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Sample records for pyrolysis 30p master

  1. Pyrolysis reaction models of waste tires: Application of Master-Plots method for energy conversion via devolatilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak Aslan, Dilan; Parthasarathy, Prakash; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-10-01

    Land applied disposal of waste tires has far-reaching environmental, economic, and human health consequences. Pyrolysis represents a potential waste management solution, whereby the solid carbonaceous residue is heated in the absence of oxygen to produce liquid and gaseous fuels, and a solid char. The design of an efficient conversion unit requires information on the reaction kinetics of pyrolysis. This work is the first to probe the appropriate reaction model of waste tire pyrolysis. The average activation energy of pyrolysis was determined via iso-conversional methods over a mass fraction conversion range between 0.20 and 0.80 to be 162.8±23.2kJmol(-1). Using the Master Plots method, a reaction order of three was found to be the most suitable model to describe the pyrolytic decomposition. This suggests that the chemical reactions themselves (cracking, depolymerization, etc.), not diffusion or boundary layer interactions common with carbonaceous biomasses, are the rate-limiting steps in the pyrolytic decomposition of waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 2004 Rose Site 30P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 30P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  3. OPS Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OPS Master is a management tool and database for integrated financial planning and portfolio management in USAID Missions. Using OPS Master, the three principal...

  4. Mastering Grunt

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This easy-to-understand tutorial provides you with several engaging projects that show you how to utilize Grunt with various web technologies, teaching you how to master build automation and testing with Grunt in your applications.If you are a JavaScript developer who is looking to streamline their workflow with build-automation, then this book will give you a kick start in fully understanding the importance of the described web technologies and automate their processes using Grunt.

  5. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  6. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  7. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...

  8. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  9. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  10. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different

  11. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different co

  12. In-beam γ-ray Spectroscopy of {sup 30}P via the {sup 28}Si({sup 3}He,pγ){sup 30}P Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcneice, E.; Setoodehnia, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Singh, B., E-mail: ndgroup@mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Abe, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Binh, D.N. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chen, A.A.; Chen, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Cherubini, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukuoka, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai–mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ishibashi, Y.; Ito, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kahl, D. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Komatsubara, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kubono, S. [Nishina Center, the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Moriguchi, T.; Nagae, D.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); and others

    2014-06-15

    The level structure of {sup 30}P up to 8.25 MeV was investigated via in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the {sup 28}Si({sup 3}He,pγ){sup 30}P reaction at 9 MeV at the University of Tsukuba Tandem Accelerator Complex in Japan. An energy level scheme was deduced from γ-γ coincidence measurements. 47 new transitions have been observed from the previously known states (mostly resonances), thereby reducing the uncertainties in the excitation energies of 17 states from 3 to 10 keV to values of < 1 keV. Furthermore, spin assignments based on measurements of γ-ray angular distributions and γ-γ directional correlation of oriented nuclei (DCO ratios) were made for several observed levels of {sup 30}P.

  13. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...

  15. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  16. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  17. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  18. Master-Slave Manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, R.C.

    1949-03-07

    A device for manipulating a pair of tongs behind a shielding barrier has been built and tested. It is called a Master-Slave Manipulator because the slave tongs move in exact correspondence with a master handle. The "slave hands" follow the master hands in complete synchronism. This is the first completely master-slave manipulator known to exist and has proved that this type of manipulation is very successful when the unit is prooperly engineered and built.

  19. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  20. Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Yolanda; Arenillas, Ana; Menendez, J. Angel

    2011-01-01

    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materials

  1. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  2. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  3. Mastering mathematics statistics & probability

    CERN Document Server

    Various

    2014-01-01

    Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and eBooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions that develop fluen

  4. Mastering mathematics number

    CERN Document Server

    Various

    2014-01-01

    Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions tha

  5. Mastering mathematics geometry & measures

    CERN Document Server

    Various

    2014-01-01

    Deliver outstanding lessons that build fluency, problem-solving and mathematical reasoning skills to enable sustained progress at Key Stage 3, in preparation for GCSE. Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics . Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or exte

  6. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  7. Interior design. Mastering the master plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, C E

    1995-10-01

    Reflecting on the results of the survey, this proposed interior design master planning process addresses the concerns and issues of both CEOs and facility managers in ways that focus on problem-solving strategies and methods. Use of the interior design master plan process further promotes the goals and outcomes expressed in the survey by both groups. These include enhanced facility image, the efficient selection of finishes and furnishings, continuity despite staff changes, and overall savings in both costs and time. The interior design master plan allows administrators and facility managers to anticipate changes resulting from the restructuring of health care delivery. The administrators and facility managers are then able to respond in ways that manage those changes in the flexible and cost-effective manner they are striving for. This framework permits staff members to concentrate their time and energy on the care of their patients--which is, after all, what it's all about.

  8. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-A 8/10/2006 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-A (05 52.663N, 162 07.113W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-A 8/10/2006 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-A (05 52.663N, 162 07.113W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. High-precision mass measurements of {sup 25}Al and {sup 30}P at JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canete, L.; Kankainen, A.; Eronen, T.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Koponen, J.; Moore, I.D.; Reinikainen, J.; Rinta-Antila, S. [University of Jyvaskylae (Finland)

    2016-05-15

    The masses of the astrophysically relevant nuclei {sup 25}Al and {sup 30}P have been measured with a Penning trap for the first time. The mass-excess values for {sup 25}Al (Δ=-8915.962(63) keV) and {sup 30}P (Δ=-20200.854(64) keV) obtained with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer are in good agreement with the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 values but ∼5-10 times more precise. A high precision is required for calculating resonant proton-capture rates of astrophysically important reactions {sup 25}Al(p,γ){sup 26}Si and {sup 30}P(p,γ){sup 31}S. In this work, Q{sub (p,γ)}=5513.99(13) keV and Q{sub (p,γ)}=6130.64(24) keV were obtained for {sup 25}Al and {sup 30}P, respectively. The effect of the more precise values on the resonant proton-capture rates has been studied. In addition to nuclear astrophysics, the measured Q{sub EC} value of {sup 25}Al, 4276.805(45) keV, is relevant for studies of T=1/2 mirror beta decays which have a potential to be used to test the Conserved Vector Current hypothesis. (orig.)

  17. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-A 8/10/2006 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-A (05 52.663N, 162 07.113W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-A 8/10/2006 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-A (05 52.663N, 162 07.113W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Kinetics Analysis of Coconut Shell Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xue-mei; JIANG; Jian-chun; SUN; Kang; XU; Fan; XU; Yu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study kinetics analysis of coconut shell pyrolysis. [Method] Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to study the pyrolysis characteristic of coconut shell at different pyrolysis rates (5, 10, 20 K/min). [Result] The pyrolysis process included 3 stages, water loss, pyrolysis, and thermal condensation. The pyrolysis process can be described through first-order reaction model. With the increasing pyrolysis rate, activation energy in the first stage rose, but activation energy in the second stage reduced. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for the promotion and application of biomass energy.

  8. Coal flash pyrolysis. 5. Pyrolysis in an atmosphere of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, W.H.; Bonifaz, C.

    1984-12-01

    Flash pyrolysis of coal at temperatures above 700/sup 0/C and in the presence of methane produces substantially more ethylene and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons than are produced by pyrolysis of coal in the presence of nitrogen alone. Evidence is presented to show that the increase is due to pyrolysis of the methane quite independently of the coal, except with the possible catalysis by the coal, coke or mineral matter in the coal ash. This is contrary to recent reports in the literature.

  9. Pyrolysis Oil Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dietrich

    2017-03-14

    In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis have a great potential to be used as renewable fuel and/or a source for chemical feedstocks. Existing technical reactor designs are presented together with actual examples. Bio-oil characterization and various options for bio-oil upgrading are discussed based on the potential end-use. Existing and potential utilization alternatives for bio-oils are presented with respect to their use for heat and power generation as well as chemical and material use.

  10. MASTER: dwarf novae outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, O.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Otero, S.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N. V.; Kuznetsov, A. S.; Kornilov, V. G.; Vladimirov, V. V.; Kuvshinov, D. A.; Chazov, V. V.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 15h 05m 18.03s -14d 39m 33.6s on 2017-02-08.27692 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 19.8m).

  11. MASTER: bright optical transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenkov, V. N.; Lipunov, V. M.; Kornilov, V. G.; Chazov, V. V.; Berezhko, E. G.; Klypin, A. A.; Shafer, E. Yu.; Mironova, I. V.; Esin, V. P.; Gundorov, V. L.; Charikov, A. V.; Aitova, G. A.; Gektin, Yu. M.; Trunkovsky, E. M.; Lipunova, N. A.; Popova, A. O.; Gerasimov, I. A.; Gluschenko, Yu. V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 01h 44m 50.47s +45d 32m 42.9s on 2017-01-29.03010 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=19.5m).

  12. Master of science as change masters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Engineers are the driving forces of technological development – how do engineers obtain the relevant skills in order to fulfil this position? In this chapter, we ask whether the concept of change master could be a possible future direction for engineering skills. Developed by Kanter, the change...

  13. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  14. Wildtype and A30P mutant alpha-synuclein form different fibril structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Bang Nielsen

    Full Text Available Parkinson's Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative movement disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. One of the key players in the development of the disease is the protein α-synuclein (aSN, which aggregates in the brain of PD patients. The aSN mutant A30P has been reported to cause early-onset familial PD and shows different aggregation behavior compared to wt aSN. Here we use a multidisciplinary approach to compare the aggregation process of wt and A30P aSN. In agreement with previous studies, we observe an initial lag phase followed by a continuous structural development of fibrils until reaching an apparent monomer-aggregate equilibrium state and a plateau in Thioflavin T (ThT fluorescence intensity. However, at later timepoints A30P shows greater propensity than αSN wt to form dense bundled fibril networks. Combining small angle x-ray scattering, x-ray fibre diffraction and linear dichroism, we demonstrate that while the microscopic structure of the individual fibril essentially remains constant throughout the experiment, the formation of dense A30P fibril networks occur through a continuous assembly pathway while the formation of less dense wt fibril networks with fewer contact points follows a continuous path during the elongation phase and a second rearrangement phase after reaching the ThT fluorescence plateau. Our work thus highlights that structural rearrangements proceed beyond the plateau in ThT-based monitoring of the fibrillation process, and the density and morphology of the resulting fibril networks is highly dependent on the aSN form studied.

  15. The generalized master fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Guillaume; Dahlqvist, Antoine; Gabriel, Franck

    2017-09-01

    The master field is the large N limit of the Yang-Mills measure on the Euclidean plane. It can be viewed as a non-commutative process indexed by loops on the plane. We construct and study generalized master fields, called free planar Markovian holonomy fields which are versions of the master field where the law of a simple loop can be as more general as it is possible. We prove that those free planar Markovian holonomy fields can be seen as well as the large N limit of some Markovian holonomy fields on the plane with unitary structure group.

  16. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  17. Isospin Mixing Reveals $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S Resonance Influencing Nova Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P; Pain, S D; Prokop, C; Schatz, H; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    The thermonuclear $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key $^{31}$S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the $\\beta$ decay of $^{31}$Cl, we have observed the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of a $^{31}$S state at $E_x = 6390.2(7)$ keV, with a $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S resonance energy of $E_r = 259.3(8)$ keV, in the middle of the $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state (IAS) at $E_x = 6279.0(6)$ keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of $3/2^+$ and making it an important $l = 0$ resonance for prot...

  18. The 30P(p, γ31S reaction in classical novae: progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unknown thermonuclear rate of the 30P(p, γ31S reaction at classical-nova temperatures currently prohibits the accurate modeling of nova nucleosynthesis in the A ⩾ 30 region. This is hindering the calibration of nova thermometers based on observed O/S, S/Al, O/P, and P/Al abundance ratios in nova ejecta, the calibration of a meter to probe mixing at the core-envelope interface in novae based on the observed Si/H abundance ratio, and the identification of candidate pre-solar nova grains found in primitive meteorites based on laboratory measurements of their 30Si/28Si isotopic ratios. Each of these diagnostics could address key questions in our understanding of classical novae if the 30P(p, γ31S rate were known. We review progress on the determination of the 30P(p, γ31S rate leading to a critical assessment of current interpretations of published data and prospects for future work.

  19. Master of science as change masters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    master concept stresses the importance of creativity, innovation, leadership, and change. In this chapter, this concept will be analyzed and elaborated on partly in relation to the concepts of Bildung and Skill and partly to three different notions of engineering practice in technological innovation......Engineers are the driving forces of technological development – how do engineers obtain the relevant skills in order to fulfil this position? In this chapter, we ask whether the concept of change master could be a possible future direction for engineering skills. Developed by Kanter, the change...... process must be managed is together with the dynamic and comprehensive perspective on engineering practice used to shape the engineer of tomorrow, and by that we hint at overall trajectories in the design of engineering education. These trajectories call for exemplarity, inter-disciplinarily, integration...

  20. Master in Urban Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Development and content of an international Master in Urban Quality development and management. The work has been done in a cooperation between Berlage institut, Holland; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Mahidol University, Thailand; University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; og Aalborg...

  1. Master in Urban Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Development and content of an international Master in Urban Quality development and management. The work has been done in a cooperation between Berlage institut, Holland; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Mahidol University, Thailand; University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; og Aalborg...

  2. Mastering Lumion 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    This book is designed for all levels of Lumion users; from beginner to advanced, you will find useful insights and professional techniques to improve and develop your skills in order to fully control and master Lumion.

  3. Acronym master list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  4. Study on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Polycarbosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenyi; ZHOU Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of polycarbosilane (PCS) and chemical reaction mechanism during the pyrolysis process were studied by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) combined with X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods. The experimental results indicate that the main gas phase products generated during pyrolysis of PCS in nitrogen atmosphere include H2, -CH3 and CH4. The heating rate has a large effect on the pyrolysis process of PCS, the lower heating rate releases more small molecule gases and gets bigger rate of pyrolysis mass loss, demonstrating that the lower heating rate is beneifcial to fully pyrolysis of PCS and obtain ceramics products with better microstructure.

  5. IDC Integrated Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This is the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project Integrated Master Plan (IMP). The IMP presents the major accomplishments planned over time to re-engineer the IDC system. The IMP and the associate Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) are used for planning, scheduling, executing, and tracking the project technical work efforts. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  6. Molecular products from the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2013-05-01

    The thermal degradation of tyrosine at a residence time of 0.2s was conducted in a tubular flow reactor in flowing N2 and 4% O2 in N2 for a total pyrolysis time of 3min. The fractional pyrolysis technique, in which the same sample was heated continuously at each pyrolysis temperature, was applied. Thermal decomposition of tyrosine between 350 and 550°C yielded predominantly phenolic compounds (phenol, p-cresol, and p-tyramine), while decomposition between 550 and 800°C yielded hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene as the major reaction products. For the first time, the identification of p-tyramine, a precursor for the on of formation of p-tyramine and its degradation to phenol and p-cresol, and toxicological discussion of some of the harmful reaction products is also presented.

  7. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy

  8. Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Martynov, V.Y.; Chilachava, K.B.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900 {degree}C and contact time of 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbon, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component composition of the liquid products and pyrolysis gas were determined. The main groups of compounds in liquid products were analysed.

  9. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy con

  10. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  11. MasterMind

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Desarrollo de una aplicación en Android que sea totalmente funcional. En este caso nos hemos propuesto desarrollar el juego MasterMind, un clásico de los juegos de mesa, pero adaptándolo a las nuevas tecnologías que nos permitirán darle una orientación social al estilo de Apalabrados o Mezcladitos. Desenvolupament d'una aplicació en Android que sigui totalment funcional. En aquest cas ens hem proposat desenvolupar el joc MasterMind, un clàssic dels jocs de taula, però adaptant-lo a les nov...

  12. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  13. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, J. H.; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); David, D. E. [Integrated Instrument Development Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Daily, J. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  14. TG/DSC-FTIR and Py-GC investigation on pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Jiang, Bo; Yin, Hongchao; Song, Xigeng; Li, Aimin

    2015-09-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were evaluated using TG/DSC-FTIR and fixed-bed reactor with GC. TGA experiments indicated that the pyrolysis of PS proceeded in three phases, and the thermographs shifted to higher temperatures with increasing heating rate. Chars FTIR showed that the absorption of O-H, C-H, C=O and C-C decreased with pyrolysis temperatures increasing. Gases FTIR correspondingly showed that H2O, CO, and CH4 generated at higher temperatures. For the fixed-bed reactor tests, H2 and CO were relatively higher in the pyrolysis gases, and CH4 was negligible at 436K. The kinetic triplets of PS pyrolysis were estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and integral master-plots method. The results suggested that the most potential kinetic models for the first and second phase were the order reaction model, while the random nucleation and nuclei growth model for the third phase.

  15. Evaluation of agricultural residues pyrolysis under non-isothermal conditions: Thermal behaviors, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-10-01

    The thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of agricultural residues, rape straw (RS) and wheat bran (WB), were investigated under non-isothermal conditions. TGA experiments showed that the pyrolysis characteristics of RS were quite different from those of WB. As reflected by the comprehensive devolatilization index, when the heating rate increased from 10 to 30Kmin(-1), the pyrolysis performance of RS and WB were improved 5.27 and 5.96 times, respectively. The kinetic triplets of the main pyrolysis process of agricultural residues were calculated by the Starink method and the integral master-plots method. Kinetic analysis results indicated that the most potential kinetic models for the pyrolysis of RS and WB were D2 and F2.7, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS) were determined by the activated complex theory. The positive ΔH, positive ΔG, and negative ΔS at characteristic temperatures validated that the pyrolysis of agricultural residues was endothermic and non-spontaneous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  17. The MASTER-2001 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendisch, J.; Bunte, K.; Klinkrad, H.; Krag, H.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Walker, R.; Wegener, P.; Wiedemann, C.

    2004-01-01

    Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Reference model (MASTER) is the European particulate environment and risk assessment model. It is based on quasi-deterministic principles, using comprehensive orbit propagation theories and volume discretisation techniques, to derive spatial density and velocity distributions in a three-dimensional control volume ranging from LEO to GEO altitudes. The new release, MASTER-2001, incorporates new modelling and validation approaches and enables the calculation of fluxes on targets operating between the year 1957 and 2050, using detailed simulation results. This could be achieved by using not only the POEM simulation tool for the past to present debris populations, but also applying the long term prediction tool DELTA to obtain future populations. The paper describes the features and results of the MASTER-2001 model, and the updated modelling approach (e.g., the use of a new fragmentation model). The historical and future evolution of the space debris environment in terms of spatial density and object fluxes as given by MASTER-2001 are presented and discussed.

  18. Mastering Unity scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Mastering Unity Scripting is an advanced book intended for students, educators, and professionals familiar with the Unity basics as well as the basics of scripting. Whether you've been using Unity for a short time or are an experienced user, this book has something important and valuable to offer to help you improve your game development workflow.

  19. Hvorfor master i medborgerskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2002-01-01

    Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet planlægger i samarbejde med Syddansk Universitet at udbyde en master i medborgerskab: etisk og demokratisk dannelse. Artiklens forfatter gør rede for nogle af de tanker, der ligger bag uddannelsen, og belyser, hvorfor medborgerskab er blevet et nøglebegreb i nyere...

  20. Hvorfor master i medborgerskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2002-01-01

    Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet planlægger i samarbejde med Syddansk Universitet at udbyde en master i medborgerskab: etisk og demokratisk dannelse. Artiklens forfatter gør rede for nogle af de tanker, der ligger bag uddannelsen, og belyser, hvorfor medborgerskab er blevet et nøglebegreb i nyere...

  1. Mastering Ext JS

    CERN Document Server

    Groner, Loiane

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be a structured guide, Mastering Ext JS is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for developers who are familiar with using Ext JS who want to augment their skills to create even better web applications.

  2. THE MASTER PROTOCOL CONCEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Carmen J.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution---from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars---to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demand the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study). PMID:26433553

  3. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  4. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  5. Soot morphology in laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ion C.; Pasuk, I.; Morjan, Ion G.; Voicu, Ion N.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Fleaca, Claudiu T.; Ciupina, Victor; Dumitrache, Florian V.; Soare, Iuliana; Ploscaru, Mihaela I.; Daniels, H.; Westwood, A.; Rand, B.

    2004-10-01

    Soots obtained by laser pyrolysis of different gaseous/vapor hydrocarbons were investigated. The morphology variation of carbon soot versus process parameters and nature of reactants was analyzed and discussed. The role of oxygen is essential in obtaining soot particles having considerable curved-layer content.

  6. Effects of additives on the co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste and paper sludge by using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shiwen; Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yan; Lin, Yousheng; Fan, Yunlong; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2016-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the effects of different additives (MgO, Al2O3 and ZnO) on the pyrolysis characteristics and activation energy of municipal solid waste (MSW), paper sludge (PS) and their blends in N2 atmosphere had been investigated in this study. The experiments resulted that these additives were effective in reducing the initial temperature and activation energy. However, not all the additives were beneficial to reduce the residue mass and enhance the index D. For the different ratios of MSW and PS, the same additive even had the different influences. The catalytic effects of additives were not obvious and the pyrolysis became difficult with the increase of the proportion of PS. Based on all the contrast of the pyrolysis characteristics, MgO was the best additive and 70M30P was the best ratio, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MASTER Four OT's detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvorotniy, P.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zimnukhov, D.; Zalozhnih, I.; Ivanov, K.; Popov, A.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Parkhomenko, A.; Gress, O.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Yurkov, V.; Senik, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Shurpakov, S.; Levato, Hugo; Saffe, Carlos; Mallamaci, Claudio; Lopez, Carlos; Podest, Federico

    2012-03-01

    MASTER163105.47+615548.4 - PSN MASTER-Tunka auto-detection system discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 31m 05.47s +61d 55m 48.4s on 2012-03-14.83877 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 18.1m (limit 19.8m). The OT is seen in 5 images. There is no minor planet at this place. There is one nonstar object in The Guide Star Catalog N4HU009709 with 1.3 arcsec offset (jmag=21.9). We have reference image without OT on 2011-05-01.72794 UT with unfiltered magnitude limit 20.1m.

