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Sample records for pylori infection response

  1. Innate immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Milan K; Trombly, Melanie I; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A

    2012-01-01

    Innate immune receptors detect Helicobacter pylori infection and trigger downstream signaling events that result in the production of cytokines and interferon-β. This chapter gives an overview of the receptors and their roles in responding to H. pylori infection and details the downstream signaling events. The tools that have been developed to study the innate immune response to H. pylori are also discussed. Understanding the immune response to H. pylori is critical to develop better treatments for H. pylori-induced disease states including gastric malignancies and cancer.

  2. Helicobacter pylori impairs murine dendritic cell responses to infection.

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    Ya-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric malignancies, is generally viewed as an extracellular microorganism. Here, we show that H. pylori replicates in murine bone marrow derived-dendritic cells (BMDCs within autophagosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 10-fold increase of CFU is found between 2 h and 6 h p.i. in H. pylori-infected BMDCs. Autophagy is induced around the bacterium and participates at late time points of infection for the clearance of intracellular H. pylori. As a consequence of infection, LC3, LAMP1 and MHC class II molecules are retained within the H. pylori-containing vacuoles and export of MHC class II molecules to cell surface is blocked. However, formalin-fixed H. pylori still maintain this inhibitory activity in BMDC derived from wild type mice, but not in from either TLR4 or TLR2-deficient mice, suggesting the involvement of H. pylori-LPS in this process. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 expression was also modulated upon infection showing a TLR2-specific dependent IL-10 secretion. No IL-12 was detected favoring the hypothesis of a down modulation of DC functions during H. pylori infection. Furthermore, antigen-specific T cells proliferation was also impaired upon infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: H. pylori can infect and replicate in BMDCs and thereby affects DC-mediated immune responses. The implication of this new finding is discussed for the biological life cycle of H. pylori in the host.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children. Antimicrobial Resistance and Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Milagrosa; Villalon, Flor N; Eizaguirre, Francisco J; Delgado, Maider; Muñoz-Seca, Ignacio M; Fernández-Reyes, María; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of the recent recommendations for managing Helicobacter pylori infection in children in a university hospital in Southern Europe. Antimicrobial resistance and response to eradication therapy were also determined. The presence of H. pylori was studied in 143 children: by gastric biopsy culture (GBC), (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen immunochromatography test (SAIT) in 56 children; by GBC and UBT in 20, by GBC and SAIT in 18, and by GBC alone in 49. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-test. Infection was defined as a positive culture or positivity in both UBT and SAIT. Disease progression was studied in 118 patients. First evaluation of symptoms was carried out at 3-6 months after diagnosis and/or after treatment of the infection. H. pylori was detected in 74 from the 143 children analyzed (100% GBC positive, 98.1% UBT positive, and 58.1% SAIT positive). The main symptom was chronic abdominal pain (n = 121). Macroscopic antral nodularity was observed in 29.7% of infected patients and in 5.8% of uninfected patients, respectively. Resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was found in 34.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Eradication when susceptible antimicrobials were used occurred in 78.7% (48/61) versus 37.5% (3/8) when the treatment included a drug with resistance (p = .024). In patients with recurrent abdominal pain, symptoms resolved in 92.9% (39/42) patients with HP eradication versus 42.9% (6/14) without HP eradication (p < .001). Treated patients often failed to meet the criteria established in the guidelines for H. pylori diagnostic screening and treatment because most of them had only recurrent abdominal pain, but remission of their symptoms was associated with H. pylori eradication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Protein interaction network related to Helicobacter pylori infection response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu Kwang Kim; Han Bok Kim

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To understand the complex reaction of gastric inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori ) in a systematic manner using a protein interaction network. METHODS: The expression of genes significantly changed on microarray during H pylori infection was scanned from the web literary database and translated into proteins. A network of protein interactions was constructed by searching the primary interactions of selected proteins. The constructed network was mathematically analyzed and its biological function was examined. In addition, the nodes on the network were checked to determine if they had any further functional importance or relation to other proteins by extending them.RESULTS: The scale-free network showing the relationship between inflammation and carcinogenesis was constructed. Mathematical analysis showed hub and bottleneck proteins, and these proteins were mostly related to immune response. The network contained pathways and proteins related to H pylori infection, such as the JAK-STAT pathway triggered by interleukins. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB, TLR4, and other proteins known to function as core proteins of immune response were also found.These immune-related proteins interacted on the network with pathways and proteins related to the cell cycle, cell maintenance and proliferation, and transcription regulators such as BRCA1, FOS, REL, and zinc finger proteins. The extension of nodes showed interactions of the immune proteins with cancerrelated proteins. One extended network, the core network, a summarized form of the extended network, and cell pathway model were constructed. CONCLUSION: Immune-related proteins activated by H pylori infection interact with proto-oncogene proteins. The hub and bottleneck proteins are potential drug targets for gastric inflammation and cancer.

  5. MicroRNA-155 in exosomes secreted from helicobacter pylori infection macrophages immunomodulates inflammatory response

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    Wang, Jianjun; Deng, Zhiyong; Wang, Zeyou; Wu, Jianhong; Gu, Tao; Jiang, Yibiao; Li, Guangxin

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes containing microRNA-155 act as molecule carriers during immune cell-cell communication and play an important role in the inflammatory response of H. pylori infection macrophages. Previous reports have found that miR-155 was over-expressed in H. pylori infection macrophages, but the significance of which is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the impact of miR-155 loaded in exosomes derived from macrophages to the inflammatory response of H. pylori infection macrophages and possible mechanisms. We found that miR-155 promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-a, IL-6, IL-23, but also increased the expression of CD40, CD63, CD81, and MCH-I. Meanwhile, inflammatory signal pathways proteins, such as MyD88, NF-κB in H. pylori infection macrophages were down-regulated due to the over-expression of miR-155. Experiments in vitro or in vivo revealed that miR-155 promoted macrophages to inhibit or kill H. pylori by regulating the inflammatory response of cells to prevent the gastritis caused by H. pylori infection. These findings contribute to the understanding of miR-155 contained in exosomes in inflammatory responses of H. pylori infection macrophages. PMID:27725852

  6. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

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    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  7. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds of ... or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  8. Predictive computational modeling of the mucosal immune responses during Helicobacter pylori infection.

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    Adria Carbo

    Full Text Available T helper (Th cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE-based and agent-based modeling (ABM to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease. To calibrate the model, in vivo experimentation was performed by infecting C57BL/6 mice intragastrically with H. pylori and assaying immune cell subsets in the stomach and gastric lymph nodes (GLN on days 0, 7, 14, 30 and 60 post-infection. Our computational model reproduced the dynamics of effector and regulatory pathways in the gastric lamina propria (LP in silico. Simulation results show the induction of a Th17 response and a dominant Th1 response, together with a regulatory response characterized by high levels of mucosal Treg cells. We also investigated the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ activation on the modulation of host responses to H. pylori by using loss-of-function approaches. Specifically, in silico results showed a predominance of Th1 and Th17 cells in the stomach of the cell-specific PPARγ knockout system when compared to the wild-type simulation. Spatio-temporal, object-oriented ABM approaches suggested similar dynamics in induction of host responses showing analogous T cell distributions to ODE modeling and facilitated tracking lesion formation. In addition, sensitivity analysis predicted a crucial contribution of Th1 and Th17 effector responses as mediators of histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa during chronic stages of infection, which were experimentally validated in mice. These integrated immunoinformatics approaches

  9. Systematic identification of immunodominant CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA in Helicobacter pylori infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jian; Chen, Li; Yang, Wuchen; Li, Bin; Sun, Heqiang; Wei, Shanshan; He, Yafei; Zhao, Zhuo; Yang, Shiming; Zou, Quanming; Chen, Weisan; Guo, Hong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response is indispensible for the protective immunity against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It has been demonstrated that neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin (HpaA) immunization protected mice from H. pylori infection in a CD4+ T cell dependent manner. However, much remains unclear concerning the human CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA. We conducted a systematic study here to explore the immunodominant, HpaA-specific CD4+ T cell responses in H. pylori ...

  10. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G; de Laat, L; van Oijen, A H; de Boer, W A

    2012-03-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detect halitosis. In this study a possible relation between H. pylori and halitosis was evaluated, using an objective method (gas chromatography, GC) to detect the VSCs, responsible for the halitosis. The levels of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured in mouth breath and in stomach air of 11 H. pylori positive patients and of 38 H. pylori negative patients, all with gastric pathology. Halitosis was also established by organoleptic scoring (OLS) of mouth-breath. The levels of H(2)S, MM and DMS in the mouth-breath and stomach air of the H. pylori positive patients did not differ significantly from those of the H. pylori negative patients. OLS of the mouth-breath resulted in 9 patients with halitosis, 1 out of the H. pylori positive group and 8 out of the H. pylori negative group, which is not statistically different. The concentrations of the VSCs in stomach air were in nearly all cases below the thresholds of objectionability of the various VSCs, indicating that halitosis does not originate in the stomach. The patients with gastric pathology were also compared with control patients without gastric pathology and with normal volunteers. No significant differences in VSCs in mouth breath were observed between these groups. Thus, in this study no association between halitosis and H. pylori infection was found. Halitosis, as established by GC and OLS, nearly always originates within the oral cavity and seldom or never within the stomach.

  11. Features of Immune Response to Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children with Bronchial Asthma

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    M.V. Kalichevska

    2016-07-01

    significantly higher in children of I group versus patients of group II (8.74 ± 0.22 pg/ml and 7.21 ± 0.35 pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. Serum concentrations of IL‑4 and IL‑5 were increased in all studied groups compared to the control group and had no correlation with the presence of H.pylori infection. After the treatment of gastrointestinal patho­logy, there was an improvement in parameters of asthma control, which was associated with a significant reduction of IFN-γ and IL‑13 concentrations in group I, and IFN-γ, IL‑5 and -13 — in group II. Conclusion. The presence of H.pylori infection in children with gastroduodenal pathology occurring against the background of bronchial asthma is accompanied by an imbalance of the immune response, which manifested as reduced production of IFN-γ, IL‑4, and IL‑13 increase compared to H.pylori-negative children. Treatment of GI diseases is associated with a decrease in IFN-γ and cytokines mentioned above that clinically promotes the improvement of bronchial asthma control.

  12. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

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    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included…

  13. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included…

  14. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included who were permanent resident of…

  15. Local and Systemic Antibody Responses in Humans with Helicobacter pylori Infection

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    Thomas G Blanchard

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization can prevent or cure an otherwise chronic helicobacter infection in several animal models despite the chronic nature of natural helicobacter infections. Differences in the antigenic specificity of the antibodies may contribute to the protection observed in these experimental animals. The goal of the present study was to compare the local and systemic antibody responses of humans with chronic Helicobacter pylori infection with those of an individual with spontaneous resolution of infection to find an immunological correlate of protection. Spontaneous resolution of infection was accompanied by a change in immunoblot profiles. Whereas a broad range of H pylori antigens was recognized in chronically infected patients (including the patient who ultimately cleared the infection spontaneously, resolution of infection in the absence of therapeutic agents resulted in the recognition of only several immunodominant antigens. The most dominant antigen was approximately 66 kDa in molecular mass. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that these antibodies were specific for the structural subunits of the urease enzyme. These studies suggest that the success of antihelicobacter immunization may be due to the ability of vaccination to induce an immune response against antigens that are normally not immunodominant during the course of infection.

  16. Systematic identification of immunodominant CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA in Helicobacter pylori infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Chen, Li; Yang, Wuchen; Li, Bin; Sun, Heqiang; Wei, Shanshan; He, Yafei; Zhao, Zhuo; Yang, Shiming; Zou, Quanming; Chen, Weisan; Guo, Hong; Wu, Chao

    2016-08-23

    In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response is indispensible for the protective immunity against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It has been demonstrated that neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin (HpaA) immunization protected mice from H. pylori infection in a CD4+ T cell dependent manner. However, much remains unclear concerning the human CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA. We conducted a systematic study here to explore the immunodominant, HpaA-specific CD4+ T cell responses in H. pylori infected individuals. We found that HpaA-specific CD4+ T cell responses varied remarkably in their magnitude and had broad epitope-specificity. Importantly, the main responses focused on two regions: HpaA76-105 and HpaA130-159. The HLA-DRB1*0901 restricted HpaA142-159 specific CD4+ T cell response was the most immunodominant response at a population level. The immunodominant epitope HpaA142-159 was naturally presented and highly conserved. We also demonstrated that it was not the broad peptide specificity, but the strength of HpaA specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with gastric diseases potentially caused by H. pylori infection. Such investigation will aid development of novel vaccines against H. pylori infection.

  17. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

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    Hofman, Paul; Waidner, Barbara; Hofman, Véronique; Bereswill, Stefan; Brest, Patrick; Kist, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    Research in the last year has provided new insights into the function of the the cag-associated type IV secretion system and the vacuolating toxin VacA. A quite new aspect was disclosed by the finding that Helicobacter pylori in Mongolian gerbils colonizes a very distinct topology in the gastric mucous layer, obviously providing optimal conditions for long-term survival. Further research activities focused on H. pylori ammonia and metal metabolism as well as on bacterial stress defence mechanisms. Differential expression of approximately 7% of the bacterial genome was found at low pH suggesting that H. pylori has evolved a multitude of acid-adaptive mechanisms. VacA was shown to interrupt phagosome maturation in macrophage cell lines as well as to modulate and interfere with T lymphocyte immunological functions. Gastric mucosa as well as the H. pylori-infected epithelial cell line AGS strongly express IL-8 receptor A and B, which might contribute to the augmentation of the inflammatory response. Accumulating evidence implicates genetic variation in the inflammatory response to H. pylori in the etiology of the increased risk of gastric cancer after H. pylori infection. The chronic imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation is the first step of gastric carcinogenesis. In this regard, it was demonstrated that coexpression of two H. pylori proteins, CagA and HspB, in AGS cells, caused an increase in E2F transcription factor, cyclin D3, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein. Taken together, we now have a better understanding of the role of different virulence factors of H. pylori. There is still a lot to be learned, but the promising discoveries summarized here, demonstrate that the investigation of the bacterial survival strategies will give novel insights into pathogenesis and disease development.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection might be responsible for the interconnection between type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis

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    El-Eshmawy Mervat M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher serological prevalence rates of helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection have been reported in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT. Patients with T1DM are at increased risk for developing other autoimmune diseases, most commonly AT. It is unknown whether H. pylori infection could explain the high prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and AT in T1DM. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg autoantibodies in correlation with anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA in young patients with T1DM. Methods Anti-H. Pylori IgG, IgA, anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies titers were measured in 162 euthyroid patients with T1DM and 80 healthy controls matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. Results Seroprevalence of H. pylori was significantly higher in patients with T1DM than in healthy controls; 79% vs. 51.2%, p Conclusion our results support the idea of a connection between H. pylori infection and the occurrence of anti-TPO, anti-Tg autoantibodies and AT in young patients with T1DM. So, H. pylori infection could be considered as an environmental trigger for development of AT in T1DM. Young patients with T1DM should be screened for H. pylori infection.

  19. Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki Osawa

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primar-ily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori(H pylori infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lym-phoid tissue lymphorna. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in Hpylori injected sub-jects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in associa-tion with atrophic gastritis induced by Hpylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentra-tion. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may re-sult from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations be-fore and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels.

  20. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detec

  1. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to

  2. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Vania; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Touati, Eliette

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for the most commonly found infection in the world's population. It is the major risk factor for gastric cancer development. Numerous studies published over the last year provide new insights into the strategies employed by H. pylori to adapt to the extreme acidic conditions of the gastric environment, to establish persistent infection and to deregulate host functions, leading to gastric pathogenesis and cancer. In this review, we report recent data on the mechanisms involved in chemotaxis, on the essential role of nickel in acid resistance and gastric colonization, on the importance of adhesins and Hop proteins and on the role of CagPAI-components and CagA. Among the host functions, a special focus has been made on the escape from immune response, the ability of bacteria to induce genetic instability and modulate telomeres, the mechanism of autophagy and the deregulation of micro RNAs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular mimicry in Helicobacter pylori infections

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    Chmiela, Magdalena; Gonciarz, Weronika

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize gastric mucosa in humans and increase the risk of serious diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancers and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of several extragastric diseases has been suggested including immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and dermatological disorders. Also neurological diseases and even lung cancer have attracted researchers concern. The relation between H. pylori infection and a growth retardation in children has also been suggested. Many mechanisms of molecular mimicry between H. pylori and the host have been proposed as a pathogen strategy to manipulate the immune system of the host in order to remain unrecognized and avoid eradication. A lot of effort has been put into the demonstration of homologous sequences between H. pylori and host compounds. However, knowledge about how often autoantibodies or autoreactive T lymphocytes induced during H. pylori infections cause pathological disorders is insufficient. This review provides data on H. pylori antigenic mimicry and possible deleterious effects due to the induction of immune response to the components common to these bacteria and the host. PMID:28652651

  4. Molecular mimicry in Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Gonciarz, Weronika

    2017-06-14

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize gastric mucosa in humans and increase the risk of serious diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancers and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of several extragastric diseases has been suggested including immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and dermatological disorders. Also neurological diseases and even lung cancer have attracted researchers concern. The relation between H. pylori infection and a growth retardation in children has also been suggested. Many mechanisms of molecular mimicry between H. pylori and the host have been proposed as a pathogen strategy to manipulate the immune system of the host in order to remain unrecognized and avoid eradication. A lot of effort has been put into the demonstration of homologous sequences between H. pylori and host compounds. However, knowledge about how often autoantibodies or autoreactive T lymphocytes induced during H. pylori infections cause pathological disorders is insufficient. This review provides data on H. pylori antigenic mimicry and possible deleterious effects due to the induction of immune response to the components common to these bacteria and the host.

  5. Immune response to H pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Suarez; Victor E Reyes; Ellen J Beswick

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer,attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium.

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...

  7. The Importance of Toll-like Receptors in NF-κB Signaling Pathway Activation by Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Regulators of this Response.

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    Hu, Yi; Liu, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common pathogenic bacterium in the stomach that infects almost half of the population worldwide and is closely related to gastric diseases and some extragastric diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Both the Maastricht IV/Florence consensus report and the Kyoto global consensus report have proposed the eradication of H. pylori to prevent gastric cancer as H.pylori has been shown to be a major cause of gastric carcinogenesis. The interactions between H. pylori and host receptors induce the release of the proinflammatory cytokines by activating proinflammatory signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which plays a central role in inflammation, immune response, and carcinogenesis. Among these receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are classical pattern recognition receptors in the recognition of H. pylori and the mediation of the host inflammatory and immune responses to H. pylori. TLR polymorphisms also contribute to the clinical consequences of H. pylori infection. In this review, we focus on the functions of TLRs in the NF-κB signaling pathway activated by H. pylori, the regulators modulating this response, and the functions of TLR polymorphisms in H.pylori-related diseases.

  8. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifico, Lucia; Anania, Caterina; Osborn, John F.; Ferraro, Flavia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the human stomach for many decades without adverse consequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children wit...

  9. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia; Pacifico; Caterina; Anania; John; F; Osborn; Flavia; Ferraro; Claudio; Chiesa

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the hu-man stomach for many decades without adverse con-sequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent a...

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  12. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  13. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Kusters (Johannes); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHelicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection

  14. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.

  15. H. pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think you may have a high risk of stomach cancer, talk to your doctor. Together you can decide whether you may benefit from H. pylori screening. References H. pylori and peptic ulcers. National Institute ...

  16. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease

  17. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease

  18. Arginase 2 deletion leads to enhanced M1 macrophage activation and upregulated polyamine metabolism in response to Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardbower, Dana M; Asim, Mohammad; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Casero, Robert A; Verriere, Thomas; Lewis, Nuruddeen D; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Wilson, Keith T

    2016-10-01

    We reported that arginase 2 (ARG2) deletion results in increased gastritis and decreased bacterial burden during Helicobacter pylori infection in mice. Our studies implicated a potential role for inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS2), as Arg2 (-/-) mice exhibited increased NOS2 levels in gastric macrophages, and NO can kill H. pylori. We now bred Arg2 (-/-) to Nos2 (-/-) mice, and infected them with H. pylori. Compared to wild-type mice, both Arg2 (-/-) and Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice exhibited increased gastritis and decreased colonization, the latter indicating that the effect of ARG2 deletion on bacterial burden was not mediated by NO. While Arg2 (-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced M1 macrophage activation, Nos2 (-/-) and Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice did not demonstrate these changes, but exhibited increased CXCL1 and CXCL2 responses. There was an increased expression of the Th1/Th17 cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 17, in gastric tissues and splenic T-cells from Arg2 (-/-), but not Nos2 (-/-) or Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice. Gastric tissues from infected Arg2 (-/-) mice demonstrated increased expression of arginase 1, ornithine decarboxylase, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1, spermidine/spermine N (1)-acetyltransferase 1, and spermine oxidase, along with increased spermine levels. These data indicate that ARG2 deletion results in compensatory upregulation of gastric polyamine synthesis and catabolism during H. pylori infection, which may contribute to increased gastric inflammation and associated decreased bacterial load. Overall, the finding of this study is that ARG2 contributes to the immune evasion of H. pylori by restricting M1 macrophage activation and polyamine metabolism.

