated...

  2. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  3. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  4. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s. The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals on pyrolysis products is: 1 to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2 to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3 to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4 to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5 to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging. Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  5. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena. PMID:26978265

  6. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using (1)H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons by catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae with zeolites: catalyst screening in a pyroprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenyi; Ma, Xiaochen; Li, Yun; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2013-07-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae and egg whites was investigated to evaluate the performance of different zeolites for the production of aromatic hydrocarbons. Three zeolites with different structures (H-Y, H-Beta and H-ZSM5) were used to study the effect of catalyst type on the aromatic yield. All three catalysts significantly increased the aromatic yields from pyrolysis of microalgae and egg whites compared with non-catalytic runs, and H-ZSM5 was most effective with a yield of 18.13%. Three H-ZSM5 with silica-to-alumina ratios of 30, 80 and 280 were used to study the effect of Si/Al ratio on the aromatic yield. The maximum yield was achieved at the Si/Al ratio of 80, which provides moderate acidity to achieve high aromatic production and reduce coke formation simultaneously. Aromatic production increased with the incorporation of copper or gallium to HZSM-5. However, other studied metals either had no significant influence or led to a lower aromatic yield.

  8. Effect of DMMP on the pyrolysis products of polyurethane foam materials in the gaseous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.; He, J.; Gao, N.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been used as a flame retardant containing phosphorus to decrease the flammability of the polyurethane foam material (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results show that LOI values of all PUF/DMMP samples are higher than that of the neat PUF sample and the LOI value of the samples increases with both DMMP concentration and the %P value. Thermal analysis indicates that flame retardant PUF shows a dominant condensed flame retardant activity during combustion. Thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) has been used to study the influence of DMMP on the pyrolysis products in the gaseous phase during the thermal degradation of the PUF sample. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) spectra of the PUF sample at the maximum evolution rates and the generated trends of water and the products containing -NCO have been examined to obtain more information about the pyrolysis product evolutions of the samples at high temperature. These results reveal that although DMMP could improve the thermal stability of PUF samples through the formation of the residual char layer between fire and the decomposed materials, the influence of DMMP on the gaseous phase can be also observed during the thermal degradation process of materials.

  9. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  10. Biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized bed : product cleaning by in-situ filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoquan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the subject of fast pyrolysis in a fluid bed reactor. A large part of the work is related to reactor design aspects of fast pyrolysis, a subject that has not been considered sufficiently. Past research efforts were focussed mainly on the kinetics of wood pyrolysis and the

  11. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Production from Gasification and Pyrolysis of Solar Dried Sewage Sludge: Experimental and Modeling Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrib, Amina; Friaa, Athar; Ouerghi, Aymen; Naoui, Slim; Belayouni, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Solar dried sewage sludge (SS) conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%). SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9.96 MJ/kg for pyrolysis and 8.02  9.96 MJ/kg for gasification) due to their high contents of H2 (up to 11 and 7 wt%, resp.) and CH4 (up to 17 and 5 wt%, resp.). The yields of combustible gases (H2 and CH4) show further increase with pyrolysis. Stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and gasification reactions were determined based on the global biomass formula, CαHβOγNδSε, in order to assist in the products yields optimization. PMID:28856162

  12. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Production from Gasification and Pyrolysis of Solar Dried Sewage Sludge: Experimental and Modeling Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aïda; Ghrib, Amina; Zaafouri, Kaouther; Friaa, Athar; Ouerghi, Aymen; Naoui, Slim; Belayouni, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Solar dried sewage sludge (SS) conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%). SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9.96 MJ/kg for pyrolysis and 8.02  9.96 MJ/kg for gasification) due to their high contents of H2 (up to 11 and 7 wt%, resp.) and CH4 (up to 17 and 5 wt%, resp.). The yields of combustible gases (H2 and CH4) show further increase with pyrolysis. Stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and gasification reactions were determined based on the global biomass formula, CαHβOγNδSε, in order to assist in the products yields optimization.

  13. Effect of activity state upon the production of lethalities due to the inhalation of the toxic pyrolysis products of polyacrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.J.; Whitney, S.; Purser, C.; Hume, A.S.

    1987-02-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is known to be produced upon the pyrolysis of the synthetic material polyacrylonitrile. Cyanide inhibits phosphorylation reactions, therefore, decreasing the amount of high energy bonds available for metabolic use. Since the energy requirements, as well as the respiratory minute volume, for an individual decrease with decreasing activity, it was of interest to investigate whether diminished physical activity would decrease the lethal potential of the pyrolysis products of polyacrylonitrile. In order to produce wide variations in physical activity, male ICR mice were pretreated with either 8.6 mg/kg dextroamphetamine sulfate ip 30 min prior to challenge, 75 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital ip 15 min prior to challenge, or 10 ml/kg of 70 proof ethyl alcohol ip 15 min prior to challenge. Control animals received injections of 10 ml/kg normal saline ip 15 min prior to challenge. Animals were subsequently challenged with the cooled/filtered smoke from the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile fibers at 660 C. Increased physical activity decreased the exposure time necessary to produce death. Animals pretreated with amphetamine appear to die more rapidly than control animals due to an increase in respiratory minute volume. Animals pretreated with sodium pentobarbital or ethanol appear to survive through long periods of exposure to the toxic gases due to both a decrease in minute volume and a decrease in energy utilization.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis-gc/ms of spirulina: evaluation of a highly proteinaceous biomass source for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of microalgae offers a pathway towards the production of compounds derived from the thermal decomposition of triglycerides, proteins as well as lignocelluloses and their combinations thereof. When catalytically induced, this could lead to the production of fuels and chemicals including aro...

  15. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Kuppevelt, van Michiel; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir (Ps

  16. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of urea formaldehyde resins on pyrolysis characteristics and products of wood-based panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshun Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In China each year, large amounts of wood-based panels are consumed and abandoned. These are huge resources for energy recovery and materials reuse. In order to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin (UF resin on waste wood-based panels during pyrolysis, thermobalance experiments together with the evolution of main gaseous products of wood, wood-based panels, and UF resins were carried out and analyzed by TG-FTIR. Elementary and GC-MS analyses were also done to study the characteristics of solid and liquid products. Results from TG and DTG analyses indicated that UF resin used in wood-based panels accelerated the degradation rate of wood-based panels at lower temperature; however the resin inhibited the degradation of wood-based panels over the later stage at higher temperatures. Compared with solid wood, the higher intensity and earlier releasing time of HNCO and NH3 in wood board revealed that the release of nitric gases is mainly due to the presence of UF resin, especially between 180 °C and 320 °C. Mass loss of hydrogen is significantly inhibited by UF resin, and nitrogen is quite stable in the char. The influence of UF resin on pyrolysis liquids of wood-based panels is mainly on nitrogen compounds and ketones rather than aldehydes and esters, which is probably due to the chemical reactions of UF resin with lignin constituent in wood.

  18. Properties of chars obtained with pyrolysis of Castanea sativa by product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehlivan Eylem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of biomass derived energy is gaining importance due to the decreasing supply of fossil fuels and growing environmental concerns. This study described the possibility of utilizing Castanea sativa’s by-product as biofuels by producing char via pyrolysis. The process was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different heating rates of 10°C, 100°C, and 200°C per minute at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 700°C, and a nitrogen flow rate of 100 cm3 per minute. The produced chars were characterized by proximate and elemental analyses, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence analyses. The char yield was found to decrease as both pyrolysis temperature and heating rate increases. The carbon content of char ranged from 68 to 87 wt.%, which correspond to approximately 43% of carbon in the biomass. The char obtained at 700°C had high fixed carbon content (79.90% as well as high heating value, and hence, it could be used as a solid fuel or as a precursor in the activated carbon production with its 268 m2 per gram surface area.

  19. Pyrolysis of Polyolefins Using Rotating Arc Plasma Technology for Production of Acetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyolefin, as one of the most widely used macromolecule materials, has been one of the most serious threats to the environment. Current treatment methods of waste polyolefin including landfill, incineration, and thermal degradation have suffered from severe problems such as secondary pollution and the generation of other toxic substances. In this article, we report for the first time a high-efficiency method to produce high-value C2H2 from polyolefins using a rotating direct current arc plasma reactor, using polyethylene and polypropylene as feedstocks. The essence of this method is that a reductive atmosphere of pyrolysis enables a thermodynamic preference to C2H2 over other carbon-containing gas and the rotating direct current arc plasma reactor allows for a uniform distribution of high temperature to ensure high conversion of polymers. Thermodynamic simulation of product composition was performed, and the effect of plasma input power, polyolefin feed rate, and working gas flow rate on the pyrolysis results was experimentally investigated. It was found that, with proper parameter control, approximately complete conversion of carbon in polyolefin could be obtained, with a C2H2 selectivity higher than 80% and a C2H2 yield higher than 70%. These results not only create new opportunities for the reuse of polymer waste, but are also instructive for the green production of C2H2.

  20. Fast pyrolysis of palm kernel cake in a closed-tubular reactor: product compositions and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thanh-An; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In this study, fast pyrolysis of palm kernel cake (PKC) was carried out in a closed-tubular reactor over a temperature range of 550 to 750°C with various retention times. The pyrolyzing gas products mainly included CO, CO(2), and light hydrocarbons; it is noted that no hydrogen was detected in the product. In order to investigate the reaction pathway, the kinetic lump model of Liden was applied to verify and calculate all rate constants. The results obtained at different temperatures indicated that the rate constant increased with pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the experimental results were in good agreement with the proposed mechanism.

  1. Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 μm. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

  2. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability.

  3. Biomass fast pyrolysis for bio-oil production in a fluidized bed reactor under hot flue atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wang, Xiang; Bai, Xueyuan; Li, Zhihe; Zhang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of corn stalk were performed to investigate the optimal pyrolysis conditions of temperature and bed material for maximum bio-oil production under flue gas atmosphere. Under the optimized pyrolysis conditions, furfural residue, xylose residue and kelp seaweed were pyrolyzed to examine their yield distributions of products, and the physical characteristics of bio-oil were studied. The best flow rate of the flue gas at selected temperature is obtained, and the pyrolysis temperature at 500 degrees C and dolomite as bed material could give a maximum bio-oil yield. The highest bio-oil yield of 43.3% (W/W) was achieved from corn stalk under the optimal conditions. Two main fractions were recovered from the stratified bio-oils: light oils and heavy oils. The physical properties of heavy oils from all feedstocks varied little. The calorific values of heavy oils were much higher than that of light oils. The pyrolysis gas could be used as a gaseous fuel due to a relatively high calorific value of 6.5-8.5 MJ/m3.

  4. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products.

  5. Direct detection of products from the pyrolysis of 2-phenethyl phenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark W; Daily, John W; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Dean, Anthony M; Sharma, Shantanu; Dayton, David C; Robichaud, David J; Nimlos, Mark R

    2011-02-03

    The pyrolysis of 2-phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE, C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)OC(6)H(5)) in a hyperthermal nozzle (300-1350 °C) was studied to determine the importance of concerted and homolytic unimolecular decomposition pathways. Short residence times (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PIMS). Detection of phenoxy radical, cyclopentadienyl radical, benzyl radical, and benzene suggest the formation of product by the homolytic scission of the C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-OC(6)H(5) and C(6)H(5)CH(2)-CH(2)OC(6)H(5) bonds. The detection of phenol and styrene suggests decomposition by a concerted reaction mechanism. Phenyl ethyl ether (PEE, C(6)H(5)OC(2)H(5)) pyrolysis was also studied using PIMS and using cryogenic matrix-isolated infrared spectroscopy (matrix-IR). The results for PEE also indicate the presence of both homolytic bond breaking and concerted decomposition reactions. Quantum mechanical calculations using CBS-QB3 were conducted, and the results were used with transition state theory (TST) to estimate the rate constants for the different reaction pathways. The results are consistent with the experimental measurements and suggest that the concerted retro-ene and Maccoll reactions are dominant at low temperatures (below 1000 °C), whereas the contribution of the C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-OC(6)H(5) homolytic bond scission reaction increases at higher temperatures (above 1000 °C).

  6. Fixed-bed pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of sunflower bagasse: product yields and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, A.E.; Kockar, O.M.; Yorgun, S.; Gercel, H.F.; Andresen, J.; Snape, C.E.; Putun, E. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-01-01

    Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis experiments at different temperatures, heating rates and pressures have been conducted on a sample of sunflower pressed bagasse to investigate the effect of particle size, sweep gas velocity, and hydrogen pressure on the product yields and characteristics. In contrast to coal and oil shales, char and oil yields from sunflower pressed bagasse were found to be largely independent of particle size and sweep gas velocity in a Heinze retort with the oil yield of {approx} 40% w/w being the same as that from a well-swept fixed-bed reactor in which a much smaller sample size was used. The use of high hydrogen pressure ({gt} 50 bar) increased the oil yields by up to {approx} 10% w/w but these increases are much greater when expressed on a carbon basis due to the reduced oxygen contents of the oils. Even at low pressure, it has been estimated that {approx} 40% of the carbon aromatized during pyrolysis. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavsová, Adéla; Raclavská, Helena; Juchelková, Dagmar; Škrobánková, Hana; Frydrych, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial) grasses (NHG) and hybrid (perennial) grasses (HG). Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i) H2 yield and lignin content, (ii) H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii) CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs) of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg), hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg), and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg). The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3. PMID:25101320

  8. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéla Hlavsová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial grasses (NHG and hybrid (perennial grasses (HG. Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i H2 yield and lignin content, (ii H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg, hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg, and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg. The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3.

  9. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  10. Microwave-induced cracking of pyrolytic tars coupled to microwave pyrolysis for syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneroso, D; Bermúdez, J M; Montes-Morán, M A; Arenillas, A; Menéndez, J A

    2016-10-01

    Herein a new process is proposed to produce a syngas-rich gas fraction (>80vol% H2+CO) from biowaste based on microwave heating within two differentiated steps in order to avoid tars production. The first step consists of the microwave pyrolysis of biowaste induced by a char-based susceptor at 400-800°C; tars, char and syngas-rich gas fractions being produced. The tars are then fed into the second step where a portion of the char from the first step is used as a bed material in a 0.3:1wt% ratio. This bed is heated up by microwaves up to 800°C, allowing thermal cracking of tars and additional syngas (>90vol% H2+CO) being then produced. This new concept arises as an alternative technology to the gasification of biowastes for producing syngas with no need for catalysts or gasifying reagents to minimise tars production.

  11. Pyrolysis of Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope E. Odetoye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional agricultural residues such as Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell (PPBFS are potential sources of biomass feedstock that have not been investigated for bio oil production. In this study, PPBFS was pyrolyzed via an intermediate pyrolysis process for the production of bio oil. The bio oils were obtained using a fixed bed reactor within a temperature range of 375–550 oC and were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. The most abundant organic compounds present were acetic acid, toluene, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-furanmethanol, phenol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The bio-oil produced at 550 oC possessed a higher quantity of desirable compounds than those produced at lower temperatures. The presence of acetic acids in the bio-oil suggested the need to upgrade the bio-oil before utilization as a fuel source.

  12. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub.

  13. Intermediate pyrolysis of agro-industrial biomasses in bench-scale pyrolyser: Product yields and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinwala, Farha; Mohanty, Pravakar; Parmar, Snehal; Patel, Anant; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of woody biomass, agro-residues and seed was carried out at 500 ± 10 °C in a fixed bed pyrolyser. Bio-oil yield was found varying from 20.5% to 47.5%, whereas the biochar and pyrolysis gas ranged from 27.5% to 40% and 24.5% to 40.5%, respectively. Pyrolysis gas was measured for flame temperature along with CO, CO2, H2, CH4 and other gases composition. HHV of biochar (29.4 MJ/kg) and pyrolitic gas (8.6 MJ/kg) of woody biomass was higher analogous to sub-bituminous coal and steam gasification based producer gas respectively, whereas HHV of bio-oil obtained from seed (25.6 MJ/kg) was significantly more than husks, shells and straws. TGA-DTG studies showed the husks as potential source for the pyrolysis. Bio-oils as a major by-product of intermediate pyrolysis have several applications like substitute of furnace oil, extraction of fine chemicals, whereas biochar as a soil amendment for enhancing soil fertility and gases for thermal application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bio-oil production via catalytic pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea: Effects of operating conditions on product yields and chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Durak, Halil; Güner, Serkan; Bengü, Aydın Şükrü; Esim, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    Pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea, a lignocellulosic gramineous plant, was carried out in a tubular, fixed-bed reactor in the presence of four catalysts (Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, ZnCl2, Al2O3). The influences of pyrolysis parameters such as catalyst and temperature on the yields of products were studied. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts effected the yields of products differently and the composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and Al2O3 and decreased with Ca(OH)2. The highest bio-oil yield (34.05%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with Na2CO3 catalyst at 450°C. The yields of products (bio-char, bio-oil and gas) and the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. GC-MS identified 124 and 164 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 350 and 550°C respectively.

  15. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walton, C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, D. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  16. Can portable pyrolysis units make biomass utilization affordable while using bio-char to enhance soil productivity and sequester carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Coleman; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Jim Archuleta; Phil Badger; Woodum Chung; Tyron Venn; Dan Loeffler; Greg Jones; Kristin McElligott

    2010-01-01

    We describe a portable pyrolysis system for bioenergy production from forest biomass that minimizes long-distance transport costs and provides for nutrient return and long-term soil carbon storage. The cost for transporting biomass to conversion facilities is a major impediment to utilizing forest biomass. If forest biomass could be converted into bio-oil in the field...

  17. Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.W.H.; Zwart, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.

  18. Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.W.H.; Zwart, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.

  19. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walton, C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, D. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  20. Design of pyrolysis reactor for production of bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Andi; Alwi, Ratna Surya; Syarif, Takdir

    2017-05-01

    The residues from the wood industry are the main contributors to biomass waste in Indonesia. The conventional pyrolysis process, which needs a large energy as well as to produce various toxic chemical to the environment. Therefore, a pyrolysis unit on the laboratory scale was designed that can be a good alternative to achieve zero-waste and low energy cost. In this paper attempts to discuss design and system of pyrolysis reactor to produce bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously.

  1. Upgraded bio-oil production via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of waste cooking oil and tea residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu; Deng, Aidong; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) offers a concise and effective process to achieve an upgraded bio-oil production. In this paper, co-CFP experiments of waste cooking oil (WCO) and tea residual (TR) with HZSM-5 zeolites were carried out. The influences of pyrolysis reaction temperature and H/C ratio on pyrolytic products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were performed. Furthermore, the prevailing synergetic effect of target products during co-CFP process was investigated. Experimental results indicated that H/C ratio played a pivotal role in carbon yields of aromatics and olefins, and with H/C ratio increasing, the synergetic coefficient tended to increase, thus led to a dramatic growth of aromatics and olefins yields. Besides, the pyrolysis temperature made a significant contribution to carbon yields, and the yields of aromatics and olefins increased at first and then decreased at the researched temperature region. Note that 600°C was an optimum temperature as the maximum yields of aromatics and olefins could be achieved. Concerning the transportation fuel dependence and security on fossil fuels, co-CFP of WCO and TR provides a novel way to improve the quality and quantity of pyrolysis bio-oil, and thus contributes bioenergy accepted as a cost-competitive and promising alternative energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polyhydroxybutyrate: Part 1. Influence on bio-oil yield, water content, heating value and the production of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; M. Jans; J. Yperman; G. Reggers; S. Schreurs; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-09-15

    Bio-oil obtained via flash pyrolysis shows potential to be applied as a renewable fuel. However, bio-oil often contains high amounts of water, which is a major drawback for its application. The influence of a biopolymer - polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated using a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. The flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PHB blends (w/w ratio 7:1, 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1) clearly shows particular merits: a synergetic increase in pyrolysis yield, a synergetic reduction of the water content in bio-oil, an increase in heating value, and a production of easily separable chemicals. The occurrence of synergetic interactions is observed based on a comparison between the actual pyrolysis results of the willow/PHB blends, the theoretical pyrolysis results calculated from the reference pyrolysis experiments (pure willow and pure PHB) and their respective w/w ratio. The co-pyrolysis of 1:1 willow/PHB shows the best overall results. 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Bioenergy and products from thermal pyrolysis of rice straw using plasma torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility and operation performance of plasma torch pyrolysis of biomass wastes, taking rice straw as the target material. This novel method has several advantages including high heating rate, short heating time, no viscous tar and low residual char (7.45-13.78 wt.%) or lava. The productions of CO and H(2) are the major components (91.85-94.14 vol.%) in the gas products with relatively high reaction rates. The maximum concentrations of gaseous products occurring times are all below 1 min. Almost 90% of gaseous products were appeared in 4 min reaction time. The yield of H(2) increases with the increase of input power or temperature. With the increase of moisture (5-55 wt.%), the mass yields of H(2) and CO(2) also increase from the H(2)O decomposition. However, due to the CO(2) production, the accumulated volume fraction of syngas decreases with the increase of moisture.

  4. Production Cost Assessment of Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Conversion to Bio-Oil via Fast Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Peryoga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production cost assessment was based on palm oil mill of 30 metrics tons FFB/h capacity that produced EFB residue at app. 20 % wt of the initial FFB fed to the plant. The bio-oil plant will be located in the palm oil mill complex to eliminate the transportation cost of the EFB feedstock. The process included in this calculation is chopping, drying, grinding, pyrolysis, solid removal, bio oil recovery, and storage. The production cost is influenced by the amount of bio-oil production, material cost, operational cost including labor and utility cost. The sensitivity analysis shows that feedstock price drives the production cost. The result concludes that for the current condition, the bio-oil production cost from palm empty fruit bunch seems promising to be implemented in Indonesia. The best option is to have the bio-oil plant integrated with the palm oil mill, where in this case the EFB can be kept at no cost, off the market influence.

  5. Production of bio-oil and biochar from soapstock via microwave-assisted co-catalytic fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger; Wang, Yunpu; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Yu, Zhenting

    2017-02-01

    In this study, production of bio-oil and biochar from soapstock via microwave-assisted co-catalytic fast pyrolysis combining the advantages of in-situ and ex-situ catalysis was performed. The effects of catalyst and pyrolysis temperature on product fractional yields and bio-oil chemical compositions were investigated. From the perspective of bio-oil yield, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 550°C. The use of catalysts reduced the water content, and the addition of bentonite increased the bio-oil yield. Up to 84.16wt.% selectivity of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil was obtained in the co-catalytic process. In addition, the co-catalytic process can reduce the proportion of oxygenates in the bio-oil to 15.84wt.% and eliminate the N-containing compounds completely. The addition of bentonite enhanced the BET surface area of bio-char. In addition, the bio-char removal efficiency of Cd(2+) from soapstock pyrolysis in presence of bentonite was 27.4wt.% higher than without bentonite.

  6. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point Hoboken NJ 07030

    2012-09-29

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a demonstration size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  7. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  8. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi

    2003-09-01

    Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013).

  9. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  10. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural.

  11. Beneficial synergetic effect on gas production during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiang; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Yang, Xiao

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyze sewage sludge, biomass (rice husk) and their blend under high temperature (900°C). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effect on gas production was observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The syngas (CO and H2) content and gas lower heating value (LHV) were obviously improved as well. It was highly possible that sewage sludge provided more CO2 and H2O during co-pyrolysis, promoting intense CO2-char and H2O-char gasification, which benefited the increase of gas yield and lower heating value. The beneficial synergetic effect, as a result, made this method a feasible one for gas production.

  12. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80 wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass. PMID:23350028

  13. Occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhen; Liu Ze-chang; Zhou Li-xia [Chemical and Environmental Department of Taishan College, Taian (China)

    2009-08-15

    The occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product including tar and water from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic (WP) and coal were studied. The effect of temperature, holding time, heating rate and gas flow on chlorine concentration in the liquid product was examined. The result indicates that the addition of WP to coal in co-pyrolysis does not increase the organic chlorine compound in the liquid product. However, the tar yield increases, and the water yield decreases. The chlorine in water mainly exists as inorganic form (NH{sub 4}Cl) and organic amine hydrochloride. There is no obvious C-Cl band in IR spectra of tar is observed. This indicates that the organic chlorine in tar is very little. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Kinetic and energy production analysis of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using a three-parallel Gaussian reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianju; Zhang, Jinzhi; Wu, Jinhu

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic and energy productions of pyrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass were investigated using a three-parallel Gaussian distribution method in this work. The pyrolysis experiment of the pine sawdust was performed using a thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) analyzer. A three-parallel Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM)-reaction model was used to describe thermal decomposition behaviors of the three components, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The first, second and third pseudocomponents represent the fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. It was found that the model is capable of predicting the pyrolysis behavior of the pine sawdust. The activation energy distribution peaks for the three pseudo-components were centered at 186.8, 197.5 and 203.9kJmol(-1) for the pine sawdust, respectively. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 were well predicted using the three-parallel Gaussian distribution model. In addition, the chemical composition of bio-oil was also obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry instrument (Py-GC/MS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...