  8. Master Study: Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In painting and drawing classes, it is typical to ask students to work directly from a master. It is one way to study composition techniques, and to become familiar with classical style firsthand. In museums, easels are set up as artists work, not in an attempt to copy or plagiarize, but in an attempt to be part of history by participating in it.…

  9. Mastering Apache Cassandra

    CERN Document Server

    Neeraj, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Apache Cassandra is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. The smooth and easy tutorial approach focuses on showing people how to utilize Cassandra to its full potential.This book is aimed at intermediate Cassandra users. It is best suited for startups where developers have to wear multiple hats: programmer, DevOps, release manager, convincing clients, and handling failures. No prior knowledge of Cassandra is required.

  10. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  11. Quantum molecular master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechet, Sylvain D.; Reuse, Francois A.; Maschke, Klaus; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    We present the quantum master equations for midsize molecules in the presence of an external magnetic field. The Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a molecule accounts for the molecular deformation and orientation properties, as well as for the electronic properties. In order to establish the master equations governing the relaxation of free-standing molecules, we have to split the molecule into two weakly interacting parts, a bath and a bathed system. The adequate choice of these systems depends on the specific physical system under consideration. Here we consider a first system consisting of the molecular deformation and orientation properties and the electronic spin properties and a second system composed of the remaining electronic spatial properties. If the characteristic time scale associated with the second system is small with respect to that of the first, the second may be considered as a bath for the first. Assuming that both systems are weakly coupled and initially weakly correlated, we obtain the corresponding master equations. They describe notably the relaxation of magnetic properties of midsize molecules, where the change of the statistical properties of the electronic orbitals is expected to be slow with respect to the evolution time scale of the bathed system.

  12. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  13. Dissolved phosphorus speciation of flash carbonization, slow pyrolysis, and fast pyrolysis biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of waste biomass is a promising technology to produce sterile and renewable organic phosphorus fertilizers. Systematic studies are necessary to understand how different pyrolysis platforms influence the chemical speciation of dissolved (bioavailable) phosphorus. This study employed solut...

  14. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained...... at temperatures of 500−550 °C, reactor gas residence time of 0.8 s, and feed rate of 5.6 g/min. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography were used to characterize the Chemical properties of the lignin oils. Acetic acid, levoglucosan, guaiacol, syringols, and p-vinylguaiacol are found...... to be major chemical components in the lignin oil. The maximal yields of 0.62, 0.67, and 0.38 wt % db were obtained for syringol, p-vinylguaiacol, and guaiacol, respectively. The reactor temperature effect was investigated in a range of 450−600 °C and has a considerable effect on the observed chemical...

  15. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  16. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  17. Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Rozental, D.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of asphaltenes from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group composition of the liquid products were determined. The total analysis of the major groups of compounds present in the liquid products was performed, and the optimal conditions of pyrolysis, from the viewpoint of preparation of particular compounds, were recommended.

  18. Modeling pyrolysis of charring material in fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A modified model of pyrolysis for charring materials in fire has been proposed in this note. In this model some special factors which show the effect on pyrolysis are considered, i.e. heat loss by convection and radiation caused by surface temperature rise and shrinkage of char surface are considered. Experimental device is designed specially for validating the reliability of the model. Effects of density of materials and heat radiation on pyrolysis of materials have also been investigated.

  19. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Almeida; Maria de Fátima Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolit...

  20. An Experimntal Investigation of the 30P30N Multi-Element High-Lift Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascioni, Kyle A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2014-01-01

    High-lift devices often generate an unsteady flow field producing both broadband and tonal noise which radiates from the aircraft. In particular, the leading edge slat is often a dominant contributor to the noise signature. An experimental study of a simplified unswept high-lift configuration, the 30P30N, has been conducted to understand and identify the various flow-induced noise sources around the slat. Closed-wall wind tunnel tests are performed in the Florida State Aeroacoustic Tunnel (FSAT) to characterize the slat cove flow field using a combination of surface and off-body measurements. Mean surface pressures compare well with numerical predictions for the free-air configuration. Consistent with previous measurements and computations for 2D high-lift configurations, the frequency spectra of unsteady surface pressures on the slat surface display several narrowband peaks that decrease in strength as the angle of attack is increased. At positive angles of attack, there are four prominent peaks. The three higher frequency peaks correspond, approximately, to a harmonic sequence related to a feedback resonance involving unstable disturbances in the slat cove shear layer. The Strouhal numbers associated with these three peaks are nearly insensitive to the range of flow speeds (41-58 m/s) and the angles of attack tested (3-8.5 degrees). The first narrow-band peak has an order of magnitude lower frequency than the remaining peaks and displays noticeable sensitivity to the angle of attack. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements provide supplementary information about the shear layer characteristics and turbulence statistics that may be used for validating numerical simulations.

  1. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  2. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  3. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  4. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  5. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The exclusive, official guide to the very latest version of Maya Get extensive, hands-on, intermediate to advanced coverage of Autodesk Maya 2012, the top-selling 3D software on the market. If you already know Maya basics, this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, author Todd Palamar will help you master the entire CG

  6. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A beautifully-packaged, advanced reference on the very latest version of Maya. If you already know the basics of Maya, the latest version of this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, this book will help you master the entire CG production pipeline.: Provides professional-level instruction on Maya, the industry-leading

  7. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  8. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process...... in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...... that the reacting particle continuously shed the formed char layer....

  9. Mastering the diesel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antila, E.; Kaario, O.; Lahtinen, T. (and others)

    2004-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Mastering the Diesel Process'. The project has been a joint research effort of the Helsinki University of Technology, the Tampere University of Technology, the Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the Aabo Akademi University. Moreover, the contribution of the Michigan Technological University has been important. The project 'Mastering the Diesel Process' has been a computational research project on the physical phenomena of diesel combustion. The theoretical basis of the project lies on computational fluid dynamics. Various submodels for computational fluid dynamics have been developed or tested within engine simulation. Various model combinations in three diesel engines of different sizes have been studied. The most important submodels comprise fuel spray drop breakup, fuel evaporation, gas-fuel interaction in the spray, mixing model of combustion, heat transfer, emission mechanisms. The boundary conditions and flow field modelling have been studied, as well. The main simulation tool have been Star-CD. KIVA code have been used in the model development, as well. By the help of simulation, we are able to investigate the effect of various design parameters or operational parameters on diesel combustion and emission formation. (orig.)

  10. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  11. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  12. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  13. What about Master's Students? The Master's Student Persistence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the factors that affect master's student persistence in the United States. More specifically, this study explored whether the following factors: students' background, institution's, academic, environmental and psychological influences, had a significant effect on whether a master's student persisted and/or…

  14. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    This Ph.D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations of fast high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. Suspension firing of biomass is widely used for power generation and has been considered as an important step in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by using less fossil fuels. Fast...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...... and shape, composition, reactivity and burnout depend significantly on the operating conditions of the fast pyrolysis. Biomass fast pyrolysis experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale wire mesh reactor and bench scale atmospheric pressure drop tube / entrained flow reactors with the aim...

  15. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  16. Energy master equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1995-01-01

    energies chosen randomly according to a Gaussian. The random-walk model is here derived from Newton's laws by making a number of simplifying assumptions. In the second part of the paper an approximate low-temperature description of energy fluctuations in the random-walk model—the energy master equation...... (EME)—is arrived at. The EME is one dimensional and involves only energy; it is derived by arguing that percolation dominates the relaxational properties of the random-walk model at low temperatures. The approximate EME description of the random-walk model is expected to be valid at low temperatures...... of the random-walk model. The EME allows a calculation of the energy probability distribution at realistic laboratory time scales for an arbitrarily varying temperature as function of time. The EME is probably the only realistic equation available today with this property that is also explicitly consistent...

  17. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    The environmental history of New Zealand is one of the clearest and most recent examples of the way humans make a home for themselves in newly explored territory. New Zealand was the last major land area in the world to be colonised by people and, given its extraordinary natural history, the first...... as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... resources which change as the society itself changes. Newcomers to any environment meet it with a set of technologies and a culture which they bring with them and which changes continuously, as it aligns with experience gathered in that environment. The environmental histories told from a multiplicity...

  18. Masters change, slaves remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Patricia; Penn, Jill K M; Schedl, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Sex determination offers an opportunity to address many classic questions of developmental biology. In addition, because sex determination evolves rapidly, it offers an opportunity to investigate the evolution of genetic hierarchies. Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by the master regulatory gene, Sex lethal (Sxl). DmSxl controls the alternative splicing of a downstream gene, transformer (tra), which acts with tra2 to control alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx). DmSxl also controls its own splicing, creating an autoregulatory feedback loop that ensures expression of Sxl in females, but not males. A recent paper has shown that in the dipteran Ceratitis capitata later (downstream) steps in the regulatory hierarchy are conserved, while earlier (upstream) steps are not. Cctra is regulated by alternative splicing and apparently controls the alternative splicing of Ccdsx. However, Cctra is not regulated by CcSxl. Instead it appears to autoregulate in a manner similar to the autoregulation seen with DmSxl.

  19. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  20. STUDY ON PYROLYSIS OF POLYPHENYLSILSESQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ma; Liang-he Shi; Jian-min Zhang; Bai-yu Li; De-yan Shen; Jian Xu

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical change ofpolyphenylsilsesquioxane (PPSQ) during pyrolysis in flowing nitrogen. Two temperature ranges were found for pyrolysedPPSQ below and above 600℃, respectively. The former is related to the rearrangement of PPSQ backbone and the latterreflects that most of backbone structure of PPSQ might be broken down and unorganized. Carbon formed in carbonization ofPPSQ sample pyrolysed at 900℃ should be sp3 bonded carbon with crystallite size effects or defects.

  1. Mastering jQuery mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Chip

    2015-01-01

    You've started down the path of jQuery Mobile, now begin mastering some of jQuery Mobile's higher level topics. Go beyond jQuery Mobile's documentation and master one of the hottest mobile technologies out there. Previous JavaScript and PHP experience can help you get the most out of this book.

  2. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis - Techniques and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-07-04

    While pyrolysis reactions have been performed since ancient times and been crucial for the invention of several technologies, the methodology now commonly known as flash vacuum pyrolysis, FVP (or flash vacuum thermolysis, FVT) had its early beginnings in the 1940s and1950s, mainly through mass spectrometric detection of pyrolytically formed free radicals. In the 1960s many organic chemists started performing FVP experiments with the purpose of isolating new and interesting compounds and understanding pyrolysis processes. Meanwhile, many different types of apparatus and techniques have been developed, and it is the purpose of this review to present the most important methods as well as a survey of typical reactions and observations that can be achieved with the various techniques. This includes preparative FVP, chemical trapping reactions, matrix isolation and low temperature spectroscopy of reactive intermediates and unstable molecules, the use of online mass, photoelectron, microwave and millimeterwave spectroscopies, gas-phase laser pyrolysis, pulsed pyrolysis with supersonic jet expansion, very low pressure pyrolysis for kinetic investigations, solution-spray and falling-solid FVP for involatile compounds, and pyrolysis over solid supports and reagents. Moreover, the combination of FVP with matrix isolation and photochemistry is a powerful tool for investigations of reaction mechanism. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Master Console, SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paga Marrero, Hector Jose

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console oversees the function of Computer Systems in Firing room 1 (FR1). Master Console Operators, MCOs' for short, are our customer. I was integrated into the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) software team that is under the guidance of David Slaiman, who is the product group lead. I have been brought up to speed with System Monitoring and Control. The initial time spent reading SMC software design description and understanding how it works. The current Firing Room 1 Console Display is a floor layout giving the MCO two essential pieces of information which are Health and Status. When an issue arises, the MCO has to look on the display to find which console is affected and then the MCO must use the Reference designator from the display to manually search for the Portal Workstation (PWS) installed in the console using the hardware map; which is a long process to lookup a PWS if an issue is present. My project is to make the FR1 Console Display easier for the MCO's to pinpoint PWS's without having to lookup additional resources in the process. My project also includes updating Firing Room 1 Console Display to include the F1R Non-Redundant Set. The display does not have good use of space and functionality. PWS numbers were not present in the previous design and are the critical component in efficient understanding and administration of the consoles. Part of the process includes getting feedback from the customer, instead of just emailing them with a question, we made a proposal with changes so they could respond and give us their input; which proved to be an effective method for engaging them. In order to do this I had to use the Display Editor (DE) tool developed by NASA, Paint.Net and Visio. The process I have been using has been Visio to alter the floor layout of Firing Room and take advantage of the white areas, and then I take the altered floor plan into Paint.Net. Once in Paint.Net I put the new floor plan as a background to the standard console

  4. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  5. ``Mastering`` the global commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Peter Wall Inst. for Advanced Studies and Green Coll.

    1999-11-01

    The question of ``mastering`` the global commons will increasingly become a central socio-political issue, if it has not already attained this status. For example, the dilemmas brought about by anthropogenic climate change are in many ways unprecedented. They call for massive efforts to plan global climate change. In this context, knowledge about the physical nature of global climate changes is adequate in order to move from a comprehension to a solution of the problem. The record shows that past generations, too, have been fascinated with and concerned about the impact of climate on society, as well as, anthropogenic climate change. But these efforts have, for the most part, been informed by the doctrine of climate determinism. In much the same vein, the concept of climate policies as an ``optimal control problem`` is inadequate. Impact research has to be cognizant of the social construct of climate, as well as, fundamental secular societal changes that profoundly alter modern societies and the value orientations of its citizens. Climate policies as a form of large-scale and deliberate climate change, therefore, have to draw extensively on social science expertise. (orig.) 53 refs.

  6. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the ot...

  7. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste print circuit board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Ge; CHEN Lie-qiang; PENG Shao-hong; CAI Ming-zhao

    2005-01-01

    Waste print circuit board containing 11.38% Br was pyrolyzed in vacuum.Thermal stability of waste print circuit board was studied under vacuum condition by thermo-gravimetry(TG). Vacuum pyrolysis of WPCB was studied emphasizing on the kinetics of WPCB pyrolysis reactions. Based on the TG results, a kinetic model was proposed. Kinetic parameters were calculated for reaction with this model including all stages of decomposition. The average activation energy is 68 k J/mol with reaction order 3. These findings provide new insights into the WPCB thermal decomposition and useful data for rational design and operation of pyrolysis.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  9. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products.

  10. Learning profiles of Master students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Hemmingsen, Lis

    2005-01-01

    at DPU in 2001 several evaluations and research have been carried out on several topics relating to form, content, and didactics, but one important focus is missing: the research about the psychological profile and learning style of the master student. Knowledge is lacking on how teaching methods...... and programme designs relate to and support the learning profiles and learning styles of the master students. In other words: What are the consequences of the students' learning styles in terms of planning and teaching in the master programme?...

  11. VCC-H30P Ⅰ彩色视频会议摄像机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    VCC-H30P Ⅰ彩色视频会议摄像机采用USB接口连接PC可直接观看视频图像,操作控制灵活,1/4“Super HAD CCD成像器件,加上全方位360度手动控制云台,可全方位查看周围环境。

  12. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  13. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  14. The {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S reaction in classical novae: progress and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, C., E-mail: wrede@nscl.msu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The unknown thermonuclear rate of the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S reaction at classical-nova temperatures currently prohibits the accurate modeling of nova nucleosynthesis in the A ⩾ 30 region. This is hindering the calibration of nova thermometers based on observed O/S, S/Al, O/P, and P/Al abundance ratios in nova ejecta, the calibration of a meter to probe mixing at the core-envelope interface in novae based on the observed Si/H abundance ratio, and the identification of candidate pre-solar nova grains found in primitive meteorites based on laboratory measurements of their {sup 30}Si/{sup 28}Si isotopic ratios. Each of these diagnostics could address key questions in our understanding of classical novae if the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate were known. We review progress on the determination of the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate leading to a critical assessment of current interpretations of published data and prospects for future work.

  15. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K. Akalin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the other. The compositions of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of the two samples were found to be very similar. N-containing compounds were found to be the major compounds identified in ether extracts for both samples.

  16. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  17. A Servant of Two Masters

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    750 x 1159 pixels. 300 ppi. RGB Poster for a production of Carlo Goldoni's "A Servant of Two Masters," directed by David Johnson, and produced at Virginia Tech's Squires Studio Theatre for the 2011-2012 season.

  18. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  19. STS-107 Master Experiment List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A master list of the various experiments conducted aboard the STS-107 Space Mission is presented. The topics include: 1) Biology; 2) Earth and Space Sciences; 3) Physical Sciences; 4) Space Product Development; and 6) Technology Development.

  20. Masters in clinical veterinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Frances

    2016-08-20

    A new masters qualification from the BSAVA aims to encourage and support clinical research in practice. As Frances Barr explains, it is aimed at those looking for a professional challenge. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  2. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Igor Ying; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2011-06-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  3. Surface Pyrolysis of High Energy Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Deluca

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arrhenius zero-order phenomenological pyrolysis law, commonly used in conjunction with the Vieille ballistic law to study pressure-driven burning of energetic materials, is revisited. Motivated by experimental and theoretical work performed in 1984 in this Laboratory , a relationship among several interplaying parameters is found under steady-state conditions. This relationship corresponds to the Jacobian of the pyrolysis sensitivity parameters used in the Zeldovich-Novozhilov approach. The Arrhenius pyrolysis is still expressed in terms of a global surface activation energy, but consistency with the experimental ballistic law may require an explicit pressure dependence as well. This conclusion is supported by a variety of arguments drawn from different areas. The linear dependence of the pre-exponential factor on surface activation energy (known as kinetic compensation is proved and extended to the pressure exponent, for any given experimental data set under steady burning. Experimental results are reported for about a dozen solid propellants of different nature. The effects of surface pyrolysis explicit pressure dependence, although modest on steady-state burning, are potentially far-reaching for unsteady regime and/or unstable burning. The paper is mainly focussed on pressure-driven burning and Arrhenius pyrolysis, but the implemented method is believed to apply in general. Thus, enforcing KTSS zero-order phenomenological pyrolysis with the Vieille ballistic law yields similar results and requires an explicit pressure dependence. In case, the Zeldovich ballistic law is enforced instead of the classical Vieille law, no explicit pressure dependence is required. The unifying concept for these different trends is the pyrolysis Jacobian as a consistency requirement between the implemented steady pyrolysis and ballistic laws."

  4. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  5. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shen; Igor Ying Zhang; Gang Fu; Xin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  6. Master in ICT and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The Master in ICT and Learning (MIL)was started in 2000, and it is owned in collaboration by five Danish universities. It is an accredited virtual part-time 2-year education. MIL is unique in that it builds on the pedagogical framework of project pedagogy and is based in virtual collaboration....... It is organized around ICT and Learning. This is illustrated through a presentation of the study program, the four modules, the projects and the master thesis....

  7. Dual arm master controller concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  8. 46 CFR 15.805 - Master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master. 15.805 Section 15.805 Shipping COAST GUARD....805 Master. (a) There must be an individual holding an appropriate license as or a valid MMC with endorsement as master master in command of each of the following vessels: (1) Every self-propelled,...

  9. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  10. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  11. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  14. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  15. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H(2), C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, CO(2), CO and H(2)S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  16. Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Patricia; Johnson, Yvette; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Philip; Burton, Geoffrey; McCoy, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester (EMUT) software is a tool for development and testing of software for a master controller (MC) flight computer. The primary function of the EMUT software is to simulate interfaces between the MC computer and external analog and digital circuitry (including other computers) in a rack of equipment to be used in scientific experiments. The simulations span the range of nominal, off-nominal, and erroneous operational conditions, enabling the testing of MC software before all the equipment becomes available.

  17. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  18. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  20. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  1. Rapid OT discovered by MASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanutsa, P.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Denisenko, D.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Punanova, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.; Levato, H.; Saffe, C.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Podest, F.

    2012-09-01

    OT MASTER J005552.55+261100.8 discovery MASTER-Amur auto-detection system discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 55m 52.55s +26d 11m 00.8s on 2012-08-30.77359 UT by two tube simultaneously during 3 min exposition. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 14.2m (limit 18.0m). There is no minor planet at this place. There is no known satellite around 4 degrees at this time. There is one non star object NBKY021338 (jmag~ 22.3) in the Guide Star Catalog with 3.6 arcsec offset.

  2. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  3. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis...

  4. Cellulose-Lignin interactions during slow and fast pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Wang, Z.; Pecha, B.; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between lignin and cellulose during the slow pyrolysis of their blends were studied by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fast pyrolysis was studied using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (Py–GC/MS). Crystalline cellulose

  5. Behavior of chlorine during coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Cao, H.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of chlorine in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by combined thermo-gravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-ion chromatography (TG-FTIR-IC) techniques. It was found that more than 90% of chlorine in Illinois coals (IBC-103, 105, 106, and 109) was liberated as HCl gas during pyrolysis from 300 to 600??C, with the rate reaching a maximum at 440 ??C. Similarity of the HCl and NH3 release profiles during pyrolysis of IBC-109 supports the hypothesis that the chlorine in coal may be associated with nitrogen and the chlorine is probably bonded to the basic nitrogen sites on the inner walls of coal micropores. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  6. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  7. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  8. Master-slave micromanipulator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    A method based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be remotized by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  9. El Camino College Master Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This document is the educational Master Plan for El Camino Community College District. The purpose of the plan is to develop a research-based document that will be used as a foundation for decisions regarding instructional programs, support services, staffing and facilities. It is intended to serve as the basic foundation for all other plans of…

  10. Nutrition recommendations for masters athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Christine A; Dunaway, Ann

    2007-01-01

    "More than 3000 masters athletes from 62 countries compete in Linz, Austria, in March of 2006." In 2005, 9000 "silver-haired Americans go for the gold." The National Senior Games Association announced a "major change in the NSGA rules affecting the game of basketball; a new age division of 80+ has been added for 2007."