  19. Induction of premalignant host responses by cathepsin x/z-deficiency in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krueger

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are responsible for the induction of chronic gastric inflammation progressing to atrophy, metaplasia, and gastric cancer. The overexpression of Cathepsin X/Z (Ctsz in H. pylori-infected mucosa and gastric cancer is mediated predominantly by an augmented migration of ctsz(-/-positive macrophages and the up-regulation of Ctsz in tumor epithelium. To explore the Ctsz-function in the context of chronic inflammation and the development of preneoplastic lesions, we used Ctsz-deficient mice in a H. pylori gastritis model. Ctsz (-/- and wild-type (wt mice were infected with H. pylori strain SS1. The mice were sacrificed at 24, 36, and 50 weeks post infection (wpi. The stomach was removed, and gastric strips were snap-frozen or embedded and stained with H&E. Tissue sections were scored for epithelial lesions and inflammation. Ki-67 and F4/80 immunostaining were used to measure epithelial cell proliferation and macrophage infiltration, respectively. The upregulation of compensating cathepsins and cytokines were confirmed by Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. SS1-infected wt and ctsz (-/- mice showed strong inflammation, foveolar hyperplasia, atrophy, and cystically-dilated glands. However, at 50 wpi, ctsz (-/- mice developed significantly more severe spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM, showed enhanced epithelial proliferation, and higher levels of infiltrating macrophages. Induction of cytokines was higher and significantly prolonged in ctsz (-/- mice compared to wt. Ctsz deficiency supports H. pylori-dependent development of chronic gastritis up to metaplasia, indicating a protective, but not proteolytic, function of Ctsz in inflammatory gastric disease.

  20. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cag PAI, CagA, VacA and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819

  1. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. A diagnosis of infection is thus an important part of a treatment strategy of many gastrointestinal tract diseases. Many diagnostic tests are available but all have some limitations in different clinical situations and laboratory settings. A single gold standard cannot available, but be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in daily clinical practice in all areas, so several techniques have been developed to give reliable results, especially focusing on real time endoscopic features. The narrow band imaging system (NBI) and high resolution endoscopy are imaging techniques for enhanced visualization of infected mucosa and premalignant gastric lesions. The aim of this article is to review the current diagnostic options and possible future developments detection of Helicobacter pylori infection.

  2. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Systems modeling of the role of interleukin-21 in the maintenance of effector CD4+ T cell responses during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Adria; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Delgado, Alberto; Washington, M Kay; Wilson, Keith T; Algood, Holly M Scott

    2014-07-22

    The development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection is dependent on an activated adaptive immune response orchestrated by T helper (Th) cells. However, the relative contributions of the Th1 and Th17 subsets to gastritis and control of infection are still under investigation. To investigate the role of interleukin-21 (IL-21) in the gastric mucosa during H. pylori infection, we combined mathematical modeling of CD4(+) T cell differentiation with in vivo mechanistic studies. We infected IL-21-deficient and wild-type mice with H. pylori strain SS1 and assessed colonization, gastric inflammation, cellular infiltration, and cytokine profiles. Chronically H. pylori-infected IL-21-deficient mice had higher H. pylori colonization, significantly less gastritis, and reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to these parameters in infected wild-type littermates. These in vivo data were used to calibrate an H. pylori infection-dependent, CD4(+) T cell-specific computational model, which then described the mechanism by which IL-21 activates the production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-17 during chronic H. pylori infection. The model predicted activated expression of T-bet and RORγt and the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1 and suggested a potential role of IL-21 in the modulation of IL-10. Driven by our modeling-derived predictions, we found reduced levels of CD4(+) splenocyte-specific tbx21 and rorc expression, reduced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3, and an increase in CD4(+) T cell-specific IL-10 expression in H. pylori-infected IL-21-deficient mice. Our results indicate that IL-21 regulates Th1 and Th17 effector responses during chronic H. pylori infection in a STAT1- and STAT3-dependent manner, therefore playing a major role controlling H. pylori infection and gastritis. Importance: Helicobacter pylori is the dominant member of the gastric microbiota in more than 50% of the world's population. H. pylori colonization has

  4. Helicobacter pylori gastritis in HIV-infected patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Daniel T; Morgan, Christopher J; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are different: H. pylori is transmitted by gastro- or fecal-oral routes and is associated with low socioeconomic conditions, while HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, infected body fluids, and transplacentally. If the host responses to these infections were independent, the prevalence of H. pylori should be similar in HIV-infected and non-infected patients. Yet, several studies have detected a lower prevalence of H. pylori in patients with HIV infection, whereas other studies found either no differences or greater rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-positive subjects. To review studies that addressed the issue of these two simultaneous infections and attempt to determine whether reliable conclusions can be drawn from this corpus of often contrasting evidence. Electronic literature search for relevant publications, followed by manual search of additional citations from extracted articles. The initial search yielded 44 publications; after excluding case reports, reviews, narrowly focused articles, and duplicate reports, there remained 29 articles, which are the corpus of this review. With one exception, all studies reported higher rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-negative subjects. Five studies also examined the CD4 lymphocyte counts and found an inverse correlation between the degree of immunosuppression and the prevalence of active H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that it is likely that H. pylori needs a functional immune system to successfully and persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and endocrine disorders: Is there a link?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos X Papamichael; Garyphallia Papaioannou; Helen Karga; Anastasios Roussos; Gerassimos J Mantzaris

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is a leading world-wide infectious disease as it affects more than half of the world population and causes chronic gastritis,peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies.The infection elicits a chronic cellular inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa.However,the effects of this local inflammation may not be confined solely to the digestive tract but may spread to involve extraintestinal tissues and/or organs.Indeed,H pylori infection has been epidemiologically linked to extra-digestive conditions and diseases.In this context,it has been speculated that H pylori infection may be responsible for various endocrine disorders,such as autoimmune thyroid diseases,diabetes mellitus,dyslipidemia,obesity,osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism.This is a review of the relationship between H pylori infection and these endocrine disorders.

  6. Helicobacter pylori-induced sonic hedgehog expression is regulated by NFκB pathway activation: The use of a novel in vitro model to study epithelial response to infection

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, MA; R. Feng; Aihara, E; Engevik, AC; Montrose, MH; Ottemann, KM; Zavros, Y

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to acute induction of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the stomach that is associated with the initiation of gastritis. The mechanism by which H. pylori induces Shh is unknown. Shh is a target gene of transcription factor Nuclear Factor-κB (NFκB). We hypothesize that NFκB mediates H. pylori-induced Shh. Materials and Methods: To visualize Shh ligand expression in response to H. pylori infection in vivo, we used a mouse model...

  7. Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection: Bacterium and host relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić-Milutinović Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of a half of the mankind. Duodenal ulcer is found in 15-25%, t gastric ulcer in 13%, while gastric adenocarcinoma develops in 1% of all infected individuals. Pathogenesis of H. pylori infection is related to the virulence factors of the bacterium, environmental (dietary habits, hygiene, stress and host factors (age, sex, blood type. Colonization of the gastric mucosa is related to the motility of the bacterium, presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS and various bacterial enzymes. Gastric mucosal injury is the result of H. pylori LPS, vacuolization cytotoxin (vacA, cytotoxin associated protein (cagA, heat shock proteins and factors responsible for neutrophil chemotaxis and activity. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa and zones of ectopic gastric epithelium. H. pylori infection is transmitted via oral-oral, fecal-oral and iatrogenic way (during endoscopy. Higher prevalence of the infection is associated with lower socioeconomic level, lack of drinking water, and living in a community. Acute H. pylori gastritis is superficial pangastritis progressing into the chronic phase after 7-10 days. Gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia can develop during the course of H. pylori infection. Clearly defined factors that influence the outcome of H. pylori infection include bacterial strain, distribution of gastritis, acid secretion and gastric mucosal atrophy.

  8. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  9. Let-7b is involved in the inflammation and immune responses associated with Helicobacter pylori infection by targeting Toll-like receptor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-gen Teng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptors (TLRs are important initiators in native immune responses to microbial infections. TLR4 is up-regulated in response to H.pylori infection in gastric epithelial cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms for the expression of TLR4 in H.pylori infection have not been clearly defined. The aims of this study are to present the evidence that microRNA let-7b directly regulates TLR4 expression in human gastric epithelial cells, and subsequently influences the activation of NF-κB and the expression of the downstream genes in H.pylori infection. METHODS: The expression of let-7b was determined in gastric mucosa specimens and in two gastric epithelial cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of TLR4 was determined by immunohistochemistry staining and RT-PCR. The potential target of let-7b was identified by luciferase reporter assay and Western blot. Let-7b mimics and inhibitors were used to examine the effects of let-7b on NF-κB activity. The expression of the downstream genes of NF-κB was also determined in cells infected with H.pylori 26695. RESULTS: Let-7b was significantly decreased in gastric mucosa specimens and in gastric epithelial cell lines (AGS, GES-1 infected with H.pylori 26695 (cagA+. Let-7b was complementary to the 3'-UTR of TLR4 mRNA and regulated TLR4 expression via post-transcriptional suppression in gastric epithelium. Infection of H.pylori induced the expression of TLR4 and activated NF-κB in AGS and GES-1 cells. Overexpression of let-7b by mimics downregulated TLR4, and subsequently attenuated NF-κB, MyD88, NF-κB1/p50, RelA/p65. The expression of IL-8, COX-2 and CyclinD1 was inhibited in H.pylori infected cells with let-7b overexpression. Both TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor and SN50 (NF-κB inhibitor significantly inhibited the H.pylori induced downregulation of let-7b. CONCLUSIONS: Let-7b targets at TLR4 mRNA, and regulates the activation of NF-κB and the expression of the downstream genes

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yvan Vandenplas

    2000-01-01

    @@ IS THERE ANYTHING NEW? Helicobacter pylori has been for many years a forgotten bacterium, since the first report on this spiral organism dated from the 19th century[1]. As early as in 1906, an association between a spiral organism and gastric carcinoma was suggested[2].Doenges reported in 1938 that on autopsy not less than 40% of human stomachs were found to be invaded by spiral organisms[3].

  11. Persistent Helicobacter pylori specific Th17 responses in patients with past H. pylori infection are associated with elevated gastric mucosal IL-1β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Serelli-Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ongoing Helicobacter pylori (HP infection triggers a chronic active gastritis. Eradicating HP reduces gastric inflammation, but does not eliminate it. We sought to characterize this persistent gastritis, and demonstrate the persistence of HP-specific Th17 responses in individuals previously infected with HP but who no longer had evidence of ongoing infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study subjects were divided into 3 groups 55 individuals had active HP infection (group A, 41 were diagnosed with previous HP infection (group P, and 59 were naïve to HP (group N. Blood and gastric tissue were obtained with written informed consent from all subjects, and immune responses were evaluated using flow cytometry, semi-quantitative real time PCR, immunofluorescent staining, ELISA, and multiplex cytometric bead array for cytokine quantification. Elevated IL-17A responses were observed in patients from group A compared to group N. Interestingly, IL-17A responses remained persistently elevated in the blood and gastric mucosa of individuals from group P, despite the absence of ongoing HP infection. Using purified CD4(+ T cells as effectors and antibodies that blocked antigen presentation by MHC Class II, we showed that these persistent IL-17A responses were mediated primarily by HP-specific Th17 cells, rather than other immune cells that have also been described to secrete IL-17A. Gastric mucosal IL-1β levels were also persistently elevated in group P, and neutralisation of IL-1β reduced the HP-specific IL-17A response of purified CD4(+ T cells to autologous HP-pulsed antigen presenting cells in vitro, suggesting a functional association between IL-1β and the persistent Th17 response in group P patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite lack of ongoing HP infection, HP-specific Th17 cells persist in the blood and gastric mucosa of individuals with past HP infection. We speculate that this persistent inflammation might contribute to

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Zara, Tuba; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçin; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been linked to peptic ulcer disease, gastric lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. Apart from its well-demonstrated role in gastroduodenal diseases, some authors have suggested a potential role of Helicobacter pylori infection in several extra-intestinal pathologies including haematological, cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune, and dermatological diseases. Some studies suggest an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and skin diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria and rosacea. There have also been few case reports documenting association between Helicobacter pylori and psoriasis vulgaris, Behçet's disease, alopecia areata, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. However, more systematic studies are required to clarify the proposed association between Helicobacter pylori and skin diseases; most of the studies do not show relevant relationships of these diseases with Helicobacter pylori infections. This review discusses skin diseases that are believed to be associated with Helicobacter pylori.

  13. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Oderda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.

  14. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  15. Helicobacter pylori-induced Sonic Hedgehog expression is regulated by NFκB pathway activation: the use of a novel in vitro model to study epithelial response to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Michael A; Feng, Rui; Aihara, Eitaro; Engevik, Amy C; Montrose, Marshall H; Ottemann, Karen M; Zavros, Yana

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to acute induction of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the stomach that is associated with the initiation of gastritis. The mechanism by which H. pylori induces Shh is unknown. Shh is a target gene of transcription factor Nuclear Factor-κB (NFκB). We hypothesize that NFκB mediates H. pylori-induced Shh. To visualize Shh ligand expression in response to H. pylori infection in vivo, we used a mouse model that expresses Shh fused to green fluorescent protein (Shh::GFP mice) in place of wild-type Shh. In vitro, changes in Shh expression were measured in response to H. pylori infection using 3-dimensional epithelial cell cultures grown from whole dissociated gastric glands (organoids). Organoids were generated from stomachs collected from the fundic region of control and mice expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-Shh(KO) mice). Within 2 days of infection, H. pylori induced Shh expression within parietal cells of Shh::GFP mice. Organoids expressed all major gastric cell markers, including parietal cell marker H(+) ,K(+) -ATPase and Shh. H. pylori infection of gastric organoids induced Shh expression; a response that was blocked by inhibiting NFκB signaling and correlated with IκB degradation. H. pylori infection of PC-Shh(KO) mouse-derived organoids did not result in the induction of Shh expression. Gastric organoids allow for the study of the interaction between H. pylori and the differentiated gastric epithelium independent of the host immune response. H. pylori induces Shh expression from the parietal cells, a response mediated via activation of NFκB signaling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Autoantibodies to gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, R; Savio, A; Appelmelk, B J

    1997-07-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the main cause of chronic gastritis and its associated diseases, very little is known about the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to intestinal metaplasia and atrophic gastritis. We reviewed the data regarding the possible pathogenetic role played by the anti-H. pylori immune responses in the genesis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Although only type A (corpus-restricted atrophic gastritis), often associated to pernicious anemia, is considered autoimmune in nature, abundant evidence supports the presence of cellular and humoral autoimmune responses also in patients with H. pylori infection. In a mechanism known as antigenic mimicry, highly conserved immunogenic molecules expressed by infectious pathogens may act as a trigger for the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses that cross-react with host cellular antigens. Numerous studies support the view that H. pylori is very effective in inducing antigenic mimicry, and antibodies against H. pylori have been found to cross-react with both antral mucosal cells (the membrane of the secretory canalicular structures of the parietal cells) and gastrin-producing cells. Such autoantibodies were detected both in human infections and in experimental work in rodents. The detection of antibodies that cross-react with H. pylori and various components of the gastric mucosa provides strong support to the view that immune responses against H. pylori not only participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to atrophy in the progressive atrophic gastritis associated with Helicobacter infection but also in the corpus-restricted autoimmune gastritis.

  17. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  18. Age-Dependent Association among Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Pepsinogen Levels and Immune Response of Children to Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Lagos, Rosanna; Reymann, Mardi K.; Graham, David Y.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Through its effects on gastric secretion, we hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori infection may influence oral immunization. Accordingly, we examined the association between H. pylori infection, serum pepsinogen (PG) (measures for H. pylori gastritis) and vibriocidal antibody (a correlate of protection) seroconversion following oral immunization with CVD 103-HgR live cholera vaccine among children of different ages. Methods Sera from 422 Chilean children who were vaccinated with a single dose of CVD 103-HgR were tested by ELISA for serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori, PG I and PG II levels and antibodies to Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide and hepatitis A virus (as markers of low socioeconomic status and exposure to enteric pathogens). Results The likelihood of vibriocidal antibody seroconversion following vaccination with CVD 103-HgR was significantly decreased in H. pylori-seropositive children age 6 months to 4 years with PG II>8 µg/L (adjusted OR 0.14 (95% CI 0.03–0.61; P = 0.009), and also in H. pylori seropositives with lower PG II level (adjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.83; P = 0.017), compared to H. pylori-seronegatives. H. pylori-seropositive children aged 5–9 years with serum PG I>30 µg/L (indicating more severe gastritis) had higher odds of vibriocidal seroconversion than those with lower PG I levels (adjusted OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.26–15.38; P = 0.02). There was no significant association between exposures to S. flexneri 2a or hepatitis A virus and vibriocidal seroconversion. Conclusions As H. pylori gastritis progresses with increasing pediatric age in developing country venues, changes in gastric secretion ensue that we believe explain the observed differences in age-related immune responses to immunization with live oral cholera vaccine. The effect of H. pylori and changes of gastric acid secretion on the immunogenicity of various oral vaccines should be studied in different developing, transitional and industrialized

  19. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variables such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, genetic, and immunological ... Age distribution of H. pylori infection did not show any trend towards increase or .... infection in dyspeptic patients in Iran. Gastroenterol Insights.

  20. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...... infection is unknown. We retrospectively studied 102 patients with HIV infection early during the infection and in most cases in asymptomatic patients. Serological IgG antibody response to H. pylori was assessed by ELISA. Compared with an age-matched control group the seroprevalence of H. pylori positivity......) and 2 patients had H. pylori seroconverted, indicating an incidence of new infection of 2%/year. In conclusion, previous reports have underestimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HIV patients, which seems to be similar to that in an HIV-negative population....

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    . Also noninvasive tests have been studied in children, including serology, 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test, showing good results in the different age groups as compared to the gold standard. However, the infection often remains asymptomatic in children and the role of this bacterium......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...... place only after susceptibility testing. The association of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics for 1 or 2 weeks gives the best eradication rates. The crucial question to elucidate is whether asymptomatic children should be treated to prevent cancer in the future....

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori may possibly affect the iron metabolism by occult bleeding, impaired absorption of non-hem iron, and by scavenging hem iron or ferritin, as some studies have suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between H. pylori infection and serum ferrit...

  3. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...

  4. Present and past Helicobacter pylori infection in Mexican school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Eugenia; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Mera, Robertino; Vilchis, Jenny; Moran, Segundo; Rivera, Octavio; Coria, Rafael; Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo; Duque, Ximena

    2014-02-01

    In developing countries, more than 50% of children have serological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, serological tests for H. pylori did not differentiate between active and past infection. The objectives of this study were to estimate the frequency of active and past H. pylori infection utilizing functional urea breath test (UBT) and serological tests and evaluate factors associated with the infection. A total of 675 school children, 6-13 years of age, participated. UBT was performed to detect active H. pylori infection. Blood samples were obtained to determine iron status and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to the H. pylori whole-cell and to Cag A antigens by antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Weight, height, and sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. A total of 37.9% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 34.2-41.6) of school children had active or past H. pylori infection; of them, 73.8% (CI95% 68.4-79.2) were carrying CagA-positive strain, 26.5% (CI95% 23.2-29.8) had active infection, and 11.4% (95%CI: 9.0-13.8) had evidence of past H. pylori infection. School children with iron deficiency and low height for age had higher risk of H. pylori infection: [OR to active or past infection was 2.30 (CI 95% 1.01-5.23) and to active infection it was 2.64 (CI 95% 1.09-6.44)] compared to school children with normal iron status and height for age or with normal iron status but low height for age or with iron deficiency and normal height for age. The estimated prevalence of infection depends of the test utilized. Frequency of H. pylori infection and carrying CagA-positive strains was high in this population. Malnutrition was associated with active H. pylori infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Infecciones por helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Alvarez Gil

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se revisan los conocimientos sobre el papel de Helicobacter pylori en varias enfermedades gastroduodenales como la gastritis crónica (GC, úlcera gástrica (UG, úlcera duodenal (UD y dispepsia no ulcerosa (DNU. La revisión abarca aspectos históricos, microbiológicos, clínicos, epidemiológicos, diagnósticos de laboratorio, terapéuticos y de patogénesis.

    The current knowledge of the role of Helicobacter Pylori in several gastroduodenal  diseases is reviewed. It includes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and nonulcerous dyspepsia. The following aspects are treated in this paper: history, microbiology. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, therapy and pathogenesis.