  16. Investigating the influence of production conditions on the energy distribution between the solid, liquid and gaseous products of slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Kyle; Masek, Ondrej

    2013-04-01

    Slow pyrolysis is a well established technology for converting biomass into a more stable form of carbon (biochar) while also producing energy rich by-products of bio-oil and syngas. Biochar is the porous, carbonaceous material produced by thermo-chemical treatment of organic materials in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar can be incorporated into soils to improve soil fertility, reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as provide long term storage of carbon or alternatively it can also provide additional energy to a pyrolysis system through combustion. Biochar production conditions have a significant influence on the yield as well as physiochemical and functional properties of the final pyrolysis products, resulting in a selection process aimed towards either agricultural benefits and carbon mitigation or heat/energy generation. This work aimed to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and gas flow rate on the product energy distribution as well as the physical, chemical and soil functional properties of biochar, in order to optimise conditions best suited to maximise both energy value and agronomic benefit. Biochar samples were produced from wood pellets (WP) and straw pellets (SP) at two temperatures (350 and 650oC), with three residence times (10, 20 and 40 minutes) and three carrier gas flow rates (0, 0.3 and 0.6 L min-1). The energy balance of the system was determined through the calorimetric analysis of biochar and bio-oil, while the higher heating value for the syngas was calculated from the gas composition measured via mass spectroscopy. Biochar was also analysed for the physiochemical properties of proximate analysis and ultimate analysis as well as the functional property of environmentally stable carbon (C) content. As expected the yield of biochar decreased with increasing temperature resulting in elevated yields of liquid and gas fractions. Increased temperature also resulted in higher values of fixed C, total C, stable C and

  17. STUDY ON THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PYROLYSIS OF ACRYLONITRILE POLYMERS BY ON-LINE FTIR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Genxiang; CHEN Bangjie

    1987-01-01

    The gaseous products of high temperature pyrolysis (300℃ to 960℃) of acrylonitrile polymers were measured continuously under nitrogen atnosphere by on-line Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic method (FTIR). From the variations of characteristic peaks it was found that the nitrogen of macromolecules evolved were mainly in the form of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. During the pyrolysis amorphous carbonaceous element was formed, and crosslinked to form network structure. Three kinds of samples were used for comparison. The experimental results show that the gaseous products of volatile small molecules were HCN, NH3, CH4, C2H6 and cyanide. CO and CO2 were also formed when copolymers of PAN were thermally pyrolyzed.

  18. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate for continuous production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Duan, Ying; Gong, Ruchao; Yu, Shangzhi; Lu, Meizhen; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2015-06-01

    Undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) was continuously produced from methyl ricinoleate using a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system with atomization feeding. The UAME yield of 77 wt.% was obtained at 500°C using SiC as the microwave absorbent and heating medium. The methyl ricinoleate conversion and UAME yield from microwave-assisted pyrolysis process were higher than those from conventional pyrolysis. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis process was also investigated. The methyl ricinoleate conversion increased but the cracking liquid yield decreased when the temperature increased from 460°C to 560°C. The maximum UAME yield was obtained at the temperature of 500°C.

  19. Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen & Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible catalytic methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  20. Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen & Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible catalytic methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  1. Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Duncan

    Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost

  2. Production of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles of noble metals by pyrolysis of organic extracts on silicon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serga, V.; Kulikova, L.; Cvetkov, A.; Krumina, A.; Kodols, M.; Chornaja, S.; Dubencovs, K.; Sproge, E.

    2013-12-01

    In the present work the influence of the tri-n-octylammonium (Oct3NH+) salt anion (PtCl62-, PdCl42-, AuCl4-) nature on the phase composition and mean size of crystallites of the extract pyrolysis products on the SiO2 nanopowder has been studied. The XRD phase analysis of the composites (metal loading 2.4 wt.%) made under the same conditions, at the pyrolysis of Pt- and Au-containing extracts has shown the formation of nanoparticles of Pt (dPt = 15 nm) and Au (dAu = 33 nm), respectively. The end-product of the pyrolysis of the Pd-containing extract has an admixture phase of PdO along with the main metal phase (dPd = 21 nm). At the preparation of bimetallic particles (Pt-Pd, Pt-Au, Pd-Au) on the SiO2 nanopowder it has been found that the nanoparticles of the PtPd alloy, Pt and Au or Pd and Au nanoparticles are the products of the thermal decomposition of two-component mixtures of extracts. The investigation of catalytic properties of the produced composites in the reaction of glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen in alkaline aqueous solutions has shown that all bimetallic composites exhibit catalytic activity in contrast to monometallic ones.

  3. A study on pyrolysis of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) with titania based catalysts for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik

    2016-11-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Cirsium arvense was performed with titania supported catalysts under the operating conditions of 500°C, 40°C/min heating rate, 100mL/min N2 flow rate in a fixed bed reactor for biofuel production. The effect of catalysts on product yields was investigated. The amount of pyrolysis products (bio-char, bio-oil, gas) and the composition of the produced bio-oils were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and elemental analysis (EA) techniques. Thistle bio-oils had lower O/C and H/C molar ratios compared to feedstock. The highest bio-char and bio-oil yields of 29.32wt% and 36.71wt% were obtained in the presence of Ce/TiO2 and Ni/TiO2 catalysts respectively. GC-MS identified 97 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained from thistle pyrolysis. (1)H NMR analysis showed that the bio-oils contained ∼55-77% aliphatic and ∼6-19% aromatic structural units.

  4. Study of production and pyrolysis characteristics of sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Zhu, Yalun

    2014-05-25

    Flavor plays an important role and has been widely used in foods. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the flavor. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests. This work focused on the study of production of a sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complex, and investigated the combination of flavor and β-CD by thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the flavor-β-CD inclusion complex were determined. The results showed that the flavor-β-CD inclusion complexes can form large aggregates in water. During thermal degradation of blank β-CD and flavor-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. The thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 250°C, while the TG curve of flavor-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon dioxide absorption and release properties of pyrolysis products of dolomite calcined in vacuum atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kuzuya, Toshihiro; Hirai, Shinji; Li, Jihua; Li, Te

    2014-01-01

    The decomposition of dolomite into CaO and MgO was performed at 1073 K in vacuum and at 1273 K in an Ar atmosphere. The dolomite calcined in vacuum was found to have a higher specific surface area and a higher micropore volume when compared to the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. These pyrolysis products of dolomite were reacted with CO2 at 673 K for 21.6 ks. On the absorption of CO2, the formation of CaCO3 was observed. The degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in vacuum was determined to be above 50%, which was higher than the degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. The CO2 absorption and release procedures were repeated three times for the dolomite calcined in vacuum. The specific surface area and micropore volume of calcined dolomite decreased with successive repetitions of the CO2 absorption and release cycles leading to a decrease in the degree of absorption of CO2.

  6. Fluidized-bed reactor modeling for production of silicon by silane pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Lai, S.

    1986-02-01

    An ideal backmixed reactor model (CSTR) and a fluidized bed bubbling reactor model (FBBR) were developed for silane pyrolysis. Silane decomposition is assumed to occur via two pathways: homogeneous decomposition and heterogeneous chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both models account for homogeneous and heterogeneous silane decomposition, homogeneous nucleation, coagulation and growth by diffusion of fines, scavenging of fines by large particles, elutriation of fines and CVD growth of large seed particles. At present the models do not account for attrition. The preliminary comparison of the model predictions with experimental results shows reasonable agreement. The CSTR model with no adjustable parameter yields a lower bound on fines formed and upper estimate on production rates. The FBBR model overpredicts the formation of fines but could be matched to experimental data by adjusting the unkown jet emulsion exchange efficients. The models clearly indicate that in order to suppress the formation of fines (smoke) good gas-solid contacting in the grid region must be achieved and the formation of the bubbles suppressed.

  7. Jute stick pyrolysis for bio-oil production in fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M; Anisur Rahman, M; Mohsin Ali, M; Abdul Motin, M; Borhanus Sultan, M; Robiul Alam, M; Sahedur Rahman, M

    2008-01-01

    Pyrolysis of jute stick for bio-oil production has been investigated in a continuous feeding fluidized bed reactor at different temperatures ranging from 300 degrees C to 600 degrees C. At 500 degrees C, the yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas were 66.70 wt%, 22.60 wt% and 10.70 wt%, respectively based on jute stick. The carbon based non-condensable gas was the mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, ethene, propane and propene. The density and viscosity of bio-oil were found to be 1.11 g/mL and 2.34 cP, respectively. The lower heating value (LHV) of bio-oil was found to be 18.2 5 MJ/kg. Since bio-oil contains some organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, etc., the pH and acid value of the bio-oil were found to be around 4 and 135 mg KOH/g, respectively. The water, lignin, solid and ash contents of bio-oil were determined and found to be around 15 wt%, 4.90 wt%, 0.02 wt% and 0.10 wt%, respectively.

  8. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  9. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  10. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreppelen, Kenny; Vanderheyden, Sara; Kuppens, Tom; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brewer's spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer's spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different activated carbons were produced in a lab-scale pyrolysis/activation reactor by applying several heat and steam activation profiles on brewer's spent grain. Activated carbon yields from 16.1 to 23.6 wt.% with high N-contents (> 2 wt.%) were obtained. The efficiency of the prepared activated carbons for phenol adsorption was studied as a function of different parameters: pH, contact time and carbon dosage relative to two commercial activated carbons. The equilibrium isotherms were described by the non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the kinetic results were fitted using the pseudo-first-order model and the pseudo-second-order model. The feasibility of an activated carbon production facility (onsite and offsite) that processes brewer's spent grain for different input feeds is evaluated based on a techno-economic model for estimating the net present value. Even though the model assumptions start from a rather pessimistic scenario, encouraging results for a profitable production of activated carbon using brewer's spent grain are obtained.

  11. Fast pyrolysis of microalgae remnants in a fluidized bed reactor for bio-oil and biochar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaige; Brown, Robert C; Homsy, Sally; Martinez, Liliana; Sidhu, Sukh S

    2013-01-01

    In this study, pyrolysis of microalgal remnants was investigated for recovery of energy and nutrients. Chlorella vulgaris biomass was first solvent-extracted for lipid recovery then the remnants were used as the feedstock for fast pyrolysis experiments using a fluidized bed reactor at 500 °C. Yields of bio-oil, biochar, and gas were 53, 31, and 10 wt.%, respectively. Bio-oil from C. vulgaris remnants was a complex mixture of aromatics and straight-chain hydrocarbons, amides, amines, carboxylic acids, phenols, and other compounds with molecular weights ranging from 70 to 1200 Da. Structure and surface topography of the biochar were analyzed. The high inorganic content (potassium, phosphorous, and nitrogen) of the biochar suggests it may be suitable to provide nutrients for crop production. The bio-oil and biochar represented 57% and 36% of the energy content of the microalgae remnant feedstock, respectively.

  12. Bio-oil production from dry sewage sludge by fast pyrolysis in an electrically-heated fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato O. Arazo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of bio-oil produced from sewage sludge using fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Effects of temperature, sludge particle size and vapor residence time on bio-oil properties, such as yield, high heating value (HHV and moisture content were evaluated through experimental and statistical analyses. Characterization of the pyrolysis products (bio-oil and biogas was also done. Optimum conditions produced a bio-oil product with an HHV that is nearly twice as much as lignocellulosic-derived bio-oil, and with properties comparable to heavy fuel oil. Contrary to generally acidic bio-oil, the sludge-derived bio-oil has almost neutral pH which could minimize the pipeline and engine corrosions. The Fourier Transform Infrared and gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of bio-oil showed a dominant presence of gasoline-like compounds. These results demonstrate that fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant is a favorable technology to produce biofuels for various applications.

  13. Studies on Pyrolysis Kinetic of Newspaper Wastes in a Packed Bed Reactor: Experiments, Modeling, and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper waste was pyrolysed in a 50 mm diameter and 640 mm long reactor placed in a packed bed pyrolyser from 573 K to 1173 K in nitrogen atmosphere to obtain char and pyro-oil. The newspaper sample was also pyrolysed in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA under the same experimental conditions. The pyrolysis rate of newspaper was observed to decelerate above 673 K. A deactivation model has been attempted to explain this behaviour. The parameters of kinetic model of the reactions have been determined in the temperature range under study. The kinetic rate constants of volatile and char have been determined in the temperature range under study. The activation energies 25.69 KJ/mol, 27.73 KJ/mol, 20.73 KJ/mol and preexponential factors 7.69 min−1, 8.09 min−1, 0.853 min−1 of all products (solid reactant, volatile, and char have been determined, respectively. A deactivation model for pyrolysis of newspaper has been developed under the present study. The char and pyro-oil obtained at different pyrolysis temperatures have been characterized. The FT-IR analyses of pyro-oil have been done. The higher heating values of both pyro-products have been determined.

  14. Co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and microalgae: Products characteristics and interaction effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Yingquan; Yang, Haiping; Xia, Mingwei; Li, Kaixu; Chen, Xu; Chen, Hanping

    2017-09-06

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass has a potential to change the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil. In this work, co-pyrolysis of bamboo, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, and Nannochloropsis sp. (NS), a microalgae, was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at a range of mixing ratio of NS and bamboo, to find out whether the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil was improved. A significant improvement on bio-oil after co-pyrolysis of bamboo and NS was observed that bio-oil yield increased up to 66.63wt% (at 1:1) and the content of long-chain fatty acids in bio-oil also dramatically increased (the maximum up to 50.92% (13.57wt%) at 1:1) whereas acetic acid, O-containing species, and N-containing compounds decreased greatly. Nitrogen transformation mechanism during co-pyrolysis also was explored. Results showed that nitrogen in microalgae preferred to transform into solid char and gas phase during co-pyrolysis, while more pyrrolic-N and quaternary-N generated with diminishing protein-N and pyridinic-N in char. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of product distribution from steam pyrolysis of waste tire shreds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, M.S.; Jung, J.S.; Lee, H.P.; Yoo, K.O. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    The pyrolysis of scrap tires was accomplished under steam condition. Inert pyrolysis leads to oil decomposition and tar coating on the recovered char. This deposition of heavy oil on the char surface was prevented by conducting the pyrolysis in a steam atmosphere. The oil was easily removed from the char presumably via the steam distillation effect, and the surface of the char was activated by the well-known water-gas reaction. Char produced in a steam atmosphere has the higher surface area than that obtained by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Accordingly, steam pyrolysis of scrap tires increased the oil yield slightly and the surface area of the residual char significantly. TG/DSC and DTG curves of tire rubber was examined by qualitative analysis. Also, quantitative data-fitting of nonisothermal rate data was carried out, and decomposition of both extender oil and SBR followed first-order kinetics in a nitrogen atmosphere. Chemical composition analysis of produced oil by FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis showed that (1) major components are alkyl-substituted aromatic groups, and (2) high temperature and steam flow lead to secondary vapor-phase collision reactions. FT-IR results of residual char revealed that complex interaction between water vapor and hydrocarbon matrix was occurred. (author). 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  17. Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Martynov, V.Y.; Chilachava, K.B.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900 {degree}C and contact time of 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbon, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component composition of the liquid products and pyrolysis gas were determined. The main groups of compounds in liquid products were analysed.

  18. FLASH PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS PARTICLES IN FLUIDIZED BED FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shurong Wang; Mengxiang Fang; Chunjiang Yu; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

    2005-01-01

    Biomass utilization could relieve the pressure caused by conventional energy shortage and environmental pollution. Advantage should be taken of the abundant biomass in China as clean energy source to substitute for traditional fossil fuels. At present, flash pyrolysis appears to be an efficient method to produce high yields of liquids that could either be directly used as fuel or converted to other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried out of pyrolyzing biomass particles in a hot dense fluidized bed of sand to obtain high-quality bio-oil. Among four kinds of biomass species adopted in our experiment, Padauk Wood had the best characteristics in producing bio-oil. GC-MS analysis showed bio-oil to be a complex mixture consisting of many compounds. Furthermore, an integrated model was proposed to reveal how temperature influences biomass pyrolysis. Computation indicated that biomass particles underwent rapid heating before pyrolysis.

  19. Bio-Oil Production from Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Wastes and Eucalyptus Wood in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Ebrahimi-Nik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis is an attractive technology for biomass conversion, from which bio-oil is the preferred product with a great potential for use in industry and transport. Corn wastes (cob and stover and eucalyptus wood are widely being produced throughout the world. In this study, fast pyrolysis of these two materials were examined under the temperature of 500 °C; career gas flow rate of 660 l h-1; particle size of 1-2 mm; 80 and 110 g h-1 of feed rate. The experiments were carried out in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. Pyrolysis vapor was condensed in 3 cooling traps (15, 0 and -40 °C plus an electrostatic one. Eucalyptus wood was pyrolyised to 12.4, 61.4, and 26.2 percent of bio-char, bio-oil and gas, respectively while these figures were as 20.15, 49.9, and 29.95 for corn wastes. In all experiments, the bio-oil obtained from electrostatic trap was a dark brown and highly viscose liquid.

  20. Characterization of Bio-Oil: A By-Product from Slow Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, K.H; Lim, K. O.; Z. A. Zainal

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) are abundant biomass in Malaysia. Studies about production of biofuels using slow pyrolysis of EFB are still lacking. So, this study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of the bio-oil and its simple blends. Approach: EFB was slow pyrolysed with internal heating at terminal temperature of 600°C in a pilot kiln and the main product is the EFB char and the condensates from the emissions were separated into aqueous and...

  1. Products from the high temperature pyrolysis of RDF at slow and rapid heating rates

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The high-temperature pyrolysis behaviour of a sample of refuse derived fuel (RDF) as a model of municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated in a horizontal tubular reactor between 700 and 900 °C, at varying heating rates, and at an extended vapour residence time. Experiments were designed to evaluate the influence of process conditions on gas yields as well as gas and oil compositions. Pyrolysis of RDF at 800 °C and at rapid heating rate resulted in the gas yield with the highest CV of 24.8 ...

  2. Study on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Polycarbosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenyi; ZHOU Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of polycarbosilane (PCS) and chemical reaction mechanism during the pyrolysis process were studied by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) combined with X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods. The experimental results indicate that the main gas phase products generated during pyrolysis of PCS in nitrogen atmosphere include H2, -CH3 and CH4. The heating rate has a large effect on the pyrolysis process of PCS, the lower heating rate releases more small molecule gases and gets bigger rate of pyrolysis mass loss, demonstrating that the lower heating rate is beneifcial to fully pyrolysis of PCS and obtain ceramics products with better microstructure.

  3. Numerical Simulation on Distribution of Products of Typical Hydrocarbon Molecules Pyrolysis%典型烃类分子裂解产物分布数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 罗殿英; 赵雨波; 南子龙; 邵艳波

    2011-01-01

    利用烃类蒸汽热裂解二维工艺数学模型,选择二维模型原料分子中13种典型烃类分子,通过数学模拟考察烃类分子结构和裂解温度对热裂解产物的影响.结果表明:正构烷烃裂解产物中乙烯收率明显大于异构烷烃,且乙烯收率随着烷烃碳数的增加逐渐增加;异构烷烃裂解产物中丙烯收率大于同碳数的正构烷烃,且丙烯收率随碳数增大而显著减少;异构烷烃裂解生成丁二烯的收率大于其他烷烃;环烷烃中五元环裂解生成乙烯、丙烯和丁二烯(三烯)的收率大于六元环,且随碳数增加而略有增加;各烃类分子裂解生成乙烯和丁二烯的收率随温度的增加而增加,而丙烯的收率随温度的增加而略有降低.%The effects of hydrocarbon structure and pyrolysis temperature on the distribution of products from the pyrolysis of 13 typical hydrocarbon molecules were investigated using the two-dimension mathematical model of hydrocarbon steam pyrolysis. The results showed that the ethylene yield of normal paraffins pyrolysis was significantly higher than that of isoparaffin pyrolysis, and the ethylene yield increased with the increase of carbon number; the propylene yield of isoparaffin pyrolysis was higher than that of normal paraffins pyrolysis, and the propylene yield decreased obviously with the increase of carbon number; the butadiene yield of isoparaffin pyrolysis was higher than that of other paraffins pyrolysis; the total yield of ethylene, propylene and butadiene from the pyrolysis of cycloalkanes with five carbon in the rings was higher than that of cycloalkanes with six carbons in the rings, and increased slightly with the increase of carbon number; With the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the yield of ethylene and butadiene of hydrocarbons pyrolysis increased, while the yield of propylene decreased slightly.

  4. Enhancement of biofuels production by means of co-pyrolysis of Posidonia oceanica (L.) and frying oil wastes: Experimental study and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Kaouther; Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aida; Krichah, Samah; Ouerghi, Aymen; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Claumann, Carlos Alberto; André Wüst, Zibetti; Naoui, Silm; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-05-01

    Energy recovery from lignocellulosic solid marine wastes, Posidonia oceanica wastes (POW) with slow pyrolysis responds to the growing trend of alternative energies as well as waste management. Physicochemical, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and spectroscopic (FTIR) characterizations of POW were performed. POW were first converted by pyrolysis at different temperatures (450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C) using a fixed-bed reactor. The obtained products (bio-oil, syngas and bio char) were analyzed. Since the bio-oil yield obtained from POW pyrolysis is low (2wt.%), waste frying oil (WFO) was added as a co-substrate in order to improve of biofuels production. The co-pyrolysis gave a better yield of liquid organic fraction (37wt.%) as well as syngas (CH4,H2…) with a calorific value around 20MJ/kg. The stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis reactions were performed according to the biomass formula: CαHβOγNδSε. The thermal kinetic decomposition of solids was validated through linearized Arrhenius model.

  5. Characterization of fast pyrolysis products generated from several western USA woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline M. Jarvis; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Yuri Corilo; Ryan P. Rodgers

    2014-01-01

    Woody biomass has the potential to be utilized at an alternative fuel source through its pyrolytic conversion. Here, fast pyrolysis bio-oils derived from several western USA woody species are characterized by negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) to determine molecular-level composition. The...

  6. Evaluation of Brazilian biomasses as potential feedstocks for fuel production via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of lignocellulosic materials to generate energy is constantly expanding around the world. In addition to the well-known biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, advanced biofuels obtained by thermochemical conversion routes have been explored, including pyrolysis oil, biochar and syng...

  7. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over fe-modified HZSM-5 zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron modified HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by partial ion exchange of NH4ZSM-5 with Fe (II) at three different loadings (1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 wt%), and their effectiveness for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from cellulose, cellobiose, lignin and switchgrass by catalytic pyrolysis were screened using ...

  8. Technical and economic analyses of hydrogen production via indirectly heated gasification and pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Technoeconomic analyses have been conducted on two processes to produce hydrogen from biomass: indirectly-heated gasification of biomass followed by steam reforming of the syngas, and biomass pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. The analysis of the gasification-based process was highly detailed, including a process flowsheet, material and energy balances calculated with a process simulation program, equipment cost estimation, and the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen. The pyrolysis-based process analysis was of a less detailed nature, as all necessary experimental data have not been obtained; this analysis is a follow-up to the preliminary economic analysis presented at the 1994 Hydrogen Program Review. A coproduct option in which pyrolysis oil is used to produce hydrogen and a commercial adhesive was also studied for economic viability. Based on feedstock availability estimates, three plant sizes were studied: 907 T/day, 272 T/day, and 27 T/day. The necessary selling price of hydrogen produced by steam reforming syngas from the Battelle Columbus Laboratories indirectly heated biomass gasifier falls within current market values for the large and medium size plants within a wide range of feedstock costs. Results show that the small scale plant does not produce hydrogen at economically competitive prices, indicating that if gasification is used as the upstream process to produce hydrogen, local refueling stations similar to current gasoline stations, would probably not be feasible.

  9. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials.

  10. 催化热解调控热解产物的研究进展%Research Advancement on Catalytic Pyrolysis Control of Pyrolysis Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴栋; 陆江银.

    2012-01-01

    The techniques of improving the tar quality in coal pyrolysis process were reviewed, and the catalytic pyrolysis and parameters of changing reaction atmosphere and process conditions were analyzed and summarized, and summed up the optimal method of improving tar quality, the future research focus on catalytic pyrolysis was also discussed.%综述了煤和生物质催化裂解技术对热解产物的影响作用,分析了不同催化剂对热解气体和煤焦油的催化效果,对热解产物催化裂解技术进行了分析,展望了未来煤催化裂解的研究重点。

  11. The power-supply control system in the device of acetylene production by H-plasma pyrolysis coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.Y.; Zhang, M.; Fu, P.; Weng, P.D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2006-09-15

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  12. The Power-Supply Control System in the Device of Acetylene Production by H-Plasma Pyrolysis Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyun; Zhang, Ming; Fu, Peng; Weng, Peide

    2006-09-01

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H-) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  13. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  14. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  15. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  16. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  17. Occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic and its emission characteristic during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng; Liu Ze-chang; Zhao Ying; Shi Yu-miao [Chemical and Environmental Engineering College of Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2006-12-15

    The occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic was studied by IR and TG-MS. In addition, the emission characteristic of those solid products during combustion was studied. The results indicates that when co-pyrolysis temperature is below 600{sup o}C, there are some organic as well as inorganic chlorine compounds in coke; when the temperature is above 600{sup o}C, there is only inorganic one in the coke. The emission ratio of chlorine is relative to combustion temperature, the co-pyrolysing temperature as well as the percentage of PVC. The emission ratio of chlorine increases with the rising temperature of combustion. When the combustion temperature is 900{sup o}C, the emission ratio is up to 94%. On the contrary, the emission ratio is lower for the solid product from higher co-pyrolysis temperature as the combustion temperature is the same. The highest chlorine emission ratio from pyrolysis at 400{sup o}C is 99.86%, but that from 1000{sup o}C pyrolysis is 94.35%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis over metal chlorides supported on zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Cai, Qiuxia; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Yue'e; Wang, Jianguo

    2013-12-01

    Direct biomass conversion into chemicals remains a great challenge because of the complexity of the compounds; hence, this process has attracted less attention than conversion into fuel. In this study, we propose a simple one-step method for converting bagasse into furfural (FF) and acetic acid (AC). In this method, bagasse pyrolysis over ZnCl2/HZSM-5 achieved a high FF and AC yield (58.10%) and a 1.01 FF/AC ratio, but a very low yield of medium-boiling point components. However, bagasse pyrolysis using HZSM-5 alone or ZnCl2 alone still remained large amounts of medium-boiling point components or high-boiling point components. The synergistic effect of HZSM-5 and ZnCl2, which combines pyrolysis, zeolite cracking, and Lewis acid-selective catalysis results in highly efficient bagasse conversion into FF and AC. Therefore, our study provides a novel, simple method for directly converting biomass into high-yield useful chemical.

  19. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Renewable Chemical Technologies and Materials

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  20. Tar Production from Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor: A Novel Turbulent Multiphase Flow Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, J.; Lathouwers, D.