  11. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  12. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  13. Influence of Bark Pyrolysis Technology on Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong; YAN Zhen; LIU Yurong; WANG Shu

    2006-01-01

    With the self-made pyrolysis equipment in miniature,we experimented in different pyrolysis conditions to get different pyrolyzate yields (carbon,vinegar and gas).It proved that with the rise of temperature,the average yield of carbon descends gradually while the yields of vinegar and gas rise gradually.As the temperature rises,the yield of gas increases much more than that of vinegar.When speeding up the rising temperature,yield of carbon goes down while yields of vinegar and gas go up.

  14. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  15. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  16. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  17. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国志; 张廷安; 王龙; 马思达; 豆志河; 刘燕

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pyrolysis mode and pyrolysis parameters on Cl content in alumina were investigated, and the alumina products were characterized by XRD, SEM and ASAP. The experimental results indicate that the spray pyrolysis efficiency is higher than that of static pyrolysis process, and the reaction and evaporation process lead to a multi-plot state of the alumina products by spray pyrolysis. Aluminum phase starts to transform intoγ-Al2O3 at spray pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C, which is about 200 °C lower than that of static pyrolysis process. The primary particle size of γ-Al2O3 product is 27.62 nm, and Cl content in alumina products is 0.38%at 800 °C for 20 min.

  19. 46 CFR 11.493 - Master (OSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master (OSV). 11.493 Section 11.493 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.493 Master (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Master (OSV), an applicant shall present evidence...

  20. 33 CFR 104.205 - Master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Master. 104.205 Section 104.205... SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.205 Master. (a) Nothing in this part is intended to permit the Master to be constrained by the Company, the vessel owner or operator, or any other...

  1. Evolution of Master Planning of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1.Review on previous master planning of Tianjin From 1953 to 1999,with thanks to the great attention of the Municipal Government of Tianjin to the work of master planning,there had been 21 draft master plans finished successively for Tianjin,

  2. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power...

  3. Characterization of Hydrotreated Fast Pyrolysis Liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oasmaa, A.; Kuoppala, E.; Ardiyanti, A.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on analytical methods to determine the composition of hydrotreated fast pyrolysis liquids. With this information, it is possible to gain insights in the chemical transformations taking place during catalytic hydrotreatment (hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation, H DO) of pyrolys

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  5. Speculations on the nature of cellulose pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J. Kilzer; A. Broido

    1965-01-01

    Consideration of the available data on cellulose pyrolysis suggests that, with relative importance depending upon heating rate in the temperature range 200-400°C, very pure cellulose decomposes by two competitive endothermic processes. lt is postulated that an unzipping reaction produces 1,4-anhydro-α-D-glucopyranose which rearranges to give levoglucosan. The other...

  6. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  7. The pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Zhijia Liu; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Yan Yu; Xing’e. Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the research, thermogravimetry (TG), a combination of thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG–FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). The Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Coats–Redfern (modified) methods were used to determine the apparent activation energy (

  8. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  9. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  10. Pyrolysis of Rubber in a Screw Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnik, A. V.; Savchin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of an analysis of thermal methods described in the literature and from the results of experimental investigations of steam conversion, the authors have developed and created a facility for thermal processing of rubber waste. Rubber crumb was used as the raw material; the temperature in the reactor was 500°C; nitrogen, steam, and a mixture of light hydrocarbons (noncondensable part of pyrolysis products) represented the working medium. The pyrolysis yielded 36-38% of a solid fraction, 54-56% of a liquid hydrocarbon fraction, and 6-9% of noncondensable gases. Changes in the composition of the gas mixture have been determined at different stages of processing. Gas chromatography of pyrolysis gases has shown that the basic gases produced by pyrolysis are H2 and hydrocarbons C2H4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H8, C2H6, C3H6O2, and C4H10, and a small amount of H2S, CO, and CO2. Noncondensable gases will be used as a fuel to heat the reactor and to implement the process.

  11. MASTER: 2 short optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Popova, E.; Gress, O.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 30m 17.28s +78d 09m 51.8s on 2017-02-02.96362 UT. The OT is seen on 3 images with the following m_OT: 2017-02-02 23:03:55.905 18.57 2017-02-02 23:05:36.496 14.48 2017-02-02 23:07:37.042 14.92 We have reference image without OT on 2016-06-10.89789 UT with unfiltered magnitude limit 19.1m.

  12. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  13. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  14. Master classes - What do they offer?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria; Long, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Master classes are a common way to teach music performance, but how useful are they in helping young musicians in their musical development? Based on his experiences of master classes Lali (2003:24) states that “For better or for worse, master classes can be life-changing events.” Anecdotal evidence confirm that master classes can provide vital learning opportunities, but also that they can be of little use to the student, or worse, detrimental. Since master classes are a common component in ...

  15. The pyrolysis of 2-methylfuran: a quantum chemical, statistical rate theory and kinetic modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Kieran P; Simmie, John M; Metcalfe, Wayne K; Curran, Henry J

    2014-03-21

    Due to the rapidly growing interest in the use of biomass derived furanic compounds as potential platform chemicals and fossil fuel replacements, there is a simultaneous need to understand the pyrolysis and combustion properties of such molecules. To this end, the potential energy surfaces for the pyrolysis relevant reactions of the biofuel candidate 2-methylfuran have been characterized using quantum chemical methods (CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO and G3). Canonical transition state theory is employed to determine the high-pressure limiting kinetics, k(T), of elementary reactions. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory with an energy grained master equation is used to compute pressure-dependent rate constants, k(T,p), and product branching fractions for the multiple-well, multiple-channel reaction pathways which typify the pyrolysis reactions of the title species. The unimolecular decomposition of 2-methylfuran is shown to proceed via hydrogen atom transfer reactions through singlet carbene intermediates which readily undergo ring opening to form collisionally stabilised acyclic C5H6O isomers before further decomposition to C1-C4 species. Rate constants for abstraction by the hydrogen atom and methyl radical are reported, with abstraction from the alkyl side chain calculated to dominate. The fate of the primary abstraction product, 2-furanylmethyl radical, is shown to be thermal decomposition to the n-butadienyl radical and carbon monoxide through a series of ring opening and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. The dominant bimolecular products of hydrogen atom addition reactions are found to be furan and methyl radical, 1-butene-1-yl radical and carbon monoxide and vinyl ketene and methyl radical. A kinetic mechanism is assembled with computer simulations in good agreement with shock tube speciation profiles taken from the literature. The kinetic mechanism developed herein can be used in future chemical kinetic modelling studies on the pyrolysis and oxidation of 2-methylfuran

  16. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  17. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  18. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiaton Ali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrap printed circuit boards (PCBs are the most abundant wastes that can be found in the landfills in Malaysia and this disposal certainly poses serious detrimental to the environment. This research aims to investigate optimum temperature for pyrolyzing waste PCBs, find out the best catalyst to be used in accelerating PCBs’ pyrolysis, select suitable ratio of catalyst to PCBs for higher oil yield and examine kinetics pyrolysis of the waste PCBs’ decomposition. Operating temperatures ranged from 200 to 350 ˚C of PCB’s pyrolysis were conducted with the optimum temperature obtained was 275 ˚C. Fluid cata-lytic cracking (FCC catalyst, zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5, H-Y-type zeolite and dolomite were used to accelerate PCB’s pyrolysis at 275 ˚C and FCC was identified as the best catalyst to be used. Differ-ent ratios of FCC to waste PCBs such as 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 were applied in the pyro-lysis at 275 ˚C and ratio of 10:90 was selected as the suitable ratio to be utilized for maximum yield. The kinetic study was done through thermogravimetric analysis on waste PCBs under various heating rates and different particle sizes. The GC-MS analysis revealed that compounds detected in the pyro-oil have the potential to be used as fuel. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd July 2014; Revised: 14th August 2014; Accepted: 14th August 2014 How to Cite: Ng, C.H., Salmiaton, A., Hizam, H. (2014. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 224-240. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrolysis polygeneration of poplar wood: Effect of heating rate and pyrolysis temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Cen, Kehui; Luo, Min; Li, Hongyan; Lu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    The pyrolysis of poplar wood were comprehensively investigated at different pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, and 600°C) and at different heating rates (10, 30, and 50°C/min). The results showed that BET surface area of biochar, the HHV of non-condensable gas and bio-oil reached the maximum values of 411.06m(2)/g, 14.56MJ/m(3), and 14.39MJ/kg, under the condition of 600°C and 30°C/min, 600°C and 50°C/min, and 550°C and 50°C/min, respectively. It was conducive to obtain high mass and energy yield of bio-oil at 500°C and higher heating rate, while lower pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed towards obtaining both higher mass yield and energy yield of biochar. However, higher pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed to obtain both higher mass yield and energy yield of the non-condensable gas. In general, compared to the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature had more effect on the product properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas.

  2. Pyrolysis of Polytrimethylene Terephthalate (PTT) Fiber by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN He-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) fiber has been investigated by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the temperature range from 400℃ to 750℃ in order to observe the possible effect of the temperature on its composition of pyrolysates. At 400℃, pyrolysis of molecular chain could occur, only 13 pyrolysates could be identified. The trimethylene moieties bound to the macromolecular core by ester bonds are cleaved at around 400℃. At 550℃ -750℃, pyrolysis of molecular chain could completely take place, 46 pyrolysates could be found. As the temperature increases, the compositions of pyrolysate are distinctly increased. Several compounds, especially benzoic acid, monopropenyl-p-phthalate, 2 - propenyl benzoate, di - 2 - propenyl ester, 1,4 -benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzene, 1, 5 - hexadiene, biphenyl and 1, 3 - propanediol dibenzoate could be formed. The thermal degradation mechanism, which is determined by structure and amount of the thermal decomposition products, are described. During pyrolysis of polytrimethylene terephthalate, polymeric chain scissions take place a peeling reaction as a successive removal of the dimer units from the polymeric chain. The chain scissions are followed by the elimination reaction, linkage action and secondary reactions, which bring about a variety fragment.

  3. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  4. Calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Paige A; Truong, Chi; Wheeler, M Clayton; DeSisto, William J

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of calcium pretreatment on pyrolysis of individual lignocellulosic compounds. Previous work has demonstrated that the incorporation of calcium compounds with the feedstock prior to pyrolysis has a significant effect on the oxygen content and stability of the resulting oil. The aim of this work was to further explore the chemistry of calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis. Bench-scale pyrolysis of biomass constituents, including lignin, cellulose and xylan is performed and compared to the oils produced from pyrolysis of the same components after calcium pretreatment. The resulting oils were analyzed by quantitative GC-MS and SEC. These analyses, together with data collected from previous work provide evidence which was used to develop proposed reaction pathways for pyrolysis of calcium-pretreatment biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270°C, densification, and torrefaction at 270°C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700°C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270°C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700°C as compared to 500°C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  6. Low Temperature Dechlorination of Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; XIE Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Study on behavior of chlorine contained in oval-shaped densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) prepared from unicipal solid waste in pyrolysis was carried out by means of temperature-programmed electrical furnace, and the gasevolving from pyrolysis was investigated by FTIR. De-HCl rate was calculated by determining the emission fraction of HCl in the flue gas and the fraction of Cl left in the pyrolysis residue. The results show that Cl in the d-RDF releases primarily in the form of HCl during the pyrolysis, and the initial releasing temperature of HCl enhances with the increase of heating rate. Meanwhile, the higher the end temperature of pyrolysis, the more the Cl released. De-HCl rate is about 70% when the end temperature of pyrolysis is around 600℃. Besides, mechanism of Cl release is discussed.

  7. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  8. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  9. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  10. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  11. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  12. Mastering VBA for Office 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the language used to customize Microsoft Office. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is the language used for writing macros, automating Office applications, and creating custom applications in Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Access. This complete guide shows both IT professionals and novice developers how to master VBA in order to customize the entire Office suite for specific business needs.: Office 2010 is the leading productivity suite, and the VBA language enables customizations of all the Office programs; this complete guide gives both novice and experience

  13. A Dog And Its Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Mr Smith was a boss of a butcher's shop(肉店). One day a hungry dog came to the shop. The dog wagged(摇动) its tail again and again. The boss gave it some meat to eat. So later on, the dog always stayed with the owner and looked upon him as its own master. When the people found that the boss was friendly(友好) to the dog, they thought Mr Smith could be trusted. As time passed by, more and more customers(顾客) came to buy fresh meat(鲜肉). And he was getting richer and richer.

  14. The master plan for Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Lobnik

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maribor Town plan project began in 1995. The elaborate analytical part was directed into recognising and establishing key problems in the town and guidelines for their solution. Expert guidelines were elaborated and presented as conceptual ideas, easily understood by professionals and lay-people. The concept of the master plan or town plan as such is based on the division and connection of the four parts of the town. In the concluding remarks certain ideas on improving the planning system are presented.

  15. Mastering Microsoft Azure infrastructure services

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2015-01-01

    Understand, create, deploy, and maintain a public cloud using Microsoft Azure Mastering Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Services guides you through the process of creating and managing a public cloud and virtual network using Microsoft Azure. With step-by-step instruction and clear explanation, this book equips you with the skills required to provide services both on-premises and off-premises through full virtualization, providing a deeper understanding of Azure's capabilities as an infrastructure service. Each chapter includes online videos that visualize and enhance the concepts presented i

  16. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  17. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2017-09-12

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil. A method includes contacting a pyrolysis oil with a deoxygenation catalyst in a first reactor at deoxygenation conditions to produce a first reactor effluent. The first reactor effluent has a first oxygen concentration and a first hydrogen concentration, based on hydrocarbons in the first reactor effluent, and the first reactor effluent includes an aromatic compound. The first reactor effluent is contacted with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a second reactor at conditions that deoxygenate the first reactor effluent while preserving the aromatic compound to produce a second reactor effluent. The second reactor effluent has a second oxygen concentration lower than the first oxygen concentration and a second hydrogen concentration that is equal to or lower than the first hydrogen concentration, where the second oxygen concentration and the second hydrogen concentration are based on the hydrocarbons in the second reactor effluent.

  18. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  20. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  1. Improved Pyrolysis Micro reactor Design via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    NUMBER (Include area code) 23 May 2017 Briefing Charts 25 April 2017 - 23 May 2017 Improved Pyrolysis Micro-reactor Design via Computational Fluid... PYROLYSIS MICRO-REACTOR DESIGN VIA COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS Ghanshyam L. Vaghjiani* DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release...Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. PA Clearance 17247 Chen-Source (>240 references from SciFinder as of 5/1/17): Flash pyrolysis

  2. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  3. Temperature Jump Pyrolysis Studies of RP 2 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 December 2016 – 11 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Temperature Jump Pyrolysis Studies of RP-2 Fuel...Rev. 8- 98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 1 TEMPERATURE JUMP PYROLYSIS STUDIES OF RP-2 FUEL Owen Pryor1, Steven D. Chambreau2, Ghanshyam L...Mixture Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. PA Clearance 17026 4 RP-2 Pyrolysis /Combustion Chemistries? • Recent

  4. Pressure-dependent kinetics of initial reactions in iso-octane pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, HongBo; Gong, ChunMing; Li, ZeRong; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-05-07

    This study focuses on the studies of the main pressure-dependent reaction types of iso-octane (iso-C8H18) pyrolysis, including initial C-C bond fission of iso-octane, isomerization, and β-scission reactions of the alkyl radicals produced by the C-C bond fission of iso-octane. For the C-C bond fission of iso-octane, the minimum energy potentials are calculated at the CASPT2(2e,2o)/6-31+G(d,p)//CAS(2e,2o)/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. For the isomerization and the β-scission reactions of the alkyl radicals, the optimization of the geometries and the vibrational frequencies of the reactants, transition states, and products are performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level, and their single point energies are calculated by using the composite CBS-QB3 method. Variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) is used for the high-pressure limit rate constant calculation and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/master equation (RRKM/ME) is used to calculate the pressure-dependent rate constants of these channels with pressure varying from 0.01-100 atm. The rate constants obtained in this work are in good agreement with those available from literatures. We have updated the rate constants and thermodynamic parameters for species involved in these reactions into a current chemical kinetic mechanism and also have improved the concentration profiles of main products such as C3H6 and C4H6 in the shock tube pyrolysis of iso-octane. The results of this study provide insight into the pyrolysis of iso-octane and will be helpful in the future development of branched paraffin kinetic mechanisms.

  5. Methane Pyrolysis and Disposing Off Resulting Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rapp, D.; Rahotgi, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) is a leading process for producing methane and oxygen for application to Mars ISPP. One significant problem with this process is that it produces an excess of methane for combustion with the amount of oxygen that is produced. Therefore, one must discard roughly half of the methane to obtain the proper stoichiometric methane/oxygen mixture for ascent from Mars. This is wasteful of hydrogen, which must be brought from Earth and is difficult to transport to Mars and store on Mars. To reduced the problem of transporting hydrogen to Mars, the S/E process can be augmented by another process which reduces overall hydrogen requirement. Three conceptual approaches for doing this are (1) recover hydrogen from the excess methane produced by the S/E process, (2) convert the methane to a higher hydrocarbon or other organic with a lower H/C ratio than methane, and (3) use a separate process (such as zirconia or reverse water gas shift reaction) to produce additional oxygen, thus utilizing all the methane produced by the Sabatier process. We report our results here on recovering hydrogen from the excess methane using pyrolysis of methane. Pyrolysis has the advantage that it produces almost pure hydrogen, and any unreacted methane can pass through the S/E process reactor. It has the disadvantage that disposing of the carbon produced by pyrolysis presents difficulties. Hydrogen may be obtained from methane by pyrolysis in the temperature range 10000-12000C. The main reaction products are hydrogen and carbon, though very small amounts of higher hydrocarbons, including aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. The conversion efficiency is about 95% at 12000C. One needs to distinguish between thermodynamic equilibrium conversion and conversion limited by kinetics in a finite reactor.

  6. Pyrolysis Processing of Waste Peanuts Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes are the most frequent "by-product" of human society. The Czech Republic still has a considerable room for energy reduction and material intensiveness of production in connection with the application of scientific and technical expertise in the context of innovation cycles. Pyrolysis waste treatment is a promising alternative to the production of renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. It can also reduce the environmental burden and the amount of waste in the environment at the same time.

  7. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  8. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-26

    radially outward from the solar corona . The solar wind is deflected by magnetic fields but absorbed by surface materials on a body like the Moon. Solar...very high temperature crucible for pyrolysis. A zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic crucible was selected to provide thermal stability at high temperatures, shown...in Figure 20. Two zirconia crucibles were used. One of the zirconia crucibles was poorly manufactured and could not withstand the high thermal

  9. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 °C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process.

  10. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  11. Detecting pyrolysis products from bacteria on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Schubert, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Kminek, Gerhard; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-02-01

    A pyrolysis/sublimation technique was developed to isolate volatile amine compounds from a Mars soil analogue inoculated with ˜10 billion Escherichia coli cells. In this technique, the inoculated soil is heated to 500°C for several seconds at Martian ambient pressure and the sublimate, collected by a cold finger, then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Methylamine and ethylamine, produced from glycine and alanine decarboxylation, were the most abundant amine compounds detected after pyrolysis of the cells. A heating cycle similar to that utilized in our experiment was also used to release organic compounds from the Martian soil in the 1976 Viking gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) pyrolysis experiment. The Viking GC/MS did not detect any organic compounds of Martian origin above a level of a few parts per billion in the Martian surface soil. Although the Viking GC/MS instruments were not specifically designed to search for the presence of living cells on Mars, our experimental results indicate that at the part per billion level, the degradation products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected.

  12. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  13. Environmental control technology for biomass flash pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Seward, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies will raise questions concerning the environmental impacts of these systems and the associated costs for appropriate control technologies. This study concentrates on characterizing the effluent emissions and control technologies for a dual fluid-bed pyrolysis unit run by Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. The ASU system produces a raw product gas that is passed through a catalytic liquefaction system to produce a fuel comparable to No. 2 fuel oil. Argonne National Laboratory is conducting a program that will survey several biomass systems to standardize the sampling techniques, prioritize standard analyses and develop a data base so that environmental issues later may be addressed before they limit or impede the commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies. Emissions will be related to both the current and anticipated emissions standards to generate material balances and set design parameters for effluent treatment systems. This will permit an estimate to be made of the capital and operating costs associated with these technologies.

  14. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  15. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene.

  16. Thermogravimetric analysis and fast pyrolysis of Milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Agblevor, Foster A

    2014-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Milkweed was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Total liquid yield of Milkweed pyrolysis was between 40.74% and 44.19 wt% between 425 °C and 550 °C. The gas yield increased from 27.90 wt% to 33.33 wt% with increasing reaction temperature. The higher heating values (HHV) of the Milkweed bio-oil were relatively high (30.33-32.87 MJ/kg) and varied with reaction temperature, feeding rate and fluidization velocity. The selectivity for CO2 was highest within non-condensable gases, and the molar ratio of CO2/CO was about 3 at the different reaction conditions. The (13)C NMR analysis, of the bio-oil showed that the relative concentration carboxylic group and its derivatives was higher at 425 °C than 475 °C, which resulted in slightly higher oxygen content in bio-oil. The pH of aqueous phase obtained at 475 °C was 7.37 which is the highest reported for any lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  18. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is...