  6. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  7. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with protection against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Perry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori, a lifelong and typically asymptomatic infection of the stomach, profoundly alters gastric immune responses, and may benefit the host in protection against other pathogens. We explored the hypothesis that H. pylori contributes to the control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first examined M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma and H. pylori antibody responses in 339 healthy Northern Californians undergoing routine tuberculin skin testing. Of 97 subjects (29% meeting criteria for latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI, 45 (46% were H. pylori seropositive. Subjects with LTBI who were H. pylori-seropositive had 1.5-fold higher TB antigen-induced IFN-gamma responses (p = 0.04, ANOVA, and a more Th-1 like cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared to those who were H. pylori seronegative. To explore an association between H. pylori infection and clinical outcome of TB exposure, we evaluated H. pylori seroprevalence in baseline samples from two high risk TB case-contact cohorts, and from cynomolgus macaques experimentally challenged with M. tuberculosis. Compared to 513 household contacts who did not progress to active disease during a median 24 months follow-up, 120 prevalent TB cases were significantly less likely to be H. pylori infected (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.0.36-0.83, p = 0.005, though seroprevalence was not significantly different from non-progressors in 37 incident TB cases (AOR: 1.35 [95% CI 0.63-2.9] p = 0.44. Cynomolgus macaques with natural H. pylori infection were significantly less likely to progress to TB 6 to 8 months after M. tuberculosis challenge (RR: 0.31 [95% CI 0.12-0.80], p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: H. pylori infection may induce bystander effects that modify the risk of active TB in humans and non-human primates. That immunity to TB may be enhanced by exposure to other microbial agents may have important implications for

  8. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzung-Shiun; Hu, Huang-Ming; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Chao-Hung

    2014-04-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection has become an important issue recently, because this bacterial species cluster can cause many gastrointestinal diseases. Elevated antibiotic resistance is related to an increasing failure rate of H. pylori eradication. Standard triple therapy is still the first-line therapy; however, according to the Maastricht IV Consensus Report, it should be abandoned in areas of high clarithromycin resistance. Alternative first-line therapies include bismuth-containing quadruple therapy, sequential, concomitant, and hybrid therapies. Quinolone-based triple therapy may be considered as first-line therapy in areas of clarithromycin resistance >15-20% and quinolone resistance <10%. Unique second-line therapy is still unclear, and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy or levofloxacin-based triple therapy can be used as rescue treatment. Third-line therapy should be under culture guidance to select the most effective regimens (such as levofloxacin-based, rifabutin-based, or furazolidone-based therapies). Antibiotics resistance, patient compliance, and CYP 2C19 genotypes could influence the outcome. Clinicians should use antibiotics according to local reports.

  9. TIFA Signaling in Gastric Epithelial Cells Initiates the cag Type 4 Secretion System-Dependent Innate Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Alevtina; Gaudet, Ryan G; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Salama, Nina R

    2017-08-15

    Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence. Cytosolic delivery of proinflammatory bacterial factors through the cag type 4 secretion system (cag-T4SS) has long been appreciated as the major mechanism by which gastric epithelial cells detect H. pylori Classically attributed to the peptidoglycan sensor NOD1, recent work has highlighted the role of NOD1-independent pathways in detecting H. pylori; however, the bacterial and host factors involved have remained unknown. Here, we show that bacterially derived heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), a metabolic precursor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, is delivered to the host cytosol through the cag-T4SS, where it activates the host tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein with forkhead-associated domain (TIFA)-dependent cytosolic surveillance pathway. This response, which is independent of NOD1, drives robust NF-κB-dependent inflammation within hours of infection and precedes NOD1 activation. We also found that the CagA toxin contributes to the NF-κB-driven response subsequent to TIFA and NOD1 activation. Taken together, our results indicate that the sequential activation of TIFA, NOD1, and CagA delivery drives the initial inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells, orchestrating the subsequent recruitment of immune cells and leading to chronic gastritis.IMPORTANCEH. pylori is a globally prevalent cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers and cancer. H. pylori antibiotic resistance is rapidly

  10. Helicobacter pylori: From Infection to Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 380 abstracts, presentations and posters of recent advances were highlighted at the European and International Helicobacter pylori meeting held July 7 to 9, 1995 in Edinburgh, Scotland. New advances abound, with major interest focusing on the simple, safe, inexpensive new `gold standard’ for H pylori eradication therapy: a single week of tid omeprazole 20 mg, metronidazole 400 mg and clarithromycin 250 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg. To avoid false negative results, two biopsies must be taken from the antrum and two from the gastric body at least four weeks after completion of eradication therapy, and ideally should be supplemented with at least one further H pylori test such as a biopsy for urease activity or culture, or a urea breath test. While most patients with a gastric or duodenal ulcer (DU who do not consume nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are infected with H pylori, the association is much less apparent in those with a DU who present with an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. H pylori eradication for nonulcer dyspepsia is not widely recommended, and the patient with a DU given effective H pylori eradication who presents with dyspepsia likely has erosive esophagitis rather than recurrent DU or H pylori. Gastroenterologists are at increased risk of H pylori infection, particularly older gastroenterologists who are very busy endoscopists.

  11. Relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and endoscopic findings among patients with dyspepsia in north ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Results: Of the 148 subjects studied, 68 (46.0%) were males and 80 (54.0%) females.

  12. Role of Probiotics in the Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zare Javid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped, microaerophilic organism that colonizes the stomach of humans and causes chronic-active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancers, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach and MALT (mucosal-associated lymphoid tumor lymphomas. H. pylori colonizes the stomach of over 50 % the world’s human population, primarily those who reside in developing nations. Infection is generally first acquired in children, who may be entirely asymptomatic, and then persists for life, unless specific eradication therapy is initiated. All infected individuals have mucosal inflammation in the stomach in response to the organism, but only a subset will develop disease complications, such as an ulcer in the stomach or proximal duodenum and cancer in either the body or the antrum of the stomach. It is estimated that the lifetime risk of developing peptic ulceration is roughly 15%. However, this is an exceedingly important disease, because it has serious morbidity and mortality. Eradication of H. pylori infection is not successful when using antibiotics as monotherapy or dual therapy using combinations of an acid-suppressing agent and an antibiotic or two antibiotics without acid blockage. Multiple studies show that some probiotic strains can inhibit the growth of H. pylori. To date, probiotics do not appear to have a role as sole therapy for use in the prevention or treatment of H. pylori infection. However, there is increasing evidence that a variety of probiotic agents are useful as adjunctive therapy, which can both enhance the success of eradicating the gastric pathogen while, reduce the frequency and severity of adverse effects arising from the other agents that are employed in current combination treatment regimens. Future studies should assess the role of prebiotics and synbiotics and products derived from probiotics as additional options for use in the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection

  13. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and diseases associated with Helicobacter pylori by Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiang; Ai-Long Huang; Xiao-Hong Tao; Pi-Long Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the serological response of patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobocter pylori(Hpylori)infection to two H pylori outer membrane proteins (OMPs)(Mr18 000 and Mr26 000) acquired by gene recombinanttechnique, and to determine the diagnostic significance of serological tests derived from these OMPs.METHODS: Recombinant vectors encoding the two H pylori OMPs were used to transform and express in BL21 (DE3)E. coli. After purification with Ni2+-NTA agarose resin, colloid gold kits were prepared with purified recombinant proteins to detect H pylori infection and H pylori-associated diseases by the immunity-marker technology. We selected 150 patients with H pyloriinfection and digestive symptoms without previous treatment, induding chronic gastritis (n = 60), duodenal ulcer (n = 30), gastric ulcer (n = 30), and gastric cancer (n = 30).As controls, 33 H pylori-negative healthy volunteers were also recruited. Serum samples were collected from all subjects, and the antibodies to specific proteins of H pylori were tested with the colloid gold test kits. The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of the colloid gold tests were evaluated, by using the combination of standard diagnostic methods (13C urea breath test and bacteria culture) and classic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as reference.RESULTS: After purification with Ni2+-NTA agarose resin,the purity of recombinant fusion proteins was about 95%.The recombinant fusion proteins were recognized by the specific monoclonal antibodies against the two H pylori OMPs,as demonstrated by the ELISA. Of the 150 serum samples from patients infected with H pylori 141 (94.0%) responded positively to the recombinant protein with Mr26 000, while the seropositive rates were 95.0%, 96.7%, 96.7% and 90.0%for patients with H pylori-associated chronic gastritis,duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer respectively.The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the colloid gold kit with Mr26 000

  14. Human immune responses to H. pylori HLA Class II epitopes identified by immunoinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Zhang

    Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.

  15. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Andreas; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2015-09-01

    During the period reviewed, prevalence studies were essentially performed in less economically advanced countries and a high prevalence was found. The traditional risk factors for Helicobacter pylori positivity were mostly found. Transmission studied by molecular typing showed a familial transmission. The eventual role of water transmission was explored in several studies with controversial results. Concerning diagnosis, most of the invasive and noninvasive methods used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection are long standing with efficient performance. The most interesting recent improvements in H. pylori diagnosis include advances in endoscopy, developments in molecular methods, and the introduction of omics-based techniques. Interpretation of old or newer method should take into account the pretest probability and the prevalence of H. pylori in the population under investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ming Liou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The elderly often seek medical attention because of gastroduodenal diseases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is associated with several gastroduodenal diseases and its prevalence increases with age worldwide. It is estimated that 10–15% of infected patients will have peptic ulcer disease and 1% of patients will have gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Notably, the most severe clinical outcomes, i.e., gastric cancer and complicated peptic ulcer diseases, usually occur in elderly patients. Thus the test-and-treatment strategy is not recommended for elderly patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia. However, biopsy specimens for the rapid urease test and histology should be taken from both the antrum and corpus to increase the detection rate in elderly patients, especially in those with atrophic gastritis. The urea breath test may increase the detection rate if the rapid urease test or histology are negative in elderly patients with atrophic gastritis. Standard triple therapy and sequential therapy can achieve satisfactory eradication rates for H. pylori in elderly patients. Elderly patients with peptic ulcers may have a similar benefit from treatment of H. pylori infection as non-elderly patients. Eradication of H. pylori infection may also lead to improvement in histologic grading of gastritis, but the risk of gastric cancer cannot be completely reduced, especially in patients with existing premalignant lesions.

  17. Association Between Helycobacter Pylori Infection and Pathological Oral Manifestations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carini Francesco; Samir Mallat; Cappello Francesco; Zummo Giovani; Jurjus Abdo; Tomasello Giovanni; Leone Angelo; Di Pasquale Roberto; Saniflippo Beatrice; Sinagra Emanuele; Damiani Provvidenza; Rosalyn Jurjus; Alice Gerges-Geagea; Inaya Hajj Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Data from the literature are controversial regarding the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in dental plaque and its association with gastric infection. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for re-infection is the recolonization with H. pylori from dental plaque. The purpose of this review was to determine whether dental plaque, poor oral hygiene, and periodontal disease were risk factors for H. pylori infection.

  18. Association Between Helycobacter Pylori Infection and Pathological Oral Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature are controversial regarding the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in dental plaque and its association with gastric infection. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for re-infection is the recolonization with H. pylori from dental plaque. The purpose of this review was to determine whether dental plaque, poor oral hygiene, and periodontal disease were risk factors for H. pylori infection.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Kurtoglu; Ertugrul Kayacetin; Aysegul Ugur

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hpylori) infection in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) patients with that of nonthrombocytopenic controls,and to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment in H pylori(+)and H pylori(-) AITP patients.METHODS: The prevalence of gastric H pylori infection in 38 adult AITP patients (29 female and 9 male; median age 27 years; range 18-39 years) who consecutively admitted to our clinic was investagated.RESULTS: H pylori infection was found in 26 of 38 AITP patients (68.5%). H pylori infection was found in 15 of 23control subjects (65.2%). The difference in H pylori infection between the 2 groups was not significant. Thrombocyte count of H pylori-positive AITP patients was significantly lower than that of H pylori-negative AITP patients (P<0.05).Thrombocyte recovery of H pylori-positive group was less than that of H pylori-negative group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: H pylori infection should be considerecd in the treatment of AITP patients with H pylori infection.

  20. Endoscopic faces of Helicobacter Pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina Spulber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The infection caused by H. pylori appears secondary after a bacterial colonization of the stomach and the initial portion of the small bowel. H. pyloriinfected patients can develop gastritis, peptic ulcer, stomach cancer or MALT lymphoma. H. pylori infection is defined by WHO like a type I carcinogen, its role in gastric carcinogenesis being supported by the greatest researchers. Objectives: In this study our purpose was to determine the endoscopic appearances in H. pylori infection quoted in medical literature until now and the frequency of their appearance in our group of interest. Materials and methods: In this study it was made an analytic study in which it was realized a retrospective cohort investigation at the Emergency Central Military and University Hospital “Dr. Carol Davila” Bucharest, gastroenterology branch –endoscopic department between 18.12.2012- 21.08.2013 on 1694 patients between 18 and 92 years old, with the medium age of 55 years old. As a diagnostic method for H. pylori infection we used superior digestive endoscopy during which were taken biopsies and it was made a fast urease test. Results: Regarding the variation of the endoscopic aspects at the population of study, we have found gastritis with all its aspects (which was Sidney classified in the biggest percentage meaning 59.3% of the cases, followed with a percentage of 18.8% by those without any endoscopic abnormality, and then in 10,33% of the cases we have found peptic ulcer. With a smaller percentage, under 10%, we have found duodenitis at 8.67% of this patients, and finally the most severe lesions represented by gastric cancer and lymphoma were found at 2,7% of the H.pylori infected patients.

  1. Review: clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been associated with gastric disorders. The situation of H. pylori infection in China-where a high prevalence of H. pylori infection, a high incidence of gastric cancer, and widespread resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin exist-is quite different from that in Western countries. In order for Chinese clinicians to better manage H. pylori infection, a Chinese Study Group on H. pylori published four consensus reports regarding the management of H. pylori infection in China between 1999 and 2012. The eradication rate with standard triple therapy was pylori in China in recent years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Peptic Ulcer Disease Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Se-Hwan; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2016-06-25

    Although the global prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is decreasing, PUD is still one of the most common upper gastrointestinal diseases in the world due to Helicobacter pylori infection and increased use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In Korea, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is also declining, but it is still the major cause of PUD. The outcomes of H. pylori infection are caused by imbalances between bacterial virulence factors, host factors, and environmental influences. In this review, we describe the prevalence trends of H. pylori infection in Korea, the mechanism of H. pylori infection-related PUD, and treatment strategies.

  3. Role of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbara, Emiko; Mori, Shigetarou; Kim, Hyun; Shibayama, Keigo

    2013-10-01

    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase and asparaginase have been shown to play important roles in Helicobacter pylori colonization and cell death induced by H. pylori infection. In this study, the association of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and asparaginase was elucidated by comparing activities of both deamidases in H. pylori strains from patients with chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase activities in H. pylori strains from patients with gastric cancer were significantly higher than in those from patients with chronic gastritis or gastric ulcers. There was a wide range of asparaginase activities in H. pylori strains from patients with gastric cancer and these were not significantly than those from patients with other diseases. To identify the contributions of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and asparaginase to gastric cell inflammation, human gastric epithelial cells (AGS line) were infected with H. pylori wild-type and knockout strains and inflammatory responses evaluated by induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 response was significantly decreased by knockout of the γ-glutamyltranspeptidase-encoding gene but not by knockout of the asparaginase-encoding gene. Additionally, IL-8 induction by infection with the H. pylori wild-type strain was significantly decreased by adding glutamine during infection. These findings indicate that IL-8 induction caused by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity in H. pylori is mainly attributable to depletion of glutamine. These data suggest that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase plays a significant role in the chronic inflammation caused by H. pylori infection.

  4. Inflammation, Immunity, and Vaccines for Helicobacter pylori Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya

    2015-01-01

    studies that contribute with new insights in the host response to H. pylori infection. Also, the adaptive immune response to H. pylori and particularly the role of IL-22 have been addressed in some studies. These advances may improve vaccine development where new strategies have been published. Two major...... studies analyzed H. pylori genomes of 39 worldwide strains and looked at the protein profiles. In addition, multi-epitope vaccines for therapeutic use have been investigated. Studies on different adjuvants and delivery systems have also given us new insights. This review presents articles from the last...... year that reveal detailed insight into immunity and regulation of inflammation, the contribution of immune cells to the development of gastric cancer, and understanding mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection....

  5. A study of Helicobacter pylori infection in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Khwaja Saifullah Zafar; Vidyasagar Ram; Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is the most common bacterial infection in human beings. The aim was to study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients of diabetes mellitus. Design of the study was observational analytic cross sectional study. Methods: A total of 69 subjects were studied. Of these 30 were non diabetics and 39 were diabetics, with disease duration more than 1 year. The serological diagnosis of H. pylori was made by Anti- Helicobacter pylori antibody test....

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, C.; Seruca, R.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  7. Prevention of the metabolic syndrome insulin resistance and the atherosclerotic diseases in Africans infected by Helicobacter pylori infection and treated by antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Nkondi Nsenga, J; Vangu Ngoma, D

    2007-10-18

    To report on the association between certain components of the metabolic syndrome/Insulin resistance, gender, cardiovascular diseases and Helicobacter (H.) pylori seropositivity/Infection and the response of these cardiovascular risk factors to Helicobacter pylori titers after an antibiotic course. In 205 consecutive Africans referred to the cardiovascular Center of LOMO MEDICAL in Kinshasa for management of their cardiovascular diseases, the proportions of seropositives for H. pylori and H. pylori infection (H. pylori seropositivity and histologically proven H. pylori gastritis) were investigated. The association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, certain components of the metabolic syndrome and each H. pylori disease group (seropositivity or infection) was evaluated. The response of the cardio-metabolic level to H. pylori antibody titers after an antibiotic course was also evaluated for patients with H. pylori infection. Baseline levels of H. pylori antibody titer and cardio-metabolic parameters were compared with those after the antibiotic treatment. A total of 62.4% of participants were tested positive for the H. pylori antibody. Out of all participants, 25% had H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis without H. pylori. Men were more (pchange (p50 mg/dL. This study adds evidence for supporting the association of seropositivity to H. pylori with cardiovascular diseases and elevated number of components of metabolic syndrome. In these Africans with low triglyceride levels, H. pylori infection per se might generate atherosclerosis or metabolic syndrome, particularly in men with H. pylori-seropositive. H. pylori infection might be one of the risk factors of atherosclerosis thorough inflammation (fibrinogen) and modulation of glucose and lipid profiles, which may be prevented by low antibiotics in developing countries.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first...

  9. Early apoptosis of monocytes induced by Helicobacter pylori infection through multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Huilin; Chen, Xingxing; Li, Jiaojiao; Li, Boqing

    2017-08-01

    Only a small percentage of people infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) will develop overt chronic gastric diseases. To understand the pathological mechanism, the action of H. pylori on monocyte apoptosis was detected. H. pylori co-culturing with peripheral blood monocytes, THP-1 or U937 cells result in early apoptosis at 6, 12, and 24 h after infection. The phosphorylated Bad and JNK were increased, and Bcl-2 was declined at 6, 12, and 24 h in peripheral blood monocytes after H. pylori infection. The phosphorylated Akt was augmented at 6 and 12 h post-infection. A slow apoptotic response was induced by H. pylori via Bad and Bcl-2 regulators, activated caspase-8 and caspase-9, and JNK at 24 h in THP-1 cells. Meanwhile, only Bad and JNK were involved in regulating U937 cells apoptosis at 24 h after infection. These results supported a novel mechanism of H. pylori escaping from monocytes by upregulation of early apoptosis and inhibition of late apoptosis. The differences among the three cells may reveal why H. pylori-derived disease occurs in relatively few people and provide a pathological mechanism whereby a treatment for H. pylori-derived disease may be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, C.; Seruca, R.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... pathways. As such, this review highlights the consequences of H. pylori infection on the integrity of DNA in the host cells. By down-regulating major DNA repair pathways, H. pylori infection has the potential to generate mutations. In addition, H. pylori infection can induce direct changes on the DNA...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  11. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sinéad; M; Smith

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflamma-tory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the toll-like receptor(TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review dis-cusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic iden-tification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced patho-genesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy.

  12. Association between HLA-DQ genotypes and haplotypes vs Helicobacter pylori infection in an Indonesian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Jingwen; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Hosono, Akihiro; Ando, Ryosuke; Soeripto, Soeripto; Ediati Triningsih, F X; Triono, Tegu; Sumoharjo, Suwignyo; Astuti, E Y Wenny; Gunawan, Stephanus; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important gastrointestinal pathogen related to the development of not only atrophic gastritis and peptic ulcer, but also gastric cancer. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) may play particular roles in host immune responses to bacterial antigens. This study aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 genotypes and haplotypes vs H. pylori infection in an Indonesian population. We selected 294 healthy participants in Mataram, Lombok Island, Indonesia. H. pylori infection was determined by urea breath test (UBT). We analyzed HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 genotypes by PCR-RFLP and constructed haplotypes of HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 genes. Multiple comparisons were conducted according to the Bonferroni method. The H. pylori infection rate was 11.2% in this Indonesian population. The DQB1*0401 genotype was noted to be associated with a high risk of H. pylori infection, compared with the DQB1*0301 genotype. None of the HLA-DQA1 or DQB1 haplotypes were related to the risk of H. pylori infection. The study suggests that HLADQB1 genes play important roles in H. pylori infection, but there was no statistically significant association between HLA-DQA1 or DQB1 haplotypes and H.pylori infection in our Lombok Indonesian population.