    2000-01-01

    A novel multiphase flow model is presented for describing the pyrolysis of biomass in a 'bubbling' fluidized bed reactor. The mixture of biomass and sand in a gaseous flow is conceptualized as a particulate phase composed of two classes interacting with the carrier gaseous flow. The solid biomass is composed of three initial species: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. From each of these initial species, two new solid species originate during pyrolysis: an 'active' species and a char, thus totaling seven solid-biomass species. The gas phase is composed of the original carrier gas (steam), tar and gas; the last two species originate from the volumetric pyrolysis reaction. The conservation equations are derived from the Boltzmann equations through ensemble averaging. Stresses in the gaseous phase are the sum of the Newtonian and Reynolds (turbulent) contributions. The particulate phase stresses are the sum of collisional and Reynolds contributions. Heat transfer between phases, and heat transfer between classes in the particulate phase is modeled, the last resulting from collisions between sand and biomass. Closure of the equations must be performed by modeling the Reynolds stresses for both phases. The results of a simplified version (first step) of the model are presented.

  1. Pyrolysis kinetic and product analysis of different microalgal biomass by distributed activation energy model and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Juan; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Sun, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To assess the energy potential of different microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Monoraphidium were selected for studying the pyrolytic behavior at different heating rates with the analytical method of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results presented that Monoraphidium 3s35 showed superiority for pyrolysis at low heating rate. Calculated by DAEM, during the conversion rate range from 0.1 to 0.7, the activation energies of C. sorokiniana 21 were much lower than that of Monoraphidium 3s35. Both C. sorokiniana 21 and Monoraphidium 3s35 can produce certain amount (up to 20.50%) of alkane compounds, with 9-Octadecyne (C18H34) as the primary compound. Short-chain alkanes (C7-C13) with unsaturated carbon can be released in the pyrolysis at 500°C for both microalgal biomass. It was also observed that the pyrolysis of C. sorokiniana 21 released more alcohol compounds, while Monoraphidium 3s35 produced more saccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pyrolysis of Phenethyl Phenyl Ether Tethered in Mesoporous Silica. Effects of Confinement and Surface Spacer Molecules on Product Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Chaffe, Alan [Monash University, Australia; Nguyen, M [Monash University, Australia; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    There has been expanding interest in exploring porous metal oxides as a confining environment for organic molecules resulting in altered chemical and physical properties including chemical transformations. In this paper, we examine the pyrolysis behavior of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) confined in mesoporous silica by covalent tethers to the pore walls as a function of tether density and the presence of co-tethered surface spacer molecules of varying structure (biphenyl, naphthyl, octyl, and hexadecyl). The PPE pyrolysis product selectivity, which is determined by two competitive free-radical pathways cycling through the two aliphatic radical intermediates (PhCH CH2OPh and PhCH2CH OPh), is shown to be dramatically different from that measured in the liquid phase as well as for PPE tethered to the exterior surface of nonporous silica nanoparticles. Tailoring the pore surface with spacer molecules further alters the selectivity such that the PPE reaction channel involving a molecular rearrangement (O-C phenyl shift in PhCH2CH OPh), which accounts for 25 % of the products in the liquid phase, can be virtually eliminated under pore confinement conditions. The origin of this change in selectivity is discussed in the context of steric constraints on the rearrangement path, confinement effects, pore surface curvature, and hydrogen bonding of PPE with residual surface silanols supplemented by nitrogen physisorption data and molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. High-rate production of functional nanostructured films and devices by coupling flame spray pyrolysis with supersonic expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, K; Vinati, S; Piseri, P; Antonini, A; Zelioli, A; Barborini, E; Ducati, C; Milani, P

    2012-05-11

    The fabrication of functional thin films and devices by direct deposition of nanoparticles from the gas phase is a promising approach enabling, for instance, the integration of complex analytical and sensing capabilities on microfabricated platforms. Aerosol-based techniques ensure large-scale nanoparticle production and they are potentially suited for this goal. However, they are not adequate in terms of fine control over the lateral resolution of the coatings, mild processing conditions (avoiding high temperature and aggressive chemicals), low contamination and compatibility with microfabrication processes. Here we report the high-rate and efficient production of functional nanostructured films by nanoparticle assembling obtained by the combination of flame spray pyrolysis and supersonic expansion. Our approach merges the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis for bulk nanopowders such as process stability and wide material library availability with those of supersonic cluster beam deposition in terms of lateral resolution and of direct integration of nanomaterials on devices. We efficiently produced nanostructured films and devices (such as gas sensors) using metal oxide, pure noble metal and oxide-supported noble metal nanoparticles.

  4. An approach for upgrading biomass and pyrolysis product quality using a combination of aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Cen, Kehui; Jing, Xichun; Gao, Jinghui; Li, Chen; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-06-01

    Bio-oil undergoes phase separation because of poor stability. Practical application of aqueous phase bio-oil is challenging. In this study, a novel approach that combines aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment was used to upgrade the biomass and pyrolysis product quality. The effects of individual and combined pretreatments on cotton stalk pyrolysis were studied using TG-FTIR and a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the aqueous phase bio-oil washing pretreatment removed metals and resolved the two pyrolysis peaks in the DTG curve. Importantly, it increased the bio-oil yield and improved the pyrolysis product quality. For example, the water and acid content of bio-oil decreased significantly along with an increase in phenol formation, and the heating value of non-condensable gases improved, and these were more pronounced when combined with torrefaction pretreatment. Therefore, the combined pretreatment is a promising method, which would contribute to the development of polygeneration pyrolysis technology.

  5. A technical and economic evaluation of the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Parker, W

    2008-03-01

    Pyrolysis to produce bio-oil from sewage sludge is a promising way, to not only improve the economical value, but also to reduce pollutants associated with sludge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of oil from primary, waste activated and digested sludges. The pyrolysis was performed in a laboratory-scale horizontal batch reactor. The operating temperature ranged from 250 degrees C to 500 degrees C, while a gas phase residence time of 20 min was maintained with 50 ml/min of nitrogen gas as a purge flow. The maximum oil yield was achieved with primary sludge at 500 degrees C. Temperature and volatile solids were the most important factors affecting the yield of oil and char, however, sludge type also affected both results. Pre-treatment of sludge with either acids, a base or a catalyst (zeolite) did not improve the quantity of oil produced. The economic values of the oil produced from primary, TWAS, and digested sludges were estimated as 9.9, 5.6, and 6.9 cent/kg-ds when the value of oil is 32 cent/kg-oil.

  6. Development of an innovative pyrolysis plant for the production of secondary raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This project was born with the aim of developing an environmentally and financially sustainable process to dispose of end-life tires. In this perspective was devised an innovative static bed batch pilot reactor where pyrolysis can be carried out on the whole tires in order to recover energy and materials and simultaneously save the energy costs of their shredding. The innovative plant is also able to guarantee a high safety of the process thanks to the presence of a hydraulic guard. The pi...

  7. The effects of oxygen on the yields of the thermal decomposition products of catechol under pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiju Thomas; Elmer B. Ledesma; Mary J. Wornat [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    In order to investigate the effects of oxygen on the distribution of thermal decomposition products from complex solid fuels, pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation experiments have been performed in an isothermal laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in coal, wood, and biomass. The gas-phase catechol pyrolysis experiments are conducted at a residence time of 0.3 s, over a temperature range of 500-1000{sup o}C, and at oxygen ratios ranging from 0 (pure pyrolysis) to 0.92 (near stoichiometric oxidation). The pyrolysis products are analyzed by nondispersive infrared analysis and by gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection. In addition to an abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, catechol pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation produce a range of C1-C5 light hydrocarbons as well as single-ring aromatics. Quantification of the products reveals that the major products are CO, acetylene, 1,3-butadiene, phenol, benzene, vinylacetylene, ethylene, methane, cyclopentadiene, styrene, and phenylacetylene; minor products are ethane, propyne, propadiene, propylene and toluene. Under oxidative conditions, CO{sub 2} is also produced. At temperatures {lt}850{sup o}C, increases in oxygen concentration bring about increases in catechol conversion and yields of C1-C5 and single-ring aromatic products in accordance with increased rates of pyrolytic reactions, due to the enhanced free-radical pool. At temperatures {gt}850{sup o}C, catechol conversion is complete, and increases in oxygen bring about drastic decreases in the yields of virtually all hydrocarbon products, as oxidative destruction reactions dominate. Reactions responsible for the formation of the C1-C5 and single-ring aromatic products from catechol, under pyrolytic and oxidative conditions, are discussed. 74 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Research Progress of Technologies for Tar Production during Coal Pyrolysis%煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺新福; 杨蕾; 吴红菊; 周安宁

    2014-01-01

    Coal pyrolysis was an important technique for coal conversion.Coal tar , one of the products , was an important raw material for liquid fuels and chemicals.The technologies including pretreatment of coal , change of atmosphere , catalytic pyrolysis and catalytic hydropyrolysis , co -pyrolysis with other material and novel integrated pyrolysis technology were stated that can improve tar yield during coal pyrolysis process , the factors that effected tar yield and the mechanisms were discussed , as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each processes.%煤热解是一种重要的煤炭分质利用技术,中低温热解焦油是制取液体燃料和化学品的重要原料。本文从对煤进行预处理、改变热解气氛、催化热解与催化加氢热解、煤与其它物质共热解、新型耦合热解工艺等方面综述了煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展,探讨了影响煤热解过程焦油产率的因素及机理,并对各工艺进行了评价。

  9. Characterization of liquid and solid product from pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra deoiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutia, Rahul Singh; Kataki, Rupam; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new feedstock, Pongamia glabra deoiled cake (PGDC), is reported for pyrolysis. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed-bed pyrolyzer at temperatures ranging from 350 to 600°C with varying heating rates of 10, 20, 40°C/min in nitrogen atmosphere. The highest liquid yield of 30.60% was observed at 500°C with heating rate of 40°Cmin(-1). The biochar obtained had a porous structure and was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy along with elemental analysis. The representative bio-oil sample was characterized by CHN analyzer, GC-MS, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The bio-oil has a calorific value of 28.19MJ/kg and contains a higher amount of aliphatic compounds. The present investigation suggests that within the realm of biomass energy conversion technologies the PGDC can be used as a feedstock for pyrolysis conversion, thereby serving the demand of second generation biofuels.

  10. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  11. Recognition of n-alkyl and isoprenoid biopolymers in marine sediments by stable carbon isotopic analysis of pyrolysis products of kerogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hold, I.M.; Schouten, S.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the pyrolysis products of several marine kerogens revealed that the stable carbon isotopic composition of the n-alkanes (C10-C25) are quite similar to those of the n-alkenes. This suggests that they have a common origin such as algal biopolymers. The isoprenoid alkanes (C13-C20) also hav

  12. Identification of components in fast pyrolysis oil and upgraded products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and flame ionisation detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, J.H.; Wildschut, J.; Mahfud, F.; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil and upgraded products are promising energy carriers. Characterisation of the oils is hampered due to the presence of a large number of components (>400) belonging to a broad variety of chemical compound classes (i.e., acids, aldehydes, ketones). In this study, a comparison of the capab

  13. Identification of components in fast pyrolysis oil and upgraded products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and flame ionisation detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, J.H.; Wildschut, J.; Mahfud, F.; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil and upgraded products are promising energy carriers. Characterisation of the oils is hampered due to the presence of a large number of components (>400) belonging to a broad variety of chemical compound classes (i.e., acids, aldehydes, ketones). In this study, a comparison of the

  14. Production of bio-oils from wood by flash pyrolysis; Herstellung von Bio-Oelen aus Holz in einer Flash-Pyrolyseanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Ollesch, T. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes; Gerdes, C.; Kaminsky, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMCh)

    1998-09-01

    Flash pyrolysis is a medium-temperature process (around 475 C) in which biomass is heated up rapidly in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis products are cooled down rapidly, condensing into a reddish-brown liquid with around half the calorific value of a conventional heating oil. In contrast to conventional charcoal production, flash pyrolysis is a modern process whose process parameters enure high liquid yields. Modern fluidized-bed reactors for flash pyrolysis of biomass tend to have high heating rates and short times of residue. In the `Hamburg process`, fluidized-bed reactors are used successfully for pyrolysis of plastics. A flash pyrolysis plant for biomass treatment was constructed in cooperation with Hamburg University with funds provided by the `Bundesstiftung Umwelt`. This contribution describes the first series of experiments, mass balances and oil analyses using beech wood as material to be pyrolyzed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Flash-Pyrolyse ist ein Mitteltemperatur-Prozess (ca. 475 C), in dem Biomasse unter Sauerstoffausschluss sehr schnell erhitzt wird. Die entstehenden Pyrolyseprodukte werden schnell abgekuehlt und kondensieren zu einer roetlich-braunen Fluessigkeit, die etwa die Haelfte des Heizwertes eines konventionellen Heizoeles besitzt. Flash-Pyrolyse ist, im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Holzverkohlung, ein modernes Verfahren, dessen spezielle Verfahrensparameter hohe Fluessigausbeuten ermoeglichen. Hohe Aufheizraten, verbunden mit kurzen Verweilzeiten, werden mit stationaeren Wirbelbettreaktoren erzielt die gegenwaertig vorwiegend fuer die Flash-Pyrolyse von Biomasse eingesetzt werden. Im `Hamburger Verfahren` haben sich Wirbelbettreaktoren im Bereich der Kunststoffpyrolyse bewaehrt. Daher wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universitaet Hamburg und finanzieller Foerderung der Bundesstiftung Umwelt eine Flash-Pyrolyseanlage fuer Biomasse gebaut: In dieser Arbeit werden erste Versuchsreihen, Massenbilanzen und Oelanalysen aus der Pyrolyse von

  15. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar-Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Bermúdez, J M; Suárez-Ruiz, I; Ruiz, B

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are more predominant in microwave pyrolysis with a major presence of light compounds. The bio-gas fraction from microwave pyrolysis presents a much higher syngas content (H2+CO), and a lower CO2 and CH4 proportion than that obtained by conventional pyrolysis. Yields are similar for both treatments with a slightly higher gas yield in the case of microwave pyrolysis due to the fact that microwave heating favors heterogeneous reactions between the gases and the char.

  16. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  17. Characterization and pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis: potential of bio-oil and chemical production by Py-GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hanna N; Calixto, Guilherme Q; Chagas, Bruna M E; Melo, Dulce M A; Resende, Fabio M; Melo, Marcus A F; Braga, Renata Martins

    2017-06-01

    Biofuels have been seen as potential sources to meet future energy demand as a renewable and sustainable energy source. Despite the fact that the production technology of first-generation biofuels is consolidated, these biofuels are produced from foods crops such as grains, sugar cane, and vegetable oils competing with food for crop use and agricultural land. In recent years, it was found that microalgae have the potential to provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels as source of biofuels without compromising food supplies or arable land. On this scenario, this paper aims to demonstrate the energetic potential to produce bio-oil and chemicals from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis. The potential of these biomasses was evaluated in terms of physical-chemical characterization, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis interfaced with gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The results show that C. vulgaris and A. platensis are biomasses with a high heating value (24.60 and 22.43 MJ/kg) and low ash content, showing a high percentage of volatile matter (72.49 and 79.42%). These characteristics confirm their energetic potential for conversion process through pyrolysis, whereby some important aromatic compounds such as toluene, styrene, and phenol were identified as pyrolysis products, which could turn these microalgae a potential for biofuels and bioproduct production through the pyrolysis.

  18. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  19. Pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch for production of chemicals via catalytic pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Mailin; Haron, Roslindawati; Kamaroddin, Mohd Fadhzir Ahmad; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2009-06-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments using NaOH, H(2)O(2), and Ca(OH)(2) on Empty Palm Fruit Bunches (EPFB) to degrade EPFB lignin before pyrolysis was investigated. Spectrophotometer analysis proved consecutive addition of NaOH and H(2)O(2) decomposed almost 100% of EPFB lignin compared to 44% for the Ca(OH)(2), H(2)O(2) system while NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) used exclusively could not alter lignin much. Next, the pretreated EPFB was catalytically pyrolyzed. Experimental results indicated the phenolic yields over Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5 catalysts were 90 wt% and 80 wt%, respectively compared to 67 wt% yield for the untreated sample under the same set of conditions. Meanwhile, the experiments with HY zeolite yielded 70 wt% phenols.

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of model compounds and waste cooking oil for production of light olefins over La/ZSM-5 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F. W.; Ding, S. L.; Li, L.; Gao, C.; Zhong, Z.; Wang, S. X.; Li, Z. X.

    2016-08-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) and its model compounds (oleic acid and methyl laurate) are catalytically pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor over La modified ZSM-5 catalysts (La/ZSM-5) aiming for production of C2-C4 light olefins. The LaO content in catalysts was set at 0, 2, 6, 10 and 14 wt%. The gas and liquid products are analyzed. The La/ZSM-5 catalyst with 6% LaO showed higher selectivity to light olefins when WCO and methyl laurate were pyrolyzed, and olefin content was 26% for WCO and 21% for methyl laurate. The catalyst with 10% LaO showed high selectivity to light olefins (28.5%) when oleic acid was pyrolyzed. The liquid products from WCO and model compounds mainly contain esters and aromatic hydrocarbons. More esters were observed in liquid products from methyl laurate and WCO pyrolysis, indicating that it is more difficult to pyrolyze esters and WCO than oleic acid. The coked catalysts were analyzed by temperature-programmed oxidation. The result shows that graphite is the main component of coke. The conversion of WCO to light olefins potentially provides an alternative and sustainable route for production of the key petrochemicals.

  1. Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Rozental, D.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group composition of the liquid products were determined. The total analysis of the major groups of compounds present in the liquid products was performed, and the optimal conditions of pyrolysis, from the viewpoint of preparation of particular compounds, were recommended.

  2. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Almeida; Maria de Fátima Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolit...

  3. Co-production of furfural and acetic acid from corncob using ZnCl2 through fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2013-09-01

    Corncob was pyrolyzed using ZnCl2 in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor to co-produce furfural and acetic acid. The effects of reaction conditions, the ZnCl2 content and contacting method of ZnCl2 with corncob on the yields of furfural and acetic acid were investigated. The pyrolysis was performed within the temperature range between 310 and 410°C, and the bio-oil yield were 30-60 wt% of the product. The furfural yield increased up to 8.2 wt%. The acetic acid yield was maximized with a value of 13.1 wt%. A lower feed rate in the presence of ZnCl2 was advantageous for the production of acetic acid. The fast pyrolysis of a smaller corncob sample mechanically mixed with 20 wt% of ZnCl2 gave rise to a distinct increase in furfural. A high selectivity for furfural and acetic acid in bio-oil would make the pyrolysis of corncob with ZnCl2 very economically attractive.

  4. Sugar cane bagasse pyrolysis: process optimization and products characterization; Pirolise do bagaco de cana: otimizacao do processo e caracterizacao dos produtos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Sergio

    1994-07-01

    The ghost of drying of natural resources, mainly the petroleum, desolate the Earth. Although the concern with this fact is recent, it has motivated a run in search of the alternative sources that can replace their self. An alternative source that come earning special attention is biomass, whose research come increasing annually. In Brazil, an important form of biomass, that is rejected like waste and utilized to little noble aim, is the sugar cane bagasse. The objective of this work is to present a conversion process of the bagasse in fuels and raw materials for the chemistry industry. The conversion method adopted was the pyrolysis. To the realization of this conversion, it was constructed a horizontal bed oven, with continuous flow of nitrogen, which carried the pyrolised volatile material, for the trap, during the process. The pyrolysis study was done in the range of 400 deg C to 900 deg C and was optimized utilizing the factorial design. The char, which is a pyrolysis product, was characterized by thermogravimetric and spectroscopic techniques. The tar, which is another pyrolysis product, was characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained shows that the tar is abundant in organic acids, such fenols and carboxylic acids, which has great utility as raw materials in the chemistry industry. The char, obtained in the range of 400 deg C to 600 deg C, is rich inorganic material, making possible its posterior processing to obtain oils. (author)

  5. Demineralization of wood using wood-derived acid: Towards a selective pyrolysis process for fuel and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Aldenkamp, N.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    A process concept for the pyrolysis of demineralized wood to obtain high organic and especially levoglucosan yields is proposed and tested experimentally. The wood is demineralized using organic acids, produced and concentrated within the same pyrolysis process. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a fluidiz

  6. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  7. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  8. Autothermal catalytic pyrolysis of methane as a new route to hydrogen production with reduced CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Hydrogen production plants are among major sources of CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas (or methane) with drastically reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermocatalytic decomposition (or pyrolysis) of methane into hydrogen gas and elemental carbon over carbon-based catalysts. Several heat input options to the endothermic process are discussed in the paper. The authors conduct thermodynamic analysis of methane decomposition in the presence of small amounts of oxygen in an autothermal (or thermo-neutral) regime using AspenPlus(TM) chemical process simulator. Methane conversion, products yield, effluent gas composition, process enthalpy flows as a function of temperature, pressure and O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio has been determined. CO{sub 2} emissions (per m{sup 3} of H{sub 2} produced) from the process could potentially be a factor of 3-5 less than from conventional hydrogen production processes. Oxygen-assisted decomposition of methane over activated carbon (AC) and AC-supported iron catalysts over wide range of temperatures and O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratios was experimentally verified. Problems associated with the catalyst deactivation and the effect of iron doping on the catalyst stability are discussed. (author)

  9. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed).

  10. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  11. Production of bio-oil from fixed bed pyrolysis of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Asadullah; M.A. Rahman; M.M. Ali; M.S. Rahman; M.A. Motin; M.B. Sultan; M.R. Alam [University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi (Bangladesh). Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this work was to produce renewable liquid fuel (bio-oil) from locally produced bagasse by pyrolysis in a batch feeding and fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600{sup o}C. The bio-oil was collected from two condensers of different temperatures and defined as oil-1 and oil-2. The maximum total yield of bio-oil was found to be 66.0 wt% based on bagasse. The carbon based non-condensable gases were CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, ethene, propane and propene. The density and viscosity of oil-1 were found to be 1130 kg/m{sup 3} and 19.32 centipoise and that were 1050 kg/m{sup 3} and 4.25 centipoise for oil-2, respectively. The higher heating values (HHV) of them were 17.25 and 19.91 MJ/kg, respectively. The pH of the bio-oils was found to be around 3.5 and 4.5 for oil-1 and oil-2, respectively. The water, solid and ash contents of oil-1 and oil-2 were determined and found to be around 15, 0.02 and 0.03 wt% and 11, 0.01 and 0.02 wt%, respectively based on bagasse. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of PAH contamination in soil treated with solid by-products from shale pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Jaqueline; Khan, Muhammad Y; Matsui, M; Côcco, Lílian C; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Lopes, Wilson A; de Andrade, Jailson B; Pillon, Clenio N; Arizaga, Gregorio G Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils to which solid shale materials (SSMs) were added as soil conditioners. The SSMs were derived from the Petrosix pyrolysis process developed by Petrobras (Brazil). An improved ultrasonic agitation method was used to extract the PAHs from the solid samples (soils amended with SSMs), and the concentrations of the compounds were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure provided satisfactory recoveries, detection limits, and quantification limits. The two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs were most prevalent, and the highest concentration was obtained for phenanthrene (978 ± 19 μg kg(-1) in a pyrolyzed shale sample). The use of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene ratios revealed that the PAHs were derived from petrogenic rather than pyrogenic sources. The measured PAH concentrations did not exceed national or international limit values, suggesting that the use of SSMs as soil conditioners should not cause environmental damage.

  13. Characterization of Bio-Oil: A By-Product from Slow Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Khor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB are abundant biomass in Malaysia. Studies about production of biofuels using slow pyrolysis of EFB are still lacking. So, this study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of the bio-oil and its simple blends. Approach: EFB was slow pyrolysed with internal heating at terminal temperature of 600°C in a pilot kiln and the main product is the EFB char and the condensates from the emissions were separated into aqueous and tarry fractions. Results: 13 wt% of tarry component (referred as EFB oil was obtained as small fraction of co-product. The chemical composition of the EFB oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS and its elemental composition, stability, miscibility, oil fuel properties and corrosion characteristics were determined. The empirical formula of the EFB oil with heating value of 31.44 MJ kg-1 was established as CH1.41N0.03O0.24. Characterizations of bio-oil, diesel and emulsifier blends were performed. Conclusion/Recommendations: The experimental results showed that the emulsions of EFB oil obtained may be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel may be refined to be used by vehicles.

  14. Experimental investigation of hydrous pyrolysis of diesel fuel and the effect of pyrolysis products on performance of the candidate nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.J.; Carroll, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is thought that a significant amount of diesel fuel and other hydrocarbon-rich phases may remain inside the candidate nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain after construction and subsequent emplacement of radioactive waste. Although the proposed repository horizon is above the water table, the remnant hydrocarbon phases may react with hydrothermal solutions generated by high temperature conditions that will prevail for a period of time in the repository. The preliminary experimental results of this study show that diesel fuel hydrous pyrolysis is minimal at 200{degrees}C and 70 bars. The composition of the diesel fuel remained constant throughout the experiment and the concentration of carboxylic acids in the aqueous phases was only slightly above the detection limit (1-2 ppm) of the analytical technique.

  15. An integrated process for hydrogen-rich gas production from cotton stalks: The simultaneous gasification of pyrolysis gases and char in an entrained flow bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Suping; Chen, Zhenqi; Ding, Ding

    2015-12-01

    An integrated process (pyrolysis, gas-solid simultaneous gasification and catalytic steam reforming) was utilized to produce hydrogen-rich gas from cotton stalks. The simultaneous conversion of the pyrolysis products (char and pyrolysis gases) was emphatically investigated using an entrained flow bed reactor. More carbon of char is converted into hydrogen-rich gas in the simultaneous conversion process and the carbon conversion is increased from 78.84% to 92.06% compared with the two stages process (pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming). The distribution of tar components is also changed in this process. The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of tar are converted into low-ring compounds or even chain compounds due to the catalysis of char. In addition, the carbon deposition yield over NiO/MgO catalyst in the steam reforming process is approximately 4 times higher without the simultaneous process. The potential H2 yield increases from 47.71 to 78.19g/kg cotton stalks due to the simultaneous conversion process.