  1. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  2. Coal pyrolysis. VII. Economic viability of pyrolysis. Pirolisis del carbon. VII. Viabilidad economica de la pirolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinar, R.; Adanez, J.; Miranda, J.L.; Ibarra, J.V. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1989-04-01

    Analyses the most important economic parameters of the main pyrolysis processes. Considers the markets available for semi-coke and tars. Concludes that no single technology or process has clear advantages over the others because all depends on the type of coal being used and the purpose for which the end product is to be used. Refers to studies carried out in Canada and the USA on the same subject and reports their findings. Concludes optimistically that coal pyrolysis shows promise of being economically viable in the future because although initially, costs reflect the high financial outlay necessary to begin operations, after a certain period, these costs fall and the end product can be sold at a lower price. A further point in favour of pyrolysis is that coal prices are likely to rise more slowly than oil prices. 5 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, E V; Kalogiannis, K G; Stephanidis, S D; Triantafyllidis, K S; Lappas, A A; Achilias, D S

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE MASTER MARKETER NEWSLETTER

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkle, Dean A.; Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Smith, Jackie; Bevers, Stanley J.; Borchardt, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Several support programs have been developed to help support, reinforce, enhance, and improve the effectiveness of the educational experience of Master Marketer graduates and other marketing club participants. One of those products, the Master Marketer Newsletter, is currently mailed to over 700 Master Marketer graduates and Extension faculty on a quarterly basis. In the June 2000 newsletter, a questionnaire was sent to newsletter recipients asking them to evaluate the various sections of the...

  5. Theoretical study of the pyrolysis of vanillin as a model of secondary lignin pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition reactions in processes of vanillin pyrolysis were theoretically investigated by employing density functional theory (DFT) method at M06-2X/6-31 G+(d,p) level. The result shows that the homolytic cleavage of O-CH3 bond could be the dominant initial step in the pyrolysis of vanillin. The hydrogen abstractions from functional groups of vanillin by the formed radicals play important roles in the formation of main products. Both formyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl group contribute to the formation of CO. Benzene is formed from the hydrogen addition reaction between hydrogen radical and phenol at high temperature.

  6. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  7. Molecular products and radicals from pyrolysis of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, J; Khachatryan, L; Dellinger, B

    2012-12-04

    Thermal degradation of lignin under two reaction regimes (pyrolysis in N(2) and oxidative pyrolysis in 4% O(2) in N(2)) has been investigated in a tubular, isothermal, flow-reactor over the temperature range 200-900 °C at a residence time of 0.2 s. Two experimental protocols were adopted: (1) Partial pyrolysis in which the same lignin sample was continuously pyrolyzed at each temperature and (2) conventional pyrolysis, in which new lignin samples were pyrolyzed at each pyrolysis temperature. The results identified common relationships between the two modes of experiments, as well as some differences. The majority of products from partial pyrolysis peaked between 300 and 500 °C, whereas for conventional pyrolysis reaction products peaked between 400 and 500 °C. The principal products were syringol (2,6-dimethoxy phenol), guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol), phenol, and catechol. Of the classes of compounds analyzed, the phenolic compounds were the most abundant, contributing over 40% of the total compounds detected. Benzene, styrene, and p-xylene were formed in significant amounts throughout the entire temperature range. Interestingly, six ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were formed during partial pyrolysis. Oxidative pyrolysis did not result in large differences from pyrolysis; the main products still were syringol, guaiacol, phenol, the only significant difference being the product distribution peaked between 200 and 400 °C. For the first time, low temperature matrix isolation electron paramagnetic resonance was successfully interfaced with the pyrolysis reactor to elucidate the structures of the labile reaction intermediates. The EPR results suggested the presence of methoxyl, phenoxy, and substituted phenoxy radicals as precursors for formation of major products; syringol, guaiacol, phenols, and substituted phenols.

  8. Practice Oriented Master's in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, John O.

    1998-01-01

    The development of an interdisciplinary Masters Program with a concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology has been is described. This program was developed under the U.S. Manufacturing Education and Training Activity of the Technology Reinvestment Project. This development was a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), Alabama A&M University, Northwest Shoals Community College, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Missile Command, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Advanced Optical Systems Inc., Dynetics, Inc., Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc., Nichols Research and Speedring Inc. These organizations as well as the National Institute for Standards and Technology and SCI, Inc. have been participating fully in the design, development and implementation of this program. This goal of the program is to produce highly trained graduates who can also solve practical problems. To this end, the program includes an on-site practicum at a manufacturing location. The broad curriculum of this program emphasizes the fundamentals of optics, optical systems manufacturing and testing, and the principles of design and manufacturing to cost for commercial products. The Master's of Science (MS) in Physics and Master's of Science in Engineering (MSE) in Electrical Engineering Degrees with concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology are offered by the respective UAH academic departments with support from and in consultation with a Steering Committee composed of representatives from each of the participating organizations, and a student representative from UAH. The origins of the programs are described. The curricula of the programs is described. The course outlines of the new courses which were developed for the new curriculum are included. Also included are samples of on-site practicums which the students have been involved in. Also included as attachments are samples of the advertisements, which includes flyers, and

  9. The Master Artisan: A Framework for Master Tradespeople in Australia. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Briggs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The author explores the prospect of improving pathways and opportunities for tradespeople in Australia through the introduction of a masters-level qualification. The study investigates the views and opinions of senior industry representatives and professional educators to determine whether the introduction of a master trade or master artisan…

  10. Nuclear safety research master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output.

  11. Magnetic carbon nanostructures: microwave energy-assisted pyrolysis vs. conventional pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Pallavkar, Sameer; Chen, Minjiao; Yerra, Narendranath; Luo, Zhiping; Colorado, Henry A; Lin, Hongfei; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Khasanov, Airat; Ho, Thomas C; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-01-11

    Magnetic carbon nanostructures from microwave assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shells from conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including nanotubes, nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite phase from the conventional process.

  12. Pyrolysis of hydrochar from digestate: Effect of hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis temperatures on pyrochar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapalli, Ravinder K; Wirth, Benjamin; Reza, M Toufiq

    2016-11-01

    Digestate from anaerobic digestion of biomass often contains more than 90% of water, which is economically unfavorable for pyrolysis. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has potential to treat very wet biomass, however, the hydrochar may be acidic, contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and toxic organic substances (e.g., phenolic compounds), and has very low Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. In this study, pyrolysis of digestate derived hydrochar is performed at various pyrolysis and HTC temperatures. Solid chars were characterized for elemental analysis, pH, PAH, BET, pore size and volume, and phenolic substances, while HTC process liquids were characterized for pH, organic acids, furfural derivatives, and phenolic substances. Physicochemical characteristics of pyro-HTC char were compared with corresponding pyrochar and hydrochar. Pyro-HTC chars produced at higher HTC (i.e., 260°C) and pyrolysis temperatures (i.e., 800°C) showed highest BET surface area (63.5m(2)g(-1)), no PAH, relatively mild basic pH (9.34), and no phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  14. Catalyst studies on the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Melian-Cabrera, I.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is considered an attractive technology for fast pyrolysis oil upgrading to liquid transportation fuels. We here report an experimental study to gain insights in catalyst stability when using Ru/C catalysts for the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil (350 degrees C and 200 b

  15. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  16. Pyrolysis oil upgrading by high pressure thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure thermal treatment (HPTT) is a new process developed by BTG and University of Twente with the potential to economically reduce the oxygen and water content of oil obtained by fast pyrolysis (pyrolysis oil), properties that currently complicate its co-processing in standard refineries. D

  17. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur; Bijl, Anton; Alst, van Niek; Bramer, Eddy; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  18. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  19. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  20. Preparation, properties, and bonding utilization of pyrolysis bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid increase in energy consumption, limited fossil fuel resource, and environmental concerns have stimulated the research need for biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation process of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The liquid product from pyrolysis is known as ...

  1. Delay of biomass pyrolysis by gas–particle interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    We apply a biomass pyrolysis model, based on the model developed by Haseli et al. , which can be used in combination with Direct Numerical Simulation. The pyrolysis model is combined with a model for particle tracking to simulate 3D turbulent particle-laden channel flow with biomass particles

  2. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been

  3. Catalyst studies on the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Melian-Cabrera, I.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is considered an attractive technology for fast pyrolysis oil upgrading to liquid transportation fuels. We here report an experimental study to gain insights in catalyst stability when using Ru/C catalysts for the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil (350 degrees C and 200 b

  4. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  5. Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters on the Performance of CMSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campo, Marta C.; Visser, Tymen; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Wessling, Matthias; Magalhaes, Fernao D.; Mendes, Adelio M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon hollow fiber membranes have been prepared by pyrolysis of a P84/S-PEEK blend. Proximate analysis of the precursor was performed using thermogravimetry (TGA), and a carbon yield of approximately 40% can be obtained. This study aimed at understanding the influence of pyrolysis parameters—end te

  6. MASTER-OAFA: OT detection during inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Krylov, A.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 36m 27.60s -47d 35m 18.1s on 2017-02-02.36706 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.2m (mlim=18.1m).

  7. Master's Degree Studies: Expectations versus Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, higher education in South Africa has been affected drastically by transformation. An issue that has specifically been influenced is master's degrees. A significant increase in the demand for access to course work master's degrees has been experienced, while universities themselves have been confronted with a new…

  8. MASTER: new OT and QSO flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Vladimirov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Pogrosheva, T.; Ivanov, K.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 09h 45m 05.87s -65d 43m 43.3s on 2017-02-15.91771 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.6).

  9. MASTER: possible SLSN in SDSS galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 13m 08.18s +26d 09m 53.3s on 2017-02-16.12905 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlimit=18.6m).

  10. MASTER: PKS 1142-225 optical flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Krylov, A.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Kuvshinov, D.; Shumkov, V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 11h 45m 22.02s -22d 50m 31.4s on 2017-02-10.26340 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.7m (mlimit=18.0m).

  11. Valuing Initial Teacher Education at Master's Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare; Brant, Jacek; Abrahams, Ian; Yandell, John

    2012-01-01

    The future of Master's-level work in initial teacher education (ITE) in England seems uncertain. Whilst the coalition government has expressed support for Master's-level work, its recent White Paper focuses on teaching skills as the dominant form of professional development. This training discourse is in tension with the view of professional…

  12. Flash Pyrolysis and Fractional Pyrolysis of Oleaginous Biomass in a Fluidized-bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Brook

    Thermochemical conversion methods such as pyrolysis have the potential for converting diverse biomass feedstocks into liquid fuels. In particular, bio-oil yields can be maximized by implementing flash pyrolysis to facilitate rapid heat transfer to the solids along with short vapor residence times to minimize secondary degradation of bio-oils. This study first focused on the design and construction of a fluidized-bed flash pyrolysis reactor with a high-efficiency bio-oil recovery unit. Subsequently, the reactor was used to perform flash pyrolysis of soybean pellets to assess the thermochemical conversion of oleaginous biomass feedstocks. The fluidized bed reactor design included a novel feed input mechanism through suction created by flow of carrier gas through a venturi which prevented plugging problems that occur with a more conventional screw feeders. In addition, the uniquely designed batch pyrolysis unit comprised of two tubes of dissimilar diameters. The bottom section consisted of a 1" tube and was connected to a larger 3" tube placed vertically above. At the carrier gas flow rates used in these studies, the feed particles remained fluidized in the smaller diameter tube, but a reduction in carrier gas velocity in the larger diameter "disengagement chamber" prevented the escape of particles into the condensers. The outlet of the reactor was connected to two Allihn condensers followed by an innovative packed-bed dry ice condenser. Due to the high carrier gas flow rates in fluidized bed reactors, bio-oil vapors form dilute aerosols upon cooling which that are difficult to coalesce and recover by traditional heat exchange condensers. The dry ice condenser provided high surface area for inertial impaction of these aerosols and also allowed easy recovery of bio-oils after natural evaporation of the dry ice at the end of the experiments. Single step pyrolysis was performed between 250-610°C with a vapor residence time between 0.3-0.6s. At 550°C or higher, 70% of

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin over nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Wook; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Lee, See Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin was performed using nanoporous catalysts. AI-MCM-41 and Meso-MFI, which had different acid characteristics, were used. In addition, the characteristics of Pt/Meso-MFI were compared with those of Meso-MFI. To analyze the characteristics of the catalyst samples, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses were performed. In addition, pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to facilitate the direct analysis of the pyrolytic products. The products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis contained a greater amount of valuable components than did those obtained from non-catalytic pyrolysis, indicating that catalytic pyrolysis improved the quality of the bio-oil. Additionally, valuable products such as furan and aromatic compounds were produced in greater quantities when Meso-MFI was used. When Pt/Meso-MFI was used, the amounts of furan and aromatic compounds produced increased even further.

  14. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  15. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  16. Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Master Data Services

    OpenAIRE

    Puhakka, Jani

    2014-01-01

    Insinöörityössä selvitettiin Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Master Data Services -palvelimen toiminnot master datan hallintaan. Tavoitteena oli muodostaa käsitys järjestelmän toiminnallisuuksista ja miten näitä voidaan hyödyntää. Ensimmäisenä työssä tutustuttiin master data -käsitteeseen ja -käyttötarkoitukseen. Tämän jälkeen asennettiin Master Data Services -ympäristö virtuaalikoneelle sekä tutustuttiin käytettävissä oleviin hallintatyökaluihin. Seuraavana käytiin läpi Master Data Serviceen l...

  17. A way to the Photo Master Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toshihiko

    After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.

  18. Endoscopic Release of Master Knot of Henry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A post-traumatic partial tear of the flexor hallucis longus tendon at the master knot of Henry and the resultant fibrosis of the knot can result in pain at the medial foot arch or posteromedial ankle pain with trigger hallux. Open debridement of the master knot of Henry is indicated if the symptoms do not improve with nonoperative treatment. The open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the master knot of Henry is a deep structure. Endoscopic release of the master knot of Henry is an alternative to the open procedure and has the advantage of less surgical trauma and potential for less chance of recurrence of fibrosis of the master knot of Henry.

  19. Pyrolysis of furan in a microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urness, Kimberly N.; Guan, Qi; Golan, Amir; Daily, John W.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Stanton, John F.; Ahmed, Musahid; Ellison, G. Barney

    2013-09-01

    A silicon carbide microtubular reactor has been used to measure branching ratios in the thermal decomposition of furan, C4H4O. The pyrolysis experiments are carried out by passing a dilute mixture of furan (approximately 0.01%) entrained in a stream of helium through the heated reactor. The SiC reactor (0.66 mm i.d., 2 mm o.d., 2.5 cm long) operates with continuous flow. Experiments were performed with a reactor inlet pressure of 100-300 Torr and a wall temperature between 1200 and 1600 K; characteristic residence times in the reactor are 60-150 μs. The unimolecular decomposition pathway of furan is confirmed to be: furan (+ M) rightleftharpoons α-carbene or β-carbene. The α-carbene fragments to CH2=C=O + HC≡CH while the β-carbene isomerizes to CH2=C=CHCHO. The formyl allene can isomerize to CO + CH3C≡CH or it can fragment to H + CO + HCCCH2. Tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectrometry is used to monitor the products and to measure the branching ratio of the two carbenes as well as the ratio of [HCCCH2]/[CH3C≡CH]. The results of these pyrolysis experiments demonstrate a preference for 80%-90% of furan decomposition to occur via the β-carbene. For reactor temperatures of 1200-1400 K, no propargyl radicals are formed. As the temperature rises to 1500-1600 K, at most 10% of the decomposition of CH2=C=CHCHO produces H + CO + HCCCH2 radicals. Thermodynamic conditions in the reactor have been modeled by computational fluid dynamics and the experimental results are compared to the predictions of three furan pyrolysis mechanisms. Uncertainty in the pressure-dependency of the initiation reaction rates is a possible a source of discrepancy between experimental results and theoretical predictions.

  20. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Co - pyrolysis of biomass and Polish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordylewski, Wlodzimierz; Stojanowska, Grazyna [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland); Jones, Jenny [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Inst.

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents results of studies of the chemical decomposition of coal, biomass and their blends during low rate heating gasification in atmosphere of air or nitrogen. Polish lignite (Turow), sawdust of pine and blends of these two fuels have been used in the research and it has been investigated the influence of ion exchanged calcium on their pyrolysis. The primary products of devolatilization provided important information for understanding subsequently the leading to toxic organic compounds and synergistic effects of these fuels. The influence of blending ratio and influence of calcium catalysts was discussed.

  2. PROFESSIONAL MASTER AND ITS CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To describe the history, origin, objectives, characteristics, implications, the questions of the evaluation form and some examples of the Professional Masters (MP), to differentiate the Academic Master, and identify the challenges for the next quadrennial assessment. The CAPES site on Professional Masters and documents and meeting area of ​​reports from 2004 to 2013 of Medicine III were read as well as the reports and the sub-page of the area in Capes site. The data relating to the evaluation process and the Scoreboard of the other areas were computed and analyzed. From these data it was detected the challenges of Medicine III for the next four years (2013-2016). The creation of the Professional Master is very recent in Medicine III and no Professional Master of Medicine III course was evaluated yet. Were described the objectives, assumptions, characteristics, motivations, the possibilities, the feasibility, the profile of the students, the faculty, the curriculum, funding, intellectual production, social inclusion, the general requirements of Ordinance No. 193/2011 CAPES and some examples of proposals, technological lines of scientific activities, partnerships and counterparties. The evaluation form of the MP was discussed, the need for social, economic and political intellectual production and the differences with the MA. It was also reported the global importance of the MP and its evolution in Brazil. From the understanding of the MP, Medicine III outlined some challenges and goals to be developed in the 2013-2016 quadrennium. Medicine III understood the MP as a new technological scientific horizon within the strict sensu post-graduate and full consistency with the area. Descrever o histórico, a origem, os objetivos, as características, as implicações, os quesitos da ficha de avaliação e alguns exemplos do Mestrado Profissional (MP), sua diferenciação com o Mestrado Acadêmico, e detectar os desafios para o próximo quadriênio de avaliação. O site

  3. [Characterization of pyrolysis of waste printed circuit boards by high-resolution pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Hong; Xia, Zhengbin; Chen, Huanqin

    2008-07-01

    Thermal degradation of pyrolysis of waste circuit boards was investigated by high-resolution pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGC-MS) and thermogravimetry (TG). In helium atmosphere, the products of FR-4 waste printed circuit board were pyrolyzed at 350, 450, 550, 650, and 750 degrees degrees C, separately, and the pyrolysis products were identified by online MS. The results indicated that the pyrolysis products of the FR-4 waste circuit board were three kinds of substances, such as the low boiling point products, phenol, bisphenol and their related products. Moreover, under 300 degrees degrees C, only observed less pyrolysis products. As the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the relative content of the low boiling point products increased. In the range of 450-650 degrees degrees C, the qualitative analysis and character were similar, and the relative contents of phenol and bisphenol were higher. The influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolyzate yields was studied. On the basis of the pyrolyzate profile and the dependence of pyrolyzate yields on pyrolysis temperature, the thermal degradation mechanism of brominated epoxy resin was proposed.

  4. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  5. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of

  6. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  7. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, E.A.; Seshan, K.; Brem, G.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatm

  8. Suspension Combustion of Wood: Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Yield, Morphology, and Reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperatur...

  9. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  10. Influence of minerals and added calcium on the pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanowska, G.; Jones, J.M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2005-09-01

    The pyrolysis behaviour was studied of two types of biomass (pine and wheat) and a Polish lignite (Turow) in the presence of minerals and ion-exchanged calcium using a variety of laboratory-scale methods including pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a FTIR spectrometer (TGA-FTIR). The degree of catalysis displayed by the calcium during pyrolysis of the ion-exchanged samples varied with the fuel used. Significant catalysis by calcium was observed in pyrolysis of pine, but only a small effect was seen for wheat and very little for coal. The inherent minerals also play a catalytic role in all the samples studied, but potassium is by far the most important in the pyrolysis of the raw wheat straw. The gases and light volatiles are influenced by the presence of catalytic metal. For catalysed pyrolysis of pine, a shift was seen in the gas evolution profiles of all monitored species (H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid) and the shape of the profiles of the volatile organics and methane also changed. In addition, new peaks were seen in the pyrolysis-GC-MS of the ion-exchanged pine, indicative of a different pyrolysis mechanism. In TGA experiments of co-pyrolysis, a lower char yield was measured from pine/coal mixtures than expected on an additive basis. However, the presence of calcium in one fuel did not appear to catalyse pyrolysis in the other fuel.

  11. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  12. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  14. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  15. Biofuel from jute stick by pyrolysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Parveen, M.; Islam, M. R.; Haniu, H.; Takai, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the conversion of jute stick into biofuels and chemicals by externally heated fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor have been taken into consideration. The solid jute stick was characterized through proximate and ultimate analysis, gross calorific values and thermo-gravimetric analysis to investigate their suitability as feedstock for this consideration. The solid biomass particles were fed into the reactor by gravity feed type reactor feeder. The products were oil, char and gases. The liquid and char products were collected separately while the gas was flared into the atmosphere. The process conditions were varied by fixed-bed temperature; feed stock particle size, N2 gas flow rate and running time. All parameters were found to influence the product yields significantly. The maximum liquid yields were 50 wt% of solid jute stick at reactor temperature 425°C for N2 gas flow rate 6 l/min, feed particle size 1180-1700 µm and running time 30 min. Liquid products obtained at these conditions were characterized by physical properties, chemical analysis and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtained liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from the selected biomass if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly.

  16. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

  17. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  18. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Second Line of Defense Master Spares Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Dale L.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-11-20

    This catalog is intended to be a comprehensive listing of repair parts, components, kits, and consumable items used on the equipment deployed at SLD sites worldwide. The catalog covers detection, CAS, network, ancillary equipment, and tools. The catalog is backed by a Master Parts Database which is used to generate the standard report views of the catalog. The master parts database is a relational database containing a record for every part in the master parts catalog along with supporting tables for normalizing fields in the records. The database also includes supporting queries, database maintenance forms, and reports.