  13. [Assessment of the response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes on Helicobacter pylori infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czkwianianc, Elzbieta; Jarosińska, Agnieszka; Chmiela, Magdalena; Bajer, Anna; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Płaneta-Małecka, Izabela; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2003-01-01

    In the study the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) from children with chronic dyspepsia (chr. d) to H.p. antigens was investigated. From 38 children aged 7-18, with chr. d., blood was collected just before upper GI endoscopy. Twenty one patients were found to be H.p. (+). PBML were used for the cultures and were stimulated with heat-killed H.p. G27 bacteria, heated and unheated glycine extract (GE) of H.p. G27 or with H.p. LPS containing Lewis X and Lewis Y determinants, in the presence or absence IL-2. The cell proliferation was estimated on the basis of [3H] - thymidine incorporation. In the cultures, the phenotype of responding cells was determined by an EIA with monoclonal antibody to human CD3, CD4 and CD8. PBML from patients H.p. (-), responded to killed H.p. bacteria and to heated GE more frequently and more intensively than PBML from the H.p.(+). IL-2 enhanced PBML response to these antigens. Unheated GE did not induce PBML proliferation even in the cultures with IL-2. LPS alone induced proliferation of PBML from 3 patients (2 H.p. - and 1 H.p.+). However, in the presence of IL-2, LPS induced proliferation of PBML from 15 patients. In the cultures of PBML stimulated with whole bacteria or heated EG, T cells dominated. In the cultures of PBML from H.p. (+) we found a higher percentage of CD8 cells in comparison with the cultures of PBML from H.p. (-). Data demonstrate a significant variation in the response of PBML from dyspeptic children to H.p. antigens.

  14. Helicobacter pylori vacA genotype is a predominant determinant of immune response to Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Alexander; Langner, Cosima; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Habendorf, Wiebke; Weigt, Jochen; Venerito, Marino; Tammer, Ina; Schlüter, Dirk; Schlaermann, Philipp; Meyer, Thomas F; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2017-07-14

    To evaluate the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) CagA antibodies in H. pylori infected subjects and to identify potential histopathological and bacterial factors related to H. pylori CagA-immune response. Systematic data to H. pylori isolates, blood samples, gastric biopsies for histological and molecular analyses were available from 99 prospectively recruited subjects. Serological profile (anti-H. pylori, anti-CagA) was correlated with H. pylori isolates (cagA, EPIYA, vacA s/m genotype), histology (Sydney classification) and mucosal interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and protein expression. Selected H. pylori strains were assessed for H. pylori CagA protein expression and IL-8 induction in co-cultivation model with AGS cells. Thirty point three percent of microbiologically confirmed H. pylori infected patients were seropositive for CagA. Majority of H. pylori isolates were cagA gene positive (93.9%) with following vacA polymorphisms: 42.4% vacA s1m1, 23.2% s1m2 and 34.3% s2m2. Anti-CagA-IgG seropositivity was strongly associated with atrophic gastritis, increased mucosal inflammation according to the Sydney score, IL-8 and cagA mRNA expression. VacA s and m polymorphisms were the major determinants for positive (vacA s1m1) or negative (vacA s2m2) anti-CagA serological immune response, which also correlated with the in vitro inflammatory potential in AGS cells. In vitro co-cultivation of representative H. pylori strains with AGS cells confirmed functional CagA translocation, which showed only partial correlation with CagA seropositivity in patients, supporting vacA as major co-determinant of the immune response. Serological immune response to H. pylori cagA+ strain in H. pylori infected patients is strongly associated with vacA polymorphism, suggesting the crucial role of bacterial factors in immune and clinical phenotype of the infection.

  15. Inflammation, Immunity, and Vaccines for Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya

    2015-09-01

    During the last year, a variety of studies have been published that increases our understanding of the basic mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in Helicobacter pylori infection and progression to gastric cancer. Innate immune regulation and epithelial cell response were covered by several studies that contribute with new insights in the host response to H. pylori infection. Also, the adaptive immune response to H. pylori and particularly the role of IL-22 have been addressed in some studies. These advances may improve vaccine development where new strategies have been published. Two major studies analyzed H. pylori genomes of 39 worldwide strains and looked at the protein profiles. In addition, multi-epitope vaccines for therapeutic use have been investigated. Studies on different adjuvants and delivery systems have also given us new insights. This review presents articles from the last year that reveal detailed insight into immunity and regulation of inflammation, the contribution of immune cells to the development of gastric cancer, and understanding mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection: New pathogenetic and clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than half of the world’s human population, but only 1% to 3% of infected people consequently develop gastric adenocarcinomas. The clinical outcome of the infection is determined by host genetic predisposition, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental factors. The association between H. pylori infection and chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been wel...

  17. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Ontario: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Naja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has been classified by the World Health Organization as a type I carcinogen. Nearly 50% of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with H pylori. Prevalence patterns of the infection are different between developing and developed countries. The present study had two objectives – to estimate the prevalence of H pylori infection in Ontario, and to evaluate the relationship between the infection and various demographic characteristics and selected lifestyle factors.

  18. Current Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Gold

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infects approximately 50% of the world’s population and is a definitive cause of gastroduodenal disease (ie, gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers in children and adults. Four consensus conferences held around the globe have brought together clinicians, scientists, epidemiologists and health care economists to discuss the role of the gastric pathogen H pylori in human gastroduodenal disease. At each of these conferences, the overriding objective was to reach a consensus on the development of practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of H pylori-infected individuals. However, it was not until the Canadian H pylori Consensus Conference, held in November 1997, that the issues of H pylori infection in children were addressed. Therapies for H pylori infection in children, presented in part at the First Canadian Paediatric H pylori Consensus Conference, held in Victoria, British Columbia, November 1998, are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection: New pathogenetic and clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than half of the world’s human population, but only 1% to 3% of infected people consequently develop gastric adenocarcinomas. The clinical outcome of the infection is determined by host genetic predisposition, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental factors. The association between H. pylori infection and chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been well established. With the exception of unexplained iron deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, H. pylori infection has no proven role in extraintestinal diseases. On the other hand, there is data showing that H. pylori infection could be beneficial for some human diseases. The unpredictability of the long-term consequences of H. pylori infection and the economic challenge in eradicating it is why identification of high-risk individuals is crucial. PMID:24914360

  20. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication ...

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection - recent developments in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Isabel; Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-07-28

    Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods, a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication therapy. Only highly accurate tests should be used in clinical practice, and the sensitivity and specificity of an adequate test should exceed 90%. The choice of tests should take into account clinical circumstances, the likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests, the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy and the availability of the tests. This review concerns some of the most recent developments in diagnostic methods of H. pylori infection, namely the contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation methodologies for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, such as magnifying endoscopy techniques and chromoendoscopy. In addition, the diagnostic contribution of histology and the urea breath test was explored recently in specific clinical settings and patient groups. Recent studies recommend enhancing the number of biopsy fragments for the rapid urease test. Bacterial culture from the gastric biopsy is the gold standard technique, and is recommended for antibiotic susceptibility test. Serology is used for initial screening and the stool antigen test is particularly used when the urea breath test is not available, while molecular methods have gained attention mostly for detecting antibiotic resistance.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection - recent developments in diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Isabel; Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods, a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication therapy. Only highly accurate tests should be used in clinical practice, and the sensitivity and specificity of an adequate test should exceed 90%. The choice of tests should take into account clinical circumstances, the likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests, the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy and the availability of the tests. This review concerns some of the most recent developments in diagnostic methods of H. pylori infection, namely the contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation methodologies for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, such as magnifying endoscopy techniques and chromoendoscopy. In addition, the diagnostic contribution of histology and the urea breath test was explored recently in specific clinical settings and patient groups. Recent studies recommend enhancing the number of biopsy fragments for the rapid urease test. Bacterial culture from the gastric biopsy is the gold standard technique, and is recommended for antibiotic susceptibility test. Serology is used for initial screening and the stool antigen test is particularly used when the urea breath test is not available, while molecular methods have gained attention mostly for detecting antibiotic resistance. PMID:25071324

  3. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection and atherosclerosis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karbasi-Afshar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a spiral-shaped gram negative bacterium that naturally colonizes the human gastric epithelium. In recent years, large evidence has come to the literature strongly proposing causal link between H. pylori and extra gastric disorders. Cardiovascular system is one of the extra gastric organs that can be affected by H. pylori infection. The first evidence suggestive of such an association comes from seroepidemiological evaluations, but histopathological and eradication studies have strongly confirmed existence of a causal association between H. pylori infection and cardiovascular events.

  5. N-acetylcysteine, a novel treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hien Quoc; Couper, Richard T L; Tran, Cuong D; Moore, Lynette; Kelso, Richard; Butler, Ross N

    2004-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), being both a mucolytic agent and a thiol-containing antioxidant, may affect the establishment and maintenance of H. pylori infection within the gastric mucus layer and mucosa. Agar and broth dilution susceptibility tests determined the MIC of H. pylori strain SSI to NAC. H. pylori load in SSI strain-infected C57BL mice was determined as colony forming units per gram of gastric tissue. Gastritis assessment was scored and gastric surface hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurement. MICs of NAC were 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 mg/ml using the agar dilution and broth dilution methods, respectively. NAC (120 mg per day for 14 days) reduced the H. pylori load in mice by almost 1 log compared with sham treatment. Pretreatment with NAC (40 mg/day) also significantly reduced the H. pylori load but did not prevent H. pylori colonization. Both H. pylori infection and NAC reduced the surface hydrophobicity of murine gastric mucosa. No significant differences were observed in the gastritis scores of H. felis- or H. pylori-infected mice receiving either NAC or sham treatments. This study demonstrates that NAC inhibits the growth of H. pylori in both agar and broth susceptibility tests and in H. pylori-infected mice. NAC did not alter the severity of H. pylori- or H. felis-induced gastritis.

  6. Challenges in Diagnosis of H. Pylori Infection in Children

    OpenAIRE

    M Sobhani Shahmirzadi

    2014-01-01

    H. pylori infection is usually acquired in early childhood. Its role in gastrointestinal and extra intestinal complaints and serious consequences in adulthood make it as challenging issues. Despite different clinical presentations, in most children, the presence of H. pylori infection does not lead to clinically apparent disease, even when it causes chronic active gastritis. Some of most important recommendations for managing H. pylori infection in children based on Guidelines from ESPGHAN an...

  7. Diagnosis and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Xavier; Ramírez Lázaro, María-José; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2013-09-01

    A limited amount of new information was published in the field of diagnosis and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori this last year. Besides some improvement in current tests, it is interesting to note the attempts to identify severe disease, for example gastric cancer, by breath analysis using nanomaterial-based sensors. In contrast, the predictive value for gastric cancer and atrophy of pepsinogen determinations was found inadequate. Prevalence studies of H. pylori infection have been carried out in adults and children around the world in the general population but also in specific communities. The usual risk factors were found. In addition, a Japanese study highlighted the role of grandmothers in the familial transmission of H. pylori. A study showed that the infection may not always readily establish itself in children, given the number of transient infections observed. It was also noted that after eradication, a first-year relapse is likely to be a recurrence of the previous infection, while later on it is probably a reinfection with a new strain.

  8. Genetic determinants and clinico-pathological outcomes of helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwasola, A O

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral Gram-negative bacterium with a relatively small genome and is known to be the most common human bacterial infection worldwide, infecting about half of the world's population. The bacterium represents one of the most successful human pathogens, inducing severe clinical symptoms only in a small subset of individuals, thus signifying a highly balanced degree of co-evolution of H. pylori and humans. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection varies greatly among countries and among population groups within the same country, but is falling in most developed countries. The clinical course of H. pylori infection is highly variable and is influenced by both microbial and host factors including genetic susceptibility while the pattern and distribution of inflammation correlate strongly with the risk of clinical sequelae, namely duodenal or gastric ulcers, mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, or gastric lymphoma. Cytokine gene polymorphisms directly influence inter-individual variation in the magnitude of cytokine response, and this clearly contributes to an individual's ultimate clinical outcome. Polymorphisms in genes coding for innate immune factors have also been incriminated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori related disease, while promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is considered an important factor in carcinogenesis and known to be present in H. pylori associated gastric tumors. Functional genomics may fill many of the gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection and accelerate the development of novel therapies, including H. pylori specific antimicrobial agents.

  9. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    This article aims to examine current best practice in the field reference to first-line, second-line, rescue and emerging treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication. The recommended first-line treatment in published guidelines in Europe and North American is proton pump inhibitor combined with amoxicillin and clarithromycin being the favoured regimen. Rates of eradication with this regimen however are falling alarmingly due to a combination of antibiotic resistance and poor compliance with therapy. Bismuth based quadruple therapies and levofloxacin based regimes have been shown to be effective second line regimens. Third-line options include regimes based on rifabutin or furazolidone, but susceptibility testing is the most rational option here, but is currently not used widely enough. Sequential therapy is promising but needs further study and validation outside of Italy. Although the success of first line treatments is falling, if compliance is good and a clear treatment paradigm adhered to, almost universal eradication rates can still be achieved. If compliance is not achievable, the problem of antibiotic resistance will continue to beset any combination of drugs used for H. pylori eradication.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection--a boon or a bane: lessons from studies in a low-prevalence population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Mahendra Raj, Sundramoorthy; Graham, David Y

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Pediatric Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Karimi; Koroush Fakhimi Derakhshan; Farid Imanzadeh; Mohamad Rezaei; Zahra Cavoshzadeh; Saeid Maham

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood infectious diseases are one of the most known environmental pathogenic causes of childhood asthma. The high prevalence of both Helicobacter pylori infection and asthma in our country prompted us to assess anyprobable association between them in childhood. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 196 children aged 6 to 12 years old comprising 98 asthmatic (case group) and 98 healthy (control group) individuals. Urea breath test was performed for all of the children and ...

  12. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Pediatric Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Karimi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood infectious diseases are one of the most known environmental pathogenic causesof childhood asthma. The high prevalence of both Helicobacter pylori infection and asthma in our country prompted us to assess anyprobable association between them in childhood.Methods: This cross-sectionalstudy recruited 196 children aged 6 to 12 years old comprising 98 asthmatic (case group and 98 healthy (control group individuals. Urea breath test was performed for all of the children and H. pyloriinfection was compared between the two groups according to the urea breath test results.Results:Urea breath test was positive in 18 asthmatic (18.36 and 23 (23.36 healthy subjects but was not significantly different between the case and controls(p=0.380.Furtheranalysis in the asthmatic group revealed association ofH. pyloriinfection withage (p<0.001 and duration of asthma (p=0.010. However, no significant correlation was found between sex, severity of asthma, controledasthma or abnormal pulmonary function testswith H. pyloriinfection (p= 0.804, 0.512 ,0.854 and 0.292, respectively.Conclusion:Given the results of the study, H. pylori infection was not significantly differentbetween asthmatic and healthy children.In asthmatic patients, there wasnosignificant association between H.pyloriinfection andsex,severity of disease, control status of disease andnormal or abnormal pulmonary function tests.H. Pylori infection had a significant association withincreasing age and duration of asthma.

  13. Human β-defensin-3 induction in H pylori-infected gastric mucosal tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Kawauchi; A Yagihashi; N Tsuji; N Uehara; D Furuya; D Kobayashi; N Watanabe

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3)expression in inflamed gastric mucosal tissues or MKN45 gastric cancer cells with or without H pylori infection for better understanding the innate immune response to H pylori.METHODS: We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and immunohistochemistry to examine hBD-3 expression in inflamed gastric mucosal tissues or MKN45 gastric cancer cells with or without H pylori.Effects of hBD-3 against H pylori were also evaluated.RESULTS: The mean mRNA expression of hBD-3 in H pylori-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in H pylori-negative specimens (P = 0.0002,Mann-Whitney). In addition, unlike uninfected samples,8 of 15 (53.33%) infected mucosal samples expressed hBD-3 protein. H pylori dose-dependently induced mRNA expression of hBD-3 in MKN45 cells, an effect inhibited by adding anti-toil-like receptor (TLR)-4 antibody. HBD-3 protein completely inhibited H pylori growth.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that like hBD-2,hBD-3 may be involved in the pathophysiology of H pylori-induced gastritis.

  14. Role of Regulatory T-cells in Different Clinical Expressions of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Nader; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection does not disappear and a chronic active gastritis continues if left untreated. It has been shown that the topographical pattern and immune response of gastritis are the main reasons for the bacteria persistence and the clinical outcome. Gastritis due to H. pylori is caused by a complicated interaction among a variety of T cell subsets. Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppressing the immune response of antigen-specific T-cells have recently been demonstrated to play a key role in chronic inflammation by immunologic tolerance. Treg cells have been identified as the major regulatory component of the adaptive immune response and being involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and bacterial persistence. There have been many controversies over the role of Treg cells in H. pylori infection. Many studies have shown that the local Treg response protects the gastric mucosa from intensified inflammation and tissue damage, and the risk of H. pylori-associated diseases has an inverse correlation with Treg accumulation, even if the decrease in the inflammatory response is recognized by Treg it causes increase in bacterial density. This paper reviews the role of Treg in different clinical expressions of H. pylori infection.

  15. Rescue Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection 2012

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    Javier P. Gisbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After 30 years of experience in H. pylori treatment, however, the ideal regimen to treat this infection has still to be found. Nowadays, apart from having to know well first-line eradication regimens, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. In designing a treatment strategy, we should not only focus on the results of primary therapy alone but also on the final—overall—eradication rate. The choice of a “rescue” treatment depends on which treatment is used initially. If a first-line clarithromycin-based regimen was used, a second-line metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy may be used afterwards, and then a levofloxacin-based combination would be a third-line “rescue” option. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based “rescue” therapy constitutes an encouraging 2nd-line strategy, representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure, with the advantage of efficacy, simplicity and safety. In this case, quadruple regimen may be reserved as a 3rd-line “rescue” option. Even after two consecutive failures, several studies have demonstrated that H. pylori eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several “rescue” therapies are consecutively given.

  16. Brain-gut axis in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Jacek; Kłopocka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main pathogenic factor for upper digestive tract organic diseases. In addition to direct cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, H. pylori infection may also induce abnormalities indirectly by affecting the brain-gut axis, similar to other microorganisms present in the alimentary tract. The brain-gut axis integrates the central, peripheral, enteric and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the endocrine and immunological systems, with gastrointestinal functions and environmental stimuli, including gastric and intestinal microbiota. The bidirectional relationship between H. pylori infection and the brain-gut axis influences both the contagion process and the host’s neuroendocrine-immunological reaction to it, resulting in alterations in cognitive functions, food intake and appetite, immunological response, and modification of symptom sensitivity thresholds. Furthermore, disturbances in the upper and lower digestive tract permeability, motility and secretion can occur, mainly as a form of irritable bowel syndrome. Many of these abnormalities disappear following H. pylori eradication. H. pylori may have direct neurotoxic effects that lead to alteration of the brain-gut axis through the activation of neurogenic inflammatory processes, or by microelement deficiency secondary to functional and morphological changes in the digestive tract. In digestive tissue, H. pylori can alter signaling in the brain-gut axis by mast cells, the main brain-gut axis effector, as H. pylori infection is associated with decreased mast cell infiltration in the digestive tract. Nevertheless, unequivocal data concerning the direct and immediate effect of H. pylori infection on the brain-gut axis are still lacking. Therefore, further studies evaluating the clinical importance of these host-bacteria interactions will improve our understanding of H. pylori infection pathophysiology and suggest new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24833851

  17. Chronic Gastritis and its Association with H. Pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, J; Khan, A H; Uddin, M J; Rahman, M H; Saha, M; Safwath, S A; Alam, M J; Mamun, M A

    2015-10-01

    This cross sectional study was designed to see association of chronic gastritis including its type with H. pylori infection. Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic examination having histopathological evidence of chronic gastritis were enrolled in the study and was done in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College from July 2011 to June 2012. Biopsies were taken from antrum, body and fundus in all patients. Histopathological examinations were done using H-E stain and for detection of H. pylori, rapid urease test, anti-H.pylori antibody test and histopathological test with modified Giemsa stain were done. Patients having results positive in at least two methods were considered infected by H. pylori. Total 80 dyspeptic patients having chronic gastritis were evaluated. Out of them 67(83.8%) had H. pylori infection and 13(16.2%) were H. pylori negative. Among all patients 57(71.2%) had pangastritis and 23(28.8%) had antral gastritis with female and male predominance respectively. H. pylori infection was present in 49(86.0%) cases of pangastritis and 18(78.3%) cases of antral gastritis. H. pylori infection was a little higher among males (34, 50.7%) females (33, 49.3%). H. pylori infection is the predominant cause of chronic gastritis and pangastritis is the major type.