  16. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  17. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  18. Life cycle assessment of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from corn stover via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-06-01

    This life cycle assessment evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model database and a US Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input. The net global warming potential (GWP) is 0.037 kg CO2eq and 0.015 kg CO2eq per km traveled for a vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Vehicle operations contribute up to 33% of the total positive GWP, which is the largest greenhouse gas footprint of all the unit processes. The net GWPs in this study are 88% and 94% lower than for petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel (2005 baseline), respectively. Biomass transportation has the largest impact on ozone depletion among all of the unit processes. Sensitivity analysis shows that fuel economy, transportation fuel yield, bio-oil yield, and electricity consumption are the key factors that influence greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Pyrolysis-catalysis of waste plastic using a nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst for high-value carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Nahil, Mohamad A; Wu, Chunfei; Williams, Paul T

    2017-02-03

    A stainless-steel mesh loaded with nickel catalyst was produced and used for the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste high-density polyethylene with the aim of producing high-value carbon products, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The catalysis temperature and plastic-to-catalyst ratio were investigated to determine the influence on the formation of different types of carbon deposited on the nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst. Increasing temperature from 700 to 900°C resulted in an increase in the carbon deposited on the nickel-loaded stainless-steel mesh catalyst from 32.5 to 38.0 wt%. The increase in sample-to-catalyst ratio reduced the amount of carbon deposited on the mesh catalyst in terms of g carbon g(-1) plastic. The carbons were found to be largely composed of filamentous carbons, with negligible disordered (amorphous) carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the filamentous carbons revealed them to be composed of a large proportion (estimated at ∼40%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The optimum process conditions for CNT production, in terms of yield and graphitic nature, determined by Raman spectroscopy, was catalysis temperature of 800°C and plastic-to-catalyst ratio of 1:2, where a mass of 334 mg of filamentous/MWCNTs g(-1) plastic was produced.

  20. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of mushroom waste to upgraded bio-oil products via pre-coked modified HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, HZSM-5 catalyst was modified by pre-coked to cover the strong external acid sites by methanol to olefins reaction, and the modified catalysts were then applied to conduct the catalyst fast pyrolysis of mushroom waste for upgraded bio-fuel production. Experiment results showed that the strong external acid sites and specific surface area decreased with pre-coked percentage increasing from 0% to 5.4%. Carbon yields of hydrocarbons increased at first and then decreased with a maximum value of 53.47%. While the obtained oxygenates presented an opposite variation tendency, and the minimum values could be reached when pre-coked percentage was 2.7%. Among the achieved hydrocarbons, toluene and p-xylene were found to be the main products, and the selectivity of p-xylene increased at first and then decreased with a maximum value of 34.22% when the pre-coked percentage was 1.3%, and the selectivity of toluene showed the opposite tendency with a minimum value of 25.47%.

  1. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  2. Pyrolysis as a way to close a CFRC life cycle: Carbon fibers recovery and their use as feedstock for a new composite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Loris; Benelli, Tiziana; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Leonardi, Chiara; Zattini, Giorgio; Minak, Giangiacomo; Dolcini, Enrico; Tosi, Cristian; Montanari, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Pyrolysis is shown to be an efficient method for recycling carbon fiber composites in the form of both uncured prepregs scraps or as cured end-of-life objects. The pyrolytic process leads to different products in three physical states of matter. The gaseous fraction, called syngas, can be used as energy feedstock in the process itself. The oil fraction can be used as fuel or chemical feedstock. The solid residue contains substantially unharmed carbon fibers that can be isolated and recovered for the production of new composite materials, thus closing the life cycle of the composite in a "cradle to cradle" approach. All the pyrolysis outputs were thoroughly analyzed and characterized in terms of composition for oil and gas fraction and surface characteristics of the fibers. In particular, it is of paramount importance to correlate the aspect and properties of the fibers obtained with different composite feedstock and operational conditions, that can be significantly different, with the reinforcing performance in the newly produced Recycled Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers. Present results have been obtained on a pyrolysis pilot plant that offers the possibility of treating up to 70kg of materials, thus leading to a significant amount of products to be tested in the further composites production, focused mainly on chopped carbon fiber reinforcement.

  3. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  4. Determination of lead in biomass and products of the pyrolysis process by direct solid or liquid sample analysis using HR-CS GF AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Álvaro T; Borges, Aline R; Zmozinski, Ariane V; Dessuy, Morgana B; Welz, Bernhard; de Andrade, Jailson B; Vale, Maria Goreti R

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of lead in biomass, bio-oil, pyrolysis aqueous phase, and biomass ashes by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) and direct solid or liquid sample analysis. All measurements were performed without chemical modifier and calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions. A pyrolysis temperature of 800°C and an atomization temperature of 2200°C were applied. The limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, 0.5 µg kg(-1) and 2 µg kg(-1) using the analytical line at 217.001 nm and 6 µg kg(-1) and 19 µg kg(-1) at 283.306 nm. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was between 3% and 10%, which is suitable for direct analysis. The lead concentrations found for the solid samples varied between 0.28 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) for biomass and between 0.25 and 2.3 mg kg(-1) for ashes, these values were much higher than those found for bio-oil (2.2-16.8 µg kg(-1)) and pyrolysis aqueous phase (3.2-18.5 µg kg(-1)). After the determination of lead in the samples, it was possible to estimate the relative distribution of this element in the fractions of the pyrolysis products, and it was observed that most of the lead present in the biomass was eliminated to the environment during the pyrolysis process, with a significant portion retained in the ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of agricultural economics through integration of small scale heat and power production with non-food value-added products. Task 2: Filtration of pyrolysis oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saerkilahti, H.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy New Energy Technology (Finland)

    1997-06-01

    Use of pyrolysis oil as a diesel engine fuel was studied at VTT. Pyrolysis oil is a mixture produced from biomass by flash pyrolysis and contains a number of different chemical compounds. As a consequence of an incomplete pyrolysis reaction the product oil contains solid particles, These particles degrade the quality of oil and hamper the use of oil as fuel. The particles may also clog the filters of the diesel engine and cause deposits in the engine. Alkali metals of pyrolysis oil has been found to concentrate in solids particles. The solids can be removed from pyrolysis oil either in gas phase or in liquid phase. By gas-phase filtration it is possible to produce pyrolysis oil that is free from solids and alkali metals, but any reliable method of gas-phase filtration is not yet available. The aim of the research work at VTT Energy was to test the suitability of an Airpel self-cleaning filter for pyrolysis oil. Filtration equipment was constructed around the filter for the tests, to make an automated filtration process possible. The tests indicated that a very tight filtration film is formed on the filter at the initial stage of filtration, and this film reduced the filtration capacity significantly. After the formation of the film, the resistance of the filter cake was increased only by solid particles deposited on the surface of the filter, and the filtration capacity reduced significantly slower. Tlle solids particles deposited on the filter were of significance to the filtration results. Due to the film, it was not possible to achieve a feasible capacity with the filtration equipment. Filtration of pyrolysis oil as a continuous process was impossible, as the filtration sludge was very thick and could not be removed from the filtration tank during the process. Two pyrolysis oil grades produced by Ensyn Technology, and one produced by Union Fenosa were used in tlle tests. The oils by Ensyn were easier to filtrate, as their viscosity was lower and they contained

  6. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  7. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  8. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process...... in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...... that the reacting particle continuously shed the formed char layer....

  9. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  10. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  11. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  12. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas; Pyrolyse flash a haute temperature de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique et de ses composes - production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couhert, C

    2007-11-15

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 {mu}m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  13. Hydrocarbon pyrolysis reactor experimentation and modeling for the production of solar absorbing carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Lee Thomas

    Much of combustion research focuses on reducing soot particulates in emissions. However, current research at San Diego State University (SDSU) Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory (CSEL) is underway to develop a high temperature solar receiver which will utilize carbon nanoparticles as a solar absorption medium. To produce carbon nanoparticles for the small particle heat exchange receiver (SPHER), a lab-scale carbon particle generator (CPG) has been built and tested. The CPG is a heated ceramic tube reactor with a set point wall temperature of 1100-1300°C operating at 5-6 bar pressure. Natural gas and nitrogen are fed to the CPG where natural gas undergoes pyrolysis resulting in carbon particles. The gas-particle mixture is met downstream with dilution air and sent to the lab scale solar receiver. To predict soot yield and general trends in CPG performance, a model has been setup in Reaction Design CHEMKIN-PRO software. One of the primary goals of this research is to accurately measure particle properties. Mean particle diameter, size distribution, and index of refraction are calculated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a Diesel Particulate Scatterometer (DPS). Filter samples taken during experimentation are analyzed to obtain a particle size distribution with SEM images processed in ImageJ software. These results are compared with the DPS, which calculates the particle size distribution and the index of refraction from light scattering using Mie theory. For testing with the lab scale receiver, a particle diameter range of 200-500 nm is desired. Test conditions are varied to understand effects of operating parameters on particle size and the ability to obtain the size range. Analysis of particle loading is the other important metric for this research. Particle loading is measured downstream of the CPG outlet and dilution air mixing point. The air-particle mixture flows through an extinction tube where opacity of the mixture is measured with a 532 nm

  14. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel; Rossum, van Guus; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when comp

  15. Comparison of ethanol production from corn cobs and switchgrass following a pyrolysis-based biorefinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Luis; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Berruti, Franco; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when

  16. 润滑油废白土的热解处理%Pyrolysis treatment of waste clay from lubricating oil production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文杰; 王万福; 屈一新; 雍兴跃; 刘鹏; 王际东

    2012-01-01

    The effects of terminal pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and CaO addition on the pyrolysis products of waste clay from lubricating oil were studied by electric heating. It was found that there were obvious effects of terminal pyrolysis temperature on the quantities of gases and oils. Gases and oils increased with increas- ing terminal pyrolysis temperature, but their increasing rates increased slowly when it was above 600℃. When waste clay was pyrolized at 800℃ terminal pyrolysis temperature with 16℃/min heating rate and 0.5% CaO ad- dition, the production of hydrogen-rich gases was 189.2 L/kg, and its main compositions were H2 (27.97%) and CH4 (41.64%). The percentage of oil content and heavy metallic ions dissolving-out of pyrolysis residue were below the standard values. The production rate and recovery rate of pyrolysis oil were 10.98% and 38.94% ,re- spectively. And that pyrolysis oils were composed of gasoline (19.13%) , diesel oil (31.35%) and heavy oil (49.52%).%以润滑油废白土为原料,利用电热解法,研究了热解终温、加热速率和CaO添加量对热解产物的影响。实验结果表明:热解终温对热解产物的影响最为显著。随着热解终温的升高,不凝气产量和产油率均迅速增加。当热解终温达到600℃时,其增加的速率逐渐缓慢增大。当控制热解终温为800℃、加热速率为16℃/min、CaO添加量为0.5%时,富氢气体产量为189.2 L/kg,气体中主要成分为H2和CH4,其含量分别为27.97%和41.64%;热解残渣含油率和重金属溶出物均低于标准规定值,热解油产率为10.98%,回收率为38.94%,其主要成分为汽油、柴油和重油3部分组成,分别含19.13%、31.35%和49.52%。

  17. Photobioreactor cultivation and catalytic pyrolysis of the microalga Desmodesmus communis (Chlorophyceae) for hydrocarbons production by HZSM-5 zeolite cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Roberto; Pezzolesi, Laura; Pistocchi, Rossella; Torri, Cristian; Massoli, Patrizio; Fabbri, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    The study evaluated the growth of Desmodesmus communis on column photobioreactor and its thermochemical treatment by catalytic pyrolysis using HZSM-5 zeolite. D. communis showed good results in terms of growth (0.05gL(-1)d(-1)). Analytical pyrolysis of original algae and derived bio-oil mixed with zeolite was used as a screening method in order to gather information on the cracking process. Preparative pyrolysis on bench scale reactor was performed on algae biomass over a zeolite bed at 1:10 ratio (wt/wt). Py-GC-MS of biomass/catalyst mixture showed that the denitrogenation/deoxygenation increased with increasing zeolite load from 1:5 to 1:20 ratio and became significant at 1:10 ratio. The composition observed by analytical pyrolysis was featured by the predominance of alkylated monoaromatic hydrocarbons. The scaling-up to bench scale confirmed the results obtained with analytical pyrolysis in terms of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. However, low yield of catalytic oil (8% by weight) was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of operating parameters on production of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of maize stalk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Najaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The yield and composition of pyrolysis products depend on the characteristics of feed stock and process operating parameters. Effect of particle size, reaction temperature and carrier gas flow rate on the yield of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of Pakistani maize stalk was investigated. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at temperature range of 360-540°C, feed particle size of 1-2 mm and carrier gas fl ow rate of 7.0-13.0 m3/h (0.61.1 m/s superficial velocity. Bio-oil yield increased with the increase of temperature followed by a decreasing trend. The maximum yield of bio-oil obtained was 42 wt% at a temperature of 490°C with the particle size of around 1.0 mm and carrier gas flow rate of 11.0 m3/h (0.9 m/s superficial velocity. High temperatures resulted in the higher ratios of char and non-condensable gas.

  19. Highly time-resolved imaging of combustion and pyrolysis product concentrations in solid fuel combustion: NO formation in a burning cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Ehlert, Sven; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Baker, Richard; Streibel, Thorsten

    2015-02-03

    The highly dynamic, heterogeneous combustion process within a burning cigarette was investigated by a miniaturized extractive sampling probe (microprobe) coupled to photoionization mass spectrometry using soft laser single photon ionization (SPI) for online real-time detection of molecular ions of combustion and pyrolysis products. Research cigarettes smoked by a smoking machine are used as a reproducible model system for solid-state biomass combustion, which up to now is not addressable by current combustion-diagnostic tools. By combining repetitively recorded online measurement sequences from different sampling locations in an imaging approach, highly time- and space-resolved quantitative distribution maps of, e.g., nitrogen monoxide, benzene, and oxygen concentrations were obtained at a near microscopic level. The obtained quantitative distribution maps represent a time-resolved, movie-like imaging of the respective compound's formation and destruction zones in the various combustion and pyrolysis regions of a cigarette during puffing. Furthermore, spatially resolved kinetic data were ascertainable. The here demonstrated methodology can also be applied to various heterogenic combustion/pyrolysis or reaction model systems, such as fossil- or biomass-fuel pellet combustion or to a positional resolved analysis of heterogenic catalytic reactions.

  20. Product yields and characteristics of rice husk, rice straw and corncob during fast pyrolysis in a drop-tube/fixed-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janewit Wannapeera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis of rice husk, rice straw and corncob were investigated in a newly constructed drop-tube/fixed-bedreactor, which enables pyrolysis experiments under conditions closely simulating those occurring in commercial gasifierssuch as fluidised-bed gasifiers. Biomass samples were pyrolysed with a fast heating rate (i.e. > 1,000oC s-1, up to 850oC andholding times ranging from 1 to 10,800 seconds. Within 1 second after the biomass was injected into the reactor, considerableweight loss occurred instantaneously, leaving only a small amount of char, i.e. ~10-30 %. For all three samples, theweight loss continued throughout the range of holding times used but at an extremely slow rate, i.e. 1.3 % hr-1. The weightloss rates observed for the three biomass samples were affected by the proportion of the biomass chemical componentsas well as the metal species contents. Corncob, which had the lowest lignin content but highest cellulose content, had thehighest pyrolysis weight loss rate. On the other hand, rice husk containing a relatively high lignin content, had the lowestpyrolysis rate. The metal species (Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to increase devolatilisation yield depending on theircontents in biomass. The influence of the metal species was the most pronounced for rice straw, having the highest totalmetal species content. As the pyrolysis progressed, each biomass exhibited different char characteristics. Scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM pictures clearly showed the individual changes in geometry for all biomass-derived chars as well astheir decrease in combustion reactivities. The gas formation profiles for all three biomass samples showed almost the sametrend, with CO contributed by cellulose decomposition as the major gas product.

  1. Production of p-xylene from biomass by catalytic fast pyrolysis using ZSM-5 catalysts with reduced pore openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Wang, Zhuopeng; Gilbert, Christopher J; Fan, Wei; Huber, George W

    2012-10-29

    Pores for thought: Chemical liquid deposition of silica onto ZSM-5 catalysts led to smaller pore openings that resulted in >90% selectivity for p-xylene over the other xylenes in the catalytic fast pyrolysis of furan and 2-methylfuran (see scheme). The p-xylene selectivity increased from 51% with gallium spray-dried ZSM-5 to 72% with a pore-mouth-modified catalyst in the pyrolysis of pine wood. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Biomass pyrolysis as an alternative process for the production of 2nd generation biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadezda

    2010-01-01

    Bio-fuel production from renewable energy sources is the topic that have been studied by scientists and discussed in a political agenda for a couple of decades. In this period of time, however, it was discovered that approaches and technologies used until

  3. Productivity and cost analysis of a mobile pyrolysis system deployed to convert mill residues into biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Dongyeob Kim; Nathaniel Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Forest and mill residues are a promising source of biomass feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts. However, high costs of transportation and handling of feedstock often make utilization of forest residues, such as logging slash, financially unviable. As a result, these materials are often considered waste and left on site to decompose or...

  4. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis and the combustion of it; Biooeljyn tuotanto flashpyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The target of the research is to study the production of bio-oils using flash-pyrolysis and utilization of the bio-oil in oil-fueled boilers. The PDU-device was ordered in December 1994. The device was tested in Canada in the beginning of March 1996. The device will be mounted in Otaniemi in the research unit of VTT Energy. The device will by equipped, if possible, with a hot-filtering device in order to improve the purity and the quality of the oil. The capacity of the PDU-device is 20 kg/h of dry biomass of about 10 wt-% DS-content, with particle size less than 6 mm. The actual tests will be made in autumn 1996. The investment costs of the PDU are about 2.5 million FIM. The Canadian funding of the project is about 50 %. It has been planned that within the research project of Vapo oy, about 50 - 100 tons of bio-oil will be acquired from Canada for the engine tests carried out by Wartsilae Diesel, and the project will be responsible for planning and operation of the PDU and the demonstration plants. About 50 tons of wood-oil was received from Canada in January 1996 for the engine tests, the results of which will be reported separately by Wartsilae Diesel. The present costs of the tasks are about 1.2 million FIM, but the main part of the costs will be formed in 1996-1997

  5. 褐煤及其热解产品利用现状%Utilization status of lignite and pyrolysis products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 邹涛; 初茉; 畅志兵; 林益安

    2014-01-01

    为了提高褐煤利用率,介绍了国内褐煤资源的储量形态、分布。分析了目前褐煤的利用途径,包括共伴生资源的利用、直接燃烧、干燥脱水与成型、气化、液化、制水煤浆与热解。并进一步分析了褐煤热解气、液、固产品的利用方向。提出了褐煤半焦利用的新方法,即利用半焦干法气化,或将半焦和热解废水等制成水煤浆,通过湿法气化制得合成气,再通过甲烷化催化剂将合成气制成甲烷,或将合成气通过费托合成制成汽油柴油。%In order to improve the utilization rate of lignite,the lignite reserves and distribution status was introduced. The utilization ways of lignite,including associated resources utilization,lignite direct combustion,dehydration and briquetting,gasification,liquefaction,py-rolysis and coal water mixture preparation were introduced. Then the using direction of gas,liquid and solid productions of lignite pyrolysis were further investigated. The authors put forward some new utilization methods of lignitic semi-coke, including gasifying the semi-coke by the dry gasification and preparing coal water mixture ( CWM) with semi-coke and pyrolytic waste water. The CWM was gasified to pro-duce syngas by the wet gasification. Then the syngas was used to prepare methane with methanation catalysts, or compound petrol and diesel by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  6. The effects of catalysts on the conversion of organic matter and bio-fuel production in the microwave pyrolysis of sludge at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Huang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Lin; Sun, Shichang; Zhang, Peixin; Zhang, Xianghua; Zhao, Xuxin

    2017-08-01

    Adding catalyst could improve the yields and qualities of bio-gas and bio-oil, and realize the oriented production. Results showed that the catalytic gas-production capacities of CaO were higher than those of Fe2O3, and the bio-gas yield at 800°C reached a maximum of 35.1%. Because the polar cracking active sites of CaO reduced the activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction and resulted in high catalytic cracking efficiencies. In addition, the quality of bio-oil produced by CaO was superior to that by Fe2O3, although the bio-oil yield of CaO was relatively weak. The light bio-fuel oriented catalytic pyrolysis could be realized when adding different catalysts. At 800°C, CaO was 45% higher than Fe2O3 in aspect of H2 production while Fe2O3 was 103% higher than CaO in aspect of CH4 production. Therefore, CaO was more suitable for H2 production and Fe2O3 was more suitable for CH4 production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis...

  8. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  9. Influence of silica–alumina support ratio on H2 production and catalyst carbon deposition from the Ni-catalytic pyrolysis/reforming of waste tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Tao, Yongwen; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The influence of catalyst support alumina–silica in terms of different Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios containing 20 wt.% Ni on the production of hydrogen and catalyst coke formation from the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste tyres is reported. A two-stage reactor system was used with pyrolysis of the tyres followed by catalytic reaction. There was only a small difference in the total gas yield and hydrogen yield by changing the Al2O3 to SiO2 mole ratios in the Ni-Al2O3/SiO2 catalyst. The 1:1 ratio of Al2O3:SiO2 ratio produced the highest gas yield of 27.3 wt.% and a hydrogen production of 14.0 mmol g-1tyre. Catalyst coke formation decreased from 19.0 to 13.0 wt.% as the Al2O3:SiO2 ratio was changed from 1:1 to 2:1, with more than 95% of the coke being filamentous-type carbon, a large proportion of which was multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Further experiments introduced steam to the second-stage reactor to investigate hydrogen production for the pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming of the waste tyres using the 1:1 Al2O3/SiO2 nickel catalyst. The introduction of steam produced a marked increase in total gas yield from ~27 wt. % to ~58 wt.%; in addition, hydrogen production was increased to 34.5 mmol g-1 and there was a reduction in catalyst coke formation to 4.6 wt.%. PMID:28789599

  10. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer’s spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different ...

  11. Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国志; 张廷安; 王龙; 马思达; 豆志河; 刘燕

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pyrolysis mode and pyrolysis parameters on Cl content in alumina were investigated, and the alumina products were characterized by XRD, SEM and ASAP. The experimental results indicate that the spray pyrolysis efficiency is higher than that of static pyrolysis process, and the reaction and evaporation process lead to a multi-plot state of the alumina products by spray pyrolysis. Aluminum phase starts to transform intoγ-Al2O3 at spray pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C, which is about 200 °C lower than that of static pyrolysis process. The primary particle size of γ-Al2O3 product is 27.62 nm, and Cl content in alumina products is 0.38%at 800 °C for 20 min.

  12. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Hanif

    Full Text Available The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata] through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%, 600°C for syngas (22 wt%, and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%. Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products.

  13. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  14. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products.

  15. Promotion of hydrogen-rich gas and phenolic-rich bio-oil production from green macroalgae Cladophora glomerata via pyrolysis over its bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Safari, Farid; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Nejati, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as a Caspian Sea's green macroalgae into gaseous, liquid and solid products was carried out via pyrolysis at different temperatures to determine its potential for bio-oil and hydrogen-rich gas production for further industrial utilization. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for bio-oil production. The highest portion of bio-oil was retrieved at 500°C. The catalytic test was performed using the bio-char derived at 500°C as a catalyst. Effect of the addition of the algal bio-char on the composition of the bio-oil and also gaseous products was investigated. Pyrolysis derived bio-char was characterized by BET, FESEM and ICP method to show its surface area, porosity, and presence of inorganic metals on its surface, respectively. Phenols were increased from 8.5 to 20.76area% by the addition of bio-char. Moreover, the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen selectivity were also enhanced by the factors of 1.37, 1.59 respectively.

  16. Optimization of a free-fall reactor for the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellens, C J; Brown, R C

    2012-01-01

    A central composite design of experiments was performed to optimize a free-fall reactor for the production of bio-oil from red oak biomass. The effects of four experimental variables including heater set-point temperature, biomass particle size, sweep gas flow rate and biomass feed rate were studied. Heater set-point temperature ranged from 450 to 650 °C, average biomass particle size from 200 to 600 μm, sweep gas flow rate from 1 to 5 sL/min and biomass feed rate from 1 to 2 kg/h. Optimal operating conditions yielding over 70 wt.% bio-oil were identified at a heater set-point temperature of 575 °C, while feeding red oak biomass sized less than 300 μm at 2 kg/h into the 0.021 m diameter, 1.8m tall reactor. Sweep gas flow rate did not have significant effect on bio-oil yield over the range tested.

  17. H{sub 2} production from methane pyrolysis over commercial carbon catalysts: Kinetic and deactivation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, D.P.; Botas, J.A. [Chemical and Environmental Technology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain); IMDEA Energia, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain); Guil-Lopez, R. [Chemical and Environmental Technology Department, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen production from catalytic methane decomposition (DeCH{sub 4}) is a simple process to produce high purity hydrogen with no formation of carbon oxides (CO or CO{sub 2}). However, to completely avoid those emissions, the catalyst must not be regenerated. Therefore, it is necessary to use inexpensive catalysts, which show low deactivation during the process. Use of carbon materials as catalysts fulfils these requirements. Methane decomposition catalysed by a number of commercial carbons has been studied in this work using both constant and variable temperature experiments. The results obtained showed that the most active catalyst at short reaction times was activated carbon, but it underwent a fast deactivation due to the deposition of the carbon formed from methane cracking. On the contrary, carbon blacks, and especially the CB-bp sample, present high reaction rates for methane decomposition at both short and long reaction times. Carbon nanotubes exhibit a relatively low activity in spite of containing significant amounts of metals. The initial loss of activity observed with the different catalysts is attributed mainly to the blockage of their micropores due to the deposition of the carbon formed during the reaction. (author)

  18. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  19. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  20. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  1. Pyrolysis of high-ash sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor for production of liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu; Li, Rui; Jia, Jiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A circulating fluidized bed reactor was used for pyrolyzing sewage sludge with a high ash content to produce liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds. GC/MS and FTIR analyses showed that heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds and hydrocarbons made up 38.5-61.21% and 2.24-17.48% of the pyrolysis liquids, respectively. A fluidized gas velocity of 1.13 m/s, a sludge feed rate of 10.78 kg/h and a particle size of 1-2mm promoted heterocyclic nitrogenated compound production. Utilizing heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds as chemical feedstock could be a way for offsetting the cost of sewage sludge treatment.