  1. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  2. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  3. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  4. Studies on characteristics of producer gas from sewage sludge pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Haiying; Zhang Guijie [Coll. of Metallurgy and Energy, Heibei Polytechnic Univ., Tangshan (China); Zhang Shuting; Chen Guanyi [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin Univ., Nankai District, TJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The pyrolysis experiments of sewage sludge at low and middle temperature range from 250 C to 700de;C were carried out in a {phi} 200mm laboratory fixed bed external-heat reactor. The influence of final pyrolysis temperature on product yield of gases was studied. It was found that the gases yield increased with increasing the final pyrolysis temperature. But the productive rate increased above 450 C. The results indicated the secondary pyrolysis of intermediate product occurred about 450 C. According to the analysis of NCG, the yield of CO{sub 2} was maximum at lower pyrolysis temperature but the yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} were higher at elevated pyrolysis temperature and the maximum caloric value of gaseous emissions were 16712 kJ/m{sup 3}. According the TG-DTA curves the decomposition of sewage sludge had three stages. The first stage was deprivation of interstitial moisture (100 C-110 C), the second stage was the depolymerization reactions of lipid and the generation of large molecular intermediate fragments (110 C-325 C), the last stage was cracking of the large molecular and the decomposition of protein and saccharide (325 C-600 C). All the results can offer reliable base data for the application of pyrolysis technique of sewage sludge. (orig.)

  5. Mass spectrometric studies of fast pyrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenstein, John; Hurt, Matt; Murria, Priya; Easton, McKay; Choudhari, Harshavardhan; Yang, Linan; Riedeman, James; Carlsen, Mark; Nash, John; Agrawal, Rakesh; Delgass, W.; Ribeiro, Fabio; Kenttämaa, Hilkka

    2015-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis probe/linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer combination was used to study the primary fast pyrolysis products (those that first leave the hot pyrolysis surface) of cellulose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose, as well as of cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan, at 600°C. Similar products with different branching ratios were found for the oligosaccharides and cellulose, as reported previously. However, identical products (with the exception of two) with similar branching ratios were measured for cellotriosan (and cellopentosan) and cellulose. This result demonstrates that cellotriosan is an excellent small-molecule surrogate for studies of the fast pyrolysis of cellulose and also that most fast pyrolysis products of cellulose do not originate from the reducing end. Based on several observations, the fast pyrolysis of cellulose is suggested to initiate predominantly via two competing processes: the formation of anhydro-oligosaccharides, such as cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan (major route), and the elimination of glycolaldehyde (or isomeric) units from the reducing end of oligosaccharides formed from cellulose during fast pyrolysis.

  6. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  7. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  8. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  9. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  11. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Chang, Jie

    2008-11-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 degrees C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 degrees C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) approximately 205 degrees C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  12. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  13. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase.

  14. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Better Way to Master English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU XIAOYAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Disney English recently held a meeting for parents to communicate with experts on how to master English better by Multiple Intelligences (MI) method. MI is an internationally advocated teaching theory founded by Harvard University.

  16. Master Plan Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Master Plan is to give overall guidance for the protection, use, and development of Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge during the next ten to...

  17. Pixley National Wildlife Refuge master plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pixley NWR Master Plan has been developed as a resource document as well as a guide for Refuge management. The document is designed to be useful for a...

  18. Master Plan for Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This master plan presents the development and management requirements needed to make Iroquois Refuge one of the most important breeding-migration areas in the...

  19. Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  20. Arctic National Wildlife Range: Master plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the master plan for Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. This plan outlines refuge objectives, history, existing conditions, and proposed accomplishments for the...

  1. Master-Batch Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Plastic industry promotes the development of the master-batch sector The plastic processing industry in China has developed rapidly. The output is increasing rapidly and the quality is improving constantly.

  2. Kern National Wildlife Refuge master plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kern NWR Master Plan has been developed as a resource document as well as a guide for Refuge management. The document is designed to be useful for a...

  3. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  4. MASTER-OAFA discovery: dwarf nova outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (Argentina, San Juan National Univeristy's Observatorio Astronomico Felix Aguilar) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 02h 19m 51.96s -69d 26m 59.6s on 2016-10-18.23277 UT. The OT magnitude in unfiltered is 17.2m (limit 18.3m).

  5. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  6. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  7. Program Notes: Masters Recital, October 3, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam-Somer, Batya

    2009-01-01

    This Master's thesis is a document that accompanies my Master's violin recital which took place on October 3, 2009 at the University of California, San Diego. This recital consists of Piece Pour Ivry, per violino by Bruno Maderna, Sonata in C Major by J. S. Bach, Chorals for Solo Violin by John Cage, and Phantasy for Violin and Piano Accompaniment by Arnold Schoenberg. This thesis consists of four short paragraphs introducing each work to the l...

  8. PYROLYSIS KINETICS OF WASHED PRECIPITATED LIGNIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gustafsson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the pyrolysis behavior of precipitated washed lignin in a Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor between 700 and 1000°C and at different residence times. Lignin was precipitated by acidification of softwood black liquor using CO2. After acid washing, the solid material was dried and sieved (80-100 μm. This material was then fed into the reactor at a rate of about 0.1 g/min. The formed gases were analyzed with respect to CO, CO2, and CH4, and char was collected and weighed. A traditional first order Arrhenius kinetic expression, based on the temperature of the particles with respect to residence time, was adapted to the experimental results. The activation energy was found to be 32.1 kJ/mol. The low ash content in the washed lignin gave a very low solid material residue after the reactor.

  9. Zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciąg Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we developed and tested spray pyrolysis system for layers deposition. In the system we have used ultrasonic apparatus (nebulizator as a sprayer. A zinc nitrate aqueous solution has been used as a precursor solution. The idea of the method is the decomposition of nitrate on a hot substrate according to the reaction Zn(NO32 → ZnO +2 NO2 +1/2O2. The layers were grown on glass, (001Si and KCl substrates at the temperatures 300 – 500°C. The thickness of the obtained layers was in the range 50 – 500 nm, depending on the growth time and rate. The influence of substrate temperature on the morphology of the layers has been studied by SEM method. The energy gap of the layers was found to be the range of 3.26-3.3 eV from their absorption spectra.

  10. Zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciąg, Andrzej; Sagan, Piotr; Kuźma, Marian; Popovych, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    In this work we developed and tested spray pyrolysis system for layers deposition. In the system we have used ultrasonic apparatus (nebulizator) as a sprayer. A zinc nitrate aqueous solution has been used as a precursor solution. The idea of the method is the decomposition of nitrate on a hot substrate according to the reaction Zn(NO3)2 → ZnO +2 NO2 +1/2O2. The layers were grown on glass, (001)Si and KCl substrates at the temperatures 300 - 500°C. The thickness of the obtained layers was in the range 50 - 500 nm, depending on the growth time and rate. The influence of substrate temperature on the morphology of the layers has been studied by SEM method. The energy gap of the layers was found to be the range of 3.26-3.3 eV from their absorption spectra.

  11. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  12. Biofuel from fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-09-04

    This review addresses recent developments in biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by catalytic hydrotreating. The research in the field has expanded dramatically in the past few years with numerous new research groups entering the field while existing efforts from others expand. The issues revolve around the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Much work in batch reactor tests with precious metal catalysts needs further validation to verify long-term operability in continuous flow systems. The effect of the low level of sulfur in bio-oil needs more study to be better understood. Utilization of the upgraded bio-oil for feedstock to finished fuels is still in an early stage of understanding.

  13. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  14. Limonene ethers from tire pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanciulescu, Maria; Ikura, Michio [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-01

    Tire pyrolysis oil was produced by EnerVision Inc., Halifax, Canada using the continuous ablative reactor (CAR) system. The tire oil was separated by distillation into several fractions. Naphtha and limonene enriched naphtha were reacted with methanol over different catalysts. Batch experiments were carried out to separate limonene as methyl limonene ethers. Whole tire pyrolysis oil was distilled and the resulting distillates were redistilled to separate the limonene (bp about 176{sup o}C). Vacuum distillation yielded on average 25.5wt% naphtha containing 16.3wt% limonene (average). Redistillation increased the limonene concentration to approximately 32-37wt%. The conversion of limonene (mono-terpene) to limonene ethers (terpenoides) shifted the boiling point of the limonene derivatives out of the naphtha boiling range (IBP -190{sup o}C). This allowed the separation of fragrant limonene ethers from foul smelling naphtha. Alkoxylation reactions were performed mostly using methanol and acidic catalysts. The methyl ether [1-methyl-4-({alpha}-methoxy-isopropyl)-1-cyclohexene] has a boiling point of about 198{sup o}C which is higher than the end boiling point of the naphtha cut. Five heterogeneous catalysts (four zeolites and one ion exchange resin) were tested in a batch reactor. {beta}-Zeolite produced excellent results. The reaction of R-(+)-limonene with methanol in the presence of activated {beta}-zeolite yielded methyl ether, 87.5% at selectivity 89.7% with a maximum of 2h reaction time. Limonene conversion from whole naphtha to ethers was also high. (author)

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  16. Hydrogen Generator by Methane Pyrolysis with Carbon Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop, fabricate, and test a system to provide 99.999% hydrogen by efficiently performing methane pyrolysis. The system has three unique...

  17. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...... liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil...... to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability...

  18. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    Lignin, sewage sludge and macroalg ae (nonconventional biomasses) fast pyrolysis properties has been studied through experimental investigations on a la boratory Pyrolysis Centrifugal Reactor (PCR) and a model on lignin pyrolysis have been developed. Fu rthermore the nonconventional biomass...... ethanol plant a bio-oil can be produced with oil yields of 36% (daf) and an oil en ergy recovery of 45%. This is a relatively low bio-oil yield compared to other feedstock’s, however, it may increase the value of the lignin residual product, such that the lignin char is used for combustion on the ethanol...... plant, and the bio-oil is sold for use on heavy oil burners. The macroalgae is a promising feedstock w ith a high bio-oil yield of 54 wt% daf and an energy recovery of 76 % in the liquid oil. Detailed characteriza tion of the pyrolysis products in the form of bio-oil, gas and char has been performed...

  19. High temperature SU-8 pyrolysis for fabrication of carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Yasmin Mohamed; Caviglia, Claudia; Hemanth, Suhith

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the investigation of the pyrolysis parameters at high temperature (1100 °C) for the fabrication of two-dimensional pyrolytic carbon electrodes. The electrodes were fabricated by pyrolysis of lithographically patterned negative epoxy based photoresist SU-8. A central...... composite experimental design was used to identify the influence of dwell time at the highest pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on electrical, electrochemical and structural properties of the pyrolytic carbon: Van der Pauw sheet resistance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon. The results show that the temperature increase from 900 °C to 1100 °C improves the electrical and electrochemical properties. At 1100 °C, longer dwell time leads to lower resistivity, while the variation of the pyrolysis...

  20. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible microwave plasma methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  1. Studies on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Daqing Atmospheric Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥海; 徐春明; 张倩; 高金森

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of Daqing atmospheric residue on catalyst CEP-1 was investigated in a confined fluidized bed reactor. The results show that reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil have significant effects on product distribution and yields of light olefins. The yields of light olefins show the maxima with the increase of reaction temperature, the mass ratios of catalyst to oil and steam to oil, respectively. The optimized operating conditions were determined in the laboratory, and under that condition the yields of ethylene, propylene and total light olefins by mass were 15.9%, 20.7% and 44.3% respectively. The analysis of pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis liquid indicates that CEP-1 has good capacity of converting heavy oils into light olefins, and there is a large amount of aromatics in pyrolysis liquid.

  2. A plasma-arc pyrolysis system for hazardous waste treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A laboratory system for the treatment of medical and hazardous wastes via AC plasma-arc pyrolysis was recently built up by a research team led by Prof. SHENG Hongzhi at the CAS Institute of Mechanics (IMECH) in Beijing.

  3. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery.

  4. Thermal analysis of charring materials based on pyrolysis interface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Charring thermal protection systems have been used to protect hypersonic vehicles from high heat loads. The pyrolysis of charring materials is a complicated physical and chemical phenomenon. Based on the pyrolysis interface model, a simulating approach for charring ablation has been designed in order to obtain one dimensional transient thermal behavior of homogeneous charring materials in reentry capsules. As the numerical results indicate, the pyrolysis rate and the surface temperature under a given heat flux rise abruptly in the beginning, then reach a plateau, but the temperature at the bottom rises very slowly to prevent the structural materials from being heated seriously. Pyrolysis mechanism can play an important role in thermal protection systems subjected to serious aerodynamic heat.

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Pyrolysis of Isopsoralen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-zhong Yang; Feng Zhang; Liang-yuan Jia; Li-dong Zhang; Fei Qi; Hai-yan Fan; Ji-bao Cai

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis of isopsoralen was studied by synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry at low pressure.The pyrolysis products were detected at different photon energies,the ratios of products to precursor were measured at various pyrolysis temperatures.The experimental results demonstrate that the main pyrolysis products are primary CO and sequential CO elimination products (C10H6O2 and C9H6O).The decomposition channels of isopsoralen were also studied by the density functional theory,then rate constants for competing pathways were calculated by the transition state theory.The dominant decomposition channels of isopsoralen and the molecular structures for corresponding products were identified bv combined experimental and theoretical studies.

  6. Pyrolysis of biomass briquettes, modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, B; Lammers, G; Beenackers, AACM; Kopetz, H; Weber, T; Palz, W; Chartier, P; Ferrero, GL

    1998-01-01

    Carbonisation of biomass briquettes was studied using a dedicated single briquette carbonisation reactor. The reactor enabled continuous measurement of the briquette mass and continuous measurement of the radial temperature profile in the briquette. Furthermore pyrolysis gas production and compositi

  7. Comparison for the compositions of fast and slow pyrolysis oils by NMR characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Haoxi; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2013-11-01

    The pyrolysis of softwood (SW) kraft lignin and pine wood in different pyrolysis systems were examined at 400, 500 and 600 °C. NMR including quantitative (13)C and Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC)-NMR, and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize various pyrolysis oils. The content of methoxyl groups decreased by 76% for pine wood and 70% for lignin when using fast pyrolysis system. The carbonyl groups also decreased by 76% and nearly completely eliminated in 600 °C pine wood fast pyrolysis oil. Compared to the slow pyrolysis process, fast pyrolysis process was found to improve the cleavage of methoxyl groups, aliphatic CC bonds and carbonyl groups and produce more polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from lignin and aliphatic CO bonds from carbohydrates. Another remarkable difference between fast and slow pyrolysis oils was the molecular weight of fast pyrolysis oils increased by 85-112% for pine wood and 104-112% for lignin.

  8. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  9. Sulfur Transformation during Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Chen, Lin; Yin, Linlin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-03

    The sulfur distributions and evolution of sulfur-containing compounds in the char, tar and gas fractions were investigated during the microwave and conventional pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Increased accumulation of sulfur in the char and less production of H2S were obtained from microwave pyrolysis at higher temperatures (500-800 °C). Three similar conversion pathways were identified for the formation of H2S during microwave and conventional pyrolysis. The cracking of unstable mercaptan structure in the sludge contributed to the release of H2S below 300 °C. The decomposition of aliphatic-S compounds in the tars led to the formation of H2S (300-500 °C). The thermal decomposition of aromatic-S compounds in the tars generated H2S from 500 to 800 °C. However, the secondary decomposition of thiophene-S compounds took place only in conventional pyrolysis above 700 °C. Comparing the H2S contributions from microwave and conventional pyrolysis, the significant increase of H2S yields in conventional pyrolysis was mainly attributed to the decomposition of aromatic-S (increasing by 10.4%) and thiophene-S compounds (11.3%). Further investigation on the inhibition mechanism of H2S formation during microwave pyrolysis confirmed that, with the special heating characteristics and relative shorter residence time, microwave pyrolysis promoted the retention of H2S on CaO and inhibited the secondary cracking of thiophene-S compounds at higher temperatures.

  10. Experiments and Modelling of Coal Pyrolysis under Fluidized Bed Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYongzhe; XuXiangdong; 等

    1999-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of two Chinese coals has been investigated in a laboratory-scale bubbling fluidized bed system in Siegen University,Germany,Experimental equipment and procedure are introduced.The amounts of pyrolysis species of each coal were measured,calcuated and compared.A new method was presented to determine the needed parameters in FG-DVC model with the experimental results instead of other much more complicated experiments.

  11. 19 CFR 10.90 - Master records and metal matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master records and metal matrices. 10.90 Section... Master Records, and Metal Matrices § 10.90 Master records and metal matrices. (a) Consumption entries... made, of each master record or metal matrix covered thereby. (c) A bond on Customs Form 301,...

  12. 21 CFR 314.420 - Drug master files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug master files. 314.420 Section 314.420 Food... master files. (a) A drug master file is a submission of information to the Food and Drug Administration by a person (the drug master file holder) who intends it to be used for one of the following...

  13. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  14. Production and characterization of chars from cherry pulp via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, E; Özbay, N; Yargıç, A S; Şahin, R Z

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar. Proximate, ultimate, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on cherry pulp and its chars to examine the chemical alterations after the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, based on experimental results. Porous biochars are carbon rich and includes high potassium content. The aromaticity of biochars increased and O/C mass ratio reduced with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature as a result of the development of compact aromatic structure in char. Pyrolysis provides a promising conversion procedure for the production of high energy density char which has promising applications in existing coal-fired boilers without any upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s......) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at the CHEC center at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. The reactor is a compact design that uses a low flow rate...... constructed as a mobile unit of a tractor-propelled vehicle that is used on straw fields. A lot of work on PCR straw and wood pyrolysis with respect to pyrolysis conditions, moisture feedstock content, bio-oil properties, and PCR modelling is done before this PhD project. The bio-oil yields of approximately...

  16. Study on pyrolysis and gasification of wood in MSW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop municipal solid waste(MSW) pyrolysis/gasification and melting technology with low emission and high efficiency, it was planed that all the main components in MSW and some typical kinds of MSW were pyrolyzed/gasified to propose an expert system for raw MSW. In this paper, wood, which was a prevalent component in MSW, was pyrolyzed and gasified in fluidized-bed reactors at different apparent excess air ratios (EARs), temperatures and fluidizing velocities. For pyrolysis, with temperature increasing from 400℃ to 700℃, the yield of pyrolysis char decreased while that of pyrolysis gas increased (in this paper respectively from 28% to 20% and from 10% to 35%), and when temperature was 500℃, the yield of pyrolysis tar reached the highest,up to 38% in this paper. It was the optimum for gasification when temperature was 600℃ and apparent EAR was 0.4. Under the experimental conditions of this paper, gasification efficiency achieved 73%, lower heat value(LHV) reached 5800 kJ/(Nm3) and yield of syngas was 2.01 Nm3/kg. Lower fluidizing velocity was useful to upgrade gasification efficiency and LHV of syngas for wood gasification. Based on the results, the reactive courses and mechanism were analyzed respectively for wood pyrolysis and gasification.

  17. Preparation of doping titania antibacterial powder by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shun-wen; PENG Bing; CHAI Li-yuan; LIU Yun-chao; LI Zhu-ying

    2008-01-01

    Doping titania powders were synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method from an aqueous solution containing H2TiF6 and AgNO3. The effects of the processing parameters on panicle size distribution, structure, and morphology of doping panicles were investigated. The results show that aggregation-free spherical panicles with average diameter of 200-600 nm are obtained and the particle size of the powder can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of solution. The experimental approach indicates that the size and the value of standard deviation of panicle size increase from 210 nm to 450 nm and from 0.46 to 0.73 respectively with the increase of the titanic ion concentration from 0.05 to 0.4 mol/L. Composite TiOF2 is obtained when the pyrolysis temperature is set to be 400 ℃. With increasing pyrolysis temperature from 400 ℃ to 800 ℃, the crystal size of titania powders increases from 14.1 to 26.5 nm and TiOF2 content of powder decreases dramatically. The property of ion released from powder is affected significantly by the pyrolysis temperature, and the amount of fluorine ion and silver ion released from powder decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The optical property of doping titania powders is not affected by pyrolysis temperature. Antibacterial test results show that composite powders containing more fluorine ions exhibit stronger antibacterial activity against E.coli.

  18. Pyrolysis behavior of selected manures using TG-FTIR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, D.; Dong, H.; Shang, B. [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: donghm@cjac.org.cn

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the pyrolysis properties of animal manures using a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Experimental results showed that an animal manure pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: dehydration, pyrolysis, and carbonization. These stages may produce differed features on end residuum, weight loss rate, and peak features, as indicated by thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The produced gases detected by FTIR are H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid. An infrared spectrum analysis has unveiled the evolving properties of each gas. The water curve had two peaks corresponding to free moisture loss and combined crystal water. The carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide curves produced two similar peaks corresponding to pyrolysis and carbonization, though carbon dioxide had a weaker second peak compared with carbon monoxide. The methane curves came up with a single peak corresponding to the terminal stage of pyrolysis and the early stage of carbonization. Other hydrocarbon curves displayed a single peak corresponding to pyrolysis. (author)

  19. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  20. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.

    1983-10-01

    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  1. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures.