  18. Autophagy-related genes in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Uotani, Takahiro; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-06-01

    In vitro studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection induces autophagy in gastric epithelial cells. However, prolonged exposure to H. pylori reduces autophagy by preventing maturation of the autolysosome. The alterations of the autophagy-related genes in H. pylori infection are not yet fully understood. We analyzed autophagy-related gene expression in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa compared with uninfected gastric mucosa obtained from 136 Bhutanese volunteers with mild dyspeptic symptoms. We also studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of autophagy-related gene in 283 Bhutanese participants to identify the influence on susceptibility to H. pylori infection. Microarray analysis of 226 autophagy-related genes showed that 16 genes were upregulated (7%) and nine were downregulated (4%). We used quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to measure mRNA levels of the downregulated genes (ATG16L1, ATG5, ATG4D, and ATG9A) that were core molecules of autophagy. ATG16L1 and ATG5 mRNA levels in H. pylori-positive specimens (n=86) were significantly less than those in H. pylori-negative specimens (n=50). ATG16L1 mRNA levels were inversely related to H. pylori density. We also compared SNPs of ATG16L1 (rs2241880) among 206 H. pylori-positive and 77 H. pylori-negative subjects. The odds ratio for the presence of H. pylori in the GG genotype was 0.40 (95% CI: 0.18-0.91) relative to the AA/AG genotypes. Autophagy-related gene expression profiling using high-throughput microarray analysis indicated that downregulation of core autophagy machinery genes may depress autophagy functions and possibly provide a better intracellular habit for H. pylori in gastric epithelial cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection and typhoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, A.M.; Verspaget, H.W.; Ali, S.; Visser, L.G.; Veenendaal, R.A.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van; Widjaja, S.; Surjadi, C.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the association between typhoid fever and Helicobacter pylori infection, as the latter microorganism may influence gastric acid secretion and consequently increase susceptibility to Salmonella typhi infection. Anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA antibody titres (ELISA) and gastrin concentration

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection and typhoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, A.M.; Verspaget, H.W.; Ali, S.; Visser, L.G.; Veenendaal, R.A.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van; Widjaja, S.; Surjadi, C.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the association between typhoid fever and Helicobacter pylori infection, as the latter microorganism may influence gastric acid secretion and consequently increase susceptibility to Salmonella typhi infection. Anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA antibody titres (ELISA) and gastrin concentration

  1. Association between thyroid autoimmunity and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Eui Young; Jang, Eun Kyung; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims There have been controversial reports linking Helicobacter pylori infection to autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). However, data regarding the relationship are limited for Asian populations, which have an extremely high prevalence of H. pylori infection. We performed this study to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and AITD in Koreans. Methods This study involved adults aged 30 to 70 years who had visited a health promotion center. A total of 5,502 subjects were analysed. Thyroid status was assessed by free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori were measured as an indication of H. pylori infection. We compared the prevalence of TPO-Ab in subjects with and without H. pylori infection. Results H. pylori IgG antibodies were found in 2,875 subjects (52.3%), and TPO-Ab were found in 430 (7.8%). Individuals positive for H. pylori Ab were older than those negative for H. pylori Ab (p thyroiditis. PMID:28092700

  2. Specific Antibodies in Sera and Gastric Aspirates of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori-Infected Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, A.; Tinnert, A.; Hamlet, A.; Lönroth, H.; Bölin, I.; Svennerholm, A.-M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we have determined systemic and local antibody responses against different Helicobacter pylori antigens in H. pylori-infected and noninfected subjects. In addition, we studied whether differences in antibody responses between patients with duodenal ulcers and asymptomatic H. pylori carriers might explain the different outcomes of infection. Sera and in most instances gastric aspirates were collected from 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 15 asymptomatic H. pylori carriers, and 20 noninfected subjects and assayed for specific antibodies against different H. pylori antigens, i.e., whole membrane proteins (MP), lipopolysaccharides, flagellin, urease, the neuraminyllactose binding hemagglutinin HpaA, and a 26-kDa protein, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The H. pylori-infected subjects had significantly higher antibody titers against MP, flagellin, and urease in both sera and gastric aspirates compared with the noninfected subjects. Furthermore, the antibody titers against HpaA were significantly elevated in sera but not in gastric aspirates from the infected subjects. However, no differences in antibody titers against any of the tested antigens could be detected between the duodenal ulcer patients and the asymptomatic H. pylori carriers, either in sera or in gastric aspirates. PMID:9605978

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection: approach of primary care physicians in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shah Hasnain

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and practices of primary care physicians in diagnosis and management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in developing country. Methods This convenient sample based, cross sectional study was conducted in primary care physicians of Karachi, Pakistan from March 2008 to August 2008 through a pretested self-designed questionnaire, which contained 11 items pertaining to H. pylori route of transmission, diagnosis, indication for testing, treatment options, follow up and source of information. Results Out of 509 primary care physicians, 451 consented to participate with the response rate of 88.6%. Responses of 426 primary care physicians were analyzed after excluding 19 physicians. 78% of the physicians thought that contaminated water was the source of spread of infection, dyspepsia was the most frequent indication for investigating H. pylori infection (67% of the physicians, while 43% physicians were of the view that serology was the most appropriate test to diagnose active H. pylori infection. 77% of physicians thought that gastric ulcer was the most compelling indication for treatment, 61% physicians preferred Clarithromycin based triple therapy for 7–14 days. 57% of the physicians would confirm H. pylori eradication after treatment in selected patients and 47% physicians preferred serological testing for follow-up. In case of treatment failure, only 36% of the physicians were in favor of gastroenterologist referral. Conclusion The primary care physicians in this study lacked in knowledge regarding management of H. pylori infection. Internationally published guidelines and World gastroenterology organization (WGO practice guideline on H. pylori for developing countries have little impact on current practices of primary care physicians. We recommend more teaching programs, continuous medical education activities regarding H. pylori infection.

  4. Surface Antigen Profiling of Helicobacter pylori-Infected and -Uninfected Gastric Cancer Cells Using Antibody Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Asif; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Kosai, Nik Ritza; Mohamed Taher, Mustafa; Mohamed Rose, Isa

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive immunophenotyping cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma, specifically between Helicobacter pylori-infected and -uninfected gastric cancer patients by using DotScan(™) antibody microarray has not been conducted. Current immunophenotyping techniques include flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry are limited to the use of few antibodies for parallel examination. We used DotScan(™) antibody microarray consisting 144 CD antibodies to determine the distribution of CD antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to elucidate the effect of H. pylori infection toward CD antigen expression in gastric cancer. Mixed leukocytes population derived from gastric adenocarcinoma patients were immunophenotyped using DotScan(™) antibody microarray. AGS cells were infected with H. pylori strains and cells were captured on DotScan(™) slides. Cluster of differentiation antigens involved in perpetuating the tolerance of immune cells to tumor cells was upregulated in gastric adenocarcinoma cells compared to normal cells. CD279 which is essential in T cells apoptosis was found to be upregulated in normal cells. Remarkably, H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients exhibited upregulated expression of CD27 that important in maintenance of T cells. Infection of cagA+ H. pylori with AGS cells increased CD antigens expression which involved in cancer stem cell while cagA- H. pylori polarized AGS cells to express immune-regulatory CD antigens. Increased CD antigens expression in AGS cells infected with cagA+ H. pylori were also detected in H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients. This study suggests the tolerance of immune system toward tumor cells in gastric cancer and distinct mechanisms of immune responses exploited by different H. pylori strains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lansoprazole increases serum IgG and IgM in H. pylori-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Y; Kurosaka, H; Kato, K; Hayashi, I; Minekawa, K; Arakawa, Y; Sawada, S

    2007-01-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors have been reported to influence the human immune system, we therefore evaluated the effect of lansoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, on humoral immunity. Patients with gastric ulcer received lansoprazole 30 mg/day for 8 weeks, and serum immunoglobulins were evaluated before and upon completion of the treatment. There were 79 patients with gastric ulcer; 51 were H. pylori-infected and 28 were H. pylori-uninfected. Eighteen patients positive for H. pylori were receiving at least one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and 12 patients negative for H. pylori received one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. H. pylori-infected patients showed significant increases in serum immunoglobulins G and M 8 weeks after the start of lansoprazole treatment (PLansoprazole elevated serum levels of immunoglobulins G and M in gastric ulcer patients with H. pylori infection, particularly in those receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Deducing from these observations, lansoprazole might alter the Th1 shift in the immune response induced by H. pylori infection.

  6. Differences in the Antigens of Helicobacter pylori Strains Influence on the Innate Immune Response in the In Vitro Experiments

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    Miha Skvarc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Helicobacter pylori importantly determines the pathogenesis of infection as well as the success of antibiotic eradication of the bacteria. Strains of H. pylori were gathered from 14 patients who failed to eradicate H. pylori infection with antibiotics—therapy resistant strains (TRS—or from patients who were able to eradicate H. pylori infection—therapy susceptible strains (TSS. The THP-1 cells were stimulated with H. pylori antigens. Cathepsin X expression on THP-1 cells and concentration of cytokines in the supernatant of THP-1 cells were measured with a flow cytometer. TSS H. pylori antigens increased the proportion of cathepsin X positive cells compared to TRS H. pylori antigens. TSS H. pylori antigens induced higher secretion of IL-12 and IL-6 compared to TRS H. pylori antigens (P<0.001; 0.02. Polymyxin B, a lipid A inhibitor, lowered the secretion of IL-12 and IL-6 in TRS and TSS. We demonstrated a H. pylori strain-dependent cathepsin X and cytokine expression that can be associated with H. pylori resistance to eradication due to lack of effective immune response. Differences in lipid A of H. pylori might have an influence on the insufficient immune response, especially on phagocytosis.

  7. Analysis of immune responses against H pylori in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khademul Islam; Ibrahim Khalil; Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan; Mahmuda Yasmin; Jamalun Nessa

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the immunogenicity of H pylori proteins, to evaluate the production rate of anti H pylori IgG antibodies in relation to time and to demonstrate the fidelity of newly optimized in-house enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique as an alternative for H pylori infection assay.METHODS: In the present study, 100 μg of formalinfixed H pylori whole cell antigens was injected into an experimental animal (New Zealand white female rabbit) intramuscularly on d 0, 16, 27 and 36. The first two doses were injected with adjuvants. On d 0,a serum sample was collected from the rabbit before immunization and this pre-immunized serum was used as a negative control for the whole study. To evaluate the immunogenic responses of the injected antigen,serum samples were collected from the rabbit at regular intervals up to d 42. The sera were analyzed using inhouse ELISA and Western blot techniques.RESULTS: The production of anti H pylori IgG antibodies in the rabbit in response to the injected antigen increased almost exponentially up to d 14 and after that it was maintained at the same level until the last day (d 42). By analyzing the immune profiles of immunized sera, 11 proteins were identified to be immunogenic,among them 2 (approximately 100 kDa and 85 kDa)were most prominent.CONCLUSION: Analysis of the immune responses against pathogenic microorganisms like H pylori is necessary for the development of various diagnostic and preventive approaches. The results of this experiment reveal that the formalin-fixed H pylori whole cell antigens injected into the rabbit are highly immunogenic. These prominent proteins (approximately 100 kDa and 85 kDa)might have higher immunogenic effects among humans infected with H pylori and some of these immunogenic proteins can be included in diagnostic approaches based on serology and also for vaccine formulation. The inhouse ELISA is a promising alternative compared to invasive techniques.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection and inflammatory bowel disease: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Mantzaris, Gerassimos J

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most widely spread infectious diseases in humans. It can cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies and has been associated with extra-gastric disorders. H. pylori elicit a chronic systemic inflammatory response which, under certain conditions, may trigger autoimmune reactions and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Although the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, it is thought to result from complex interactions between environmental factors and microbiota in the gut of individuals who are genetically susceptible. Several bacterial and viral agents have been implicated in the aetiology of IBD. In theory, H. pylori infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD by inducing alterations in gastric and/or intestinal permeability or by causing immunological derangements resulting in absorption of antigenic material and autoimmunity via various immunological pathways. Similar mechanisms may also be responsible for the co-existence of IBD with other autoimmune diseases and/or extra-intestinal manifestations. However, the epidemiological data fail to support this association. In fact, various studies indicate that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is low in patients with IBD, suggesting a protective role for this infection in the development of IBD. In this report, we aim to shed light on proposed mechanisms and confounding factors underlying the potential link between H. pylori infection and IBD. PMID:24914359

  9. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted in 22 identified studies through Chinese literature searching which were published after 1995 and evaluated diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Results: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had the best performance with diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 6.7 (5.5-7.8), followed by 13C urea breath test and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantitative serological test, with DOR being 6.4 (5.4-7.4) and 4.5 (3.8-5.2), respectively. Conclusion: Non-invasive tests are the appropriate methods for screening H. pylori infection, whereas invasive tests are the best methods for ascertaining the suspected patients.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: Relationship with the gastric infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available. PMID:25110422

  11. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: relationship with the gastric infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-08-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available.

  12. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Public Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khean-Lee; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified an infected sibling as an important risk factor. An oral–oral route of spread has been substantiated with several studies showing the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity. Studies have shown the presence of H. pylori in drinking water and the role of poor living conditions and sanitation in H. pylori infection, supporting an oral–fecal route of spread. Screening for H. pylori as a gastric cancer prescreening strategy has been described in Japan, and the importance of H. pylori eradication as a gastric cancer–prevention strategy has now been further emphasized in Japanese guidelines. Two studies have shown a decrease in the burden of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori eradication. PMID:21896079

  13. Interaction of Ethnicity and H. pylori Infection in the Occurrence of Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Turner, Kevin O; Genta, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies found that microscopic colitis is inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and that microscopic colitis is characterized by a marked ethnic variation. The aim of the present study was to test whether an underlying ethnic variation of H. pylori infection is responsible for the ethnic variation of microscopic colitis. The Miraca Life Sciences Database is a large national electronic repository of histopathologic records of patients distributed throughout the entire USA. A cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, and histologic diagnosis of H. pylori on the occurrence of microscopic colitis among subjects who underwent esophago-gastro-duodenoscopies plus colonoscopy. The total study population comprised 228,506 subjects, of whom 28,890 carried a diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis and 3460 microscopic colitis. Female sex, old age, and H. pylori infection exerted the strongest influence on the occurrence of microscopic colitis. In comparison with the population comprising Caucasians and African-Americans, microscopic colitis was less common among subjects of Hispanic (0.34, 0.27-0.47), East Asian (0.13, 0.06-0.22), Indian (0.31, 0.10-0.73), or Middle Eastern descent (0.28, 0.07-0.74). All these ethnic subgroups were also characterized by a higher prevalence of H. pylori than the comparison group. A low prevalence of H. pylori was significantly associated with a high prevalence of microscopic colitis (R (2) = 0.91, p microscopic colitis.

  14. II Consenso Brasileiro sobre Helicobacter pylori Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avanços significativos ocorridos desde o Primeiro Consenso Brasileiro sobre H. pylori realizado em 1995, em Belo Horizonte, MG, justificam este segundo consenso. O evento foi organizado pela Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia e pelo Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter, sendo realizado em São Paulo nos dias 19 e 20 de junho de 2004. Contou com a participação das principais autoridades nacionais na área, a partir de lista elaborada pelas duas sociedades organizadoras do evento. Assim, participaram 36 delegados provenientes de 15 estados brasileiros, incluindo gastroenterologistas, patologistas, pediatras e microbiologistas. Os participantes foram alocados em um dos cinco sub-temas a serem contemplados no encontro, a saber: Helicobacter pylori e dispepsia funcional; Helicobacter pylori e AINEs; Helicobacter pylori e doença do refluxo gastroesofágico; tratamento Helicobacter pylori e retratamento Helicobacter pylori. Foi adotado como consensual as decisões que atingissem 70% ou mais de concordância entre os participantes. Os resultados foram apresentados em outubro de 2004 durante sessão especial da VI Semana Brasileira do Aparelho Digestivo, realizada em Recife, PE, e esta publicação apresenta o sumário das principais recomendações e conclusões do evento.Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The

  15. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D’Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world’s population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25278679

  16. Animal Model Reveals Potential Waterborne Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne H. pylori could cause gastric infection. Groups of immunocompetent C57/BL6 Helicobacter-free mice were exposed to static concentrations (1.29 × 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) CFU/L) of H. pylori in their drinking water for 4 weeks. One group of Helicobacter-free mice was exposed to uncontaminated water as a negative control. H. pylori morphology changes in water were examined using microscopy Live/Dead staining. Following exposure, H. pylori infection and inflammation status in the stomach were evaluated using quantitative culture, PCR, the rapid urease test, and histology. None of the mice in the negative control or 10(5) groups were infected. One of 20 cages (one of 40 mice) of the 10(6) group, three of 19 cages (four of 38 mice) of the 10(7) CFU/L group, 19 of 20 cages (33 of 40 mice) of the 10(8) group, and 20 of 20 cages (39 of 40 mice) of the 10(9) CFU/L group were infected. Infected mice had significantly higher gastric inflammation than uninfected mice (27.86% higher inflammation, p < .0001). We offer proof that H. pylori in water is infectious in mice, suggesting that humans drinking contaminated water may be at risk of contracting H. pylori infection. Much work needs to be performed to better understand the risk of infection from drinking H. pylori-contaminated water. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection- recent developments in diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Isabel Lopes Filipa F Vale Mónica Oleastro

    2014-01-01

    Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods,a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication...

  18. Typical and atypical symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease: Does Helicobacter pylori infection matter?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurino; Grossi; Antonio; Francesco; Ciccaglione; Leonardo; Marzio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze whether the presence of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection could affect the quality of symptoms in gastro-esophageal reflux disease(GERD) patients. METHODS: one hundred and forty-four consecutive patients referred to our Unit for suspected GERD were recruited for the study. All patients underwent esophageal p H-metric recording. For those with a positive test, C13 urea breath test was then performed to assess the H. pylori status. GERD patients were stratified according to the quality of their symptoms and classified as typical, if affected by heartburn and regurgitation, and atypical if complaining of chest pain, respiratory and ears, nose, and throat features. H. pylori-negative patients were also asked whether they had a previous diagnosis of H. pylori infection. If a positive response was given, on the basis of the time period after successful eradication, patients were considered as "eradicated"(E) if H. pylori eradication occurred more than six months earlier or "recently eradicated" if the therapy had been administered within the last six months. Patients without history of infection were identified as "negative"(N). χ2 test was performed by combining the clinical aspects with the H. pylori status.RESULTS: one hundred and twenty-nine of the 144 patients, including 44 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative(41 negative, 21 recently eradicated, 23 eradicated more than 6 mo before), were eligible for the analysis. No difference has been found between H. pylori status and either the number of reflux episodes(138 ± 23 vs 146 ± 36, respectively, P = 0.2, not significant) or the percentage of time with pH values < 4(6.8 ± 1.2 vs 7.4 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.3, not significant). The distribution of symptoms was as follows: 13 typical(30%) and 31 atypical(70%) among the 44 H. pylori-positive cases; 44 typical(52%) and 41 atypical(48%) among the 85 H. pylori-negative cases,(P = 0.017 vs H. pylori +; OR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1

  19. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection rates at a family practice in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Bryan A

    2005-03-01

    Upper Gastrointestinal Disease (UGID), especially duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and gastritis, are responsible for a significant number of out-patient visits, hospital admissions, and deaths worldwide. The connection between H. pylori and UGID, including gastric cancer, has been well established. H. pylori has also been shown to increase the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) tumors by 2-6 fold, and recent declines in rates of gastric cancer in some countries have precisely followed decreases in childhood H. pylori infection rates. We undertook this study because during six years of practice we had observed a very high rate of patients with UGID who were H. pylori positive. A total of 6933 patient visits (not including repeat visits by patients already enrolled) were screened during the study period, of which 403 patients fit the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate Each were tested for H. pylori, using Quidell's QuickVue gII H. pylori Test Kit. Patients found to be positive were treated appropriately with antibiotics. An opportunistically selected control group was used to compare with the case sample of UGID. 99% of this UGID group was positive for H. pylori, compared with 94% of control group (odds ratio 6.367; 95% confidence interval 1.7-23). There was no significant gender difference in either group. 98% of women and 100% of men in the UGID group tested positive, and 96% of men and 92% of women in the control group tested positive (odds ratio was not significantly different). The finding that 99% of patients with UGI symptoms and 94% of asymptomatic controls at our clinic are infected with H. pylori strongly suggests that H. pylori are endemic in Pohnpei. Given the potential harm of antibiotics overuse and the relatively low cost of testing at this point, we would propose testing for H. pylori whenever patients present with repeated UGI symptoms, especially those with history and/or symptoms of PUD.

  1. Extradigestive Manifestation of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Sherman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection fulfills each of Koch's postulates as a human pathogen causing chronic active gastritis. Disease consequences that develop in a subset of infected subjects include peptic ulcerations, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. More recently, multiple publications have advocated a role for H pylori infection in causing a variety of extraintestinal manifestations. Many of these reports suffer from being case reports or case series without adequate controls. As a result, purported manifestations may simply be coincidental in nature. On the other hand, increasing evidence supports H pylori infection as a cause of sideropenic (refractory iron deficiency anemia. Moderate evidence supports H pylori gastric infection as a cause of some cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura due to molecular mimicry. Guidelines should be adjusted in accordance with advancing knowledge in the field.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection: an overview in 2013, focus on therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Rongli; Zhou Liya

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article aimed to review the incidence of Helicobacterpylori (H.pylon) infection and its therapy.Data sources Relevant articles published in English were identified by searching in PubMed from 2000 to 2013,with keywords "H.pylori".Important references from selected articles were also retrieved from Elsevier,Wiley,EBSCO,and SPRINGER.The Chinese articles published were searched from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI).Study selection Articles about "prevalence","gastric carcinoma","peptic ulcer","gastroesophageal reflux disease","functional dyspepsia","pathogenic mechanism","therapy","eradication rate","antibiotic resistance",and "gene polymorphisms" were selected.Results The decreased infection rates of H.pylori could also be linked to the changed disease spectrum,such as the decreased morbidity and recurrence rate of H.pylori-related peptic ulcer,and the increased morbidity of gastroesophageal reflux.Although different treatment regimens have been used for H.pylori infection,the H.pylori eradication rate declined gradually.Due to primary resistance to antibiotics,the gene polymorphism of host and infected strain,and the therapy regimes,H.pylori eradication became even more difficult.Conclusions The prevalence of H.py/ori infection had been decreasing,but the rate of eradication failure has dramatically risen in many countries due to resistance to antibiotic.H.pylori therapy in clinical practice is becoming proqressively more difficult.