  2. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  3. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of

  4. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  5. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 桉树类生物质热解及产物释放特性研究%Study on pyrolysis of eucalyptus biomass and releasing characteristics of products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 宋景慧; 马晓茜; 湛志钢

    2013-01-01

    The pyrolysis processing of eucalyptus biomass including branch and bark in different heating rates and their releasing characteristics of products were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) system, the difference of pyrolysis mechanism between two eucalyptus biomass was further analyzed. The results indicate that there are mainly three stages during the processing of eucalypt branch pyrolysis which are drying process, pyrolysis process and carbonating process. During the process of pyrolysis, many kinds of gaseous organic compounds are released, with faster rate of pyrolysis reaction compare to eucalypt brak. The pruducts mainly are many organic gas and little CO2 and CO. The processing of eucalypt brak pyrolysis is more complicated, which main has five stages including drying, deeply drying, pyrolysis, carbonating and deeply carbonating processing in higher temperature, with lower pyrolysis rate. It has similar gaseous products during the processing of pyrolysis compared with eucalypt branch. However, there exited vigorously carbonating reaction during the temperature range of 450~550 ℃ and 650~800 ℃, with CO2 and CO as the main gaseous products.%采用热重红外联用方法研究不同升温速率下桉树枝和桉树皮的热解特性和热解气体产物的释放特性,对比分析两者的差异性及差异机理.结果表明:桉树枝热解过程主要分为干燥、热解和碳化3个阶段,热解速率较快,气体产物释放主要集中在热解阶段进行,主要气体产物有烷烃、醇、酚、醛、羧酸、酮等多种有机气体产物和少量CO,CO2;桉树皮热解过程分为干燥、进一步干燥、热解反应、碳化及高温持续碳化5个阶段,相比桉树枝热解速率明显较低.桉树皮热解反应阶段在450~550℃和650~800℃两个高温区间存在较为剧烈的碳化反应过程,主要气体产物为CO2和CO.

  7. Synergistic effect of water content and composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud on the enhanced hydrogen production from sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiakuan; Song, Jian; Liang, Sha; Guan, Ruonan; Shi, Yafei; Yu, Wenbo; Zhu, Suiyi; Fan, Wei; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping; Deng, Huali; Xiao, Bo

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0.257 and 0.189 L/g dry solid (DS), respectively. At the same temperature and with the same water content, the hydrogen (H2) yields of the S-Fenton-RM samples were always higher than those of the S-PAM samples. At 900 °C, the maximum H2 yield of the S-Fenton-RM samples was 0.102 L/g DS, which was 85.5% higher than that of the S-PAM samples. The results indicated that water in the wet sludge provided the steam atmosphere for pyrolysis, and the water vapor then involved in secondary cracking reformation of tar and char gasification reactions, which would be catalyzed by the presence of metal oxides in the Fenton-RM conditioner, thus increasing the yield of fuel gas, especially hydrogen. The H2 production cost from the S-Fenton-RM system is less than that from the S-PAM system. The results suggest that pyrolysis of the wet deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM is an economical and promising alternative for sewage sludge dewatering and disposal/reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  9. Upgrading the rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis for the production of amorphous silica and high quality activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jon; Lopez, Gartzen; Amutio, Maider; Bilbao, Javier; Olazar, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The overall valorization of rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) has been studied in a two-step process. Thus, silica has been recovered in a first step and the remaining carbon material has been subjected to steam activation. The char samples used in this study have been obtained by continuous flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor at 500°C. Extraction with Na2CO3 allows recovering 88% of the silica contained in the rice husk char. Activation of the silica-free rice husk char has been carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 800°C using steam as activating agent. The porous structure of the activated carbons produced includes a combination of micropores and mesopores, with a BET surface area of up to 1365m(2)g(-1) at the end of 15min.

  10. Study on HCl emission behavior during pyrolysis of demolition wood with PVC and municipal solid waste for clean hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, first, HCl emission during the pyrolysis of demolition wood containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) converted from municipal wastes was measured with a laboratory scale cylindrical batch reactor. The difference in the HCl emission behavior between both feedstocks was discussed. In the case of the demolition wood with PVC, the effects of wood composition on HCl emission were investigated by not only measuring the HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin) with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. Finally, the reduction of HCl emission due to blending demolition wood and PVC film with a K-rich biomass was experimentally evaluated as a method for reducing the HCl emission. (authors)

  11. Portable in-woods pyrolysis: Using forest biomass to reduce forest fuels, increase soil productivity, and sequester carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman; Greg Jones; Tyron Venn; R. Kasten Dumroese; Nathanial Anderson; Woodam Chung; Dan Loeffler; Jim Archuleta; Mark Kimsey; Phil Badger; Terry Shaw; Kristin McElligott

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of an in-woods portable pyrolysis unit that converts forest biomass to bio-oil and the application of the byproduct bio-char in a field trial. We also discuss how in-woods processing may reduce the need for long haul distances of lowvalue woody biomass and eliminate open, currently wasteful burning of forest biomass. If transportation costs can be...

  12. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  13. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  14. Valorization of algal waste via pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulkas, A; Hammani, H; El Achaby, M; Bilal, E; Barakat, A; El Harfi, K

    2017-06-23

    The aim of the present work is to develop processes for the production of bio-oil and bio-char from algae waste using the pyrolysis at controlled conditions. The pyrolysis was carried out at different temperatures 400-600°C and different heating rates 5-50°C/min. The algal waste, bio-oil and bio-char were successfully characterized using Elemental analysis, Chemical composition, TGA, FTIR, (1)H NMR, GC-MS and SEM. At a temperature of 500°C and a heating rate of 10°C/min, the maximum yield of bio-oil and bio-char was found to be 24.10 and 44.01wt%, respectively, which was found to be strongly influenced by the temperature variation, and weakly affected by the heating rate variation. Results show that the bio-oil cannot be used as bio-fuel, but can be used as a source of value-added chemicals. On the other hand, the bio-char is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications and for the production of carbon materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A; Kraiem, T; Naoui, S; Belayouni, H

    2014-01-01

    Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC-MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds...etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,...etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Caracterização dos produtos líquidos e do carvão da pirólise de serragem de eucalipto Characterization of liquid products and char from the pyrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton F. Martins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the low temperature pyrolysis as an alternative conversion process for residual biomass and for obtaining gaseous, liquid and solid chemical feedstocks. Using a bench electrical pyrolysis oven, four product fractions from eucalyptus sawdust were obtained: a gaseous one, two liquid (aqueous and oily, and a solid residue (char. These products were characterized by different analytical methods. The liquid fractions showed themselves as potential sources for input chemicals. The residual char revealed appreciable adsorption capability. The process demonstrated good efficiency, generating at least two fractions of great industrial interest: bio oil and char.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  18. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the ot...

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  20. Pyrolysis Oil Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dietrich

    2017-03-14

    In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis have a great potential to be used as renewable fuel and/or a source for chemical feedstocks. Existing technical reactor designs are presented together with actual examples. Bio-oil characterization and various options for bio-oil upgrading are discussed based on the potential end-use. Existing and potential utilization alternatives for bio-oils are presented with respect to their use for heat and power generation as well as chemical and material use.

  1. Production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol from fast pyrolysis of palm residues using a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Yong; Lee, Uen-Do; Chang, Won-Seok; Jeong, Soo-Hwa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, palm residues were pyrolyzed in a bench-scale (3kg/h) fast pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and bio-oil separation system for the production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol. Pyrolysis experiments were performed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and the types and amounts of activated carbon on the bio-oil composition. The maximum bio-oil yield obtained was approximately 47wt% at a reaction temperature of 515°C. The main compounds produced from the bio-oils were acetic acid, hydroxyacetone, phenol, and phenolic compounds such as cresol, xylenol, and pyrocatechol. When coal-derived activated carbon was applied, the acetic acid and phenol yields in the bio-oils reached 21 and 19wt%, respectively. Finally, bio-oils rich in acetic acid and phenol could be produced separately by using an in situ bio-oil separation system and activated carbon as an additive.

  2. Utilization of CO2 and biomass char derived from pyrolysis of Dunaliella salina: the effects of steam and catalyst on CO and H2 gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Jia, Lishan; Su, Shuai; Tian, Zhongbiao; Song, Qianqian; Fang, Weiping; Chen, Changping; Liu, Guangfa

    2012-04-01

    Biomass char, by-product of Dunaliella salina pyrolysis at a final pyrolysis temperature of 500°C, was used as feedstock material in this study. The reactions of biomass char with CO(2) were performed in a fixed-bed reactor to evaluate the effect of temperature and steam on the CO(2) conversion, CO yield and gas composition. The CO(2) conversion and CO yield without steam and catalyst reached about 61.84% and 0.99mol/(mol CO(2)) at 800°C, respectively. Steam and high temperature led to high CO(2) conversion. A new approach for improving H(2) was carried out by using biomass char and Au/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, which combined steam gasification of biomass char and water gas shift reaction, and the H(2) concentration was 1.8 times higher than without catalyst. The process not only mitigated CO(2) emission and made use of residual biomass char, but also created renewable source.

  3. Two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Xie, Qinglong; Liu, Shiyu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A novel technology of two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) of corn stover for bio-oil production was investigated in the presence of microwave absorbent (SiC) and HZSM-5 catalyst. Effects of fMAP temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on bio-oil yield and chemical components were examined. The results showed that this technology, employing microwave, microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst, was effective and promising for biomass fast pyrolysis. The fMAP temperature of 500°C was considered the optimum condition for maximum yield and best quality of bio-oil. Besides, the bio-oil yield decreased linearly and the chemical components in bio-oil were improved sequentially with the increase of catalyst-to-biomass ratio from 1:100 to 1:20. The elemental compositions of bio-char were also determined. Additionally, compared to one-step fMAP process, two-step fMAP could promote the bio-oil quality with a smaller catalyst-to-biomass ratio.

  4. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  5. Production and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles and porous particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using a zinc nitrate precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Arıg, Elif; Özkal, Burak; Gürmen, Sebahattin

    2012-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and porous particles were produced by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using a zinc nitrate precursor at various temperatures under air atmosphere. The effects of reaction temperature on the size and morphology of ZnO particles were investigated. The samples were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. ZnO particles were obtained in a hexagonal crystal structure and the crystallite shapes changed from spherical to hexagonal by elevating the reaction temperature. The crystallite size grew by increasing the temperature, in spite of reducing the residence time in the heated zone. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained at the lowest reaction temperature and ZnO porous particles, formed by aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles due to effective sintering, were prepared at higher temperatures. The results showed that the properties of ZnO particles can be controlled by changing the reaction temperature in the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method.

  6. Enhancement of bio-oil production via pyrolysis of wood biomass by pretreatment with H2SO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Matsuno, Ryo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a Japanese cedar wood sample was treated during the first step at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure using several concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in a stirred flask. During this pretreatment C-O bonds of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were cleaved. The second step involved the pyrolysis of the pretreated wood sample at 550 °C in a quartz glass tube reactor. A maximum oil yield of 46.8 wt% with the minimum char yield of 10.1 wt% was obtained by the treatment with 3 M H2SO4, whereas untreated wood samples resulted in a 30.1 wt% yield of oil. The main components in the oils were levoglucosan and tar. These results suggest that moderate acid pretreatment produced shorter chain units of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, thereby facilitating the conversion into oil by pyrolysis. The results of thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy supported the presence of shorter chain units in the pretreated wood samples.

  7. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil-Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Smitha; Kolb, Gunther; Hessel, Volker; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-29

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  8. 不同热失重阶段烟草的裂解产物%Pyrolysis Products of Tobacco Released at Different Thermogravimetric Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永华; 宁敏; 张晓宇; 朱青林; 田振峰; 徐迎波; 王程辉; 徐志强

    2015-01-01

    为研究烟草样品在热重分析过程中释放出的产物,搭建了一种热重分析产物收集装置,并分别利用GC/MS和HPLC法分析了烤烟样品在不同热失重阶段释放出的焦油态产物以及甲醛、乙醛、丙酮、丙烯醛和丙醛5种挥发性羰基物。结果表明:①烤烟样品的热分解过程大致可分为吸附水散失、挥发性成分析出、烟草生物聚合物热氧化裂解、焦炭燃烧和燃尽5个热失重阶段。②在不同热失重阶段,焦油态产物的生成明显不同,其中,挥发性成分析出阶段会导致大量烟碱和许多香味成分形成;在生物聚合物的热氧化裂解阶段,焦油态产物的数量最丰富;而在焦炭燃烧阶段会产生许多芳烃类化合物。③烟草热解过程产生的挥发性羰基物主要是在烟草生物聚合物的有氧裂解及之后的焦炭燃烧过程中形成的。%In order to study the products released during the process of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of a tobacco sample, a device for collecting TGA products was established. The tar-form product and five volatile carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein and propanal) released at different thermogravimetric stages were collected, then analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC separately. The results showed that: 1) The pyrolysis process of tobacco samples could be divided into five stages, i.e. adsorbed water dissipation, volatile component evolution, bio-polymer thermal oxidative pyrolysis, coke combustion, and burnout stages. 2) At different thermogravimetric stages, the formation of tar-form products was obviously different; large amount of nicotine and a great number of aroma compounds formed at volatile component evolution stage; abundant tar-form products formed at bio-polymer thermal oxidative pyrolysis stage; and many aromatic compounds produced at coke combustion stage. 3) The volatile carbonyl compounds mainly formed at bio-polymer oxidative

  9. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil—Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  10. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  11. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  12. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  13. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K. Akalin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the other. The compositions of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of the two samples were found to be very similar. N-containing compounds were found to be the major compounds identified in ether extracts for both samples.

  16. Potential method for gas production: high temperature co-pyrolysis of lignite and sewage sludge with vacuum reactor and long contact time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2015-03-01

    Lignite and sewage sludge were co-pyrolyzed in a vacuum reactor with high temperature (900°C) and long contact time (more than 2h). Beneficial synergetic effect on gas yield was clearly observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The gas volume yield, gas lower heating value (LHV), fixed carbon conversion and H2/CO ratio were 1.42 Nm(3)/kg(blend fuel), 10.57 MJ/Nm(3), 96.64% and 0.88% respectively, which indicated this new method a feasible one for gas production. It was possible that sewage sludge acted as gasification agents (CO2 and H2O) and catalyst (alkali and alkaline earth metals) provider during co-pyrolysis, promoting CO2-char and H2O-char gasification which, as a result, invited the improvement of gas volume yield, gas lower heating value and fixed carbon conversion.

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of atmospheric residue on a fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for the production of light olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lian-guo; MENG Xiang-hai; XU Chun-ming; GAO Jin-sen; LIU Zhi-chang

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of Chinese Daqing atmospheric residue on a commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst was investigated in a confined fluidized bed reactor. The results show that the commercial FCC catalyst has good capability of cracking atmospheric residue to light olefins. The analysis of gas samples shows that the content of total light olefins in cracked gas is above 80%. The analysis of liquid samples shows that the content of aromatics in liquid samples ranges from 60% to 80%, and it increases with the enhancement of reaction temperature. The yield of total light olefins shows a maximum with the increase of reaction temperature, the weight ratios of catalyst-to-oil and steam-to-oil, respectively. The optimal reaction temperature, the weight ratios of catalyst-to-oil and steam-to-oil are about 650℃, 15 and 0.75, respectively.

  18. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  19. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  20. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  1. Hydrogen production via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.; Huang, Q.; Sui, M.; Yan, Y.; Wang, F. [Research Center for Biomass Energy, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production was prepared via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reactor system. Low-cost catalyst dolomite was chosen for the primary steam reforming of bio-oil in consideration of the unavoidable deactivation caused by direct contact of metal catalyst and bio-oil itself. Nickel-based catalyst Ni/MgO was used in the second stage to increase the purity and the yield of desirable gas product further. Influential parameters such as temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C, S/CH{sub 4}), and material space velocity (W{sub B}HSV, GHSV) both for the first and the second reaction stages on gas product yield, carbon selectivity of gas product, CH{sub 4} conversion as well as purity of desirable gas product were investigated. High temperature (> 850 C) and high S/C (> 12) are necessary for efficient conversion of bio-oil to desirable gas product in the first steam reforming stage. Low W{sub B}HSV favors the increase of any gas product yield at any selected temperature and the overall conversion of bio-oil to gas product increases accordingly. Nickel-based catalyst Ni/MgO is effective in purification stage and 100% conversion of CH{sub 4} can be obtained under the conditions of S/CH{sub 4} no less than 2 and temperature no less than 800 C. Low GHSV favors the CH{sub 4} conversion and the maximum CH{sub 4} conversion 100%, desirable gas product purity 100%, and potential hydrogen yield 81.1% can be obtained at 800 C provided that GHSV is no more than 3600 h{sup -} {sup 1}. Carbon deposition behaviors in one-stage reactor prove that the steam reforming of crude bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reaction system is necessary and significant. (author)

  2. An efficient route towards a new branched tetrahydrofurane δ-sugar amino acid from a pyrolysis product of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defant, Andrea; Mancini, Ines; Torri, Cristian; Malferrari, Danilo; Fabbri, Daniele

    2011-02-01

    (1R,5S)-1-hydroxy-3,6-dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2-one, is a bicyclic lactone obtained in gram-scale by catalytic pyrolysis of the renewable source cellulose. Now it has been used as a chiral building block in the preparation of the new δ-sugar amino acid, (3R,5S)-5-(aminoethyl)-3-hydroxytetrahydrofurane-3-carboxylic acid, by an efficient synthesis in five steps with a 67% overall yield. The structure of this tetrahydrofurane amino acid, isolated in protonated form, was assigned by extensive mono- and bidimensional (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis and mass spectrometry, including measurements by electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization techniques, the latter one for high-resolution experiments. This amino acid is an isoster of dipeptide glycine-alanine (H-Gly-Ala-OH), with a potential use in the access of new peptidomimetics with conformationally restricted structures due to the presence of tetrahydrofurane ring. As a preliminary study in order to disclose this effect, density functional theory calculation performed in water using polar continuum model was applied to the new amino acid and H-Gly-Ala-OH dipeptide, so that to evaluate and compare the relative torsional angles for the energy-minimized structures.

  3. Characteristics of products from fast pyrolysis of fractions of waste square timber and ordinary plywood using a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Seon-Jin; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Fractions of waste square timber and waste ordinary plywood were pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and a dual char separation system. The maximum bio-oil yield of about 65 wt.% was obtained at reaction temperatures of 450-500 °C for both feed materials. For quantitative analysis of bio-oil, the relative response factor (RRF) of each component was calculated using an effective carbon number (ECN) that was multiplied by the peak area of each component detected by a GC-FID. The predominant compounds in the bio-oils were methyl acetate, acids, hydroxyacetone, furfural, non-aromatic ketones, levoglucosan and phenolic compounds. The WOP-derived bio-oil showed it to have relatively high nitrogen content. Increasing the reaction temperature was shown to have little effect on nitrogen removal. The ash and solid contents of both bio-oils were below 0.1 wt.% due to the excellent performance of the char separation system.

  4. Modification of natural clinoptilolite and ZSM-5 with different oxides and studying of the obtained products in lignin pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Jelena A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, different metal oxides (MO supported on two types of zeolites: 1 natural clinoptilolite (NZ and 2 synthetic zeolite, ZSM-5 were prepared and tested as catalysts in the fast pyrolysis of hardwood lignin. NZ was modified with the CaO and MgO by a simple two steps procedure consisting of an ion exchange reaction and a subsequent calcination at 773 K. The synthetic ZSM-5 was modified with several MO species (Ni, Cu, Ca, Mg by a wet impregnation and calcination at 873 K. Тhe prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS and measurement of specific surface area (BET method. Acid sites were characterized and quantified by pyridine (py absorption using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The catalysts exhibit catalytic activity depanding on modification, reaction temperature and of the MO contents. The highest yield of useful phenol in bio-oil was obtained with NiO/ZSM-5 (34.8 wt.% which exhibits the highest specific surface area and the highest concetration of Brönsted and Lewis acid sites. The studied catalysts did not increase significantly the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy compounds compared to non-catalytic experiment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172018

  5. [Characterization of pyrolysis of waste printed circuit boards by high-resolution pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Hong; Xia, Zhengbin; Chen, Huanqin

    2008-07-01

    Thermal degradation of pyrolysis of waste circuit boards was investigated by high-resolution pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGC-MS) and thermogravimetry (TG). In helium atmosphere, the products of FR-4 waste printed circuit board were pyrolyzed at 350, 450, 550, 650, and 750 degrees degrees C, separately, and the pyrolysis products were identified by online MS. The results indicated that the pyrolysis products of the FR-4 waste circuit board were three kinds of substances, such as the low boiling point products, phenol, bisphenol and their related products. Moreover, under 300 degrees degrees C, only observed less pyrolysis products. As the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the relative content of the low boiling point products increased. In the range of 450-650 degrees degrees C, the qualitative analysis and character were similar, and the relative contents of phenol and bisphenol were higher. The influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolyzate yields was studied. On the basis of the pyrolyzate profile and the dependence of pyrolyzate yields on pyrolysis temperature, the thermal degradation mechanism of brominated epoxy resin was proposed.

  6. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H(2), C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, CO(2), CO and H(2)S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  7. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  8. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  9. Identification and characterization of vinylpyrrolidone-vinylimidazolium chloride copolymers in cosmetic products by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmahl, E; Ruess, W

    1993-04-01

    Synopsis Commercially available copolymers of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, known as 'Luviquat' types in the cosmetic industry, were analysed for their composition using a combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. This is a report on the determined pyrolytic products and the fast identification of the analysed polymers both in raw materials and cosmetic products. Calibration with defined material ensures the determination of monomer ratios with good reproducibility. Résumé Les copolymères de chlorure de 1-vinyle-2-pyrolidone et de 1-vinyle-3-methylimidazolium disponibles dans le commerce, connus dans l'industrie cosmétique sous la dénomination de copolymères de vinyle, ont été analysés à laide d'une méthode combinant la pyrolyse, la spectrométrie de mass et la chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Cet article constitue un rapport sur les produits déterminés par pyrolyse et sur la rapidité d'identification des polymères analysés à la fois dans des matières premières et dans des produits cosmétiques. Le calibrage avec un matériel défini assure une bonne détermination des taux de monomères dotés d'une reproductibilité.

  10. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (synthesis has been utilized in the gas-to-liquid process to convert syngas, produced from coal, natural gas, or biomass, into paraffin waxes that can be cracked to produce liquid diesel fuels. In general, the effect of increasing reaction temperature (>300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  11. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  12. Curie-point pyrolysis of sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Selected sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids were subjected to Curie-point pyrolysis and their pyrolysis products subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to study the thermal dissociation mechanisms of lipid moieties in bio- and geomacromolecules. Pyrolysis of t

  13. Screening acidic zeolites for catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass and its components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites have been shown to effectively promote cracking reactions during pyrolysis resulting in highly deoxygenated and hydrocarbon-rich compounds and stable pyrolysis oil product. Py/GC-MS was employed to study the catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass samples comprising oak, corn...

  14. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil by the steam-iron process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The steam-iron process is an old process, which was used for the production of hydrogen from cokes at the beginning of the twentieth century. In this thesis the steam-iron process is used to produce pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis oil, obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass, is used to

  15. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood: Effect of successive catalyst regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, Guray; Lathouwers, Tom; Toraman, Hilal Ezgi; Geem, van Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Ronsse, Frederik; Duren, van Ruben; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, Wolter

    2014-01-01

    The main product of biomass fast pyrolysis is a liquid mixture of numerous organic molecules with water that is usually called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. The research discussed in this paper was meant (1) to validate a new, semicontinuously operated pyrolysis setup and (2) to investigate the effect o

  16. Preparation, properties, and bonding utilization of pyrolysis bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid increase in energy consumption, limited fossil fuel resource, and environmental concerns have stimulated the research need for biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation process of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The liquid product from pyrolysis is known as ...

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin over nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Wook; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Lee, See Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin was performed using nanoporous catalysts. AI-MCM-41 and Meso-MFI, which had different acid characteristics, were used. In addition, the characteristics of Pt/Meso-MFI were compared with those of Meso-MFI. To analyze the characteristics of the catalyst samples, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses were performed. In addition, pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to facilitate the direct analysis of the pyrolytic products. The products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis contained a greater amount of valuable components than did those obtained from non-catalytic pyrolysis, indicating that catalytic pyrolysis improved the quality of the bio-oil. Additionally, valuable products such as furan and aromatic compounds were produced in greater quantities when Meso-MFI was used. When Pt/Meso-MFI was used, the amounts of furan and aromatic compounds produced increased even further.