  2. Pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment: effect of antinomy trioxide on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W J; Bhaskar, T; Merpati, N M M; Muto, A; Sakata, Y; Williams, P T

    2007-09-01

    This work has investigated the effect that antimony trioxide has on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers and the effect that different types of brominated flame retardants used in plastics have on the composition of the pyrolysis products. Brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) which contained either 5% or 0% antimony trioxide and either decabromodiphenyl oxide (DDO) or decabromodiphenyl ethane (DDE) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 430 degrees C. Some experiments on the fixed bed reactor involved mixing the Br-HIPS with polystyrene. The gaseous products were analysed by GC-FID and GC-TCD and it was found that antimony trioxide caused an increase in the proportion of ethane and ethene and suppressed the proportion of butane and butene. When DDE was the flame retardant increased proportions of ethane and ethene were found in the pyrolysis gas compared to when DDO used. When polystyrene was mixed with the Br-HIPS it suppressed the trends observed in the gas composition during the pyrolysis of Br-HIPS. The pyrolysis oils were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS, GC-FID, and GC-ECD. It was found that the plastic which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form mainly toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cumene, and alpha-methylstyrene. The oils produced from the pyrolysis of the plastic that contained antimony trioxide did not contain any styrene or alpha-methylstyrene, but instead contained greater concentrations of ethylbenzene and cumene. The absence of styrene and alpha-methylstyrene from the pyrolysis oil occurred even when the Br-HIPS was mixed with polystyrene. GC-ECD analysis of the oils showed that the plastics which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form (1-bromoethyl)benzene, which was totally absent from the pyrolysis oils when antimony trioxide was present in the plastic.

  3. 76 FR 68167 - Spin Master, Inc. and Spin Master, Ltd., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28558] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [CPSC Docket No. 12-C0003] Spin Master, Inc. and Spin Master, Ltd., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer... Settlement Agreement with Spin Master, Inc. and Spin Master, Ltd., containing a civil penalty of...

  4. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  5. Autonomic cardiovascular modulation in masters and young cyclists following high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at examining the autonomic cardiovascular modulation in well-trained masters and young cyclists following high-intensity interval training (HIT). Nine masters (age 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young cyclists (age 25.9 ± 3.0 years) completed a HIT protocol of 6 x 30 sec at 175% of peak power output, with 4.5-min' rest between efforts. Immediately following HIT, heart rate and R-R intervals were monitored for 30-min during passive supine recovery. Autonomic modulation was examined by i) heart rate recovery in the first 60-sec of recovery (HRR60); ii) the time constant of the 30-min heart rate recovery curve (HRRτ); iii) the time course of the root mean square for successive 30-sec R-R interval (RMSSD30); and iv) time and frequency domain analyses of subsequent 5-min R-R interval segments. No significant between-group differences were observed for HRR60 (P = 0.096) or HRRτ (P = 0.617). However, a significant interaction effect was found for RMSSD30 (P = 0.021), with the master cyclists showing higher RMSSD30 values following HIT. Similar results were observed in the time and frequency domain analyses with significant interaction effects found for the natural logarithm of the RMSSD (P = 0.008), normalised low-frequency power (P = 0.016) and natural logarithm of high-frequency power (P = 0.012). Following high-intensity interval training, master cyclists demonstrated greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation compared to young cyclists, indicating that physical training at older ages has significant effects on autonomic function.

  6. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4

  7. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EXPLORATION OF TCM MASTERS KNOWLEDGE MINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijin TANG; Nan ZHANG; Zheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a rich knowledge about human health and disease by its special way evolved along a very long history. As modern medicine is achieving much progress, arguments and disputes toward TCM never end. To avoid losing precious knowledge of living TCM masters, endeavors have been engaged to systematic collection of those knowledge of TCM masters, such as their growth experiences, effective practical cases toward diseases and typical therapeutic principles and methods. Knowledge mining methods have been expected to explore some useful or hidden patterns to unveil some mysteries of the TCM system. In the paper, some computerized methods are applied toward those collected materials about some living TCM masters in China mainland to show a different way of exposing essential ideas of those TCM masters by correspondence visualization which aims to help people understand TCM holistic views toward disease and body, and facilitate tacit knowledge transfer and sense-making of the essence of TCM. The work is one kind of qualitative meta-synthesis of TCM masters' knowledge.

  9. Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Ann-Christine; Iisa, Kristiina; Sandström, Linda; Ben, Haoxi; Pilath, Heidi; Deutch, Steve; Wiinikka, Henrik; Öhrman, Olov G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture of different chemical compounds with a wide range of molecular weights and boiling points. Due to its complexity, an efficient fractionation of the oil may be a more promising approach of producing liquid fuels and chemicals than treating the whole oil. In this work a sampling system based on fractional condensation was attached to a cyclone pyrolysis pilot plant to enable separation of the produced pyrolysis vapors into five oil fractions. The sampling system was composed of cyclonic condensers and coalescing filters arranged in series. The objective was to characterize the oil fractions produced from three different Nordic feedstocks and suggest possible applications. The oil fractions were thoroughly characterized using several analytical techniques including water content; elemental composition; heating value, and chemical compound group analysis using solvent fractionation, quantitative 13C NMR and 1H NMR and GC x GC - TOFMS. The results show that the oil fractions significantly differ from each other both in chemical and physical properties. The first fractions and the fraction composed of aerosols were highly viscous and contained larger energy-rich compounds of mainly lignin-derived material. The middle fraction contained medium-size compounds with relatively high concentration of water, sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbonyls and acids and finally the last fraction contained smaller molecules such as water, aldehydes, ketones and acids. However, the properties of the respective fractions seem independent on the studied feedstock types, i.e. the respective fractions produced from different feedstock are rather similar. This promotes the possibility to vary the feedstock depending on availability while retaining the oil properties. Possible applications of the five fractions vary from oil for combustion and extraction of the pyrolytic lignin in the early fractions to extraction of sugars from the early and middle fractions, and

  10. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  11. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  12. Master-slave robot force telepresence technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to make the manipulators useful, some force-feedback is required to enable the operator to sense the robot's feelings. Without force-feedback, many tasks will not be able to be carried out. For these rea sons, a master-slave system with different kinematics has been developed. The system permits us to vary the ra tio of the position/attitude, to design a master manipulator without considering the kinematics of the slave ma nipulator, and so on. To overcome the difficulties, a master-slave manipulator system with different kinematics is proposed. The master manipulator is force-controlled via a force torque sensor in the handle. As to master slave manipulator system with two way force feedback is concerned, the force goes to the actuator from the oper ator, and come back to the operator from the actuator. The working situation is viewed by the stereo TV supervi sory system. The force and vision telepresence are thus achieved. In order to ensure the maneuverability, direct drive DC motors and PWM servo units are adopted to improve the response speed. It can provide force response in a wide range. A lot of experiments were performed with the master-slave manipulator system force telepres ence to study the force response under restricted environment. By two force sensors, the force-position bilateral force response system effectively decreases the affection of friction and inertia force, and increases the authen ticity of bilateral force response. When the slave manipulator ann is encountered with soft-object(sponge), in the experiments, the operator can clearly have the fine feeling as if he himself is contacted with the object.

  13. Current issues and future directions in pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-02-01

    Biomass is a diverse grouping of low energy content, low density and high moisture heterogenous materials. An overview of pyrolysis processes and procedures was presented with a list of potential applications for industrial processes and power generation. The chemical energy content of various fuels was presented and with the advantages of pyrolysis with reference to improved transport, handling and storage. Details of technical requirements were outlined along with some of the undesirable characteristics of biofuel including the highly corrosive nature of the fuel, pungency, high solids content, immiscibility with hydrocarbon fuels and the fact that over time, chemical composition shifts, resulting in increased viscosity and decreased volatility. Various issues concerning pyrolysis regarding current technologies, composition and standards, applications and biorefinery feedstock were summarized. A flow chart presenting the conversion of biomass to biofuel was provided. Various reactor types were also overviewed and included such as fluidized beds, transport, heated augers, vacuum pyrolysis and ablative and rotating cones. Details of pilot plants in Erie and Renfrew, Ontario were provided along with details of a plant in Alabama operating entirely on chicken litter. Various specifications for pyrolysis oils were presented. A chart of biofuel composition in mass fractions was provided, with an accompanying list of commonly quoted pyrolysis oil properties. A series of biofuel combustion tests conducted at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) in Ottawa were described. Photographs of the pre-test refractory were exhibited. Details of current research on drying kiln applications were outlined. The suitability of pyrolytic biofuel for producing microemulsion fuels was discussed. A biorefinery model was included. Challenges to biomass pyrolysis include feed preparation, scale-up issues, heat transfer to reactor rates, char separation, liquid collection, liquid quality

  14. Enterprise Master Data Management Trends and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of master data and master data management (MDM evolved from the increased necessities of enterprises for a more efficient and effective data management, requiring unification and integration of enterprise-wide data from multiple systems. In order to do that, many companies are considering MDM solutions, which automate data integration across various systems and applications. The paper aims to establish the correct position and role of the MDM in the enterprise IT (Information Technology systems and to identify the main approaches, trends and solutions in the emergent area of enterprise MDM.

  15. Markovian Master Equations: A Critical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Rivas, Ángel; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2010-01-01

    We derive Markovian master equations of single and interacting harmonic systems in different scenarios, including strong internal coupling. By comparing the dynamics resulting from the corresponding Markovian master equations with exact numerical simulations of the evolution of the global system, we precisely delimit their validity regimes and assess the robustness of the assumptions usually made in the process of deriving the reduced dynamics. The proposed method is sufficiently general to suggest that the conclusions made here are widely applicable to a large class of settings involving interacting chains subject to a weak interaction with an environment.

  16. Markovian master equations: a critical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Angel; Huelga, Susana F; B Plenio, Martin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); K Plato, A Douglas, E-mail: angel.rivas@uni-ulm.d [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    We derive Markovian master equations for single and interacting harmonic systems in different scenarios, including strong internal coupling. By comparing the dynamics resulting from the corresponding master equations with numerical simulations of the global system's evolution, we delimit their validity regimes and assess the robustness of the assumptions usually made in the process of deriving the reduced Markovian dynamics. The results of these illustrative examples serve to clarify the general properties of other open quantum system scenarios subject to treatment within a Markovian approximation.

  17. Master of the House Blu-Ray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Casper

    2014-01-01

    In this interview, produced by the Criterion Collection in 2014, Danish film historian Casper Tybjerg discusses how Master of the House went from being a popular stage play to a film, one that was a major stepping-stone in director Carl Theodor Dreyer's career.......In this interview, produced by the Criterion Collection in 2014, Danish film historian Casper Tybjerg discusses how Master of the House went from being a popular stage play to a film, one that was a major stepping-stone in director Carl Theodor Dreyer's career....

  18. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  19. MASTER: OT detection during Fermi trigger inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Potter, S.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    During inspection of Fermi trigger 501261070 ( (Ra,Dec)=47.190,-47.210; GRB_ERROR_radius=3.27deg, GRB_TIME=2016/11/19 15:11:06.40UT http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/other/501261070.fermi ) MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 22m 52.70s -48d 29m 10.9s on 2016-11-19 21:17:17.878UT with unfiltered m_OT=17.8 (mlim=19.7).

  20. Mastering VMware vSphere 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new and updated edition of bestselling Mastering VMware vSphere 4 Written by leading VMware expert, this book covers all the features and capabilities of VMware vSphere. You'll learn how to install, configure, operate, manage, and secure the latest release.Covers all the new features and capabilities of the much-anticipated new release of VMware vSphereDiscusses the planning, installation, operation, and management for the latest releaseReviews migration to the latest vSphere softwareOffers hands-on instruction and clear explanations with real-world examples Mastering VMware vSphere is the

  1. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  2. Pyrolysis of electrical and electronic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, I.; Caballero, B.M.; Chomon, M.J.; Laresgoiti, M.F.; Torres, A.; Fernandez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela T.S. de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Arnaiz, S. [Centro Tecnologico GAIKER, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 2002, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been carried out. Four type of samples coming from real WEEEs streams, including wires of polyethylene (PE), table phones, mobile phones and printed circuit boards (PCB) have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5 dm{sup 3} autoclave at 500 C for 30 min. PE wires yield 44.1 wt.% of wax-like liquids, 23 wt.% gases and a solid product mainly composed of Cu and Al together with some char formed during the process. Table and mobile phones give quite similar results, 53 and 57 wt.%, respectively of brown-coloured fluid liquids, {approx}12 wt.% gases and a solid which contains several metals (Cu, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, etc.) together with a significant amount of char ({approx}50% with respect to solids). Printed circuit boards yield only 16.2 wt.% brown-coloured fluid liquids and 7.3 wt.% gases, and leave 76.5 wt.% of solids which include a wide variety of metals (from Fe to precious metals) which are present in the original circuit board waste. In all the cases the polymer-free metals may be separated and recycled, the gases may be enough energy sources to self-sustain the process and the liquids may have a potential use as energy or chemicals source. (author)

  3. Shell-model study of 31S at excitations relevant to the thermonuclear 30P(p,γ)31S reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhelal, M.; Haas, F.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data about the 30P(p, γ) reaction have been reported, where a list of confirmed 31S excited states within 500 keV of the 30P(p, γ)31S threshold at Ex = 6131 keV and their properties were studied. Definitive constraints on J^{π} are only given for two levels; the other ones are either tentative (five states) or undefined (six states). In order to confirm the proposed spin/parity assignments and to determine the unknown ones a comparison with shell-model calculations is crucial. We have performed a shell-model calculation using the (0+1)hbarω PSDPF interaction to calculate the excitation energy spectrum of mass 31 ( 31S - 31P up to 7000 keV. Between 6100 and 6700 keV, an excitation energy region of astrophysical interest, we obtain a set of negative-parity states that are good candidates for the observed ones. A complete spectrum of positive- and negative-parity states can now be proposed based also on a comparison with the 31P spectrum up to 7000 keV.

  4. Measurement of key resonance states for the 30P (p , γ)31S reaction rate, and the production of intermediate-mass elements in nova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankainen, A.; Woods, P. J.; Schatz, H.; Poxon-Pearson, T.; Doherty, D. T.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Estrade, A.; Gade, A.; José, J.; Kontos, A.; Langer, C.; Lotay, G.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Noji, S.; Nunes, F.; Perdikakis, G.; Pereira, J.; Recchia, F.; Redpath, T.; Stroberg, R.; Scott, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Stevens, J.; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.; Zegers, R.

    2017-06-01

    We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the 30P (p , γ)31S reaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The 30P (d , n)31S reaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA γ-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative-parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3 /2- resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T ≈ 0.10- 0.17 GK, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.

  5. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is...

  6. Atmospheric Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapor by MoO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Le, Duy Michael

    2016-01-01

    MoO3 has been tested as a catalyst in hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of both model compounds (acetone and guaiacol) and real biomass pyrolysis vapors under atmospheric pressure. The pyrolysis vapor was obtained by fast pyrolysis of wood or lignin in a continuous fast pyrolysis reactor at a fixed...... temperature of 500 °C, and it subsequently passed through a downstream, close coupled, fixed bed reactor containing the MoO3 catalyst. The influences of the catalyst temperature and the concentration of H2 on the HDO of the pyrolysis vapors were investigated. The level of HDO of the biomass pyrolysis vapors...... was not significant at temperatures below 400 °C. At 450 °C catalyst temperature and 93 vol % H2 concentration, the wood pyrolysis vapor was more active toward cracking forming gas species instead of performing the desired HDO forming hydrocarbons. The lignin pyrolysis vapor was more resistant to cracking and yielded...

  7. Measurements of temperature of the tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame using IR camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudau, AE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In laser pyrolysis, temperature measurement and control plays a vital role during the development of nanoparticles. Authors present the results of temperature measurements using infrared camera on a tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame used...

  8. Hot wire and spark pyrolysis as simple new routes to silicon nanoparticle synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available gases, silane and diborane or silane and phosphine were used. While hot wire pyrolysis always results in multifaceted particles, those produced by spark pyrolysis are spherical. Electrical resistance measurements of compressed powders showed that boron...

  9. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  10. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  11. [Pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Hong-Ting; Wei, Li-Li

    2008-03-01

    To obtain pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride), thermogravimetric study of tube for transfusion (TFT) and sample collector for urine (SCFU) was carried out using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) with N2. The heat change in pyrolysis process was analyzed and the properties of pyrolysis residues are reported. The mathematics model with two-step and four-reaction was established to simulate the pyrolysis process. The results show that: 1) The pyrolysis mechanism of the two samples is in agreement with that of PVC. The decomposition process appears two stages in 200 - 390 degrees C and 390 - 550 degrees C, which are clearly expressed with two prominent peaks with maximum rate of weight loss at about 315 degrees C and 470 degrees C. 2) Complex ingredients in samples result in irregular and uneven shape of DTG peaks, in which plasticizer lowers the antichloration temperature and enhances the weight loss rate. 3) The model could satisfactorily describe the weight loss and differential process of TFT and SCFU.

  12. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    with respect to carbon and oxygen contents, HHV, thermal behaviors and mean molecular weight. The HHV of wood, straw, lignin and algae oils were 24.0, 23.7, 29.7 and 25.7 MJ/kg db, respectively. The distributions of metals, Cl and S in char and bio-oil were investigated for the biomasses. Almost all the metals......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...... these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...

  13. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  14. Synergies in co-pyrolysis of Thai lignite and corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Taro [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Worasuwannarak, Nakorn; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The results from TGA experiments at the temperature range of 300-600 C evidently distinguished the different pyrolysis behaviours of lignite and corncob; however, no clear synergistic effects could be observed for the mixture. The investigation of co-pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor, however, found significant synergies in both pyrolysis product yields and gas product compositions. The solid yield of the 50:50 lignite/corncob blend was much lower (i.e. 9%) than expected from the calculated value based on individual materials under the range of temperatures studied, and coincided with the higher liquid and gas yield. The synergistic effect in product gas composition was highly pronouncing for CH{sub 4} formation, i.e. three times higher than the calculated value at 400 C. Possible mechanisms were described including the interaction between corncob volatiles and lignite particles, and the effect of the heat profiles of lignite and corncob pyrolysis on the temperature dependent reactions. The enhanced devolatilisation of the blend was explained by the transfer of hydrogen from biomass to coal as well as the promotion of low-temperature thermal decomposition of lignite by exothermic heat released from corncob pyrolysis. Moreover, water, which was one of the major components in corncob volatiles produced mainly at around 200-375 C, can also be expected to act as a reactive agent to promote the secondary tar cracking producing more CH{sub 4}. (author)

  15. Experiments on the Conventional Pyrolysis of Oak Sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraschiv, Maria; Tazerout, Mohand; Gerun, Luc; Bellettre, Jerome; Lemoult, Bernard [Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France)

    2006-07-15

    The biomass derived from wood processing (ex. sawdust) can be converted to combustible gas by thermochemical processes as pyrolysis and gasification. The oak sawdust used displays that the powder fraction has the biggest weight, which is difficult for operate and it gives the highest char yield and many particles in gas flow. A good mixture of wood powder and the bigger fractions, which give less char and tar yields, as such or in pellet shape, can be a solution to improve the thermal transformation of particles surface in order to increase gas content and avoid the particles presence in pyrolysis gases. For heat value improvement it can be use a co-pyrolysis compound, such as plastic waste that is an organic material completely mutable in combustible gaseous products. From this point of view the plastic wastes pyrolysis in the same operating conditions as wood pyrolysis were studied. The chemical data reveal that this kind of material gives volatile matters such as water, tars and gases and no solid residue. Also, the reference thermal range for degassing was found to be 480-550 [deg C], when the wood particles are already transformed and char is able to be a catalyst for tar cracking.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating. (author)

  17. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  18. Air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for nanoparticles synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shirley C.; Song, Yu L.; Chen, C. Y.; Tseng, T. K.; Tsai, Chen S.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents new findings regarding the effects of precursor drop size and concentration on product particle size and morphology in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of zirconium hydroxyl acetate solutions. Large precursor drops (diameter >30μm) generated by ultrasonic atomization at 120kHz yielded particles with holes. Precursor drops 6-9 μm in diameter, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer at 1.65MHz and 23.5W electric drive power, yielded uniform spherical particles 150nm in diameter under proper control of heating rate and precursor concentration. Moreover, air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at 120kHz and 2.3W yielded spherical particles of which nearly half were smaller than those produced by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of the 6-9 μm precursor drops, desprite the much larger precursor drop sizes (28 μm peak diameter versus 7 μm mean diameter). These particles are much smaller than those predicted by the conventional one particle per drop mechanism, suggesting that a vapor condensation mechanism may also be involved in spray pyrolysis. It may be concluded that through this new mechanism air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can become a viable process for mass production of nanoparticles.

  19. Computational Analysis for Morphological Evolution in Pyrolysis for Micro/Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeongseok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is recently proposed as an efficient fabrication technique of micro/nanoscale carbon structures. In order to understand the morphological evolution in pyrolysis and design the final shape of carbon structure, this study proposes a comprehensive model that incorporates the essential mechanisms of pyrolysis based on the phase field framework. Computational analysis with the developed model provides information about the effect of interface energy and kinetic rate on the morphological evolution in pyrolysis.

  20. Master Environmental Plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    contain a variety of sedges , reeds, and aquatic plants suitable for waterfowl (McMaster et al. 1982). 2.4 SOILS AND GEOLOGY 2.4.1 Soils The U.S...Solidago sp. Goldenrod Taraxacum officinale Dandelion Cyperaceae Carex spp. Carex Ericaceae Gualtheria procumbens Checkerberry Epigaea repens Trailing

  1. The Master's Thesis in Applied Psychology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Kottke, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Recommends the inclusion of a master's thesis in industrial and organizational psychology programs. Argues that the thesis serves several critical educational purposes and is relevant to applied psychology. Offers suggestions for increasing the relationship between the educational requirement and the professional tasks. (MJP)

  2. Does California's Master Plan Still Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdman, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, California's higher education system has been shaped by the tripartite division of the vaunted Master Plan. The 1960 document's bold vision of access and quality safeguarded a system of selective research universities (the University of California) and provided baccalaureate education through less-selective campuses (the…

  3. Accountability: Papers from master theses 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.D. Knoops (Chris); J. Noeverman (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLast year, we presented the book “Accountability 2008: papers from master theses”. The book contained eleven papers. Each paper was based on a thesis in the field of Accounting, Auditing and Control, on which these students received a Master’s degree in Economics & Business from the Eras

  4. TEN MASTER TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOVACH, EDITH M.A.

    IN 1966 THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL LEAGUE HONORED THREE TEACHERS WITH ITS MASTER SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD. AMONG THE 32 PROGRAMS CITED FOR RECOGNITION, TEN (INCLUDING THOSE OF THE AWARD WINNERS) POSSESS CLEARLY INNOVATIVE FEATURES. IN BRIEF THEY FEATURE (1) A FIFTH YEAR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM, LATIN AS INTRODUCTORY TO…

  5. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which...