  3. Toll-like receptor 2: An important immunomodulatory molecule during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Maryam; Larussa, Tiziana; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Mahmoodi, Merat; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah

    2017-06-01

    Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an essential subset of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) which identify the microbial components and contribute in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against the infectious agents. The TLRs, especially TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, participate in the induction of immune response against H. pylori. TLR2 is expressed on a number of immune and non-immune cells and recognizes a vast broad of microbial components due to its potential to form heterodimers with other TLRs, including TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10. A number of H. pylori-related molecules may contribute to TLR2-dependent responses, including HP-LPS, HP-HSP60 and HP-NAP. TLR2 plays a pivotal role in regulation of immune response to H. pylori through activation of NF-κB and induction of cytokine expression in epithelial cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and B cells. The TLR2-related immune response that is induced by H. pylori-derived components may play an important role regarding the outcome of the infection toward bacterial elimination, persistence or pathological reactions. The immunomodulatory and immunoregulatory roles of TLR2 during H. pylori infection were considered in this review. TLR2 could be considered as an interesting therapeutic target for treatment of H. pylori-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytokines, cytokine gene polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori infection: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Camila A; Marques, Cintia Rodrigues; Costa, Ryan dos Santos; da Silva, Hugo Bernardino F; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a flagellated, spiral-shaped, microaerophilic Gram-negative bacillus that colonises the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population. Infection is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcer disease and stomach cancer. Immunity against H. pylori is mainly related to Th1/Th17 skewing, and the activation of regulatory T cells is the main strategy used to limit inflammatory responses, which can result in the pathogen persistence and can lead to chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, host genetic factors that affect cytokines may determine differences in the susceptibility to many diseases. In this review, we present the cytokine profiles and the main cytokine gene polymorphisms associated with resistance/susceptibility to H. pylori and discuss how such polymorphisms may influence infection/disease outcomes.

  5. Characterization of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Patients with Gastric Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, infection due to Helicobacter Pylori is recognized as a medical problem worldwide. It causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, lymphatic proliferative disorders and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Objective: To characterize Helicobacter Pylori infection in patients with gastric ulcer and to relate this infection to gastric histological diagnoses. Methods: An observational, descriptive, correlational retrospective study in patients with gastric ulcers at the Dr.Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital was carried out from January 2005 to December 2007. Endoscopy and mucous gastric biopsy were performed for the histological and diagnostic study of the infection due to Helicobacter Pylori by means of the hematoxiline-eosine and giemsa stain respectively. The sample was composed by 137 patients. Results: the frequency of infection due to Helicobacter pylori was 59,1 % prevailing in the age groups 51-60 years old (34,6 % and 61-70 yearsold. (30,8 %. The highest frequency of malignant ulcers were located at the antral region (85,7 % with predominance of Helicobacter Pylori (80 %. There was a 95 % reliability between the relationship of Helicobacter Pylori and the histological diagnoses. The patients under the diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori showed a greater probability to present cancer (OR 4,32 IC: 0,58-39,44 and worsened chronic gastritis (OR 2,59 IC: 0,61-11,30. Chronic gastritis did not constitute a risk factor for acute gastritis(OR 0,86 IC: 0,09-7,08. Conclusions: The probability of suffering from gastric cancer, chronic gastritis and worsened chronic gastritis was greater in all those patients who presented with Helicobacter pylori infection but in this study Helicobacter pylori did not constitute a risk factor for acute gastritis

  6. Iron deficiency in Helicobacter pylori infected patients in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenan A. Muhsin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recent studies have suggested an association of Helicobacter pylori and iron deficiency (ID.Materials and methods: To examine an association between H.pylori infection and ID, blood sampling and a data collectionsurvey were performed in 78 H.pylori infected patients and 22 healthy subjects as control. Serum ferritin and ironwere measured by ELISA and direct enzymatic method techniques respectively.Results: The result showed that 24 of the patients (30.7% have serum ferritin and iron concentrations below the normalrange indicating iron deficiency, with no significantly difference between women and men. ID was more pronounced inpatients with stomach ulcer (58.3% than those without stomach ulcer (41.7% respectively.Conclusions: The conclusion was that H.pylori infection might have a role in iron deficiency and subsequently iron deficiencyanemia. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 1(3:114-117

  7. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections: Mitigating factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... systems worldwide. The prevalence of H. pylori ... test, histology, fluorescent in situ hybridization, culture ..... spread use of CLR in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. ..... than one bird with the same stone. Ther.

  8. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Behzadi, Payam; Farshad, Shohreh

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative motile bacterium causative agent of acute and chronic digestive and extra-digestive human infections. According to different reports worldwide, H. pylori symptomatic and asymptomatic infections are a global problem. The statistical investigations show a percentage of 50 for people who are involved in H. pylori acute/chronic digestive and/or extra-digestive infections around the world. This review focuses on digestive and extra-digestive diseases caused by H. pylori, the related virulence factors, diagnostic techniques including non-invasive and invasive diagnostics and treatment. There is an abundance of diagnostics for detection and identification of H. pylori. The availability, cost, and the condition of test performance may differ from place to place. To increase the level of reliability in association with diagnostic tools for detecting H. pylori, several techniques must be applied at once as multi-diagnostic technique. Furthermore, there are several pharmacotherapies which can be used for complete eradication of H. pylori infection.

  9. [The diagnostic of chronic infection Helicobacter pylori in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereschenko, S Yu; Olkhovskiy, I A

    2014-02-01

    The epidemiological studies testify an extremely high prevalence of chronic infection of children with Helicobacter pylori in Russia. The affection consists from 50% to 80% depending on region and age of examined children. The currently in force recommendations "Maastricht IV" concerning diagnostic and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection adult patients are applied not in its fullness to children adolescent population. At the same time recently published joint conciliatory document of the European and North American associations of pediatric gastroenterologists is oriented to populations with low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and particular profile of drug resistance. Hence, an urgent need exists to develop modern local algorithm concerning diagnostic, treatment and control of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection among children and adolescents in Russia. The review presents analysis of admissibility of application in Russia's conditions of the international conciliatory documents concerning diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. The data from conciliatory document of the European (ESPGHAN) and North American (NASPGHAN) associations of pediatric gastroenterologists, particular orginal research studies and one's own clinical experience were used. The advantages and shortcomings of actual methods of laboratory diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection are discussed. The approaches to application of particular diagnostic methods are considered. The enhanced indications to detection of infection and implementation of eradication therapy are proposed.

  10. Usefulness of Housekeeping Genes for the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Strain Discrimination and Detection of Multiple Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Montserrat; Kulmann, Marcos; Ramírez-Lázaro, María José; Lario, Sergio; Quilez, María Elisa; Campo, Rafael; Piqué, Núria; Calvet, Xavier; Miñana-Galbis, David

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects human stomachs of over half the world's population, evades the immune response and establishes a chronic infection. Although most people remains asymptomatic, duodenal and gastric ulcers, MALT lymphoma and progression to gastric cancer could be developed. Several virulence factors such as flagella, lipopolysaccharide, adhesins and especially the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and the oncoprotein CagA have been described for H. pylori. Despite the extensive published data on H. pylori, more research is needed to determine new virulence markers, the exact mode of transmission or the role of multiple infection. Amplification and sequencing of six housekeeping genes (amiA, cgt, cpn60, cpn70, dnaJ, and luxS) related to H. pylori pathogenesis have been performed in order to evaluate their usefulness for the specific detection of H. pylori, the genetic discrimination at strain level and the detection of multiple infection. A total of 52 H. pylori clones, isolated from 14 gastric biopsies from 11 patients, were analyzed for this purpose. All genes were specifically amplified for H. pylori and all clones isolated from different patients were discriminated, with gene distances ranged from 0.9 to 7.8%. Although most clones isolated from the same patient showed identical gene sequences, an event of multiple infection was detected in all the genes and microevolution events were showed for amiA and cpn60 genes. These results suggested that housekeeping genes could be useful for H. pylori detection and to elucidate the mode of transmission and the relevance of the multiple infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. VCP phosphorylation-dependent interaction partners prevent apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chou Yu

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that valosin-containing protein (VCP is associated with H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. By identifying the interactome of VCP overexpressed in AGS cells using a subtractive proteomics approach, we aimed to characterize the cellular responses mediated by VCP and its functional roles in H. pylori-associated gastric cancer. VCP immunoprecipitations followed by proteomic analysis identified 288 putative interacting proteins, 18 VCP-binding proteins belonged to the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. H. pylori infection increased the interaction between Akt and VCP, Akt-dependent phosphorylation of VCP, levels of ubiquitinated proteins, and aggresome formation in AGS cells. Furthermore, phosphorylated VCP co-localized with the aggresome, bound ubiquitinated proteins, and increased the degradation of cellular regulators to protect H. pylori-infected AGS cells from apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that VCP phosphorylation following H. pylori infection promotes both gastric epithelial cell survival, mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway, and the degradation of cellular regulators. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of H. pylori infection induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first...... or amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric...... degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested...

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  14. H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Reza Hashemi; Mohammad Rahnavardi; Bavand Bikdeli; Mohsen Dehghani Zahedani

    2006-01-01

    AIS: To describe the frequency of H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients.METHODS: A prospective study was performed in a referral hospital in south of Iran from 1999 to 2005. One thousand dyspeptic patients (518 males, mean ± SD age of 49.12 ± 12.82 years) consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple gastric antral biopsy samples were taken from all patients for rapid ureasetest and histopathologic examination (96.9% satisfactory samples). Patients were considered H pylori-infected if one or both tests were positive.RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-one patients (67.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%-70.0%) were H pylori-infected.H pylori positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD)than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (P < 0.001).Male-to-female ratio for duodenal and gastric ulcers was 2.7:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Moreover, the duodenalto-gastric ulcer ratio was 1.95:1. The frequency of H pylori infection among those with endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and normal mucosa was 70.1% (398/568), 86.2% (150/174),71.9% (64/89), and 33.5% (54/161), respectively. H pylori infection, male sex, and older age were independently associated with PUD in multivariate analysis.H pylori positivity was associated with chronic gastritis, and chronic active gastritis with odds ratios of 34.21 (95% CI: 12.19%-96.03%) and 81.21 (95% CI:28.85%-228.55%), respectively.CONCLUSION: H pylori and PUD are highly frequent in dyspeptic patients from south of Iran. H pylori is a cardinal risk factor for chronic active or inactive gastritis.

  15. Evaluation of Salivary Antibodies to Detect Infection with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Loeb

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. Infection with this bacterium stimulates the production of immunoglobulin (Ig G antibody. Salivary IgG antibody tests to detect H pylori infection offer a convenient and noninvasive method of diagnosis. To evaluate an IgG salivary antibody kit, saliva was collected from 157 out-patients with dyspepsia referred for endoscopy to a tertiary centre. A salivary IgG ELISA antibody assay was performed using the Helisal Helicobacter pylori (IgG assay kit, and at least four gastric biopsies were obtained. H pylori infection was confirmed by demonstration of the organism on Warthin-Starry silver stain (sensitivity 85%, specificity 55%. The prevalence of infection with H pylori was 30%. When the analysis was redone, excluding those treated with eradication therapy, the results were similar (sensitivity 86%, specificity 58%. The positive predictive value of the assay was 45% and the negative predictive value was 90%. Despite the ease of sampling, the assay used has limited diagnostic utility, lacking the predictive value to indicate which patients referred with dyspeptic symptoms to a tertiary care setting are infected with H pylori.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    , the parents of the children were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 945 out of the 1201 eligible preschool children participated in the study (response rate = 79%). The children were aged 5-8 years. The majority were of German nationality (72.6%). Overall, 127 children (13......BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is among the most common infections in humans and has been recognized as major cause of various gastroduodenal diseases. There is limited knowledge, however, on the prevalence and determinants of this infection in children. We addressed these issues in a population......-based cross-sectional study in Southern Germany. METHODS: Study subjects were all preschool children in Ulm, a city in the South of Germany, who were screened for school fitness by physicians of the public health service in 1996. Infection status was determined by 13C-urea breath test. In addition...

  17. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH DYSPEPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia is synonymous with commonly used non - medical term indigestion . It includes symptoms like pain , bloating , nausea & early satiety . I t is now recognized that the large majority of duodenal and gastric ulcers are caused by H. pylori infection and/or NSAID use . H. pylori infection is associated with poverty, household crowding & limited education. Colonization rates exceed 70% in some groups and vary from less than 10% to more than 80% worldwide. Several studies have revealed the association of H. pylori in 70 – 75% of patients with dyspepsia. The aim o f this study is t o study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients. To study the various upper GI endoscopy findings in dyspeptic patients.

  18. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  19. Strategies used by helicobacter pylori to establish persistent infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host’s entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host. Thirty-four years after the discovery of this bacterium, there are still many unanswered questions. For example, which strategies help the bacterium to survive in this inhospitable microniche? This question is slightly easier to answer if we presume the same clinical concept for both persistent infection and disease. Understanding the mechanisms governing H. pylori persistence will improve identification of the increased risk of diseases such as gastric cancer in patients infected with this bacterium. A well-defined and long-term equilibrium between the human host and H. pylori allows bacterial persistence in the gastric microniche; although this coexistence leads to a high risk of severe diseases such as gastric cancer. To escape the bactericidal activity of stomach acid, H. pylori secretes large amounts of surface-associated and cytosolic urease. The potential to avoid acidic conditions and immune evasion are discussed in order to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, and data on bacterial genetic diversity are included. Information on the mechanisms related to H. pylori persistence can also provide the direction for future research concerning effective therapy and management of gastroduodenal disorders. The topics presented in the current review are important for elucidating the strategies used by H. pylori to help the bacterium

  20. Validation of string test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velapatiño, Billie; Balqui, Jacqueline; Gilman, Robert H; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Quino, Willi; Finger, S Alison; Santivañez, Livia; Herrera, Phabiola; Piscoya, Alejandro; Valdivia, Jose; Cok, Jaime; Berg, Douglas E

    2006-03-01

    The method of recovering Helicobacter pylori DNA or viable cells absorbed on a string that a person has swallowed and that is retrieved an hour later (string test) should be a useful alternative to traditional analysis of cells or DNA obtained by endoscopy, which is invasive, uncomfortable, relatively costly, and ill-suited for community-based and pediatric studies. Here we assayed the sensitivity and validity of the string test versus conventional endoscopic biopsy for detecting and analyzing H. pylori infection. Forty-four people with gastric complaints were studied using both H. pylori culture and urease gene (ureB) PCR. H. pylori organisms cultured from strings and biopsy specimens from the same patients were fingerprinted by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Biopsy sections were also hematoxylin and eosin and silver stained for H. pylori detection. H. pylori was cultured from 80% of strings and detected by PCR from 91% of strings from participants whose biopsies had been H. pylori positive by culture, PCR, and/or histology. Strains recovered from strings and biopsy specimens yielded identical or closely related RAPD profiles in each of the 24 cases tested. We conclude that the string test is a useful method for H. pylori recovery and analysis when relatively noninvasive procedures are needed.

  1. Gastric expression of IL-17A and IFNγ in Helicobacter pylori infected individuals is related to symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsson, Jenni; Ottsjö, Louise Sjökvist; Lundin, Samuel B; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Raghavan, Sukanya

    2017-07-03

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori leads to gastritis and in a subpopulation of infected individuals to ulcers and cancer. Bacterial virulence factors and host immune inflammatory responses are risk factors related to disease. CD4(+) T cells secrete cytokines that promote inflammation and an anti-bacterial response in the gastric mucosa during infection. The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of expression of CD4(+) T cell derived cytokines, IL-17A and IFNγ in paired antrum and corpus biopsies and correlate it to H. pylori infection outcome. Gene and protein expression of IL-17A and IFNγ was analyzed in gastric biopsies from H. pylori infected subjects with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) or gastric ulcer; and for comparison uninfected individuals. Upregulation of IL-17A and IFNγ gene expression was seen in corpus and antrum biopsies of H. pylori infected individuals with NUD compared to in uninfected controls. The expression of these cytokines correlated significantly with each other. Immunofluorescence staining revealed increased frequencies of IL-17A(+) and IFNγ(+) cells in antrum biopsies of gastric ulcer patients compared to of H. pylori infected NUD individuals; positive cells were not detected in any of the biopsies of uninfected controls. The frequencies of IFNγ and IL-17A(+) cells correlated positively with inflammation in the antrum, but not the corpus, of H. pylori infected individuals. In the antrum, while there was no significant evidence of correlation between IFNγ and bacterial score, a positive correlation between bacterial score and IL-17A(+) cells was seen. In H. pylori infected individuals, the frequencies of IFNγ and IL-17A(+) cells were increased in the antrum, particularly in patients with H. pylori induced gastric ulcers. Even though H. pylori colonized both the corpus and antrum regions of the stomach, the cytokine responses and subsequent pathology were mainly detected in the antrum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 enhances innate immunity during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Barry

    Full Text Available Once acquired, Helicobacter pylori infection is lifelong due to an inadequate innate and adaptive immune response. Our previous studies indicate that interactions among the various pathways of arginine metabolism in the host are critical determinants of outcomes following infection. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2 is essential for transport of L-arginine (L-Arg into monocytic immune cells during H. pylori infection. Once within the cell, this amino acid is utilized by opposing pathways that lead to elaboration of either bactericidal nitric oxide (NO produced from inducible NO synthase (iNOS, or hydrogen peroxide, which causes macrophage apoptosis, via arginase and the polyamine pathway. Because of its central role in controlling L-Arg availability in macrophages, we investigated the importance of CAT2 in vivo during H. pylori infection. CAT2(-/- mice infected for 4 months exhibited decreased gastritis and increased levels of colonization compared to wild type mice. We observed suppression of gastric macrophage levels, macrophage expression of iNOS, dendritic cell activation, and expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in CAT2(-/- mice suggesting that CAT2 is involved in enhancing the innate immune response. In addition, cytokine expression in CAT2(-/- mice was altered from an antimicrobial Th1 response to a Th2 response, indicating that the transporter has downstream effects on adaptive immunity as well. These findings demonstrate that CAT2 is an important regulator of the immune response during H. pylori infection.

  3. Catechins and Sialic Acid Attenuate Helicobacter pylori-Triggered Epithelial Caspase-1 Activity and Eradicate Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Chin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway in immune cells plays a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis; however, the regulation of this pathway in the gastric epithelium during Helicobacter pylori infection is yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of catechins (CAs, sialic acid (SA, or combination of CA and SA (CASA on H. pylori-induced caspase-1-mediated epithelial damage, as well as H. pylori colonization in vitro (AGS cells and in vivo (BALB/c mice. Our results indicate that the activity of caspase-1 and the expression of its downstream substrate IL-1β were upregulated in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. In addition, we observed increased oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase gp91phox, CD68, caspase-1/IL-1β, and apoptosis, but decreased autophagy, in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected mice. We have further demonstrated that treatment with CASA led to synergistic anti-H. pylori activity and was more effective than treatment with CA or SA alone. In particular, treatment with CASA for 10 days eradicated H. pylori infection in up to 95% of H. pylori-infected mice. Taken together, we suggest that the pathogenesis of H. pylori involves a gastric epithelial inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway, and our results show that CASA was able to attenuate this pathway and effectively eradicate H. pylori infection.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of gastric epithelial cells infected with wild type or arginase-deficient Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Songhee H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori causes acute and chronic gastric inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines secreted by cells of the gastric mucosa, including gastric epithelial cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the bacterial arginase, RocF, is involved in inhibiting T cell proliferation and CD3ζ expression, suggesting that arginase could be involved in a more general dampening of the immune response, perhaps by down-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory mediators. Results Global transcriptome analysis was performed on AGS gastric epithelial cells infected for 16 hours with a wild type Helicobacter pylori strain 26695, an arginase mutant (rocF- or a rocF+ complemented strain. H. pylori infection triggered altered host gene expression in genes involved in cell movement, death/growth/proliferation, and cellular function and maintenance. While the wild type strain stimulates host inflammatory pathways, the rocF- mutant induced significantly more expression of IL-8. The results of the microarray were verified using real-time PCR, and the differential levels of protein expression were confirmed by ELISA and Bioplex analysis. MIP-1B was also significantly secreted by AGS cells after H. pylori rocF- mutant infection, as determined by Bioplex. Even though not explored in this manuscript, the impact that the results presented here may have on the development of gastritis, warrant further research to understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between H. pylori RocF and IL-8 induction. Conclusions We conclude that H. pylori arginase modulates multiple host signaling and metabolic pathways of infected gastric epithelial cells. Arginase may play a critical role in anti-inflammatory host responses that could contribute to the ability of H. pylori to establish chronic infections.

  5. Serum Prohepcidin Levels in Helicobacter Pylori Infected Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Young; Song, Eun Young; Yun, Yeo Min; Yoon, So Young; Cho, Yo Han; Kim, Sung-Yong; Lee, Mark Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection appears to subvert the human iron regulatory mechanism and thus upregulates hepcidin, resulting in unexplained iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated serum prohepcidin levels before and after eradication of H. pylori in IDA patients to assess whether it plays a role in IDA related to H. pylori infection. Methods Subjects diagnosed with unexplained IDA underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy to confirm H. pylori i...