  18. Two-stage catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge for syngas production%城市污泥两段式催化热解制合成气研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常风民; 王启宝; SEGUN Giwa; 贾晋炜; 王凯军

    2015-01-01

    Syngas production from sewage sludge via a two-stage catalytic pyrolysis reactor was investigated, for further utilization of volatile products evolved during one-stage pyrolysis. In addition, the catalytic performance of different catalysts was studied. The results showed that the maximum liquid (aqueous and oil phase) yield was obtained at a final pyrolysis temperature of 500℃. Moreover, when the pyrolysis temperature was above 500℃, increasing gas yield and relative stable solid yield were observed. The further pyrolysis of liquid products could be achieved when the temperature was over 900℃, in which small-molecule non-condensable gases, mainly including H2, CO and CH4, were generated. The Ni/ molecular sieve catalyst seemed to be more effective at pyrolysis than other catalysts, and over 85% syngas (H2 + CO) content could be obtained.%为了把城市污泥中温热解产生的挥发性产物转化为可直接利用的洁净可燃性气体或重要的化工原料合成气,采用两段式热解装置对城市污泥进行了催化热解实验研究,讨论了不同催化剂对城市污泥热解挥发性产物的催化裂解能力,结果表明:城市污泥在热解终温500℃,热解液产率最大,超过500℃,热解液产率减少,热解气增多,固相产率基本不变;城市污泥热解液的裂解温度需在900℃以上,产生的气体组分主要为H2、CO、CH4等小分子非冷凝性气体;Ni/分子筛复合催化剂对热解液转化为合成气的作用效果较好,合成气体(H2+CO)体积含量占气体总量的85%以上。

  19. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  20. Influence of Oxygenated Compounds on Reaction Products in a Microwave Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Assembly for Post-Processing of Sabatier Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, J. Matthew; Abney, Morgan B.

    2012-01-01

    The state-of-the-art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) in April 2010. The system is designed to accept carbon dioxide from the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and hydrogen from the Oxygen Generation Assembly. The two gases are reacted in the CRA in a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane. Venting of methane results in an oxygen resupply requirement of about 378 lbs per crew member per year. If the oxygen is supplied as water, the total weight for resupply is about 476 lb per crew member per year. For long-term missions beyond low Earth orbit, during which resupply capabilities will be further limited, recovery of hydrogen from methane is highly desirable. For this purpose, NASA is pursuing development of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) capable of recovering hydrogen from methane. Under certain conditions, water vapor and carbon dioxide (nominally intended to be separated from the CRA outlet stream) may be present in the PPA feed stream. Thus, testing was conducted in 2010 to determine the effect of these oxygenated compounds on PPA performance, particularly the effect of inlet carbon dioxide and water variations on the PPA product stream. This paper discusses the test set-up, analysis, and results of this testing.

  1. Pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and release rule of gas products%玉米芯的热解特性及气相产物的释放规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锡文; 许开立

    2015-01-01

    Shortage of fossil fuels and environmental pollution become increasingly severe with the rapid economic development. As the only renewable energy which can be directly converted to gas, liquid and solid fuels, biomass has aroused growing attention all over the world. Corn is one of the main crops in China. Corn cob is the main agricultural waste produced in process of maize production, and the corn cob biomass contains a lot of biodegradable organic matter. Thermo-chemical conversion is an efficient means of biomass energy conversion. It can convert the organic matter of corn cob into many forms of energy, such as gas, liquid, solid, and other biomass products at high temperature. Pyrolysis is the most basic process of thermal chemical conversion. The characteristics of pyrolysis are important tool which can express the influence of pyrolysis parameters on raw material conversion rate. In order to fully grasp the pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and the release law of gas-phase products with temperature change in the thermal decomposition process in different working conditions, and to deeply understand the pyrolysis behavior of corn cob and its reaction mechanism, simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) was used to investigate the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of corn cob under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis behavior of corn cob was comparatively studied at different heating rates (5, 10, 20℃/min), different particle sizes (74, 154, 280, 450μm) and different carrier gas flow rates (30, 60, 90 mL/min). It was found that the non-isothermal weight loss process of the samples was composed of dehydration, preheating pyrolysis, volatile matter separation and carbonization. The temperature interval of 210-405℃ was the main floating zone. There were two obvious peaks in corn cob’s weight loss rate curves. The release laws of small molecule gas products (CO, CO2, CH4, O2, H2and H2O) were studied by mass spectrometry analysis. The pyrolysis

  2. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics of waste printed circuit boards epoxy resin and analysis of liquid products%废弃电路板环氧树脂真空热解及产物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘克强; 吴倩; 湛志华

    2009-01-01

    在真空条件下,应用程序升温的管式炉反应器对废弃电路板中环氧树脂热解规律进行研究,考察不同的热解终温、升温速率、真空度(压力)及保温时间等各种因素对产物产率的影响.此外,利用傅里叶红外(FT-IR)和气质联用(GC/MS)技术对热解油产物进行表征分析.实验结果表明:温度对产物产率的影响最大,升温速率、真空度及保温时间对热解产物产率也有重要影响.选择适当的热解温度(400~550 ℃)、升温速率(15~20 ℃/min)、真空度(压力15 kPa)及保温时间(30 min)有利于提高热解液体产品的产率;热解油的主要成分是酚类物质,其总含量为84.08%,其中,含溴化合物含量为15.34%.%The effect of pyrolysis conditions on the products yield of epoxy resin in waste printed circuit boards was investigated using the vacuum pyrolysis oven heated by temperature controller. The effects of temperature, heating rate, pressure and reaction time on the yield of vacuum pyrolysis production were analyzed. In addition, the compositions of liquid products were analyzed by FT-IR and GC/MS. The experimental results show that temperature is the key factor in the vacuum pyrolysis process. At the same time, heating rate, pressure and rest time cannot be neglected. The optimisation conditions for the liquid yield from the vacuum pyrolysis process are as follows: temperature 400-550 ℃, heating rate 15-20 ℃/min, pressure 15 kPa, and reaction time 30 min. The main composition in the product yield is Phenolic organic compounds with the total of 84.08%, while considerable amount of brominated products is up to 15.34%, which lowers the value of liquid products.

  3. 污水污泥微波辅助快速热裂解制生物油和合成气%Rapid pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the production of bio-oil and syngas under microwave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于颖; 于俊清; 严志宇

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge is considered as an effective technology to achieve the total resourceful use of sludge with the little emission of pollutants. In order to get better understanding of how the pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) and pyrolysis gas (syngas) generate from the rapid pyrolysis of sewage sludge, the effects of microwave power, coconut shell activated carbon addition and reaction atmosphere on the distributions and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated using a laboratory-scale microwave apparatus. The results showed that the prerequisites for the rapid pyrolysis of sewage sludge are the enough large microwave power and the usage of activated carbon above 7.5%. The production efficiency of bio-oil and syngas increased with the increase of sewage sludge temperature. In the rapid pyrolysis process of sewage sludge, the production efficiency of bio-oil and syngas was above 8. 5% and 8. 0% , respectively; And the sum of H2 and CO gases accounted for above 50% of the total syngas volume. Bio-oil and syngas were mainly produced in the temperature range of 150-250 ℃ and 150-400 ℃ , respectively. Compared with air atmosphere (less O2 content), N2 atmosphere was more beneficial for the production of bio-oil from sewage sludge pyrolysis. Meanwhile, N2 atmosphere substantially inhibited the formation of CO2, and thus favored the quality of bio-oil.%利用实验室微波加热装置,研究了微波功率、椰壳活性炭(微波受体)添加量和反应气氛条件对污泥(含水率:76.8%)热解产物产量和特性的影响.结果表明,足够的微波辐照强度和7.5%以上的活性炭添加量可实现污泥的快速热裂解.污泥升温速率越快,生物油和合成气的产率越高.快速热裂解过程中生物油的产率超过8.5%,合成气的产率超过8.0%,并且合成气中H2和CO的体积之和超过总气体体积的50%.生物油主要生成于污泥150-250℃升温阶段,合成气主要生成于污泥150

  4. Stochastic state-space temperature regulation of biochar production Part II: Application to manure processing via pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The concept of a designer biochar that targets the improvement of a specific soil property imposes the need for production processes to generate biochars with both high consistency and quality. These important production parameters can be affected by variations in process temperature tha...

  5. 废弃人造板热解特性及其产物性质的研究%Pyrolysis characteristics of disused composite panels and properties of its products.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母军; 于志明; 张德荣; 金小娟

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate pyrolysis characteristics of disused composite panels and promote directional application value of its pyrolysis products, the disused particle boards ( PB ) and middle-density fiber boards (MDF) were treated at 300,400,500 and 600℃ of pyrolysis temperature in a telecontrol furnace with two increasing rates of 100 and 150℃/h. Effects of different terminal temperatures and rates of temperature increment on pyrolysis process and product yield were analyzed. The pyrolysis characteristics of disused composite panels and properties of its products were studied based on physicochemical properties of solid and liquid products. The results showed that smoke temperature peaked during the pyrolysis process corresponding to the inner furnace temperature at 150 and 250℃. The pyrolysis degree of MDF was stronger than that of PB at the same condition. The collection rate of solid and liquid products decreased and gas collection rate increased when increasing the terminal temperature. The condensed liquid from MDF and the solid charcoal both from MDF and PB showed alkalescent while the condensed liquid from PB was weak acidic. The organic elemental analysis of solid products revealed that the relative contents of N and H elements reduced and C element content increased when increasing the terminal temperature. The relative content of N element in the carbonized products from MDF was higher than that from PB.%为了解废弃人造板的热解特性及其产物特性,提高废弃人造板热解产物的定向应用价值,采用废弃刨花板和纤维板作为研究对象,热解终温分别为300,400,500,600 ℃,以100,150 9℃/h两个升温速度在电控炭化炉中进行低温热解处理,观测了不同终温和升温速度对废弃人造板的热解炭化过程及热解炭化产物得率的影响.从固体炭化物产物及液体冷凝物的物化性质,分析了废弃人造板低温热解产物的特性.结果表明:随热解温度升高,废

  6. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  7. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  8. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Pyrolysis of Isopsoralen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-zhong Yang; Feng Zhang; Liang-yuan Jia; Li-dong Zhang; Fei Qi; Hai-yan Fan; Ji-bao Cai

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis of isopsoralen was studied by synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry at low pressure.The pyrolysis products were detected at different photon energies,the ratios of products to precursor were measured at various pyrolysis temperatures.The experimental results demonstrate that the main pyrolysis products are primary CO and sequential CO elimination products (C10H6O2 and C9H6O).The decomposition channels of isopsoralen were also studied by the density functional theory,then rate constants for competing pathways were calculated by the transition state theory.The dominant decomposition channels of isopsoralen and the molecular structures for corresponding products were identified bv combined experimental and theoretical studies.

  10. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  11. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  12. Experimental Study on GasProduct Release Characteristics of Lignin Pyrolysis%木质素热解气相产物释放特性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车德勇; 孙艳雪; 孙佰仲; 李少华

    2015-01-01

    利用热重红外分析仪(TG-FTIR)对木质素进行热重分析及主要气相产物分析,结合红外光谱对木质素不同热解阶段生成的半焦进行研究.实验结果表明:木质素热解分为3个阶段,200℃以下为自由水挥发过程;200~550℃为主要热解阶段,此过程中木质素苯环周围的官能团发生断裂,析出部分气体产物及焦油产物;550~900℃过程中,苯环发生解链或芳香缩聚成碳.通过FTIR的研究发现,木质素热解过程中,析出的主要气体包括H2O、CO2、CO以及烃类产物CH4等,CO2析出存在2个温度区间低温段(250~450℃)和高温段(650~750℃),而 CO 在高温段大量生成,CH4的析出主要集中在在300~600℃温度区间.%Thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectromerer (TG-FTIR) was applied to analyze the thermogravimetric and main gas products of alkali lignin pyrolysis,combined with infrared spectroscopy study of the chars from lignin pyrolysis generated different stages. The results show that the pyrolysis of lignin is divided into three phases:the moisture is volatilized below 200℃.Primary pyrolysis stage occurs at 200~550℃,the functional groups of lignin around phenyl ring broke and generated part of the gas and tar products. At 550~900℃,benzene or aromatic condensed into carbon. It is found that the primary gas releases from the process of lignin pyrolysis,mainly including H2O,CO2,CO,CH4 and other hydrocarbons.CO2 product releases at lower temperature (250~450℃)and higher temperature section (650~750℃), and an amount of CO releases at much higher temperature. In contrast,a large amount of CH4 mainly releases in the temperature range of 300~600℃.

  13. Mass spectrometric studies of fast pyrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenstein, John; Hurt, Matt; Murria, Priya; Easton, McKay; Choudhari, Harshavardhan; Yang, Linan; Riedeman, James; Carlsen, Mark; Nash, John; Agrawal, Rakesh; Delgass, W.; Ribeiro, Fabio; Kenttämaa, Hilkka

    2015-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis probe/linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer combination was used to study the primary fast pyrolysis products (those that first leave the hot pyrolysis surface) of cellulose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose, as well as of cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan, at 600°C. Similar products with different branching ratios were found for the oligosaccharides and cellulose, as reported previously. However, identical products (with the exception of two) with similar branching ratios were measured for cellotriosan (and cellopentosan) and cellulose. This result demonstrates that cellotriosan is an excellent small-molecule surrogate for studies of the fast pyrolysis of cellulose and also that most fast pyrolysis products of cellulose do not originate from the reducing end. Based on several observations, the fast pyrolysis of cellulose is suggested to initiate predominantly via two competing processes: the formation of anhydro-oligosaccharides, such as cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan (major route), and the elimination of glycolaldehyde (or isomeric) units from the reducing end of oligosaccharides formed from cellulose during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  15. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  16. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  17. Study on pyrolysis of typical medical waste materials by using TG-FTIR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H M; Yan, J H; Jiang, X G; Lai, Y E; Cen, K F

    2008-05-01

    Pyrolysis of certain medical waste materials was studied using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Pyrolysis characteristics of three common materials were discussed. The pyrolysis of absorbent cotton turned out to be the most concentrative, followed by medical respirator and bamboo stick. From TG and DTG curves, pyrolysis of these three materials occurred in single, two and three stages respectively. Evolved volatile products from all these three materials included 2-butanone, benzaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water; whereas no sulphur dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide was detected. There are several differences in yield among them. However, the study in this paper is essential for medical waste pyrolysis model, the TG-FTIR approach is potential to provide valuable inputs for predictive modeling of medical waste pyrolysis. More studied are needed to get the kinetic parameters and pyrolysis models that can predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products for CFD applications.

  18. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL, enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL, wheat straw alkali lignin (AL and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL, were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the four lignins exhibited widely different thermolysis behaviors. The four lignins had similar functional groups according to the FTIR analysis. Syringyl, guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenylpropane structural units were broken down during pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis product distributions from the four lignins depended strongly on the lignin origin and isolation process. Phenols were the most abundant pyrolysis products from MWL, EHL and AL. However, SL produced a large number of furan compounds and sulfur compounds originating from kraft pulping. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and time on the product distributions from corn stover EHL were also studied. At 350 °C, EHL pyrolysis mainly produced acids and alcohols, while phenols became the main products at higher temperature. No obvious influence of pyrolysis time was observed on EHL pyrolysis product distributions.

  19. Pyrolysis of biomass briquettes, modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, B; Lammers, G; Beenackers, AACM; Kopetz, H; Weber, T; Palz, W; Chartier, P; Ferrero, GL

    1998-01-01

    Carbonisation of biomass briquettes was studied using a dedicated single briquette carbonisation reactor. The reactor enabled continuous measurement of the briquette mass and continuous measurement of the radial temperature profile in the briquette. Furthermore pyrolysis gas production and compositi

  20. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different

  1. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different co

  2. Pyrolysis Processing of Waste Peanuts Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes are the most frequent "by-product" of human society. The Czech Republic still has a considerable room for energy reduction and material intensiveness of production in connection with the application of scientific and technical expertise in the context of innovation cycles. Pyrolysis waste treatment is a promising alternative to the production of renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. It can also reduce the environmental burden and the amount of waste in the environment at the same time.

  3. Studies on characteristics of producer gas from sewage sludge pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Haiying; Zhang Guijie [Coll. of Metallurgy and Energy, Heibei Polytechnic Univ., Tangshan (China); Zhang Shuting; Chen Guanyi [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin Univ., Nankai District, TJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The pyrolysis experiments of sewage sludge at low and middle temperature range from 250 C to 700de;C were carried out in a {phi} 200mm laboratory fixed bed external-heat reactor. The influence of final pyrolysis temperature on product yield of gases was studied. It was found that the gases yield increased with increasing the final pyrolysis temperature. But the productive rate increased above 450 C. The results indicated the secondary pyrolysis of intermediate product occurred about 450 C. According to the analysis of NCG, the yield of CO{sub 2} was maximum at lower pyrolysis temperature but the yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} were higher at elevated pyrolysis temperature and the maximum caloric value of gaseous emissions were 16712 kJ/m{sup 3}. According the TG-DTA curves the decomposition of sewage sludge had three stages. The first stage was deprivation of interstitial moisture (100 C-110 C), the second stage was the depolymerization reactions of lipid and the generation of large molecular intermediate fragments (110 C-325 C), the last stage was cracking of the large molecular and the decomposition of protein and saccharide (325 C-600 C). All the results can offer reliable base data for the application of pyrolysis technique of sewage sludge. (orig.)

  4. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  5. Analysis of pyrolysis products of Trollius chinensis Bunge essential oil and its application in cigarette flavoring%金莲花挥发油的热裂解产物分析及卷烟加香应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏跃伟; 王建玲; 姬小明; 李冰洁; 于建军; 赵铭钦; 刘国顺

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Trollius chinensis Bunge was extracted with steam distillation extraction. The pyrolysis of the essential oil at 300, 600, 900 ℃ and the application of the oil in cigarette flavoring were studied respectively. The results showed that 17, 22 and 31 constituents were identified in the pyrolytic products at 300, 600, 900℃ , respectively; Consituents and their concetrations in pyrolytic products changed with pyrolytic temperatures. Styrene, p-ionone, and so on were detected at those three temperatures, ( ± ) -linalool was detected at 300 and 600℃ , and α-cedarene was only detected in the pyrolysis products of 900℃. Furthermore, with temperature increasing, pyrolysis products became more complex. The smoking quality of cigarette was improved by the oil, the irritation obviously reduced, and the smoke smoothed.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取金莲花挥发油,对其300,600,900℃的热裂解产物进行了GC - MS分析,并对其挥发油进行了卷烟加香试验.结果表明,300,600和900℃的热解产物中分别鉴定出17,22和31种成分;热解温度不同,其产物成分的种类和含量亦不同;苯乙烯、β-紫罗兰酮等在3个温度下都可检索到,芳樟醇在300,600℃可检测到,而α-雪松烯只出现在900℃的裂解产物中;随着温度的升高,裂解产物逐渐复杂.金莲花挥发油具有改善和修饰卷烟香气,减轻刺激性的作用.

  6. Clean and direct production of acetylene - Coal pyrolysis in a H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.G.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Coal

    2002-06-01

    In order to develop a clean and direct production of acetylene, an H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet is used to convert coal into acetylene. The efficiency of conversion depends on such factors as the size range of the coal particle, the volatile matter in the coal, and the operating conditions. Experimental results with different coals indicate that volatile content plays an important but not exclusive part in acetylene generation. Higher input power and smaller coal article size are in favor of the formation of acetylene.

  7. Pilot Study on Pyrolysis Analysis of Decabromodiphenyl Ether by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%十溴二苯醚的裂解气相色谱-质谱初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠勤; 黄晓兰; 黄芳; 林晓珊; 李逸; 邓欣

    2004-01-01

    The pyrolysis products of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE)were researched using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and the thermal pyrolysis mechanism was discussed. The results showed the main pyrolysis products of decabromodiphenyl ether are boromoform, bromobenzene, tetrabromoethene, tetrabromobutadiene and tetrabromobenzene.

  8. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Micro-pyrolysis of technical lignins in a new modular rig and product analysis by GC-MS/FID and GC x GC-TOFMS/FID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Michael; Meier, Dietrich; Marsman, Jan Henk; Heeres, Hero Jan; de Koning, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    A new offline-pyrolysis rig has been designed to allow multifunctional experiments for preparative and analytical purposes. The system conditions can be set and monitored, e.g. temperature, its gradients and heat flux. Some special features include ( I) high heating rates up to 120 degrees C/s with

  11. Aromatic hydrocarbon production via eucalyptus urophylla pyrolysis over several metal modified ZSM-5 catalysts – an analysis by py-GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal modified HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by ion exchange of NH4ZSM-5 (SIO2/Al2O3 = 23) using gallium, molybdenum, nickel and zinc, and their combinations thereof. The prepared catalysts were used to evaluate catalytic pyrolysis for the conversion of Eucalyptus urophylla to fuels and chemicals, ...

  12. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-08-27

    This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.

  13. Micro-pyrolysis of technical lignins in a new modular rig and product analysis by GC-MS/FID and GC x GC-TOFMS/FID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Michael; Meier, Dietrich; Marsman, Jan Henk; Heeres, Hero Jan; de Koning, Sjaak

    A new offline-pyrolysis rig has been designed to allow multifunctional experiments for preparative and analytical purposes. The system conditions can be set and monitored, e.g. temperature, its gradients and heat flux. Some special features include ( I) high heating rates up to 120 degrees C/s with

  14. Pyrolysis of oil-plant wastes in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor: Thermochemical behaviors, kinetics, and products characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Fan, Xiaotian; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Lin; Yao, Pikai; Yin, Hongchao; Song, Xigeng

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of four distinct oil-plant wastes were investigated using TGA and fixed-bed reactor coupled with GC. TGA experiments showed that the pyrolysis behaviors were related to biomass species and heating rates. As the heating rate increased, TG and DTG curves shifted to the higher temperatures, and the comprehensive devolatilization index obviously increased. The remaining chars from TGA experiments were higher than those obtained from the fixed-bed experiments. The crack of tars at high temperatures enhanced the formation of non-condensable gases. During the pyrolysis, C-O and CO2 were the major gases. Chars FTIR showed that the functional groups of O-H, C-H(n), C=O, C-O, and C-C gradually disappeared from 400 °C on. The kinetic parameters were calculated by Coats-Redfern approach. The results manifested that the most appropriate pyrolysis mechanisms were the order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was evident.

  15. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Characteristics of low-temperatureco-pyrolysis products of ulva and lignite%石莼与褐煤低温共热解产物的特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓晗; 何选明; 柴军; 容斐

    2016-01-01

    The low-temperature co-pyrolysis experiments of Australia lignite(AL) blending different proportions of ulva are undertaken. The results show that the amount of pyrolysis oil decreases after a prior increase with the increase of ulva blending ratio,indicating an inhibition effect after first promotion compared with calculated values. When the blending ratio is 30%,the yield of pyrolysis oil rises to 12.5%,an increase of 26.01% to that with pure lignite and reaches the most-positive deviation to the theoretical values. The alkane inco-pyrolysis oil increases by 34.46% in comparison to that with the pure lignite through GC-MS measurements,which improves the quality of pyrolysis oil. Co-pyrolysis chars exhibit depth cracks,improved reactivity and adsorption by the SEM analysis. Co-pyrolysis chars therefore have a wider range of industrial applications.%将褐煤添加不等量的石莼进行低温共热解实验,实验表明,随石莼添加量的增加,热解油出现先增加后减少的趋势,与质量加权值相比,出现先促进后抑制的相互作用,当石莼添加30%时热解油产率最高,为12.5%,比纯褐煤时提高了26.01%,与质量加权值的正偏差最大。选取纯褐煤和30%石莼添加量的热解油进行 GC-MS检测,共热解油烷烃类含量比纯褐煤增加了34.46%,实现了热解油较大程度的轻质化,两组样的半焦的SEM对比分析,共热解半焦出现了深度龟裂纹,半焦的反应性、吸附性提高,共热解半焦具有更广泛的工业用途。

  17. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  18. Coal pyrolysis. VII. Economic viability of pyrolysis. Pirolisis del carbon. VII. Viabilidad economica de la pirolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinar, R.; Adanez, J.; Miranda, J.L.; Ibarra, J.V. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1989-04-01

    Analyses the most important economic parameters of the main pyrolysis processes. Considers the markets available for semi-coke and tars. Concludes that no single technology or process has clear advantages over the others because all depends on the type of coal being used and the purpose for which the end product is to be used. Refers to studies carried out in Canada and the USA on the same subject and reports their findings. Concludes optimistically that coal pyrolysis shows promise of being economically viable in the future because although initially, costs reflect the high financial outlay necessary to begin operations, after a certain period, these costs fall and the end product can be sold at a lower price. A further point in favour of pyrolysis is that coal prices are likely to rise more slowly than oil prices. 5 refs., 8 tabs.

  19. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas.