  6. Evaluation of the Navy Master Planning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The language is straightforward, but doesn’t -56- lend itself to penetrating analysis. The oniy real implication for master planning is the suggestion...the Defense Department’s Planning, Pro- graniming, Budgeting System as it affects Naval shore facilities acqusition and management; and, (5

  7. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which...

  8. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  9. Mastering SQL Server 2014 data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Bassan, Amarpreet Singh

    2014-01-01

    If you are a developer who is working on data mining for large companies and would like to enhance your knowledge of SQL Server Data Mining Suite, this book is for you. Whether you are brand new to data mining or are a seasoned expert, you will be able to master the skills needed to build a data mining solution.

  10. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT syst...

  11. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  12. The Master's Thesis in Applied Psychology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Kottke, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Recommends the inclusion of a master's thesis in industrial and organizational psychology programs. Argues that the thesis serves several critical educational purposes and is relevant to applied psychology. Offers suggestions for increasing the relationship between the educational requirement and the professional tasks. (MJP)

  13. Three Steps to Mastering Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    "That was the day I decided I was bad at math." Countless times, preservice and in-service teachers make statements such as this after sharing vivid memories of learning multiplication facts. Timed tests; public competitive games, such as Around the World; and visible displays of who has and has not mastered groups of facts still…

  14. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the summer of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays and support applications at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I created control scripts using the Application Control Language (ACL) to analyze the health and status of Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This application provides a system health and status display I created with summarized data for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of KGCS subsystems.

  15. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  16. Curie-point pyrolysis of sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Selected sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids were subjected to Curie-point pyrolysis and their pyrolysis products subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to study the thermal dissociation mechanisms of lipid moieties in bio- and geomacromolecules. Pyrolysis of t

  17. Screening acidic zeolites for catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass and its components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeolites have been shown to effectively promote cracking reactions during pyrolysis resulting in highly deoxygenated and hydrocarbon-rich compounds and stable pyrolysis oil product. Py/GC-MS was employed to study the catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass samples comprising oak, corn...

  18. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil by the steam-iron process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The steam-iron process is an old process, which was used for the production of hydrogen from cokes at the beginning of the twentieth century. In this thesis the steam-iron process is used to produce pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis oil, obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass, is used to

  19. Biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized bed : product cleaning by in-situ filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoquan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the subject of fast pyrolysis in a fluid bed reactor. A large part of the work is related to reactor design aspects of fast pyrolysis, a subject that has not been considered sufficiently. Past research efforts were focussed mainly on the kinetics of wood pyrolysis and the

  20. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood: Effect of successive catalyst regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, Guray; Lathouwers, Tom; Toraman, Hilal Ezgi; Geem, van Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Ronsse, Frederik; Duren, van Ruben; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, Wolter

    2014-01-01

    The main product of biomass fast pyrolysis is a liquid mixture of numerous organic molecules with water that is usually called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. The research discussed in this paper was meant (1) to validate a new, semicontinuously operated pyrolysis setup and (2) to investigate the effect o

  1. MOECSW trains master trainers and supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture and Social Welfare (MOECSW), as part of the Population Education Programs (formal and informal), undertook a series of training programs to upgrade the knowledge and skills of master trainers, supervisors, and resource persons. As part of the Population Education in the Formal School Sector Project (NEP/93/P01), under the Curriculum Development Centre five training courses were organized to train 220 master trainers. Under the "Three Steps Training Strategy," these 220 master trainers would teach 825 secondary school headmasters who would reach 2025 secondary school teachers. The training courses were held in Dhangadi, April 23-27, 1995; in Pokhara, April 2-7; and in Biratnagar, February 20-24. The areas covered included: 1) the pedagogical aspect of population education (content, scope, objectives, nature, teaching methodologies); 2) demography and population dynamics (composition, distribution and density, sources of population data, demographic transition, consequences and determinants of population growth); 3) family life and adolescence and human sexuality education, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education; 4) maternal and child health, and family planning; 5) environment; and 6) population policy and programs. As part of the Population Education Programme (NEP/93/P08), a Master Trainers Training Workshop was held in Makwanpur, March 26-28, 1995. These master trainers would train trainers who would train the facilitators and teachers at learning centers for adult learners under the literacy and post literacy programs. This course focused on the approaches and strategies for integrating population education in development programs, and non-formal education, adult literacy, post literacy, and out-of-school children programs. Dr. D. de Rebello and Mr. S. Hutabarat, CST Advisors on Population Education, organized the training courses and served as resource persons.

  2. Dutchess County Resource Recovery Task Force report: Dutchess County Pyrolysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Dutchess County initiated development of a long-range master plan for Solid Waste Management in 1971. The plan included development of a resource recovery facility to service the municipalities in the County population center. Based on early recommendations, a pyrolysis facility employing Purox technology was to be implemented. A feasibility study, paid for by County funds was completed in 1975. The study provided siting recommendations, estimation of available waste, and preliminary facility design. Because of various considerations, the project was not developed. Under the Department of Energy grant, the County reassessed the feasibility of a resource recovery facility, with emphasis on confirming previous conclusions supporting the Purox technology, waste availability, energy recovery and sale and siting of the plant. The conclusions reached in the new study were: a resource recovery facility is feasible for the County; sufficient waste for such a facility is available and subject to control; While Purox technology was feasible it is not the most appropriate available technoloy for the County; that mass burning with steam recovery is the most appropriate technology; and that resource recovery while presently more expensive than landfilling, represents the only cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound way to handle the solid waste problem in the County.

  3. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on physicochemical properties of biochar obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Su; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties and structure of biochar. Biochar was produced by fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) using a fluidized bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400 and 500 °C). The produced biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle size distributions, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The yield of biochar decreased sharply from 60.7% to 14.4%, based on the oven-dried biomass weight, when the pyrolysis temperature rose from 300 °C to 500 °C. In addition, biochars were further carbonized with an increase in pyrolysis temperature and the char's remaining carbons were rearranged in stable form. The experimental results suggested that the biochar obtained at 400 and 500 °C was composed of a highly ordered aromatic carbon structure.

  4. Implementation of a Gamification Platform in a Master Degree (Master in Economics)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Carlos Fernández Zamora; Daniel Arias Aranda

    2017-01-01

    .... An experiment has been carried out for this reason, in which an educational platform, created in a personalized way for the students of the Master in Economics of the University of Granada, becomes...

  5. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 °C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ∼ 3000% at 670 °C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification).

  6. Molecular Structure and Reactivity in the Pyrolysis of Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Eric; Cole, Sarah; Sowards, John; Warner, Brian; Wright, Emily; McCunn, Laura R.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of alkyl chain structure on pyrolysis mechanisms has been investigated in a series of aldehydes. Isovaleraldehyde, CH_3CH(CH_3)CH_2CHO, and pivaldehyde, (CH_3)_3CCHO, were subject to thermal decomposition in a resistively heated SiC tubular reactor at 800-1200 °C. Matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify pyrolysis products. Carbon monoxide and isobutene were major products from each of the aldehydes, which is consistent with what is known from previous studies of unbranched alkyl-chain aldehydes. Other products observed include vinyl alcohol, propene, acetylene, and ethylene, revealing complexities to be considered in the pyrolysis of large, branched-chain aldehydes.

  7. Pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Selim; Topçu, Yıldıray

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at investigating physicochemical properties and pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk, an abundant agricultural waste in Turkey. The physicochemical properties were determined by bomb calorimeter, elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Physicochemical analysis results showed that hazelnut husk has a high calorimetric value and high volatile matter content. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer under inert conditions and operated at different heating rates (5, 10, 20°C/min). Three different kinetic models, the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models and Coats-Redfern method were applied on TGA data of hazelnut husk to calculate the kinetic parameters including activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order. Simulation of hazelnut husk pyrolysis using data obtained from TGA analysis showed good agreement with experimental data. Combining with physicochemical properties, it was concluded that this biomass can become useful source of energy or chemicals.

  8. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  9. Pyrolysis of Softwood Carbohydrates in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yu. Murzin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood, was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5°C/min was applied to the heating until a reactor temperature of 460 °C was reached. Thereafter the temperature was kept until the release of non-condensable gases stopped. The different raw materials gave significantly different bio-oils. Levoglucosan was the dominant product in the cellulose pyrolysis oil. Acetic acid was found in the highest concentrations in both the galactoglucomannan and in the pine wood pyrolysis oils. Acetic acid is most likely formed by removal of O-acetyl groups from mannose units present in GGM structure.

  10. Kinetic Characteristics in Pyrolysis of RPF with Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HWANG Hyeonuk; KIM Myunggyun; NZIOKA Antonymutua; KIM Youngju; TAHIR Imranqureshi; YAN Caozheng

    2016-01-01

    PVC (polyvinyl chloride) was isolated from waste plastic before manufacturing RPF (refuse paper & plastic fuel), and the characteristics of manufactured RPF including properties, calorific value, pyrolysis, chlorine content and kinetics analysis were analyzed. Based on the result of TGA (Thermogravimetric analysis), the kinetics characteristics was analyzed by using Kissinger method and Ozawa method which are the most common methods for obtaining activation energy, and the experimental conditions of TGA were set as follows: in a nitrogen atmosphere, with gas lfow rate of 20 mL/min, heating rate of 5-50℃/min, and maximum temperature of 800℃. In conclusion, the activation energy showed a tendency to gradually increase by a rise of reaction rate. Although the activation energy with pyrolysis of RPF was irregularly scattered, it was shown that the activation energy was stabilized by co-pyrolysis of RPF and additives (rice bran and sawdust).

  11. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Thermal Kinetics of Degradable Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Developing degradable films is an important means for resolving the problem of film pollution; however, in recent years,there have been only few studies related to the thermal analysis of degradable plastic films. This research detailed the composition and pyrolysis of one kind of ordinary and three kinds of degradable plastic films using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique. The results showed that degradable films and ordinary film had similar DTA curves, which reflected their similar compositions; however, small differences were measured, which were due to the added constituents of the degradable films. The pyrolysis reaction orders of each film were about 0.93. The pyrolysis activation energies and pre-exponential factors followed the order of ordinary film > photodegradable film > photodegradable calcium carbonate film > biodegradable film. The results of this research laid the foundation for new theories for harnessing soil pollution caused by plastic films.

  12. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    -oil was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash...... at reactor temperatures ranging from 475 to 575 oC. It was observed that the formation of char and gas is affected by the biomass alkali content. Increasing biomass alkali content caused an increased feedstock conversion at low temperature, a lower maximum liquid organic yield temperature and a lower maximum......This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  13. Experimental investigation of flash pyrolysis oil droplet combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the combustion behaviour of a single droplet of pyrolysis oil derived from wheat straw and heavy fossil oil in a single droplet combustion chamber. The initial oil droplet diameters were in between 500 μm to 2500 μm. The experiments were performed...... at a temperature ranging between 1000 and 1400°C with an initial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s and oxygen concentration of 3%. The evolution of combustion of bio-oil droplets was recorded by a digital video camera. It was observed that the combustion behaviour of pyrolysis oil droplet differ from the heavy oil in terms...... both of ignition, devolatilisation and char oxidation. The pyrolysis oil is more difficult to ignite and has a shorter devolatilisation time and a longer char oxidation time. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l....

  14. A Preliminary Study of the Plasma Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兰; 黄海涛; 赵增立; 吴创之

    2003-01-01

    Thermal plasma pyrolysis of waste tyres for recovering energy was performed in a nitrogen plasma reactor. The main gaseous products were identified by chromatography as H2, CO, CH4, C2H2 and so on. From a series of experiments, the effects of the process parameters of thermal plasma pyrolysis were investigated. Under our experimental conditions with steam injection, the total contents of H2 and CO reached up to 38.3% in the gas product, C2H2 up to 4%, and the maximum calorific value of the pyrolysis gas was 8.96 MJ/m3. The results indicate that plasma-assisted thermal decomposition of waste tyre particles may be a useful way for recovering energy and useful chemicals.

  15. Mechanism of Xylan Pyrolysis by Py-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-rong; LIANG Tao; RU Bin; GUO Xiu-juan

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the decomposition behavior of hemicellulose,xylan was chosen as the representative of hemicellulose to study the fast pyrolysis on the combination system of analytical pyrolyzer and gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer(Py-GC/MS).The main condensable products of xylan pyrolysis consisted of acids,aldehydes,and ketones; while gas products contained CO2,CO,CH4 and H2.Acetic acid and furfural were the most abundant products with the highest contents of 20.11% and 20.24% respectively.While furfural and acetic acid were formed competitively with residence time and temperature increases,the distribution of xylan pyrolysis products did not vary with the residence time and temperature,while the total content of several kinds of products changed a lot.According to the analysis of experimental data,a reaction pathway of xylan decomposition was deduced so as to illustrate the formation mechanism of main products.

  16. Thermal response of heat-resistant layer with pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Haiming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for analyzing the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer composed of high silica fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites(SiO2/P and aluminum, in which pyrolysis and phase transitions are exsited, such as melt, vaporization and sublimation. Based on this model, the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer with different SiO2/P thickness is calculated under a heat flux by using FORTRAN codes. As indicated in the results, the slope of temperature gets a sudden decline at the pyrolysis interface, which is due to the latent heat of pyrolysis; the thickness of heat-resistant layer has little influence on the heating-surface temperature, however, the back temperature may increase with the decreasing thickness; and the thermal conductivity of carbonized layer is very important to thermal response.

  17. Non-isothermal pyrolysis kinetics of three Turkish oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogon, O.M.; Uysal, B.Z. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-10-01

    A non-isothermal experimental study using thermogravimetric analysis (t.g.a.) was conducted to determine the overall kinetics of pyrolysis of three Turkish oil shales: Beypazari, Seyitomer and Himmetoglu. The integral method was used in the analysis of the t.g.a. data to determine first-order pyrolysis kinetics. Particle sizes of 0.7, 1.3. and 2.6 mm and final temperatures of 400, 550 and 700{degree}C were used. Himmeltoglue oil shale was found to give better yields than the other two shales. The extent of pyrolysis was found to be practically independent of particle size for all the shales. The rates of decomposition of Seyitomer and Himmetoglu oil shales were found to change at critical temperatures of {approximately} 300 and {approximately} 350{degree}C respectively. Porosities and surface areas of raw and spent shales were also determined. 35 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  19. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of coal and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, L.R.; Zhang, J.M.; Lian, H.; Luo, M. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    A co-pyrolysis experiment of coal and natural gas was investigated on a fixed-bed reactor. SEM was used to study the structure changes of the exterior surface of char prepared in this co-pyrolysis experiment, while GC was also utilized to analyze the associated gas. The result showed that, with increasing temperature, the coal char tended to agglomerate. GC and SEM results show that the CH{sub 4} decomposition on the exterior surface of char was turned to filamentous char and extended around like coral. It was also proved that the co-pyrolysis of coal and natural gas promoted syngas production. A synergistic effect of coal and natural gas does exist during this process.

  20. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  1. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  2. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  3. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  4. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Basinas, P. [Center for Research & Technology Hellas, Ptolemais (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM (meat and bone meal) and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  5. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Biomass Pyrolysis has been an increasing topic of research, in particular as a replacement for crude oil. This process utilizes moderate temperatures to thermally deconstruct the biomass which is then condensed into a mixture of liquid oxygenates to be used as fuel precursors. Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60 percent of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during the condensation and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors, many challenges must be overcome. Sampling must occur within a narrow range of temperatures to reduce product composition changes from overheating or partial condensation or plugging of lines from condensed products. Residence times must be kept at a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Pyrolysis vapors also form aerosols that are carried far downstream and can pass through filters resulting in build-up in downstream locations. The co-produced bio-char and ash from the pyrolysis process can lead to plugging of the sample lines, and must be filtered out at temperature, even with the use of cyclonic separators. A practical approach for considerations and sampling system design, as well as lessons learned are integrated into the hot analytical sampling system of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) to provide industrially relevant demonstrations of thermochemical transformations of biomass feedstocks at the pilot scale.

  6. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan/Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the updated Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan and Environmental Assessment. It replaces the former Master Plan Technical Report that was prepared...

  7. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  8. Spray pyrolysis for high T{sub c} superconductors films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odier, P [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Supardi, Z [Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, 60231 (Indonesia); De-Barros, D [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Vergnieres, L [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ramirez-Castellanos, J [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Gonzales-Calbet, J M [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vallet-Regi, M [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Bioinorganica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Villard, C [CRTBT, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peroz, Ch [CRTBT, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Weiss, F [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique (LMGP), INPG, 38406 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2004-11-01

    Spray pyrolysis at high temperature is reviewed and applied to the formation of epitaxial thick layers of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO). The necessary conditions to enhance the texture quality and the critical current density are discussed. High critical current densities, over 1.0 MA cm{sup -2} (at 77 K, self-field), are reported, making this technique very promising for low cost applications. This emphasizes the need for more comprehensive studies regarding the chemical phenomena involved in film deposition by spray pyrolysis at high temperature, especially those concerning local equilibrium and reactions occurring in the area involved in the deposition.

  9. Formation of Submicron Copper Sulfide Particles Using Spray Pyrolysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenggoro, I.; Kang, Yun; Komiya, Takafumi; Okuyama, Kikuo; Tohge, Noboru

    1998-03-01

    The morphology and crystalline phase of submicron copper sulfide particles prepared by spray pyrolysis method have been studied. In a nitrogen gas atmosphere, the covellite phase (CuS) spherical particles could be prepared using the solution with molar ratio of copper nitrate to thiourea and furnace temperatures of 1:2 at 200 300°C, as well as of 1:5 at 200 600°C. The crystalline phase of particles was highly depended on the composition of the precursors and the pyrolysis temperature. The sphericity of particles could be enhanced by increasing the temperature and prolonging the residence time of the droplets or particles in the furnace.

  10. Pyrolysis of Cigarette Ingredients Labelled with Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stotesbury S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know how tobacco additives behave when cigarettes are smoked, whether they transfer intact to the smoke or whether there is any decomposition during smoking. Pyrolysis-GC-MS is a technique that can be focussed upon the effects of combustion from a single material free from interference from the complex mixture of different components present in the smoke. However, because pyrolysis is a model technique, the results need to be validated by comparison with cigarette smoke chemistry. In a previous paper we presented such a method for modelling the smoke chemistry from a burning cigarette using pyrolysis-GC-MS. The transfer and the extent of degradation of anisole, p-anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, isoamylisovalerate, methyl trans-cinnamate and vanillin within a burning cigarette were estimated using this pyrolysis method. When these data were compared with results from smoke studies from 14C-analogues of the materials, the high levels of transfer predicted by pyrolysis were found to be generally consistent with the smoke chemistry data. However, there were still two outstanding issues. Firstly, there was some ambiguity in the labelled study about whether vanillin actually transferred without degradation or not. Furthermore, the results from the 14C-labelled study showed a greater extent of degradation for p-anisaldehyde than that indicated from the pyrolysis experiments. The purpose of the current study was to present some new information obtained to address these questions by better understanding the effect upon the smoke chemistry from adding vanillin and p-anisaldehyde, and the relationship between the smoke chemistry and the pyrolysis results. Components were identified in the smoke from cigarettes loaded with p-anisaldehyde and vanillin labelled with 18O and 13C. The extent of degradation from each additive was estimated by identifying labelled degradation products in the smoke. Because there was a clear distinction between the

  11. A new approach to study fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Metallurgy Fast Reactions Laboratory, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental study of the effects of varying bed temperature and coal particle size on the fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal in a downer reactor is described. A Datong bituminous coal (particle size 0.5 and 0.34 mm) was studied at temperatures ranging from 592{sup o} C to 720{sup o} C. The experiments were conducted in a batch apparatus. An on-line gas analyzer was used to measure carbon dioxide release curves. The experimental data were used to develop a pyrolysis model that quantifies the fast heating of fine coal particles. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  13. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...... the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark...

  14. Release of Chlorine and Sulfur during Biomass Torrefaction and Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Flensborg, Julie Pauline; Shoulaifar, Tooran Khazraie

    2014-01-01

    The release of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) during biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis has been investigated via experiments in two laboratory-scale reactors: a rotating reactor and a fixed bed reactor. Six biomasses with different chemical compositions covering a wide range of ash content and ash...... reporting that biomasses with a lower chlorine content release a higher fraction of chlorine during the pyrolysis process. A significant sulfur release (about 60%) was observed from the six biomasses investigated at 350 degrees C. The initial sulfur content in the biomass did not influence the fraction...

  15. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of lignite with hazelnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Department

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the formation rates of the apparent pyrolytic products of Elbistan lignite sample from Turkey and Turkish hazelnut shell were investigated. For this purpose, original samples and their blends were subjected to pyrolysis process using a thermogravimetric analyzer under a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cc/min. Temperature was increased from ambient to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis curves were obtained, by which the rates of pyrolysis process at different temperatures were evaluated. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  18. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  19. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  20. Psychological Testing: Trends in Masters Level Counseling Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Piotrowski, Chris

    Masters level counseling graduates often provide clinical services in applied settings. To investigate the status of psychodiagnostic testing in masters level counseling (terminal) programs in the United States, all 48 masters level counseling training programs (excluding those with doctoral level training) received a one page questionnaire.…

  1. Fashion Retail Master Data Model and Business Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmøller, Harald; Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    of reorganising its master data model and master data governance to remove silos of data, connect and utilise data across business processes, and design a global product master data database that integrates data for all existing and expected sales channels. As a major finding of this paper is fashion retailing...