  6. [Alzheimer's disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a possible link?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with Aß peptide and Tau protein deposits, but the initial process inducing the disease and ultimately neurodegeneration has not yet been elucidated. An infectious hypothesis is suggested by the alteration of the blood-brain barrier and the activation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which could play a role, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance. Several viral or bacterial agents have been incriminated, including Helicobacter pylori. Infection by H. pylori is acquired during childhood and often lifetime persisting, inducing a chronic gastric inflammation, which remains asymptomatic in approximately 80% of cases. However H. pylori infection can induce systemic inflammation and increase homocysteine levels, contributing to worsen AD lesions. Association between H. pylori and AD is suggested by 1) epidemiologic studies, which show higher AD prevalence and more pronounced cognitive impairment in infected than in non-infected subjects; 2) experimental studies in murine models: a) in a first study we evaluated the impact of H. pylori infection on the brain of non-AD predisposed C57BL/6J mice. After an 18-month infection, H. pylori induced a significant gastric inflammation but no brain Aβ deposit nor increased neuroinflammation was observed in their brain; b) we currently study the impact of Helicobacter species infection on behavior and cerebral lesions of AD transgenic (APPswe/PS1dE9) mice and their wild type littermate. The results of these studies do not allow to conclude a significant association between AD and H. pylory infection but may contribute to a better understanding of the role of brain neuroinflammation in AD.

  7. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  8. Relationship of Halitosis with Gastric Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz HajiFattahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori may be one of the main causes of halitosis. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of Heli- cobacter pylori infection with halitosis.Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 44 dyspeptic patients with a mean age of 34.29±13.71 years (range 17 to 76 years. The case group included 22 patients with halitosis and no signs of diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure, upper respiratory tract infection, malignancies, deep carious teeth, severe  periodontitis,  coated  tongue,  dry  mouth  or poor  oral  hygiene.  Control group included 22 patients without halitosis and the same age, sex, systemic and oral conditions as the case group. Halitosis was evaluated using organoleptic test (OLT and Helicobacter pylori infection was evaluated by Rapid Urease Test (RUT during endoscopy. The data were statistically analyzed using chi square, Mann Whitney and t-tests.Results: Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in 20 (91% out of 22 halitosis patients, and 7 control subjects (32% (P<0.001.Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori gastric infection can be a cause of bad breath. Dentists should pay more attention to this infection and refer these patients to in- ternists to prevent further gastrointestinal (GI complications and probable malig- nancies.

  9. H. pylori infection in patients with food-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lioznov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective: to assess clinical features of food-borne diseases in patients with H. pylori infection.Materials and methods: 98 patients with an acute intestinal infection were examined for the presence of helicobacter pylori infection. Clinical and laboratory parameters were estimated in 82 subjects. Patients were distributed to two groups: 41 H. pylori-infected patients (H. pylori IgG antibodies and DNA in feces and41 H. pylori-noninfected patients.Results: in patients with Helicobacter pyloriinfection a higher range of leukocytosis were indicated: 10,7±2,5×109/l vs 8,6±2,6×109/l respectively, р<0,05, and ESR – 16,2±8,7 mm/h vs 11,2±7,8 mm/h respectively, p<0,05. In H. pyloriinfected patients number of bowel movementsand vomitswere indicated more often than those in the control group: (9,4±5,3 vs 6,7±3,6 times/day respectively, р<0,05; and 4,8±3,4 and 1,0±1,4 times/day, р<0,05. Normalization of bowel function was observedearlier in control group compare with H. pylori-infected patients (3,0±0,7 day of disease and 4,4±1,4 day of disease respectively, in р<0,05.Conclusions: H. pylori-infected patients had clinically and laboratory more severe presentation of acute intestinal infection. Clinical improvementin this patientsoccurredat a later date.

  10. Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Lower Prevalence and Subsequent Incidence of Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Lars E; Jepsen, Peter; Christensen, Lisbet A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori infection may protect against some chronic inflammatory diseases. This study examined H. pylori infection and its association with the prevalence of the gastrointestinal diseases Crohn's disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and coeliac disease [Ce...

  11. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fund...

  12. The impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on the gastric microbiota of the rhesus macaque.

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    Miriam E Martin

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonization is highly prevalent among humans and causes significant gastric disease in a subset of those infected. When present, this bacterium dominates the gastric microbiota of humans and induces antimicrobial responses in the host. Since the microbial context of H. pylori colonization influences the disease outcome in a mouse model, we sought to assess the impact of H. pylori challenge upon the pre-existing gastric microbial community members in the rhesus macaque model. Deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene identified a community profile of 221 phylotypes that was distinct from that of the rhesus macaque distal gut and mouth, although there were taxa in common. High proportions of both H. pylori and H. suis were observed in the post-challenge libraries, but at a given time, only one Helicobacter species was dominant. However, the relative abundance of non-Helicobacter taxa was not significantly different before and after challenge with H. pylori. These results suggest that while different gastric species may show competitive exclusion in the gastric niche, the rhesus gastric microbial community is largely stable despite immune and physiological changes due to H. pylori infection.

  13. Review of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-02-01

    Chronic renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis often encounter gastrointestinal troubles over their long treatment period. Helicobacter pylori infection has close association with development of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, and is thought to be one of the major risk factors for gastrointestinal troubles in dialysis patients. However, it is unclear whether H. pylori infection is directly associated with progression of renal dysfunction and prognosis of chronic renal failure patients. Recent consensus shows that the prevalence of H. pylori infection in chronic renal failure patients is significantly lower than in subjects with normal renal function. In the natural history of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of infection decreases as dialysis periods progressed, in particular within the first four years after the start of treatment. However, the chance of natural eradication becomes rare for patients receiving dialysis treatment for a long time. Moreover, chronic renal failure patients with H. pylori infection have a higher incidence of gastroduodenal diseases, and therefore, are recommended to receive eradication therapies, especially for those receiving treatment for a long time and with higher risks of complication. Intensive endoscopic check-ups for the prevention of gastrointestinal events and the discovery of peptic ulcer and neoplastic diseases at an early phase may be required.

  14. Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.

  15. Analysis of the urinary peptidome associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Xiao; Fan-Liang Meng; Li-Hua He; Yi-Xin Gu; Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between urinary peptide changes and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection using urinary peptidome profiling.METHODS: The study was performed in volunteers (n= 137) who gave informed consent. Urinary peptides were enriched by magnetic beads based weak cation exchange chromatography and spectrums acquired by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). ClinProTools bioinformatics software was used for statistical analysis and the recognition of peptide patterns. The marker peptides were identified by LTQ Obitrap XL tandem MS.RESULTS: Approximately 50 proteins or peptides which loaded onto the magnetic beads were detected by MALDI-TOF MS. By optimizing the parameters of the model,the Genetic Algorithm model had good recognition capability (97%) and positive predictive value (94%).Based on the model, 2 markers with molecular masses of 6788 and 1912 Da were found that differentiated between H. pylori positive and negative volunteers.The m/z 1912 sequence was parsed as SKQFTSSTSYNRGDSTF.The peptide was identified as isoform 1 of the fibrinogen α chain precursor, whose concentration in urine was markedly higher in H. pylori infected volunteers than in H. pylori non-infected ones.CONCLUSION: The appearance of urinary fibrinogen degradation products is caused by an active H. pylori -induced process.

  16. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current and future insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma worldwide. H. pylori treatment still remains a challenge, since many determinants for successful therapy are involved such as individual primary or secondary antibiotics resistance, mucosal drug concentration, patient compliance, side-effect profile and cost. While no new drug has been developed, current therapy still relies on different mixture of known antibiotics and anti-secretory agents. A standard triple therapy consisting of two antibiotics and a proton-pump inhibitor proposed as the first-line regimen. Bismuth-containing quadruple treatment, sequential treatment or a non-bismuth quadruple treatment (concomitant) are also an alternative therapy. Levofloxacin containing triple treatment are recommended as rescue treatment for infection of H. pylori after defeat of first-line therapy. The rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness of any regimens involving these remedies. Therefore, adding probiotic to the medications, developing anti-H. pylori photodynamic or phytomedicine therapy, and achieving a successful H. pylori vaccine may have the promising to present synergistic or additive consequence against H. pylori, because each of them exert different effects. PMID:26798626

  17. Iron deficiency and Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendt, N; Kool, P; Teesalu, K; Lillemäe, K; Maaroos, H-I; Oona, M

    2011-09-01

    To examine the relationship between iron deficiency (ID) and Helicobacter pylori infection in school-aged children. Altogether 363 children from ambulatory admission were consecutively enrolled in the study. Haemoglobin (Hb), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), IgG against H. pylori and IgA against tissue transglutaminase were measured. The criteria for ID were sTfR > 5.7 mg/L in children aged 7-12 years and sTfR > 4.5 mg/L in older children, for anaemia Hb Iron deficiency was found in 17% of the children, 5% had also anaemia. H. pylori colonization was detected in 27% and serum markers for coeliac disease in 0.6% of the children. The prevalence of ID and H. pylori seropositivity was higher in older children (23% and 29%, vs 9% and 22%, respectively). Children with H. pylori were significantly shorter [length SDS 1.0 (0.98-1.01) vs 0.98 (0.97-0.99)]. Older children had risk for ID (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, p = 0.03). Although the prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity was higher in the ID group, it was not significantly associated with ID in multivariate analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was not associated with ID. The associated factor for ID was age. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. H pylori infection causes chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether chronic H pylori infection has the potential to induce pancreatitis in the Mongolian gerbil model, and whether it is dependent on an intact type Ⅳ secretion system.METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild type (WT) H pyloritype Ⅰ strain B128 or its isogenic mutant B128 Acag Y (defective type Ⅳ secretion). After seven months of infection, H pylori was reisolated from antrum and corpus and H pylori DNA was analyzed by seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inflammation and histological changes were documented in the gastric antrum, corpus, and pancreas by immunohistochemistry.Cytokine mRNA, gastric pH, plasma gastrin, amylase,lipase, and glucose levels were determined.RESULTS: The H pylori infection rate was 95%.Eight infected animals, but none of the uninfected group, developed transmural inflammation and chronic pancreatitis. Extensive interstitial fibrosis and inflammation of the pancreatic lobe adjacent to the antrum was confirmed by trichrome stain, and immunohistochemically. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly increased in the antral mucosa of all infected gerbils. In the corpus, only cytokine levels of WT-infected animals and those developing transmural inflammation and pancreatitis were significantly increased.Levels of lipase, but not glucose or amylase levels, were significantly reduced in the pancreatitis group. H pylori DNA was detected in infected antral and corpus tissue,but not in the pancreas.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection is able to induce chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils independently of the type Ⅳ secretion system, probably by an indirect mechanism associated with a penetrating ulcer.

  19. Lymphocytic gastritis is not associated with active Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer A; Roberts, Cory A; Lager, Donna J; Putcha, Rajesh V; Jain, Rajeev; Lewin, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG), characterized by marked intra-epithelial lymphocytosis in the gastric mucosa, has been frequently associated with both celiac disease (CD) and H. pylori gastritis. The aim of this study was to review and correlate the morphology of LG with the presence of CD and H. pylori. Gastric biopsies diagnosed with LG from 1/1/2006 to 8/1/2013 at our institution and corresponding small bowel biopsies, when available, were reviewed for verification of the diagnosis and to assess for the presence of H. pylori and CD. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for H. pylori was performed on all gastric biopsies. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the medical record. Fifty-four of the 56 cases that met inclusion criteria demonstrated significant intra-epithelial lymphocytosis as the predominant histologic abnormality; however, none were associated with H. pylori infection by IHC staining. Two cases that also showed a prominent intra-epithelial and lamina propria neutrophilic infiltrate were both positive for H. pylori and were excluded from further study. Of the 36 small bowel biopsies available, 19 (53%) showed changes in CD. LG is not a distinct clinicopathologic entity, but a morphologic pattern of gastric injury that can be secondary to a variety of underlying etiologies. When restricted to cases with lymphocytosis alone, LG is strongly associated with CD and not with active H. pylori infection. However, cases that also show significant neutrophilic infiltrate should be regarded as "active chronic gastritis" and are often associated with H. pylori infection. A morphologic diagnosis of LG should prompt clinical and serologic workup to exclude underlying CD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria of Puebla University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Acuña, María Tula; López García, Aída I; Paz Martínez, David; Galindo García, José Arturo; Papaqui Tapia, Sergio; Garza Yado, María de los Angeles; Arana Muñoz, Oswaldo; Palacios Flores, Cecilio; Pérez Fernández, Susana

    2006-01-01

    Chronic urticaria may be continuous or recurrent according to its form of appearance. Within the diseases associated to chronic urticaria there are mycosis, parasitism and bacterial infections where Helicobacter pylori stands out. This has been related to the allergic diseases promoting a Th2 response. To determine the frequency of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori in patients with chronic urticaria of the allergic and clinical immunology service of the Puebla University Hospital. A descriptive, cross-sectional, prolective and observational study was made in adult patients, between 18 and 60 years old, with diagnosis of chronic urticaria. Inhalated and food skin prick test were made to all the patients. The infection by Helicobacter pylori was documented by serology, fecal antigen, endoscopy with fast test of urease and histological study. Descriptive statistics was implemented such as frequency, percentage, central tendency and dispersion measures. 30 patients were included; 83.3% were women. The average age was 37.8 years (SD 13.2). The most frequent type of chronic urticaria was the persistent one, representing 56.7%. The frequency of positivism of IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori represented the 60.0%, for IgM 33.3% and for fecal antigen 60.0%, the combined IgG, IgM, fecal antigen, fast test of ureasa and histological study was of 83%. The high frequency of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori in the patient with chronic urticaria suggests a possible role in its etiopathogeny, extending the therapeutic possibilities.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection affects mitochondrial function and DNA repair, thus, mediating genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Madsen, Claus Desler; Bøggild, Cecilie Sisse Line

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for the development of atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms explaining the effects of H. pylori infection are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection is known to induce genetic instability in both nuclear...

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection affects mitochondrial function and DNA repair, thus, mediating genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Madsen, Claus Desler; Bøggild, Cecilie Sisse Line

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for the development of atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms explaining the effects of H. pylori infection are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection is known to induce genetic instability in both nuclear and...

  3. Correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and atherothrombotic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yang; Xiaoli Zhao; Yongjun Gao; Zhidong Zheng; Jilai Li; Jichen Du; Xinyi Li; Xianhao Xu; Yingying Su

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Helicobacterpylod infection is associated with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, but the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and ischemic stroke remains unclear.The present study assessed the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on atherothrombotic stroke.This study included 115 individuals with atherothrombotic stroke, all of whom were patients receiving treatment at the Department of Neurology, Aerospace Central Hospital (Aerospace Clinical Medical College Affiliated to Peking University) in China, from March 2006 to July 2009.In addition, 131 controls without the history of cardiovascular disease,cerebrovascular disease or atherothrombosis were also enrolled in the study.Results show that the Helicobacter pylori-IgG positive rate was greater in the atherothrombotic stroke patients than in the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant (67.8% vs.61.8%, OR=1.301,95%CI:0.769-2.203, P= 0.327).After correction for potential risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection and known risk factors for ischemic stroke, no significant difference was detected between them (OR= 1.278, 95%Cl: 0.667-2.449, P= 0.459).These results indicate that there is no specific correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and atherothrombotic stroke.This finding requires further verification in large-sample prospective studies.

  4. Salty food intake and risk of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugane, S; Tei, Y; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, S; Sugano, K

    1994-05-01

    To clarify the risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection, which is considered to play an etiologic role in atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, various parameters including diet and socioeconomic characteristics were compared between H. pylori-infected and non-infected men. In a cross-sectional study of 634 men aged 40 to 49 years selected randomly from five areas with different rates of gastric cancer mortality, 474 of 628 men evaluated were positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. After logistic regression analysis adjusted for area, the results showed a significant association between frequent intake of pickled vegetables and prevalence of H. pylori antibody (odds ratios against men who consume habits were not significantly associated with the prevalence of infection in this population. Although there are limitations in a cross-sectional study such as this, consumption of salty foods appears to increase the risk of H. pylori infection, which could be a marker of salty food intake or an intermediate risk factor in the etiologic sequence between salty food intake and gastric cancer.

  5. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer.

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria N; Queiroz, Dulciene M M; Rodrigues, Rodrigo T; Rocha, Andreia M C; Luz, Carlos R L; Braga, Lucia L B C

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was assessed in a randomly selected sample of individuals from low-income community in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. Overall, 384 out of 610 participants (62.9%) were H. pylori positive. A 47.5% infection rate was found in subjects aged six months to 10 years old, increased to 73.3% in subjects aged 11-20 years and then continued to increase with age reaching up to 87% in those over 60 years old. After this age group, the prevalence decreased slightly. The prevalence of infection increased significantly with age (p<0.0001).

  7. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takafumi Ando; Yasuyuki Goto; Osamu Maeda; Osamu Watanabe; Kazuhiro Ishiguro; Hidemi Goto

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the world, accounting for a large proportion of all cancer cases in Asia, Latin America, and some countries in Europe. Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) is regarded as playing a specific role in the development of atrophic gastritis, which represents the most recognized pathway in multistep intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis. Recent studies suggest that a combination of host genetic factors, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental and lifestyle factors determine the severity of gastric damage and the eventual clinical outcome of H pylori infection. The seminal discovery of H pylori as the leading cause of gastric cancer should lead to effective eradication strategies. Prevention of gastric cancer requires better screening strategies to identify candidates for eradication.

  8. Metabolic Interaction of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jong Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. H. pylori in the human stomach cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancers. H. pylori infection also induces insulin resistance and has been defined as a predisposing factor to T2D development. Gastric and fecal microbiota may have been changed in H. pylori-infected persons and mice to promote gastric inflammation and specific diseases. However, the interaction of H. pylori and gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism also remains unknown. Further studies aim to identify the H. pylori-microbiota-host metabolism axis and to test if H. pylori eradication or modification of gut microbiota can improve the control of human metabolic disorders.

  9. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  10. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie S W; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-10-28

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes.

  11. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its relation with body mass index in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Ming; Sun, Yan; Joo, Jungsoo; Wan, Xingyong; Yu, Chaohui; Wang, Qunyan; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Li, Youming; Coleman, William G

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent worldwide. The association between obesity and H. pylori infection is controversial in the literature. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its relation with body mass index (BMI) in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed among adults who underwent health checkups at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was examined by (13)C urea breath tests, and the association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and BMI was analyzed. Of the 8820 participants enrolled, 3859 (43.8%) were positive for H. pylori infection. H. pylori-positive participants had a more unfavorable metabolic profile than H. pylori-negative participants. Overweight/obese participants showed a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than that of lean participants, and a positive linear correlation between BMI and prevalence of H. pylori infection was observed. Both unadjusted and adjusted analysis revealed that BMI was significantly associated with risk factors of H. pylori infection. Our results showed that BMI was significantly and positively associated with H. pylori infection, and a high BMI was associated with an increased risk of the infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rapid improvement of Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ulas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are one of the most common bacterial infections, seen in humans, worldwide and their possible relationships to different diseases are a focus of attention nowadays. H. pylori may cause some extra intestinal manifestations some of which are dermatological conditions, including Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. We describe a 49-year-old man who presented with HSP triggered by gastric H. pylori infection. Treatment of H. Pylori infection was accompanied by prompt resolution of the gastrointestinal manifestations and purpuric rashes. These findings suggest a causative role for H. pylori in the occurrence of HSP.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Campylobacter pylori infection in various populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégraud, F; Brassens-Rabbé, M P; Denis, F; Belbouri, A; Hoa, D Q

    1989-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori infection has been recognized as being strongly associated with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulceration, but the prevalence of C. pylori infection in a normal population is not known. A serological survey was conducted in four countries with different geographical and socioeconomic status, in a randomly chosen population as representative as possible, by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a sonic extract of two strains as the antigen. The test had a specificity of 94% when 600 ELISA units was used as the threshold. In France, few children were infected before the age of 10 years. The prevalence then increased gradually to 36.7% in the sixth decade of life. This increasing prevalence of infection with age was also observed in Algeria, Vietnam, and the Ivory Coast but at a higher rate (80 to 90%). In Vietnam, as in France, few children were infected, whereas in Africa, C. pylori infection occurred earlier. The prevalence of infection did not differ with sex for a particular age group; it also did not differ with respect to gastric symptoms, smoking and drinking habits, or urban or rural residence when these potential risk factors were studied. The epidemiological data available on peptic ulcer disease in developing countries compared with developed countries led to the speculation that infection with C. pylori is not a sufficient condition to develop this disease. PMID:2549098

  14. Reliability of Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection

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    S. Redéen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is very common worldwide. A reliable diagnosis is crucial for patients with H. pylori-related diseases. At followup, it is important to confirm that eradication therapy has been successful. There is no established gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Material and Methods. A sample of 304 volunteers from the general population was screened for H. pylori infection with serology, 13C-urea breath test (UBT, rapid urease test (RUT on fresh biopsy, culture from biopsy, and histological examination. Culture was used as gold standard. Results. The sensitivity was 0.99 for serology, 0.90 for UBT, 0.90 for RUT, and 0.90 for histological examination. Corresponding specificities were 0.82, 0.99, 0.98, and 0.97, respectively. The accuracy was 0.86 for serology, 0.96 for UBT, 0.95 for RUT, 0.93 for culture, and 0.95 for histology. There was a strong correlation between the results of UBT and the histological scores of H. pylori colonisation as well as between the results of UBT and the scores of RUT. Conclusion. There were only minor differences in accuracy between the three invasive tests for H. pylori infection in this population. RUT may be recommended as the first choice since a result is obtained within hours. The accuracy of UBT was comparable to the invasive tests, and it is recommended for situations when endoscopy is not needed.