  20. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  1. Relations between flash pyrolysis reactivity and oil/gas products from coals of different rank; Sekitankado no kotonaru shushu no sekitan no flash pyrolysis hannosei to gas oyobi eki seiseibutsu no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, T.; Kishino, M.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    Curie point flash pyrolysis (FP) reactivity was studied experimentally using three kinds of coals with different coal ranks such as Yallourn brown coal, Tanitoharum sub-bituminous coal and Wandoan sub-bituminous coal. Experiment was performed using a curie point pyrolyzer in carrier gas of 20ml/min in gas flow rate at 450, 590 and 740{degree}C for 5sec. The experimental results were as follows. Each gas component obviously increased at 450-590{degree}C, however, C4-C6 gases drastically decreased at 590-740{degree}C accompanying reduction of the whole gas quantity. All of each polar component remarkably increased at 450-590{degree}C. Yallourn brown coal with high Owt%, in particular, contained a large amount of alkyl-hydroxybenzene group. The amount of cresol of all of three coal specimens also increased at 740{degree}C. It was thus suggested that this is coal constituent molecules derived from cutting of methylene-ether bridged bond by higher-temperature FP. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The co-pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, William J.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mitan, Nona Merry M.; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima Naka, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan); Bhaskar, Thallada [Catalytic Conversion Process Division, Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    2007-10-15

    The co-pyrolysis of brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) with polyolefins using a fixed bed reactor has been investigated, in particular, the effect that different types of brominated aryl compounds and antimony trioxide have on the pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis products were analysed using FT-IR, GC-FID, GC-MS, and GC-ECD. Liquid chromatography was used to separate the oils/waxes so that a more detailed analysis of the aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions could be carried out. It was found that interaction occurs between Br-HIPS and polyolefins during co-pyrolysis and that the presence of antimony trioxide influences the pyrolysis mass balance. Analysis of the Br-HIPS + polyolefin co-pyrolysis products showed that the presence of polyolefins led to an increase in the concentration of alkyl and vinyl mono-substituted benzene rings in the pyrolysis oil/wax resulting from Br-HIPS pyrolysis. The presence of Br-HIPS also had an impact on the oil/wax products of polyolefin pyrolysis, particularly on the polyethylene oil/wax composition which converted from being a mixture of 1-alkenes and n-alkanes to mostly n-alkanes. Antimony trioxide had very little impact on the polyolefin wax/oil composition but it did suppress the formation of styrene and alpha-methyl styrene and increase the formation of ethylbenzene and cumene during the pyrolysis of the Br-HIPS. (author)

  3. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-01

    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. PROPERTIES OF GAS AND CHAR FROM MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF PINE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Hua Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pine sawdust pyrolysis was carried out respectively using microwave and conventional electrical heating at different temperatures in order to understand the properties of pyrolytic products from microwave pyrolysis of biomass. Less char material was obtained by microwave pyrolysis compared to conventional heating at the same temperature. While comparing the components of the pyrolytic gases, it was revealed that the microwave pyrolysis gas usually had higher H2 and CO contents and lower CH4 and CO2 contents than those obtained by conventional pyrolysis at the same temperature. The texture analysis results of the microwave pyrolysis chars showed that the chars would melt and the pores would shrink at high temperatures, and hence, the specific surface areas of the chars decreased with increasing temperature. Similarly, the reactivity of the char was remarkably reduced when the microwave pyrolysis temperature exceeded 600°C.

  5. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...

  6. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  7. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  8. Improvement of agricultural economics through integration of small scale heat and power production with non-food value-added products. Task 3: Pyrolysis oil testing for diesel engine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.; Westerholm, M.; Niinistoe, M.; Saekilahti, H.

    1997-06-01

    Diesel engine tests with pyrolysis oil are carried out as part of task 3 within the project. The objective of the task is to determine performance of a 60 kW pilot-injected diesel engine using pyrolysis oil. Both prwer output and emissions will be studied. Preliminary tests in a high-speed test diesel engine indicate that pyrolysis oil in principle could be a viable main fuel option for a pilot-engine. Combustion of pyrolysis oil appear to be rapid, even though fairly high CO and HC emissions have beenmeasured. However, with an oxidizing catalyst, the emissions may be decreased to an acceptably low level. During the reporting period a test was carried out by VTT Energy with straw derived pyrolysis oil. The oil was produced by Ensyn Techologies Inc. within a study funded by Elkraft, NOVEM and ETSU. A 60 kW high-speed VALMET diesel engine was employed. Emissions and performance with straw derived oil were comparable to those measured with wood derived oil earlier. The relatively short test run with straw pyrolysis oil demonstrated that standard engine component deterioration is a serious problem with pyrolysis oil. Wear and leakage was found in the injector needles. This could be a result of a combination of the acid fuel and abrasive particles in the fuel. The problem requires further attention. However, it is believed that by proper modifications the problems may be overcome. (au)

  9. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  10. 提质褐煤的快速热裂解气体产物的析出特性%Release Characteristics of Gaseous Products During Rapid Pyrolysis of Upgraded Lignite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹祥波; 王智化; 胡昕; 周志军; 黄镇宇; 周俊虎; 岑可法

    2013-01-01

    First of all,three kinds of low rank coal were dewatered and upgraded by hydrothermal treatment under high temperature and high pressure conditions.The experimental results show that hydrothermal treatment can effectively decrease the inherent water in coal,volatile and oxygen content,increase the fixed carbon content and heating value,and eventually elevate lignite rank gradually.Then,rapid pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a CDS-5000 Pyroprobe at 5 000 ℃/s,1 000 ℃,which investigated the relationship between final reaction temperature and the production and volume fraction of H2,CO,CH4 and CO2 in the pyrolysis gas,as well as the heating value of pyrolysis gas.As the final reaction temperature climbs,it is found that the production of H2,CO,CO2 is reduced for each kind of coal,while the production of CH4 increases.Besides,CO and CO2 are the main components of the pyrolysis gas,while the contents of H2 and CH4 are much lower.The change of pyrolysis gas composition content with final reaction temperature shows good regularity.CO and CH4 contents rise,while H2 and CO2 contents show an opposite trend.And the upward trend of CO content is not obvious,however,CH4 content is dramatically increased.Also,the heating value of pyrolysis gas goes up constantly with the increase of the final reaction temperature.The heating value of BRXL is similar to that ofYM,and that of ZD is the lowest.%首先对3种低阶煤进行了高温高压水热改性,实验结果表明,水热处理可以有效降低煤的内在水分、挥发分和氧含量,增加固定碳含量,提高热值,使褐煤煤阶逐渐升高.然后利用快速裂解仪对3种改性煤进行了加热速率为5 000℃/s、终温为1 000℃条件下的快速热解实验,考察了热解气中4种主要组分H2、CO、CH4和CO2的产量、体积分数以及热解气的热值随改性终温的变化规律.研究发现,随着反应终温的升高,各煤种热解气的H2、CO以及CO2产量降低,而CH4产量

  11. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    Lignin, sewage sludge and macroalg ae (nonconventional biomasses) fast pyrolysis properties has been studied through experimental investigations on a la boratory Pyrolysis Centrifugal Reactor (PCR) and a model on lignin pyrolysis have been developed. Fu rthermore the nonconventional biomass...... ethanol plant a bio-oil can be produced with oil yields of 36% (daf) and an oil en ergy recovery of 45%. This is a relatively low bio-oil yield compared to other feedstock’s, however, it may increase the value of the lignin residual product, such that the lignin char is used for combustion on the ethanol...... plant, and the bio-oil is sold for use on heavy oil burners. The macroalgae is a promising feedstock w ith a high bio-oil yield of 54 wt% daf and an energy recovery of 76 % in the liquid oil. Detailed characteriza tion of the pyrolysis products in the form of bio-oil, gas and char has been performed...

  12. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery.

  13. Pyrolysis polygeneration of poplar wood: Effect of heating rate and pyrolysis temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Cen, Kehui; Luo, Min; Li, Hongyan; Lu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    The pyrolysis of poplar wood were comprehensively investigated at different pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, and 600°C) and at different heating rates (10, 30, and 50°C/min). The results showed that BET surface area of biochar, the HHV of non-condensable gas and bio-oil reached the maximum values of 411.06m(2)/g, 14.56MJ/m(3), and 14.39MJ/kg, under the condition of 600°C and 30°C/min, 600°C and 50°C/min, and 550°C and 50°C/min, respectively. It was conducive to obtain high mass and energy yield of bio-oil at 500°C and higher heating rate, while lower pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed towards obtaining both higher mass yield and energy yield of biochar. However, higher pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed to obtain both higher mass yield and energy yield of the non-condensable gas. In general, compared to the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature had more effect on the product properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pyrolysis of Polytrimethylene Terephthalate (PTT) Fiber by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN He-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) fiber has been investigated by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the temperature range from 400℃ to 750℃ in order to observe the possible effect of the temperature on its composition of pyrolysates. At 400℃, pyrolysis of molecular chain could occur, only 13 pyrolysates could be identified. The trimethylene moieties bound to the macromolecular core by ester bonds are cleaved at around 400℃. At 550℃ -750℃, pyrolysis of molecular chain could completely take place, 46 pyrolysates could be found. As the temperature increases, the compositions of pyrolysate are distinctly increased. Several compounds, especially benzoic acid, monopropenyl-p-phthalate, 2 - propenyl benzoate, di - 2 - propenyl ester, 1,4 -benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzene, 1, 5 - hexadiene, biphenyl and 1, 3 - propanediol dibenzoate could be formed. The thermal degradation mechanism, which is determined by structure and amount of the thermal decomposition products, are described. During pyrolysis of polytrimethylene terephthalate, polymeric chain scissions take place a peeling reaction as a successive removal of the dimer units from the polymeric chain. The chain scissions are followed by the elimination reaction, linkage action and secondary reactions, which bring about a variety fragment.

  15. Effects of cellulose, xylan and lignin content on biomass pyrolysis characteristics and product distribution%纤维素木聚糖和木质素含量对生物质热解特性及产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小华; 焦丽华; 樊永胜; 陈磊; 蔡忆昔

    2015-01-01

    comparing the experimental and calculated values, the three components’ interaction rules when they were mixed and pyrolyzed were analyzed. The Coats integration method was adopted to calculate and analyze the three components’ pyrolysis dynamic parameters. At the same time, on the basis of the biomass vacuum pyrolysis liquefaction system, the vacuum pyrolysis experiments of each component and the mixed samples were carried out. Taking biomass as a benchmark, oil and solid production rate and production rate of gas were calculated at the end of the pyrolysis. The production rate of mixed samples’ pyrolysis products could be acquired by the superposition of the production rate of single component pyrolysis products according to the mixed proportion. The (GC-MS) Agilent 7890A were adopted to analyze the composition of bio-oil which was obtained through vacuum pyrolysis and liquefaction of 7 samples. By comparing the experimental and calculated value, the influence of those 3 components content on the distribution of pyrolysis product and bio-oil composition was also evaluated. The results indicated that cellulose had good thermal stability, the pyrolysis range was narrow, and its pyrolysis was relatively intense which generated less solid residues, and bio-oil production rate was higher which generated more aromatics, sugars, aldehydes and alcohols. Xylan with a poor thermal stability could generate more aromatics, ketone and acid in bio-oil, and the initial pyrolysis temperature was lower which could generate more gases. Lignin with a poor thermal stability could generate aromatic compounds, the pyrolysis range was narrow and the pyrolysis was relatively mild which generated more solid residues. By analyzing the three components’ pyrolysis dynamic parameters, it could be concluded that cellulose had considerable effect on the activation energy and pre-exponential factors while xylan and lignin had greater effects on reaction order. By comparing the experimental and

  16. Direct Production of a Novel Iron-Based Nanocomposite from the Laser Pyrolysis of Fe(CO)5/MMA Mixtures: Structural and Sensing Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrescu, R; Morjan, I.; Tomescu, A.; Simion, C. E.; M. Scarisoreanu; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Gavrila, L; I. Soare; F. Dumitrache; G. Prodan

    2010-01-01

    Iron/iron oxide-based nanocomposites were prepared by IR laser sensitized pyrolysis of Fe(CO)5 and methyl methacrylate (MMA) mixtures. The morphology of nanopowder analyzed by TEM indicated that mainly core-shell structures were obtained. X-ray diffraction techniques evidence the cores as formed mainly by iron/iron oxide crystalline phases. A partially degraded (carbonized) polymeric matrix is suggested for the coverage of the metallic particles. The nanocomposite structure at the variation o...

  17. Theoretical study of the pyrolysis of vanillin as a model of secondary lignin pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition reactions in processes of vanillin pyrolysis were theoretically investigated by employing density functional theory (DFT) method at M06-2X/6-31 G+(d,p) level. The result shows that the homolytic cleavage of O-CH3 bond could be the dominant initial step in the pyrolysis of vanillin. The hydrogen abstractions from functional groups of vanillin by the formed radicals play important roles in the formation of main products. Both formyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl group contribute to the formation of CO. Benzene is formed from the hydrogen addition reaction between hydrogen radical and phenol at high temperature.

  18. Co-production of activated carbon, fuel-gas, and oil from the pyrolysis of corncob mixtures with wet and dried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Linlin; Jiang, Wenbo; Feng, Li; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the amount and composition of pyrolysis gas and oil derived from wet material or dried material during the preparation of sludge-corncob activated carbon, and evaluated the physicochemical and surface properties of the obtained two types of sludge-corncob-activated carbons. For wet material, owing to the presence of water, the yields of sludge-corncob activated carbon and the oil fraction slightly decreased while the yield of gases increased. The main pyrolysis gas compounds were H2 and CO2, and more H2 was released from wet material than dried material, whereas the opposite holds for CO2 Heterocyclics, nitriles, organic acids, and steroids were the major components of pyrolysis oil. Furthermore, the presence of water in wet material reduced the yield of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 6.76% to 5.43%. The yield of furfural, one of heterocyclics, increased sharply from 3.51% to 21.4%, which could be explained by the enhanced hydrolysis of corncob. In addition, the surface or chemical properties of the two sludge-corncob activated carbons were almost not affected by the moisture content of the raw material, although their mesopore volume and diameter were different. In addition, the adsorption capacities of the two sludge-corncob activated carbons towards Pb and nitrobenzene were nearly identical.

  19. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Spout-fluidized Bed Reactor--Analysis of Composition and Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Product from Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明强; 王君; 王新运; 张学才; 张素平; 任铮伟; 颜涌捷

    2006-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the fast pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and the relationship between bio-oil composition and pyrolysis reaction conditions, to assess the possibility for the raw bio-oil to be used as fuel, and to evaluate the concept of spout-fluidized bed reactor as the reactor for fast pyrolysis of biomass to prepare fuel oil, the composition and combustion characteristics of bio-oil prepared in a spout-fluidized bed reactor with a designed maximum capacity 5 kg/h of sawdust as feeding material, were investigated by GC-MS and thermogravimetry. 14 aromatic series chemicals were identified. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the bio-oil was liable to combustion, the combustion temperature increased with the heating rate, and only minute ash was generated when it burned. The kinetics of the combustion reaction was studied and the kinetic parameters were calculated by both Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Popsecu methods. The results agree well with each other. The most probable combustion mechanism functions determined by Popescu method are f(α)=k(1-α)2(400~406 ℃), f(α)=1/2k(1-α)3 (406~416 ℃) and f( α)=2k(1-α)3/2 (416~430 ℃) respectively.

  20. Pyrolysis of Rubber in a Screw Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnik, A. V.; Savchin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of an analysis of thermal methods described in the literature and from the results of experimental investigations of steam conversion, the authors have developed and created a facility for thermal processing of rubber waste. Rubber crumb was used as the raw material; the temperature in the reactor was 500°C; nitrogen, steam, and a mixture of light hydrocarbons (noncondensable part of pyrolysis products) represented the working medium. The pyrolysis yielded 36-38% of a solid fraction, 54-56% of a liquid hydrocarbon fraction, and 6-9% of noncondensable gases. Changes in the composition of the gas mixture have been determined at different stages of processing. Gas chromatography of pyrolysis gases has shown that the basic gases produced by pyrolysis are H2 and hydrocarbons C2H4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H8, C2H6, C3H6O2, and C4H10, and a small amount of H2S, CO, and CO2. Noncondensable gases will be used as a fuel to heat the reactor and to implement the process.

  1. Effect of additives on product of vacuum pyrolysis of waste epoxy printed circuit boards%添加物对废弃环氧电路板真空热解产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛志华; 丘克强

    2011-01-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) without metals and electronic components were pyrolysed in a pipe furnace to separate and recover the organic. The elemental composition of PCBs was analyzed by elemental analyzer and SEM-EDS. PCBs were pyrolysed under control with temperature controller with a series of additives respectively, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed using FT-IR, GC-MS. The results show Fe2O3 and metal additives lead the pyrolysis oil yield reduce to 30.0%. Twenty products in pyrolysis oil can be identified and the main components in the pyrolysis oil are phenol and 4-isopropylphenol. Iron and metal oxides can reduce the bromine content of pyrolyisis oil effectively.%采用程序升温控制的电阻炉,在自制的裂解反应器中对废弃电路板环氧树脂进行在真空条件下的热解实验,并考察金属、金属氧化物和分子筛共12种添加物对废弃电路板环氧树脂真空热解产物产率的影响.利用元素分析仪和SEM-EDS对环氧树脂电路板组成进行分析,对不同添加物与废弃电路板环氧树脂共热裂解得到的裂解油进行FT-IR和GC-MS检测,对其主要组分进行结构鉴定和分析.研究结果表明:Fe2O3和金属添加物(Cu和Fe)使热解油产率降到最低(30.0%);从热解油中鉴定出20种物质,其中主要成分为苯酚和异丙基苯酚;金属铁及其氧化物能有效降低裂解油中的溴化物含量.

  2. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 °C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process.

  4. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  5. Analysis of critical technology for hydrogen production in plasma pyrolysis and gasification of organic waste%等离子体热解气化有机废弃物制氢的关键技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜长明; 吴焦; 黄娅妮

    2016-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis and gasification of organic solid waste to produce hydrogen is an advanced and efficient technology for waste treatment and resource utilization. Firstly, the mechanism of the plasma pyrolysis and gasification technology for solid waste treatment was described, the types and characteristics of the plasma generator was also summarized. Then, the influence factors of plasma treatment of solid waste were analyzed, the input power and the carrier gas type were the main factors influencing the plasma treatment. At last, the application status and prospect of using plasma technology to treat medical waste, agriculture and forestry biomass, sludge etc. were introduced and analyzed in details, points out that the plasma pyrolysis and gasification of solid waste technology is a potential method for hydrogen production.%等离子体热解气化有机固体废物制氢是一种先进高效的废物处理及资源化利用技术。首先,本文讨论了等离子体热解气化有机废弃物的机理,也概括了等离子体发生器的类型及其特点,其次分析了等离子体处理固体废弃物的影响因素,认为输入功率和载气类型等是影响等离子体处理的主要因素,最后总结了等离子体处理医疗垃圾、农林生物质、污泥等的应用现状与前景,指出等离子体热解气化固体废弃物是一种很有潜力的制氢方法。

  6. Mechanism of Xylan Pyrolysis by Py-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-rong; LIANG Tao; RU Bin; GUO Xiu-juan

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the decomposition behavior of hemicellulose,xylan was chosen as the representative of hemicellulose to study the fast pyrolysis on the combination system of analytical pyrolyzer and gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer(Py-GC/MS).The main condensable products of xylan pyrolysis consisted of acids,aldehydes,and ketones; while gas products contained CO2,CO,CH4 and H2.Acetic acid and furfural were the most abundant products with the highest contents of 20.11% and 20.24% respectively.While furfural and acetic acid were formed competitively with residence time and temperature increases,the distribution of xylan pyrolysis products did not vary with the residence time and temperature,while the total content of several kinds of products changed a lot.According to the analysis of experimental data,a reaction pathway of xylan decomposition was deduced so as to illustrate the formation mechanism of main products.

  7. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  8. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  9. Studies on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Daqing Atmospheric Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥海; 徐春明; 张倩; 高金森

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of Daqing atmospheric residue on catalyst CEP-1 was investigated in a confined fluidized bed reactor. The results show that reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil have significant effects on product distribution and yields of light olefins. The yields of light olefins show the maxima with the increase of reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil, respectively. The optimized operating conditions were determined in the laboratory, and under that condition the yields of ethylene, propylene and total light olefins by mass were 15.9%, 20.7% and 44.3% respectively. The analysis of pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis liquid indicates that CEP-1 has good capacity of converting heavy oils into light olefins, and there is a large amount of aromatics in pyrolysis liquid.

  10. Thermal and hydraulic effects of coke deposit in hydrocarbon pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Fuel pyrolysis can be of benefit for regenerative cooling techniques due to its endothermic effect in ensuring the thermal resistance of hypersonic vehicles and structures. Among pyrolysis species production, there is that of coke formation. A numerical code is used in this paper to investigate the related phenomena, based on two experiments using Titanium (Ti) and Stainless Steel (SS) reactors, which present different pyrolysis rates under similar operating conditions...

  11. 热解终温对酚醛树脂层压板真空热裂解产物的影响%Effect of final temperature on products of phenolic resin matrix laminate by vacuum pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文彪; 丘克强

    2011-01-01

    采用程序升温的热解反应器对酚醛树脂层压板的真空热解规律进行研究,着重考查不同热解终温对热解产物产率和热解油组成的影响,同时利用元素分析、工业分析、热重分析、GC-MS分析对层压板原料及产物油进行分析.研究结果表明:酚醛树脂层压板裂解可获得产率分别为50.25%54.58%,33.00%,~41.00%和8.75%~12.95%的液体、固体和气体,其产物油的成分主要为酚类、磷酸芳基酯类、脂肪酸酯类、腈类等物质;随着热解终温的升高,固体产率逐渐下降,液体产率在650℃有1个峰值,而气体产率则呈上升趋势,并且双酚F、双酚A、长链脂肪酸酯、磷酸三芳基酯等相对分子质量较大的物质含量逐渐降低,而苯酚、甲酚、二甲酚、对异丙基苯酚等相对分子质量较小的物质含量逐渐增大;样品有3个主要的质量损失台阶(在190~320,320~390和390~510℃),热质量损失率分别为9%,20%和31%.%Vacuum pyrolysis of phenolic resin matrix laminate in temperature - programmed furnace reactor was studied. The effect of final temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and the composition of pyrolysis oils was examined. The sample and product oils were analyzed by ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis(TGA) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the pyrolysis of phenolic resin matrix laminate can get 50.25%-54.58% liquid yield, 33.00%-41.00% solid yield and 8.75%-12.95% gas yield under the conditions of the experiment, and the products of the pyrolysis oils mainly consist of phenols, aryl phosphate esters, fatty acid esters, nitriles, and so on. The solid yield decreases gradually when the final temperature increases, and the liquid yield has a peak at 650 °C, while the gas yield shows a rising trend. However, the content of the compounds with large molecular mass, such as bisphenol F, bisphenol A

  12. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of organobromine compounds from the pyrolysis oils of flame retarded plastics using zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, William J.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Two flame retarded plastics have been pyrolysed in the presence of two zeolite catalysts to remove the organobromine compounds from the derived pyrolysis oil. The flame retarded plastics were, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) that was flame retarded with tetrabromobisphenol A and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) that was flame retarded with decabromodiphenyl ether. The two catalysts investigated were zeolite ZSM-5 and zeolite Y-Zeolite. Pyrolysis was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at a final pyrolysis temperature of 440 C. The pyrolysis gases were passed immediately to a fixed bed of the catalyst. It was found that the presence of zeolite catalysts increased the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons produced during pyrolysis but decreased the amount of pyrolysis oil produced. In addition, significant quantities of coke were formed on the surface of the catalysts during pyrolysis. The zeolite catalysts were found to reduce the formation of some valuable pyrolysis products such as styrene and cumene, but other products such as naphthalene were formed instead. The zeolite catalysts, especially Y-Zeolite, were found to be very effective at removing volatile organobromine compounds. However, they were less effective at removing antimony bromide from the volatile pyrolysis products, although some antimony bromide was found on the surfaces of the spent catalysts. (author)

  14. Pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment: effect of antinomy trioxide on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W J; Bhaskar, T; Merpati, N M M; Muto, A; Sakata, Y; Williams, P T

    2007-09-01

    This work has investigated the effect that antimony trioxide has on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers and the effect that different types of brominated flame retardants used in plastics have on the composition of the pyrolysis products. Brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) which contained either 5% or 0% antimony trioxide and either decabromodiphenyl oxide (DDO) or decabromodiphenyl ethane (DDE) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 430 degrees C. Some experiments on the fixed bed reactor involved mixing the Br-HIPS with polystyrene. The gaseous products were analysed by GC-FID and GC-TCD and it was found that antimony trioxide caused an increase in the proportion of ethane and ethene and suppressed the proportion of butane and butene. When DDE was the flame retardant increased proportions of ethane and ethene were found in the pyrolysis gas compared to when DDO used. When polystyrene was mixed with the Br-HIPS it suppressed the trends observed in the gas composition during the pyrolysis of Br-HIPS. The pyrolysis oils were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS, GC-FID, and GC-ECD. It was found that the plastic which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form mainly toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cumene, and alpha-methylstyrene. The oils produced from the pyrolysis of the plastic that contained antimony trioxide did not contain any styrene or alpha-methylstyrene, but instead contained greater concentrations of ethylbenzene and cumene. The absence of styrene and alpha-methylstyrene from the pyrolysis oil occurred even when the Br-HIPS was mixed with polystyrene. GC-ECD analysis of the oils showed that the plastics which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form (1-bromoethyl)benzene, which was totally absent from the pyrolysis oils when antimony trioxide was present in the plastic.