  2. 21 CFR 211.186 - Master production and control records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master production and control records. 211.186... Reports § 211.186 Master production and control records. (a) To assure uniformity from batch to batch, master production and control records for each drug product, including each batch size thereof, shall...

  3. The Master Teacher: Role and Responsibilities in the Reform Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Wilma A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study is to determine the opinions of educators about the "master teacher" concept within the school system. The concept of the "master teacher" refers to the ideological approach used to implement a "master teacher" initiative or programme in the school reform process. The primary school…

  4. 46 CFR 169.507 - Responsibility of master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility of master. 169.507 Section 169.507... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Lifesaving Equipment-General § 169.507 Responsibility of master. The master or operator shall ensure that the lifeboats, liferafts, davits, falls, personal flotation...

  5. 46 CFR 45.105 - Information supplied to the master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information supplied to the master. 45.105 Section 45... LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.105 Information supplied to the master. Unless otherwise authorized... information. (a) To enable the master to load and ballast the vessel in a manner that avoids...

  6. 47 CFR 80.114 - Authority of the master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of the master. 80.114 Section 80.114... Authority of the master. (a) The service of each ship station must at all times be under the ultimate control of the master, who must require that each operator or such station comply with the...

  7. 33 CFR 157.47 - Information for master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information for master. 157.47 Section 157.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Vessel Operation § 157.47 Information for master. A master or person in charge of a new vessel...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  9. Low temperature microwave-assisted vs conventional pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Shuttleworth; Vitaliy Budarin; Mark Gronnow; James H. Clark; Rafael Luque

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between conventional pyrolysis and a novel developed low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis methodology has been performed for the valorisation of a range of biomass feedstocks including waste residues.Microwave pyrolysis was found to efficiently deliver comparable evolution of bio-gases in the system as compared with conventional pyrolysis at significantly reduced temperatures (120-180 ℃ vs 250-400 ℃).The gas obtained from microwave-assistet pyrolysis was found to contain CO2,CH4 and CO as major components as well as other related chemicals (e.g.acids,aldehydes,alkanes) which were obtained in different proportions depending on the selected feedstock.

  10. Morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene/polypropylene plastics during pyrolysis and representative morphological signal characterizing pyrolysis stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Chen, D; Yuan, G; Ma, X; Dai, X

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) plastics during their pyrolysis process were investigated, and based on their basic image changing patterns representative morphological signals describing the pyrolysis stages were obtained. PE and PP granules and films were used as typical plastics for testing, and influence of impurities was also investigated. During pyrolysis experiments, photographs of the testing samples were taken sequentially with a high-speed infrared camera, and the quantitative parameters that describe the morphological characteristics of these photographs were explored using the "Image Pro Plus (v6.3)" digital image processing software. The experimental results showed that plastics pyrolysis involved four stages: melting, two stages of decomposition which are characterized with bubble formation caused by volatile evaporating, and ash deposition; and each stage was characterized with its own phase changing behaviors and morphological features. Two stages of decomposition are the key step of pyrolysis since they took up half or more of the reaction time; melting step consumed another half of reaction time in experiments when raw materials were heated up from ambient temperatures; and coke-like deposition appeared as a result of decomposition completion. Two morphological signals defined from digital image processing, namely, pixel area of the interested reaction region and bubble ratio (BR) caused by volatile evaporating were found to change regularly with pyrolysis stages. In particular, for all experimental scenarios with plastics films and granules, the BR curves always exhibited a slowly drop as melting started and then a sharp increase followed by a deep decrease corresponding to the first stage of intense decomposition, afterwards a second increase - drop section corresponding to the second stage of decomposition appeared. As ash deposition happened, the BR dropped to zero or very low

  11. Strategic and Master Plans: references and purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Ultramari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Master Plans and Strategic Plans, the first adopted due to a new federal law, the second implemented due to a more methodological option, are current instruments observed all over Brazil, and both constitute what could be called a contemporary urban utopia for Brazilian cities. This article is an attempt to discuss the way both instruments are implemented, their potentials and their limitations. At the same time, this article aims at finding way to integrate both approaches. Such integration is discussed by means of the authors experience in the implementation of such Plans and of secondary data. Master Plans are contextualized in the adoption of the new urban legislation (The Cities Statute. Strategic Plans are viewed as an instrument already adopted by private sector but also able to respect the dogmas of community participation.

  12. Novel dissipative properties of the master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liu; Jia, Chen; Zhu, Yi; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the entropy production rate for the master equation consists of two non-negative terms: the adiabatic and non-adiabatic parts, where the non-adiabatic part is also known as the free energy dissipation rate. In this paper, we present some nonzero lower bounds for the free energy, the entropy production rate, and its adiabatic and non-adiabatic parts. These nonzero lower bounds not only reveal some novel dissipative properties for nonequilibrium dynamics which are much stronger than the second law of thermodynamics, but also impose some new constraints on thermodynamic constitutive relations. Moreover, we also give a mathematical application of the nonzero lower bounds by studying the long-time behavior of the master equation. Extensions to the Tsallis statistics are also discussed, including the nonzero lower bounds for the Tsallis-type free energy and its dissipation rate.

  13. Low-temperature co-pyrolysis behaviours and kinetics of oily sludge: effect of agricultural biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiehong; Jia, Hanzhong; Qu, Chengtun; Fan, Daidi; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-02-01

    Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and its kinetics and efficiency are expected to be affected by additives. In the present study, the pyrolysis parameters, including heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time of oily sludge in the presence of agricultural biomass, apricot shell, were systematically explored. As a result, maximum oil recovery is achieved when optimizing the pyrolysis conditionas15 K/min, 723 K, and 3 h for heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time, respectively. Thermogravimetric experiments of oily sludge samples in the presence of various biomasses conducted with non-isothermal temperature programmes suggest that the pyrolysis process contains three stages, and the main decomposition reaction occurs in the range of 400-740 K. Taking Flynn-Wall-Ozawa analysis of the derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetry results, the activation energy (Ea) values for the pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence and absence of apricot shell were derived to be 35.21 and 39.40 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The present work supports that the presence of biomass promotes the pyrolysis of oily sludge, implying its great potential as addictive in the industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.

  14. Effects of feedstock characteristics on microwave-assisted pyrolysis - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaning; Chen, Paul; Liu, Shiyu; Peng, Peng; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Anderson, Erik; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Chenghui; Chen, Guo; Liu, Yuhuan; Lei, Hanwu; Li, Bingxi; Ruan, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is an important approach to obtain bio-oil from biomass. Similar to conventional electrical heating pyrolysis, microwave-assisted pyrolysis is significantly affected by feedstock characteristics. However, microwave heating has its unique features which strongly depend on the physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstock. In this review, the relationships among heating, bio-oil yield, and feedstock particle size, moisture content, inorganics, and organics in microwave-assisted pyrolysis are discussed and compared with those in conventional electrical heating pyrolysis. The quantitative analysis of data reported in the literature showed a strong contrast between the conventional processes and microwave based processes. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is a relatively new process with limited research compared with conventional electrical heating pyrolysis. The lack of understanding of some observed results warrant more and in-depth fundamental research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-01

    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. PROPERTIES OF GAS AND CHAR FROM MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF PINE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Hua Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pine sawdust pyrolysis was carried out respectively using microwave and conventional electrical heating at different temperatures in order to understand the properties of pyrolytic products from microwave pyrolysis of biomass. Less char material was obtained by microwave pyrolysis compared to conventional heating at the same temperature. While comparing the components of the pyrolytic gases, it was revealed that the microwave pyrolysis gas usually had higher H2 and CO contents and lower CH4 and CO2 contents than those obtained by conventional pyrolysis at the same temperature. The texture analysis results of the microwave pyrolysis chars showed that the chars would melt and the pores would shrink at high temperatures, and hence, the specific surface areas of the chars decreased with increasing temperature. Similarly, the reactivity of the char was remarkably reduced when the microwave pyrolysis temperature exceeded 600°C.

  17. Study on pyrolysis of typical medical waste materials by using TG-FTIR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H M; Yan, J H; Jiang, X G; Lai, Y E; Cen, K F

    2008-05-01

    Pyrolysis of certain medical waste materials was studied using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Pyrolysis characteristics of three common materials were discussed. The pyrolysis of absorbent cotton turned out to be the most concentrative, followed by medical respirator and bamboo stick. From TG and DTG curves, pyrolysis of these three materials occurred in single, two and three stages respectively. Evolved volatile products from all these three materials included 2-butanone, benzaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water; whereas no sulphur dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide was detected. There are several differences in yield among them. However, the study in this paper is essential for medical waste pyrolysis model, the TG-FTIR approach is potential to provide valuable inputs for predictive modeling of medical waste pyrolysis. More studied are needed to get the kinetic parameters and pyrolysis models that can predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products for CFD applications.

  18. Pyrolysis Process in Aramid Fibers Investigated by Py-GC/MS & TGA-DTA/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-wei; HU Zu-ming; LIU Zhao-feng

    2007-01-01

    Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamine) (PMIA) and Poly( p-phenylene terphthalamine) (PPTA) are among the most important high-temperature resistant aramid fibers. The pyrolysis behaviors of these two fibers under inert gases were studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry ( TGA-DTA/MS ). The pyrolysis processes of PMIA and PPTA are distinguishing, and the stepwise pyrolysates reflect these differences. A mechanism system of pyrolysis is suggested, which involving hydrolysis and homolysis. At low pyrolysis temperatures, hydrolysis is a primary reaction, and it is very noticeable in the first-step pyrolysis region of PMIA. Elevating pyrolysis temperature, homolysis is enhanced and keep a large advantage in the high temperature range. On the other hand, at higher temperatures, carbonization appens and the homolysis and carbonization of PPTA are emphasized more than of PMIA.

  19. Master planning--a new way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavisides, Bob

    2009-04-01

    Bob Heavisides, director of facilities, Milton Keynes Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and senior research fellow, Medical Architecture Research Unit (MARU), at London South Bank University, considers, in a précis of a paper presented at last year's Healthcare Estates conference, how a new master planning approach may bring significant benefits to the healthcare estate, arguing that, against today's fast-changing backdrop, typical existing estates strategies may no longer be fully "fit-for-purpose".

  20. Master Symmetry for Holographic Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Thomas; Munkler, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    We identify the symmetry underlying the recently observed spectral-parameter transformations of holographic Wilson loops alias minimal surfaces in AdS/CFT. The generator of this nonlocal symmetry is shown to furnish a raising operator on the classical Yangian-type charges of symmetric coset models. We explicitly demonstrate how this master symmetry acts on strong-coupling Wilson loops and indicate a possible extension to arbitrary coupling.

  1. Mastering cloud computing foundations and applications programming

    CERN Document Server

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Selvi, SThamarai

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Cloud Computing is designed for undergraduate students learning to develop cloud computing applications. Tomorrow's applications won't live on a single computer but will be deployed from and reside on a virtual server, accessible anywhere, any time. Tomorrow's application developers need to understand the requirements of building apps for these virtual systems, including concurrent programming, high-performance computing, and data-intensive systems. The book introduces the principles of distributed and parallel computing underlying cloud architectures and specifical

  2. Conventional and microwave induced pyrolysis of coffee hulls for the production of a hydrogen rich fuel gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Antonio; Menendez, Angel; Fernandez, Yolanda; Pis, Jose; Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of coffee hulls at 500, 800 and 1000 8C. The influence of the pyrolysis method and temperature on the product yields and on the characteristics of the pyrolysis products is discussed. It was found that the pyrolysis of this particular residue gives rise to a larger yield of the gas fraction compared to the other fractions, even at relatively low temperatures. A comparison of microwave-assisted pyrolysis and conven...

  3. Pyrolysis of wheat straw-derived organosolv lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, P.J. de; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Heeres, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a lignocellulose biorefinery may be improved by developing applications for lignin with a higher value than application as fuel. We have developed a pyrolysis based lignin biorefinery approach, called LIBRA, to transform lignin into phenolic bio-oil and biochar using bubbli

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation under simulated coal seam pyrolysis conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuqin; Wang Yuanyuan; Wang Caihong; Bao Pengcheng; Dang Jinli

    2011-01-01

    Coal seam pyrolysis occurs during coal seam fires and during underground coal gasification.This is an important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in China.Pyrolysis in a coal seam was simulated in a tubular furnace.The 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority controlled PAHs were analyzed by HPLC.The effects of temperature,heating rate,pyrolysis atmosphere,and coal size were investigated.The results indicate that the 3-ring PAHs AcP and AcPy are the main species in the pyrolysis gas.The 2-ring NaP and the 4-ring Pyr are also of concern.Increasing temperature caused the total PAH yield to go through a minimum.The lowest value was obtained at the temperature of 600 ℃ Higher heating rates promote PAH formation,especially formation of the lower molecular weight PAHs.The typical heating rate in a coal seam,5 ℃/min,results in intermediate yields of PAHs.The total PAHs yield in an atmosphere of N2 is about 1.81 times that seen without added N2,which indicates that an air flow through the coal seam accelerates the formation of PAHs.An increase in coal particle size reduces the total PAHs emission but promotes the formation of 5- and 6-ring PAHs.

  5. Pyrolysis mechanisms of thiophene and methylthiophene in asphaltenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinli; Parish, Carol A

    2011-04-07

    The pyrolysis mechanisms of thiophene in asphaltenes have been investigated theoretically using density functional and ab initio quantum chemical techniques. All of the possible reaction pathways were explored using B3LYP, MP2, and CBS-QB3 models. A comparison of the calculated heats of reaction with the available experimental values indicates that the CBS-QB3 level of theory is quantitatively reliable for calculating the energetic reaction paths of the title reactions. The pyrolysis process is initiated via four different types of hydrogen migrations. According to the reaction barrier heights, the dominant 1,2-H shift mechanism involves two competitive product channels, namely, C(2)H(2) + CH(2)CS and CS + CH(3)CCH. The minor channels include the formation of CS + CH(2)CCH(2), H(2)S + C(4)H(2), HCS + CH(2)CCH, CS + CH(2)CHCH, H + C(4)H(3)S, and HS + C(4)H(3). The methyl substitution effect was investigated with the pyrolysis of 2-methylthiophene and 3-methylthiophene. The energetics of such systems were very similar to that for unsubstituted thiophene, suggesting that thiophene alkylation may not play a significant role in the pyrolysis of asphaltene compounds.

  6. Variability in pyrolysis product yield from novel shrub willow genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis is becoming a more attractive conversion option for the production of biofuels, due to the potential for directly producing hydrocarbon fuels seamlessly compatible with petroleum products (drop-in fuels). Dedicated bioenergy crops, like perennial grasses and short-rotation woody crop...

  7. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, Samuel V.; Coleman, Dennis D.; Liu, Jack Chao-li; Brown, Johnie

    2003-11-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and δ 13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and δ 13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent.

  8. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on a systemic survey, the pyrolysis characteristics and apparent kinetics of the municipal solid waste (MSW) under different conditions were researched using a special pyrolysis reactor, which could overcome the disadvantage of thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The thermal decomposition behaviour of MSW was investigated using thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis at rates of 4.8, 6.6, 8.4, 12.0 and 13.2 K/min. The pyrolysis characteristics of MSW were also studied in different function districts. The pyrolysis of MSW is a complex reaction process and three main stages are found according to the results. The first stage represents the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, with the maximum degradation rate occuring at 150 ℃-200 ℃; the second stage represents dehydrochlorination and depolymerization of intermediate products and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves have shoulder peaks at about 300 ℃; the third stage is the decomposition of the residual big molecular organic substance and lignin at 400 ℃-600 ℃. Within the range of given experimental conditions, the results of non-linear fitting algorithm and experiment are in agreement with each other and the correlation coefficients are over 0.99. The kinetic characteristics are concerned with the material component and heating rate. The activation energy of reaction decreases with the increase of heating rate.

  9. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  10. Total condensable effluents yield in slow pyrolysis of bagasse briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, L.E.; Penedo, M. [Universidade de Oriente, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Cortez, L.A.B.; Bezzon, G.; Olivares, E. [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Interdisciplinary Energy Planning Center (NIPE), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A full 2{sup 3} experimental factorial design approach was applied to obtain a mathematical model relating the total condensable effluents in slow pyrolysis of bagasse briquettes to three independent variables. These were apparent density of pressed bagasse briquettes (231 and 371 kg/m{sup 3}), highest pyrolysis temperature (400 and 450degC) and residence time at highest pyrolysis temperature (0 and 30 min). Detailed data processing to obtain a model as well as the model's statistical evaluation are shown. The conclusions are that the studied response depends on all three factors, although it is believed that the particular conditions of the pyrolysis installation used could be the cause of the significant result found for the residence time variable. It is inferred that measurable amounts of very low boiling organic compounds are present in the bagasse's liquid effluents. These volatile substances should require effluents' cooling devices working at temperatures well below 0degC. (Author)

  11. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Barriocanal, C., E-mail: carmenbr@incar.csic.es [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Alvarez, R. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pyrolysis of reinforcing fibres obtained from scrap tyres has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results have been compared to scrap tyre granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A higher temperature is needed for the total decomposition of the fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More compounds with heteroatoms (O, N) were found in the oil from the fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chars from the fibres exhibit lower BET surface and mesopore volume. - Abstract: The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900 Degree-Sign C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N{sub 2} adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  12. Heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions of pyrolysis vapors from pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Windt, M.

    2012-01-01

    To maximize oil yields in the fast pyrolysis of biomass it is generally accepted that vapors need to be rapidly quenched. The influence of the heterogeneous and homogeneous vapor-phase reactions on yields and oil composition were studied using a fluidized-bed reactor. Even high concentrations of min

  13. Comprehensive model for predicting elemental composition of coal pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricahrds, Andrew P. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Shutt, Tim [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-04-23

    Large-scale coal combustion simulations depend highly on the accuracy and utility of the physical submodels used to describe the various physical behaviors of the system. Coal combustion simulations depend on the particle physics to predict product compositions, temperatures, energy outputs, and other useful information. The focus of this paper is to improve the accuracy of devolatilization submodels, to be used in conjunction with other particle physics models. Many large simulations today rely on inaccurate assumptions about particle compositions, including that the volatiles that are released during pyrolysis are of the same elemental composition as the char particle. Another common assumption is that the char particle can be approximated by pure carbon. These assumptions will lead to inaccuracies in the overall simulation. There are many factors that influence pyrolysis product composition, including parent coal composition, pyrolysis conditions (including particle temperature history and heating rate), and others. All of these factors are incorporated into the correlations to predict the elemental composition of the major pyrolysis products, including coal tar, char, and light gases.

  14. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  15. Application of pyrolysis to recycling organics from waste tantalum capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bo; Chen, Zhenyang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-08-05

    Tantalum capacitors (TCs) are widely used in electronic appliances. The rapid replacement of electronic products results in generating large amounts of waste TCs (WTCs). WTCs, rich in valuable tantalum, are considered as high quality tantalum resources for recycling. However, environmental pollution will be caused if the organics of WTCs were not properly disposed. Therefore, effectively recycling the organics of WTCs is significant for recovering the valuable parts. This study proposed an argon (Ar) pyrolysis process to recycle the organics from WTCs. The organic decomposition kinetic was first analyzed by thermogravimetry. The results showed that the organics were decomposed in two major steps and the average activation energy was calculated to 234kJ/mol. Then, the suitable pyrolysis parameters were determined as 550°C, 30min and 100ml/min. The organics were effectively decomposed and converted to oils (mainly contained phenol homologs and benzene homologs) and gases (some hydrocarbon). These pyrolysis products could be reutilized as energy sources. Moreover, based on the products and bond energy theory, the pyrolysis mechanisms of the organics were also discussed. Finally, a reasonable technological process for products utilization was presented. This study contributes to the efficient recycling the organics before valuable material recovery from WTCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flame spray pyrolysis synthesis and aerosol deposition of nanoparticle films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoli, Antonio; Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of nanoparticle films by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis and deposition on temperature‐controlled substrates (323–723 K) was investigated for several application‐relevant conditions. An exemplary SnO2 nanoparticle aerosol was generated by FSP and its properties (e.g., particle...

  17. Analytical Pyrolysis-Chromatography: Something Old, Something New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Nathan W.; Blanchet, Conor J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long history of use across multiple disciplines, analytical pyrolysis is rarely taught in undergraduate curricula. We briefly review some interesting applications and discuss the three types of analytical pyrolyzers available commercially. We also describe a low-cost alternative that can be used to teach the basic principles of…

  18. Nanoparticle synthesis using flame spray pyrolysis for catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin

    processes based on renewable feedstock, new or improved ways of preparing catalysts and a better understanding of the catalyst structure at operating conditions. This thesis explores flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as a novel one-step preparation method for heterogeneous catalysts and investigates structure...

  19. A computational study of pyrolysis reactions of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder

    2010-01-01

    Enthalpies of reaction for the initial steps in the pyrolysis of lignin have been evaluated at the CBS-4m level of theory using fully substituted b-O-4 dilignols. Values for competing unimolecular decomposition reactions are consistent with results previously published for phenethyl phenyl ether models, but with lowered selectivity. Chain propagating reactions of free...

  20. Synthesis of tungsten oxide nano structures by laser pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwakikunga, BW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the proposal to synthesise materials by laser assisted pyrolysis in the 1970s, and its practical realisation in 1982, a number of researchers have used this method in obtaining nano-powders from liquid droplets. This study revisits...