  15. 黑液与石油焦共热解及其产物特性研究%C o-pyrolysis behaviors and products characteristics of bl ack liquor and petroleum coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵金; 郭大亮; 袁洪友; 周肇秋; 阴秀丽; 吴创之

    2014-01-01

    The weight loss characteristics, evolution patterns of volatiles and morphology of solid product from co-pyrolysis of black liquor and petroleum coke were studied by a thermo gravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier Tar nsform Infrared Spectrometry ( TGA-FTIR) ands canning electronic microscopy ( SE M) .The CO2 co-gasification characteristics of black liquor char and petroleum coke were also investigated by thermo gravimetric analyzer ( TGA ) .The results suggested that the pyrolysis reactions had proceeded independently during co-pyrolysis prco ess ta temperta uresb elow 600 ℃.However, as ht e temperature exceeded 600 ℃, the relae se peak temperature of CO2 and CO were shifted to low temperature zone, and the thermo gravimetric characteristics were changed in contrast with the separate pyor lysis. Moreover, the surfacem orphology of the solid products from oc -pyrolysis had been changed dramatically at 800 ℃.Specifically, the sintering during pyrolysis of black liquor was inhibited by the presence of petroleum coke. Compared to the ni dividual gasification, teh carob n conversion and gasif cation rate ah d been greatly improved for CO2 co-gasification due to the synergistic effect oft heb lends at 850 ℃.The overall carbon conversion were increased by 51.27%, meanwhile, the maximum gasification rate were improved by twice during CO2 co-gasification process.%运用热重-红外联用(TGA-FTIR)和扫描电镜(SEM)对黑液与石油焦的共热解过程进行了实验研究,考察了两者在共热解过程中的热失重、挥发性组分释放及固体产物表面形貌特性;同时运用热重( TGA)探究了热解固体产物黑液半焦和石油焦的CO2共气化反应特性。结果表明,在黑液与石油焦共热解过程中,温度低于600℃时,两者的热解相互独立;温度达到600℃之后,相对于黑液和石油焦单独热解的加权平均值,挥发性气体产物CO2和CO的释放峰值温度向低温区移动

  16. Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Yolanda; Arenillas, Ana; Menendez, J. Angel

    2011-01-01

    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materials

  17. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  18. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  19. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  20. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  1. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  2. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  3. Sulfur Transformation during Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Chen, Lin; Yin, Linlin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-03

    The sulfur distributions and evolution of sulfur-containing compounds in the char, tar and gas fractions were investigated during the microwave and conventional pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Increased accumulation of sulfur in the char and less production of H2S were obtained from microwave pyrolysis at higher temperatures (500-800 °C). Three similar conversion pathways were identified for the formation of H2S during microwave and conventional pyrolysis. The cracking of unstable mercaptan structure in the sludge contributed to the release of H2S below 300 °C. The decomposition of aliphatic-S compounds in the tars led to the formation of H2S (300-500 °C). The thermal decomposition of aromatic-S compounds in the tars generated H2S from 500 to 800 °C. However, the secondary decomposition of thiophene-S compounds took place only in conventional pyrolysis above 700 °C. Comparing the H2S contributions from microwave and conventional pyrolysis, the significant increase of H2S yields in conventional pyrolysis was mainly attributed to the decomposition of aromatic-S (increasing by 10.4%) and thiophene-S compounds (11.3%). Further investigation on the inhibition mechanism of H2S formation during microwave pyrolysis confirmed that, with the special heating characteristics and relative shorter residence time, microwave pyrolysis promoted the retention of H2S on CaO and inhibited the secondary cracking of thiophene-S compounds at higher temperatures.

  4. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization.

  5. Kinetics Analysis of Coconut Shell Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xue-mei; JIANG; Jian-chun; SUN; Kang; XU; Fan; XU; Yu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study kinetics analysis of coconut shell pyrolysis. [Method] Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to study the pyrolysis characteristic of coconut shell at different pyrolysis rates (5, 10, 20 K/min). [Result] The pyrolysis process included 3 stages, water loss, pyrolysis, and thermal condensation. The pyrolysis process can be described through first-order reaction model. With the increasing pyrolysis rate, activation energy in the first stage rose, but activation energy in the second stage reduced. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for the promotion and application of biomass energy.

  6. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  7. Research Progress in Municipal Solid Waste Pyrolysis Technology for Fuel Oil Production%城市生活垃圾处理现状及热解制备燃料油技术的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向达

    2012-01-01

    在简要阐述了国内外城市生活垃圾处理现状的基础上,分析了城市生活垃圾热解制备燃料油技术的技术背景、技术原理、工艺流程,并分析了该技术的优势和经济效益。%The statas of the processing of the municipal solid waste at home and abroad were introduced. The background and the technological process of municipal solid waste pyrolysis technology for fuel oil production were introduced, too. Finally the advan- tages and the economic benefits of the technology were analysed.

  8. Coal flash pyrolysis. 5. Pyrolysis in an atmosphere of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, W.H.; Bonifaz, C.

    1984-12-01

    Flash pyrolysis of coal at temperatures above 700/sup 0/C and in the presence of methane produces substantially more ethylene and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons than are produced by pyrolysis of coal in the presence of nitrogen alone. Evidence is presented to show that the increase is due to pyrolysis of the methane quite independently of the coal, except with the possible catalysis by the coal, coke or mineral matter in the coal ash. This is contrary to recent reports in the literature.

  9. Molecular Structure and Reactivity in the Pyrolysis of Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Eric; Cole, Sarah; Sowards, John; Warner, Brian; Wright, Emily; McCunn, Laura R.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of alkyl chain structure on pyrolysis mechanisms has been investigated in a series of aldehydes. Isovaleraldehyde, CH_3CH(CH_3)CH_2CHO, and pivaldehyde, (CH_3)_3CCHO, were subject to thermal decomposition in a resistively heated SiC tubular reactor at 800-1200 °C. Matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify pyrolysis products. Carbon monoxide and isobutene were major products from each of the aldehydes, which is consistent with what is known from previous studies of unbranched alkyl-chain aldehydes. Other products observed include vinyl alcohol, propene, acetylene, and ethylene, revealing complexities to be considered in the pyrolysis of large, branched-chain aldehydes.

  10. Catalytic pyrolysis of wheat bran for hydrocarbons production in the presence of zeolites and noble-metals by using TGA-FTIR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazdovica, K; Liepina, L; Kampars, V

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of wheat bran with or without catalysts was investigated using TGA-FTIR method in order to determine the influence of zeolite and noble metal catalysts on the evolution profile and relative yield of the volatile compounds. The addition of all catalysts decreased the volatile matter of wheat bran from 76.3% to 75.9%, 73.9%, 73.5%, 69.7% and increased the solid residue from 18.0% to 18.4%, 20.4%, 20.8%, 24.6% under the catalyst of ZSM-5, 5% Pd/C, MCM-41, and 5% Pt/C. Noble-metal catalysts had higher activity for deoxygenation of compounds containing carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups than zeolites. Degradation of nitrogen containing compounds atom proceeded better in presence of zeolites. Noble-metal catalysts promoted formation of aromatics and changed the profiles of evolved compounds whereas zeolites advanced formation of aliphatics and olefins.

  11. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil using the steam-iron process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Veringa, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The novelty of using pyrolysis oil in the steam-iron process to produce pure hydrogen is introduced. In this process, products of pyrolysis oil gasification are used to reduce iron oxides which are subsequently oxidized with steam, resulting in pure hydrogen. Two process alternatives are considered:

  12. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  13. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  14. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of tar compounds formed during pyrolysis of rice husks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Stevens, T.W.; Hovestad, A.; Skolnik, V.; Visser, R.

    1991-01-01

    Pyrolysis of agricultural waste to produce fuel gas involves formation of tars as noxious by-products. In this paper the qualitative analysis of tars formed during pyrolysis of rice husks is presented, based on identification by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and interpolation of retention tim

  15. Synergies in co-pyrolysis of Thai lignite and corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Taro [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Worasuwannarak, Nakorn; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The results from TGA experiments at the temperature range of 300-600 C evidently distinguished the different pyrolysis behaviours of lignite and corncob; however, no clear synergistic effects could be observed for the mixture. The investigation of co-pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor, however, found significant synergies in both pyrolysis product yields and gas product compositions. The solid yield of the 50:50 lignite/corncob blend was much lower (i.e. 9%) than expected from the calculated value based on individual materials under the range of temperatures studied, and coincided with the higher liquid and gas yield. The synergistic effect in product gas composition was highly pronouncing for CH{sub 4} formation, i.e. three times higher than the calculated value at 400 C. Possible mechanisms were described including the interaction between corncob volatiles and lignite particles, and the effect of the heat profiles of lignite and corncob pyrolysis on the temperature dependent reactions. The enhanced devolatilisation of the blend was explained by the transfer of hydrogen from biomass to coal as well as the promotion of low-temperature thermal decomposition of lignite by exothermic heat released from corncob pyrolysis. Moreover, water, which was one of the major components in corncob volatiles produced mainly at around 200-375 C, can also be expected to act as a reactive agent to promote the secondary tar cracking producing more CH{sub 4}. (author)

  16. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  17. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  18. Environmental control technology for biomass flash pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Seward, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies will raise questions concerning the environmental impacts of these systems and the associated costs for appropriate control technologies. This study concentrates on characterizing the effluent emissions and control technologies for a dual fluid-bed pyrolysis unit run by Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. The ASU system produces a raw product gas that is passed through a catalytic liquefaction system to produce a fuel comparable to No. 2 fuel oil. Argonne National Laboratory is conducting a program that will survey several biomass systems to standardize the sampling techniques, prioritize standard analyses and develop a data base so that environmental issues later may be addressed before they limit or impede the commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies. Emissions will be related to both the current and anticipated emissions standards to generate material balances and set design parameters for effluent treatment systems. This will permit an estimate to be made of the capital and operating costs associated with these technologies.

  19. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene.

  20. Perspective on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Essential Roles of Fe-based Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yongchun; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-27

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is the most promising approach for biofuel production, due to its simple process and versatility to handle lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with varying and complex compositions. Compared with in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has the flexibility of optimizing the pyrolysis step and catalytic process individually to improve the quality of pyrolysis oil (stability, oxygen content, acid number, etc.) and to maximize the carbon efficiency in the conversion of biomass to pyrolysis oil. Hydrodeoxygenation is one of the key catalytic functions in ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recently, Fe-based catalysts have been reported to exhibit superior catalytic properties in hydrodeoxygenation of model compounds in pyrolysis oil, which potentially makes the ex situ pyrolysis of biomass commercially viable due to the abundance and low cost of Fe. Here, we briefly summarize the recent progress on Fe-based catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of biomass, and provide perspectives on how to further improve Fe-based catalysts (activity and stability) for their potential applications in the emerging area of biomass conversion.

  1. Catalytic hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis oils: Impact of biomass feedstock on process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Daniel; Westover, Tyler; Howe, Daniel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Emerson, Rachel; Hernandez, Sergio; Santosa, Daniel; Lukins, Craig; Kutnyakov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    We report here on an experimental study to produce refinery-ready fuel blendstocks via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (upgrading) of pyrolysis oil using several biomass feedstocks and various blends. Blends were tested along with the pure materials to determine the effect of blending on product yields and qualities. Within experimental error, oil yields from fast pyrolysis and upgrading are shown to be linear functions of the blend components. Switchgrass exhibited lower fast pyrolysis and upgrading yields than the woody samples, which included clean pine, oriented strand board (OSB), and a mix of pinon and juniper (PJ). The notable exception was PJ, for which the poor upgrading yield of 18% was likely associated with the very high viscosity of the PJ fast pyrolysis oil (947 cp). The highest fast pyrolysis yield (54% dry basis) was obtained from clean pine, while the highest upgrading yield (50%) was obtained from a blend of 80% clean pine and 20% OSB (CP8OSB2). For switchgrass, reducing the fast pyrolysis temperature to 450 degrees C resulted in a significant increase to the pyrolysis oil yield and reduced hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, but did not directly affect the hydrotreating oil yield. The water content of fast pyrolysis oils was also observed to increase linearly with the summed content of potassium and sodium, ranging from 21% for clean pine to 37% for switchgrass. Multiple linear regression models demonstrate that fast pyrolysis is strongly dependent upon the contents lignin and volatile matter as well as the sum of potassium and sodium.

  2. Methane Pyrolysis and Disposing Off Resulting Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rapp, D.; Rahotgi, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) is a leading process for producing methane and oxygen for application to Mars ISPP. One significant problem with this process is that it produces an excess of methane for combustion with the amount of oxygen that is produced. Therefore, one must discard roughly half of the methane to obtain the proper stoichiometric methane/oxygen mixture for ascent from Mars. This is wasteful of hydrogen, which must be brought from Earth and is difficult to transport to Mars and store on Mars. To reduced the problem of transporting hydrogen to Mars, the S/E process can be augmented by another process which reduces overall hydrogen requirement. Three conceptual approaches for doing this are (1) recover hydrogen from the excess methane produced by the S/E process, (2) convert the methane to a higher hydrocarbon or other organic with a lower H/C ratio than methane, and (3) use a separate process (such as zirconia or reverse water gas shift reaction) to produce additional oxygen, thus utilizing all the methane produced by the Sabatier process. We report our results here on recovering hydrogen from the excess methane using pyrolysis of methane. Pyrolysis has the advantage that it produces almost pure hydrogen, and any unreacted methane can pass through the S/E process reactor. It has the disadvantage that disposing of the carbon produced by pyrolysis presents difficulties. Hydrogen may be obtained from methane by pyrolysis in the temperature range 10000-12000C. The main reaction products are hydrogen and carbon, though very small amounts of higher hydrocarbons, including aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. The conversion efficiency is about 95% at 12000C. One needs to distinguish between thermodynamic equilibrium conversion and conversion limited by kinetics in a finite reactor.

  3. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Jhih eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51-54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  4. Comparison of the pyrolysis behavior of lignins from different tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Wang, Kaige; Liu, Qian; Gu, Yueling; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa; Fransson, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of biomass pyrolysis, little is known about the pyrolysis behavior of lignin--one of the main components of biomass--due to its structural complexity and the difficulty in its isolation. In the present study, we extracted lignins from Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) using the Bjorkman procedure, which has little effect on the structure of lignin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry was used to characterize the microstructure of the Bjorkman lignins, i.e., milled wood lignins (MWLs), from the different tree species. The pyrolysis characteristics of MWLs were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer, and the release of the main volatile and gaseous products of pyrolysis were detected by FTIR spectroscopy. During the pyrolysis process, MWLs underwent thermo-degradation over a wide temperature range. Manchurian ash MWL showed a much higher thermal degradation rate than Mongolian Scots pine MWL in the temperature range from 290-430 degrees C. High residue yields were achieved at 37 wt.% for Mongolian Scots pine MWL and 26 wt.% for Manchurian ash MWL. In order to further investigate the mechanisms of lignin pyrolysis, we also analyzed the FTIR profiles for the main pyrolysis products (CO(2), CO, methane, methanol, phenols and formaldehyde) and investigated the variation in pyrolysis products between the different MWLs.

  5. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  6. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    -oil was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash...... at reactor temperatures ranging from 475 to 575 oC. It was observed that the formation of char and gas is affected by the biomass alkali content. Increasing biomass alkali content caused an increased feedstock conversion at low temperature, a lower maximum liquid organic yield temperature and a lower maximum......This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  7. A Preliminary Study of the Plasma Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兰; 黄海涛; 赵增立; 吴创之

    2003-01-01

    Thermal plasma pyrolysis of waste tyres for recovering energy was performed in a nitrogen plasma reactor. The main gaseous products were identified by chromatography as H2, CO, CH4, C2H2 and so on. From a series of experiments, the effects of the process parameters of thermal plasma pyrolysis were investigated. Under our experimental conditions with steam injection, the total contents of H2 and CO reached up to 38.3% in the gas product, C2H2 up to 4%, and the maximum calorific value of the pyrolysis gas was 8.96 MJ/m3. The results indicate that plasma-assisted thermal decomposition of waste tyre particles may be a useful way for recovering energy and useful chemicals.

  8. Air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for nanoparticles synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shirley C.; Song, Yu L.; Chen, C. Y.; Tseng, T. K.; Tsai, Chen S.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents new findings regarding the effects of precursor drop size and concentration on product particle size and morphology in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of zirconium hydroxyl acetate solutions. Large precursor drops (diameter >30μm) generated by ultrasonic atomization at 120kHz yielded particles with holes. Precursor drops 6-9 μm in diameter, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer at 1.65MHz and 23.5W electric drive power, yielded uniform spherical particles 150nm in diameter under proper control of heating rate and precursor concentration. Moreover, air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at 120kHz and 2.3W yielded spherical particles of which nearly half were smaller than those produced by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of the 6-9 μm precursor drops, desprite the much larger precursor drop sizes (28 μm peak diameter versus 7 μm mean diameter). These particles are much smaller than those predicted by the conventional one particle per drop mechanism, suggesting that a vapor condensation mechanism may also be involved in spray pyrolysis. It may be concluded that through this new mechanism air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can become a viable process for mass production of nanoparticles.

  9. Recent progress on biomass co-pyrolysis conversion into high-quality bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H; Lim, J K; Hameed, B H

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass with abundantly available materials could be an economical method for production of bio-fuels. However, elimination of oxygenated compounds poses a considerable challenge. Catalytic co-pyrolysis is another potential technique for upgrading bio-oils for application as liquid fuels in standard engines. This technique promotes the production of high-quality bio-oil through acid catalyzed reduction of oxygenated compounds and mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This work aims to review and summarize research progress on co-pyrolysis and catalytic co-pyrolysis, as well as their benefits on enhancement of bio-oils derived from biomass. This review focuses on the potential of plastic wastes and coal materials as co-feed in co-pyrolysis to produce valuable liquid fuel. This paper also proposes future directions for using this technique to obtain high yields of bio-oils.

  10. Pyrolysis as a key process in biomass combustion and thermochemical conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvero Petar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a fuel with a highly volatile content and due to that, pyrolysis as a part of the combustion process, has a dominant role in the overall process development, as well as on final products and the process efficiency. It is of key importance to investigate the influence of the process parameters; as temperature, furnace/reactor environment, fuel properties, type, particle size, geometry, and the structure of the pyrolysis process has an influence regards the design of the combustion/pyrolysis equipment and the final products of the processes. This paper gives some results of the investigation’s related to this problem, mainly focussing on wooden biomass as the most important biomass type, as well as a comparison with relevant documented literature. Besides that, pyrolysis based technologies are one of the key directions in synthetic fuels production based on biomass. Biomass pyrolysis process parameters are crucial in reactor design as well as the quantity and quality of the final products. This paper provides discussion dedicated to this aspect with a focus on slow pyrolysis, targeting charcoal as the key product, and fast pyrolysis, targeting synthetic gas as the key product.

  11. The Study of Kinetic Properties and Analytical Pyrolysis of Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic properties of coconut shells during pyrolysis were studied to determine its reactivity in ground form. The kinetic parameters were determined by using thermogravimetric analyser. The activation energy was 122.780 kJ/mol. The pyrolysis products were analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the distribution of the pyrolytic products were assessed in a temperature range between 673 K and 1073 K. The set time for pyrolysis was 2 s. Several compounds were observed; they were grouped into alkanes, acids, ethers and alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones, furans and pyrans, aromatic compounds, and nitrogen containing compounds. The product compositions varied with temperature in that range. The highest gas proportion was observed at high temperature while the acid proportion was observed to be highest in coconut shells, thus lowering the quality of bio-oil. It has been concluded that higher pyrolysis temperature increases the amount of pyrolysis products to a maximum value. It has been recommended to use coconut shell for production of gas, instead of production of bio-oil due to its high proportion of acetic acid.

  12. Biofuel from jute stick by pyrolysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Parveen, M.; Islam, M. R.; Haniu, H.; Takai, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the conversion of jute stick into biofuels and chemicals by externally heated fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor have been taken into consideration. The solid jute stick was characterized through proximate and ultimate analysis, gross calorific values and thermo-gravimetric analysis to investigate their suitability as feedstock for this consideration. The solid biomass particles were fed into the reactor by gravity feed type reactor feeder. The products were oil, char and gases. The liquid and char products were collected separately while the gas was flared into the atmosphere. The process conditions were varied by fixed-bed temperature; feed stock particle size, N2 gas flow rate and running time. All parameters were found to influence the product yields significantly. The maximum liquid yields were 50 wt% of solid jute stick at reactor temperature 425°C for N2 gas flow rate 6 l/min, feed particle size 1180-1700 µm and running time 30 min. Liquid products obtained at these conditions were characterized by physical properties, chemical analysis and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtained liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from the selected biomass if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly.

  13. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

  14. Property analysis of pyrolysis product from cotton stalk heating by microwave%微波加热条件下棉杆热解的产物特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀; 王贤华; 龚维婷; 杨海平; 陈应泉; 陈汉平

    2013-01-01

      为了揭示微波加热方式对棉杆热解过程的影响,该文采用气相色谱和质谱分析仪(GC-MS)、等温吸附仪(BET)以及傅立叶红外分析仪(FT-IR)分析了棉杆热解产物的理化特性。研究表明随着热解温度的上升,气体产率和液体产率变化趋势相反,且均在500℃附近出现极值,而焦炭产量逐渐降低。微波加热条加下棉杆热解液体产物组分复杂,以乙酸、左旋葡聚糖、苯酚类物质为主,其中乙酸和左旋葡聚糖含量随温度升高而逐渐降低,酚类物质在450℃含量最高,而后总体含量变化缓慢;随着温度的上升,焦炭的孔隙度先增加后降低,所含官能团逐渐减少,焦炭比表面积最大可达到400 m2/g。该文可为微波热解生物质用于产物品质提升的研究提供参考。%The use of microwaves for heating is well established in society, and is being used in domestic and some industrial processes. However, it has the potential to be introduced and applied to many other industrial heating processes, which offers unique advantages not attained from conventional heating. In this sense, microwave technology was being explored as one method to assist in pyrolysis process of cotton stalk. A study was carried out on the effect of microwave on the liquid and solid products, then the physicochemical properties of pyrolysis products were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), isothermal adsorption analyzer (BET) and fourier transform infrared analyzer (FT-IR). The results showed that with the rising of the pyrolysis temperature, the yields of gas and liquid products had shown opposite trend, and the highest yield of bio-oil was around 500℃ (about 40%), however, the yield of char gradually decreased. Furthermore, within 550-650℃ the changing rate became weaker. The bio-oil had a complex composition, and major compounds in the liquid product were acetic acid, levoglucosan

  15. Study on Pyrolysis of Newly Developed Copolyester PETG by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%裂解气相色谱-质谱法研究新型共聚酯PETG的热分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻爱芳; 钱和生

    2004-01-01

    Poly (ethylene glycol-co-cyclohexane 1,4-dimethanol terephthalate) (PETG) is a newly developed copolyester. The thermal degradation of PETG was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (PY-GC/MS). The pyrolytic gas of PETG at temperatures 300 C, 400 C ,500 C,600 C and 700 C were identified, respectively. The results showed that the pyrolysis products are very different at diferent pyrolysis temperature. At 600 C, the pyrolysis products of PETG were characteristic of PETG composition, which can be used to determine the polymer chemical structure.

  16. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  17. Bio-oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell - a near fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, P.; Ganesh, A. [Indian Inst. of technology, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Cashew nut shell (CNS) has been studied for the product distribution in a packed bed vacuum pyrolysis unit. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on the product yields is also studied. The oil-to-liquid ratio in the pyrolysis products was found to remain almost constant in the range between 400{sup o}C and 550{sup o}C. The properties of CNS oil has been found to be amazingly near to that of petroleum fuels with calorific value as high as 40 MJkg{sup -1}, the oil has a low ash content (0.01%) and water content is limited to 3-3.5 wt% of oil. (Author)

  18. Co-pyrolysis mechanism of seaweed polysaccharides and cellulose based on macroscopic experiments and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Xia, Zhen; Hu, Yamin; He, Zhixia; Uzoejinwa, Benjamin Bernard; Wang, Qian; Cao, Bin; Xu, Shanna

    2017-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis conversion of seaweed (Enteromorpha clathrat and Sargassum fusiforme) polysaccharides and cellulose has been investigated. From the Py-GC/MS results, Enteromorpha clathrata (EN) polysaccharides pyrolysis mainly forms furans; while the products of Sargassum fusiforme (SA) polysaccharides pyrolysis are mainly acid esters. The formation mechanisms of H2O, CO2, and SO2 during the pyrolysis of seaweed polysaccharides were analyzed using the thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile the pyrolysis of seaweed polysaccharide based on the Amber and the ReaxFF force fields, has also been proposed and simulated respectively. The simulation results coincided with the experimental results. During the fast pyrolysis, strong synergistic effects among cellulose and seaweed polysaccharide molecules have been simulated. By comparing the experimental and simulation value, it has been found that co-pyrolysis could increase the number of molecular fragments, increase the pyrolysis conversion rate, and increase gas production rate at the middle temperature range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Finding the chemistry in biomass pyrolysis: Millisecond chemical kinetics and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Christoph

    Biomass pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical method for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable sources. Development of a fundamental understanding of biomass pyrolysis chemistry is difficult due to the multi-scale and multi-phase nature of the process; biomass length scales span 11 orders of magnitude and pyrolysis phenomena include solid, liquid, and gas phase chemistry in addition to heat and mass transfer. These complexities have a significant effect on chemical product distributions and lead to variability between reactor technologies. A major challenge in the study of biomass pyrolysis is the development of kinetic models capable of describing hundreds of millisecond-scale reactions of biomass into lower molecular weight products. In this work, a novel technique for studying biomass pyrolysis provides the first- ever experimental determination of kinetics and rates of formation of the primary products from cellulose pyrolysis, providing insight into the millisecond-scale chemical reaction mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of heat and mass transport limitations for cellulose pyrolysis chemistry and are used to identify the length scales at which transport limitations become relevant during pyrolysis. Through this technique, a transition is identified, known as the reactive melting point, between low and high temperature depolymerization. The transition between two mechanisms of cellulose decompositions unifies the mechanisms that govern low temperature char formation, intermediate pyrolysis conditions, and high temperature gas formation. The conditions under which biomass undergoes pyrolysis, including modes of heat transfer, have been shown to significantly affect the distribution of biorenewable chemical and fuel products. High-speed photography is used to observe the liftoff of initially crystalline cellulose particles when impinged on a heated surface, known as the Leidenfrost effect for room-temperature liquids. Order

  20. Production and characterization of submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırcı, Burak; Ebin, Burçak; Gürmen, Sebahattin [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method has been used to prepare submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles using two different industrial pickling solutions of iron chloride (41 g/L FeCl{sub 2} and 54 g/L FeCl{sub 3}) Particles were obtained by thermal decomposition of generated aerosols from precursor solutions using 1.7 MHz ultrasonic atomizer. Reaction temperature was set up at 800 °C and aerosol droplets were carried into the heated zone by 0.7 L/min air flow rate. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies were used to determine the crystal structure and crystallite size of the particles. Results indicate that patterns correspond to hematite phase with rhombohedral crystal structure (space group: R3c). The crystallite sizes of particles prepared from FeCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3} solutions that were calculated from Scherrer equation are 59 and 33 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) investigations give detailed information about particle size, morphology and composition. SEM micrographs show that hematite nanoparticles aggregate and formed spherical secondary particles in submicron range.