  15. Metabolic consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future.

  16. Short mucin 6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thai V Nguyen; Marcel JR Janssen; Paulien Gritters; René HM te Morsche; Joost PH Drenth; Henri van Asten; Robert JF Laheij; Jan BMJ Jansen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between mucin 6(MUC6) VNTR length and H pylori infection.METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients visiting the Can Tho General Hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. DNA was isolated from whole blood, the repeated section was cut out using a restriction enzyme (Pvu Ⅱ) and the length of the allele fragments was determined by Southern blotting. H pylori infection was diagnosed by 14C urea breath test. For analysis, MUC6 allele fragment length was dichotomized as being either long (> 13.5 kbp) or short (≤ 13.5 kbp)and patients were classified according to genotype [long-long (LL), long-short (LS), short-short (SS)].RESULTS: 160 patients were studied (mean age 43years, 36% were males, 58% H pylori positive). MUC6Pvu Ⅱ-restricted allele fragment lengths ranged from 7 to 19 kbp. Of the patients with the LL, LS, SS MUC6genotype, 43% (24/56), 57% (25/58) and 76% (11/46)were infected with H pylori, respectively (P = 0.003).CONCLUSION: Short MUC6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection.

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis in patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Thein; Shiota, Seiji; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ni, New; Aye, Than Than; Matsuda, Miyuki; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-14

    To survey the detailed analyses for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric mucosal status in Myanmar. A total of 252 volunteers with dyspeptic symptoms (155 female and 97 male; mean age of 43.6 ± 14.2 years) was participated in Yangon and Mandalay. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on 5 different tests including rapid urease test, culture, histology, immunohistochemistry and serology. Histological scores were evaluated according to the update Sydney system and the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment system. Pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 48.0%. There was no relationship between age and infection rate. Even in young group (less than 29 years old), the H. pylori infection rate was relatively high (41.9%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in Yangon than that of Mandalay. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. All 7 subjects with peptic ulcer were infected with H. pylori. Although H. pylori-positive subjects showed stronger gastritis than H. pylori-negative subjects, most cases had mild gastritis. We revealed the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Myanmar. The H. pylori infection was a risk factor for peptic ulcer and stronger gastritis.

  18. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on Bax protein expression in patients with gastric precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Feng Liu; Wei-Wen Liu; Guo-An Wang; Xiao-Chun Teng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on Bax protein expression, and explore the role of H pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.METHODS: H pylori was assessed by rapid urease test and Warthin-Starry method, and expression of Bax protein was examined immunohistochemically in 72 patients with pre-malignant lesions.RESULTS: Bax protein was differently expressed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric dysplasia, and showed 63.99% positivity. The positivity of Bax protein expression in H pylori-positive gastric precancerous lesions (72.3%) was significantly higher than that in H pylori-negative gastric precancerous lesions (48.0%, χ2 = 4.191, P<0.05).H pylori infection was well correlated with the expression of Bax protein in gastric precancerous lesions (r = 0.978,P<0.01). After eradication of H pylori, the positivity of Bax protein expression significantly decreased in H pylori-positive gastric precancerous lesions (χ2= 5.506,P<0.05). In the persisting H pylori-infected patients,the positivity of Bax protein expression was not changed.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection may be involved in the upregulation of Bax gene, which might be one of the mechanisms of H pylori infection-induced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. H pylori might act as a tumor promoter in the genesis of gastric carcinoma and eradication of H pylori could inhibit gastric carcinogenesis.

  19. Role of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of helicobacter pylori infection in children

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    Gerasymenko O.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the effect of combined probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis, Enterococcus faecium, on H.pylori eradication efficacy in the treatment of children with chronic H.pylori- associated gastroduodenitis in the scheme of "triple" therapy of H.pylori eradication. Determination of total serum Ig M , A, G protein to Ag SagA H. pylori, breathing "Helik" test, rapid urease "Helpil" test ; that of concentration of serum sCD14 was conducted. The study group included 20 children who received standard "triple" eradication therapy for 7 days and 1 caps. of probiotic 3 times a day for 4 weeks, control group (20 children – who received only standard eradication therapy. It is shown that combined use of probiotics in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection enhances effectiveness of eradication of H.pylori. In the basis of action of probiotic strains of the drug is an anti-inflammatory effect mediated by the impact on non-specific mechanisms of innate immunity, provided by molecular mechanism responsible for induction of sCD14 synthesis.

  20. Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection involves interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... response to infection, and modulating cofactors such as smoking and diet. ... island, which induces pro-inflammatory, pro-proliferative epithelial cell signaling; the ... Host genetic polymorphisms that lead to high-level pro-inflammatory ...

  1. HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Ins Genotype in Patients Harbouring Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Potential Risk Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genre, J; Reginaldo, F P Santos; Andrade, J Marco de Leon; Lima, F P; da Camara, A V Coutinho; Donadi, E A; Crispim, J C

    2016-01-01

    H. pylori is a potent pathogen due to its capacity to successfully evade host defence mechanisms. Despite inducing immune responses in infected individuals, sometimes these responses fail to clear the infection and the bacterium establishes a persistent infection leading to chronic inflammation. In this context, we hypothesized that human leucocyte antigen G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule that has the ability to regulate immune responses both in physiological and in pathological conditions, may play an important role in promoting tolerance and helping H. pylori to subvert host defence and consequently establish a chronic infection. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism in patients harbouring H. pylori infection, as well as their relationship with histological and demographic variables, to gain a better understanding of the actual role of HLA-G and its genetic polymorphisms in bacterial infection. Sixty-eight patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of H. pylori infection were enrolled to assess HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism allele and genotype frequencies. After adjustment for covariates (age and gender), the odds of having the genotype Ins/Ins, compared to Del/Del, were 3.77 times greater among HP+ cases than among controls. These findings suggest that the 14-bp Ins/Ins genotype, already associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as well as some viral and parasitic infections, could confer a greater risk of developing H. pylori infection.

  2. Regulatory B Cell Function Is Suppressed by Smoking and Obesity in H. pylori-Infected Subjects and Is Correlated with Elevated Risk of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanggang; Wulan, Hasi; Song, Zongchang; Paik, Paul A; Tsao, Ming L; Goodman, Gary M; MacEachern, Paul T; Downey, Robert S; Jankowska, Anna J; Rabinowitz, Yaron M; Learch, Thomas B; Song, David Z; Yuan, Ji J; Zheng, Shihang; Zheng, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in more than half of the world's population and is the main cause for gastric cancer. A series of lifestyle and nutritional factors, such as tobacco smoking and obesity, have been found to elevate the risk for cancer development. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological aspects during H. pylori infection and gastric cancer development. We found that B cells from H. pylori-infected patients presented altered composition and function compared to uninfected patients. IL-10-expressing CD24+CD38+ B cells were upregulated in H. pylori-infected patients, contained potent regulatory activity in inhibiting T cell pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and responded directly to H. pylori antigen stimulation. Interestingly, in H. pylori-infected smoking subjects and obese subjects, the number of IL-10+ B cells and CD24+CD38+ B cells were reduced compared to H. pylori-infected asymptomatic subjects. Regulatory functions mediated by CD24+CD38+ B cells were also impaired. In addition, gastric cancer positive patients had reduced IL-10-producing B cell frequencies after H. pylori-stimulation. Altogether, these data suggest that in H. pylori-infection, CD24+CD38+ B cell is upregulated and plays a role in suppressing pro-inflammatory responses, possibly through IL-10 production, a feature that was not observed in smoking and obese patients.

  3. Regulatory B Cell Function Is Suppressed by Smoking and Obesity in H. pylori-Infected Subjects and Is Correlated with Elevated Risk of Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanggang Li

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in more than half of the world's population and is the main cause for gastric cancer. A series of lifestyle and nutritional factors, such as tobacco smoking and obesity, have been found to elevate the risk for cancer development. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological aspects during H. pylori infection and gastric cancer development. We found that B cells from H. pylori-infected patients presented altered composition and function compared to uninfected patients. IL-10-expressing CD24+CD38+ B cells were upregulated in H. pylori-infected patients, contained potent regulatory activity in inhibiting T cell pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and responded directly to H. pylori antigen stimulation. Interestingly, in H. pylori-infected smoking subjects and obese subjects, the number of IL-10+ B cells and CD24+CD38+ B cells were reduced compared to H. pylori-infected asymptomatic subjects. Regulatory functions mediated by CD24+CD38+ B cells were also impaired. In addition, gastric cancer positive patients had reduced IL-10-producing B cell frequencies after H. pylori-stimulation. Altogether, these data suggest that in H. pylori-infection, CD24+CD38+ B cell is upregulated and plays a role in suppressing pro-inflammatory responses, possibly through IL-10 production, a feature that was not observed in smoking and obese patients.

  4. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair B. Fayed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate H. pylori infection and virulent strain in diabetic children. Patients: In this study 53 type 1 diabetics and 53 of normal volunteers were included. Methods: All studied children were subjected to assessment of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1, Anti H. pylori antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM, Anti-cytotoxin associated gene A antibodies (Anti Cag A IgG. Results: Anti H. pylori antibodies IgA, IgG, total antibodies and anti Cag A IgG were significantly higher in diabetics. Diabetic patients with positive anti Cag A IgG had a lower age of onset of diabetes, higher age of patients, body mass index (BMI and HbA1. Conclusion: High prevalence of infection with the virulent strain of H. pylori among diabetic children with older age, large BMI, high HbA1 and younger age of onset of disease. The screening for the virulent strain in diabetic patients with poor metabolic control is mandatory. Control of diabetes is essential to present the infection with H. pylori.

  5. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Past, present and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasilios; Papastergiou; Sotirios; D; Georgopoulos; Stylianos; Karatapanis

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is a major human patho-gen associated with significant morbidity and mortal-ity. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clar-ithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, are now recommended as first-line empirical treatment options providing high ef-ficacy(reportedly > 90% in intention to treat analysis) even in high clarithromycin resistance settings. These include the bismuth quadruple, concomitant, sequential and hybrid therapies. Due to the rapid development of quinolone resistance, levofloxacin-based regimens should be reserved as second-line/rescue options. Adjunct use of probiotics has been proposed in order to boost eradication rates and decrease occurrence of treatment-related side effects. Molecular testing meth-ods are currently available for the characterization of H. pylori therapeutic susceptibility, including genotypic detection of macrolide resistance and evaluation of the cytochrome P450 2C19 status known to affect the me-tabolism of proton pump inhibitors. In the future, use of these techniques may allow for culture-free, non-invasive tailoring of therapy for H. pylori infection.

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection and expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid Mirzaee; Mahsa Molaei; Hamid Mohaghegh Shalmani; Mohammad Reza Zali

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the expression of DNA (MMR)proteins,including hMLH1 and hMSH2,in gastric epithelial cells in the patients with or without Hellcobacter pylori(H pylori)-infected gastritis.METHODS:Fifty H pylori-positive patients and 50 H pylori-negative patients were enrolled in the study.During endoscopy of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia,two antral and two corpus biopsies were taken for histological examination (Giemsa stain)and for immunohistochemical staining of hMLH1 and hMSH2.RESULTS:The percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMLH1 staining was 84.14±7.32% in Hpylori-negative patients,while it was 73.34±10.10% in Hpylori-positive patients (P <0.0001).No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMSH2 staining (81.16±8.32% in H pylori-negative versus 78.24±8.71% in Hpylori-positive patients,P=0.09).CONCLUSION:This study indicates that H pylori might promote development of gastric carcinoma at least in part through its ability to affect the DNA MMR system.

  7. Comparison of three diagnostic methods to confirm Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opavski Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori induces gastric inflammation in host and such gastritis increases the risk of gastric and duodenal ulceration as well as adenocarcinoma. Because peptic ulcer disease is the major cause of morbidity, accurate diagnosis of H. pylori infection is very important. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard among diagnostic tests for Helicobacter infections. If gastroscopy is performed, histopathology and urease test are the most often used. Still, culturing of this bacterium is essential for drug susceptibility testing and analysis of virulence factors. Objective The aim of this study was to compare three diagnostic procedures - histopathology, urease test and culture, which are used to verify H. pylori infection. Method Three pairs of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of 28 dyspeptic patients undergoing endoscopy. Nineteen patients were not pretreated with antibiotics, while nine had received eradication therapy earlier. One pair of biopsy specimens was used for histopathologic examination, the second for urease test and the third was simultaneously cultured on nonselective and selective solid media. Isolate was identified as H. pylori on the basis of colony morphology, morphological properties and biochemical tests. Results In 14 out of 28 patients, H. pylori infection was confirmed on the basis of results of all diagnostic procedures. The concordance of these three methods was very good, because the results of histopathology, urease test and culture corresponded in 26 from 28 patients. Conclusion The conclusion of our study is that culture, as the method with high degree of concordance with other two procedures and the only that can give information on drug susceptibility of Helicobacter, is recommended for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection along with histopathology and urease test.

  8. "Helicobacter Pylori" Infection in Five Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Vemuri, Murali; Gunatilake, Deepthi; Tewari, Sidhartha

    2008-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of "Helicobacter pylori" infection has been reported among people with intellectual disability, especially those residing in hospital and similar settings. Surveys of inpatients have found unusually high rates of gastrointestinal malignancy, to which "H. pylori" infection predisposes. Methods: "Helicobacter pylori"…

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on growth trajectories in young Ethiopian children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineyam Taye

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings add to the growing body of evidence supporting that H. pylori infection is inversely associated with childhood growth trajectory, after controlling for a range of factors associated with reduced growth and H. pylori status. Further follow-up will be important to confirm possible catch-up in height trajectory among H. pylori-infected children as they grow older.

  10. "Helicobacter Pylori" Infection in Five Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Vemuri, Murali; Gunatilake, Deepthi; Tewari, Sidhartha

    2008-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of "Helicobacter pylori" infection has been reported among people with intellectual disability, especially those residing in hospital and similar settings. Surveys of inpatients have found unusually high rates of gastrointestinal malignancy, to which "H. pylori" infection predisposes. Methods: "Helicobacter pylori"…

  11. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Chon Buri, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitipat, Nawapon; Siripermpool, Punnipa; Jadwattanakul, Tanate; Chaunthongkum, Sangdoun

    2005-03-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection varies between different geographic locations. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and to describe the association of H. pylori infection with demographic data, clinical diagnosis, and previous histories of patients. The study was carried out at the gastroenterology unit of Queen Sawang Wattana Memorial Hospital, Chon Buri, Thailand. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done by culture and rapid urease test on the gastric biopsy specimens of 112 patients. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection by the gastric biopsy-based method was 58%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients (75%) was significantly higher than in gastric ulcer (GU) patients (56.4%) and patients with gastritis (44.1%). A reverse correlation was observed between H. pylori infection and household income. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients who usually consumed unboiled water was 61.6%, which was significantly higher than in those who consumed boiled water (30.8%). We conclude that the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with GI symptoms is relatively high, and H. pylori infection is associated with DU disease. The data suggests that the household income and not boiling drinking water are related to the high H. pylori infection in our study.

  12. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant woman

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    Leila Ghasempour Shirazi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: There is no relationship between helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant woman. Considering the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in our country, there is a need for studies with more samples and more diagnostic methods.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Antigens Inducing Early Immune Response in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Hyun; Youn, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Eun A; Jun, Jin Su; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae Young; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Park, Jin Sik; Baik, Seung Chul; Lee, Woo Kon; Cho, Myung Je; Rhee, Kwang Ho

    2017-07-01

    To identify the Helicobacter pylori antigens operating during early infection in sera from infected infants using proteomics and immunoblot analysis. Two-dimensional (2D) large and small gel electrophoresis was performed using H. pylori strain 51. We performed 2D immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody immunoblotting using small gels on sera collected at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 4-11-month-old infants confirmed with H. pylori infection by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoblot spots appearing to represent early infection markers in infant sera were compared to those of the large 2D gel for H. pylori strain 51. Corresponding spots were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The peptide fingerprints obtained were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Eight infant patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection based on urease tests, histopathologic examinations, and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. One infant showed a 2D IgM immunoblot pattern that seemed to represent early infection. Immunoblot spots were compared with those from whole-cell extracts of H. pylori strain 51 and 18 spots were excised, digested in gel, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Of the 10 peptide fingerprints obtained, the H. pylori proteins flagellin A (FlaA), urease β subunit (UreB), pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), and translation elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) were identified and appeared to be active during the early infection periods. These results might aid identification of serological markers for the serodiagnosis of early H. pylori infection in infants. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the literature published pertaining to Helicobacter pylori eradication over the last year. The general perception among clinicians and academics engaged in research on H. pylori has been that eradication rates for first-line therapies are falling, although some data published this year have cast doubt on this. The studies published this year have therefore focussed on developing alternative strategies for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. In this regard, clear evidence now exists that both levofloxacin and bismuth are viable options for first-line therapy. The sequential and "concomitant" regimes have also been studied in new settings and may have a role in future algorithms also. In addition, data have emerged that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Other studies promote individualized therapies based on host polymorphisms, age, and other such demographic factors.

  15. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan

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    Daisuke Asaoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD, and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07–1.20, being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78–12.77, BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68–0.92, H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73–16.42, and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51–16.45 were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan.

  16. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Benjamin D; Gilger, Mark A.; Steven J Czinn

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test ...

  17. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkar, Zohreh; Jafarnejad, Majid; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary Artery Disease is known as the main cause of death in industrialized countries. Relation between this disease and some infections such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) has been shown in several studies. The purpose of this study was to dermine the relationship between Hypylori and mycardical infarctions. Methods: Seventy-three myocardial infarction patients and 78 individuals with no history of this disease were compared. Patients and control matched for age and sex person to person by the match method. Levels of serum IgA and IgG antibodies against H. pylori were measured by Elisa method. Also, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL measured in both groups and data were compared between two groups in terms of relation with cardiac risk factors. Results: From 151 participants, 73 were patients and 78 were control subjects. The percentage of IgG positive cases against H. pylori was 57.5% in the case group and 32.1% in the control group (p=0.002, OR: 2.87 CI: 95%; 1.5-5.6). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in IgA positive cases between the two groups (42.5% and 48.7% in the case and control groups, respectively) (p=0.44; OR: 0.78 95% CI; 0.41-1.48). The study showed 74.2% of cases in the case group and 45.2% in the control group were positive for both IgG and IgA (p=0.01; OR: 3.5 95% CI; 1.3-9.5). No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of relation between H. pylori related antibodies level and heart disease classic risk factors (smoking, hypertension,…), sex, and age, but between dyslipidemia and H. pylori related antibodies was significant differences in case group (p=0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, it seems there is a relation between H. pylori infection and myocardial infarction. Also, between dislipidemia and H. Pylori antibodies in case group were significant difference. Therefore, H. pylori can be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis or can be exacerbate effect of other risk factors

  18. Epstein Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori co-infection are positively associated with severe gastritis in pediatric patients.

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    María G Cárdenas-Mondragón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori infection is acquired during childhood and causes a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa, which is considered the main risk factor to acquire gastric cancer (GC later in life. More recently, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV have also been associated with GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory responses and its relationship with H. pylori infection remains poorly studied. Here, we assessed whether EBV infection in children correlated with the stage of gastritis and whether co-infection with H. pylori affected the severity of inflammation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 333 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain were studied. From them, gastric biopsies were taken and inflammation graded according to the Sydney system; peripheral blood was drawn and antibodies against EBV (IgG and IgM anti-VCA and H. pylori (IgG anti-whole bacteria and anti-CagA were measured in sera. We found that children infected only by EBV presented mild mononuclear (MN and none polymorphonuclear (PMN cell infiltration, while those infected by H. pylori presented moderate MN and mild PMN. In contrast, patients co-infected with both pathogens were significantly associated with severe gastritis. Importantly, co-infection of H. pylori CagA+/EBV+ had a stronger association with severe MN (PR 3.0 and PMN (PR 7.2 cells than cases with single H. pylori CagA+ infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Co-infection with EBV and H. pylori in pediatric patients is associated with severe gastritis. Even single infections with H. pylori CagA+ strains are associated with mild to moderate infiltration arguing for a cooperative effect of H. pylori and EBV in the gastric mucosa and revealing a critical role for EBV previously un-appreciated. This study points out the need to study both pathogens to understand the mechanism behind severe damage of the gastric mucosa, which could identified children with increased risk to present more serious

  19. Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on ghrelin levels in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Hui Deng; Bo Chu; Ya-Zhen Xu; Bin Zhang; Li-Rong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare ghrelin levels in plasma and gastric mucosa before and after Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)treatment in children with H.pylori-associated functional dyspepsia.METHODS:Children with H.pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were enrolled in this study.H.pylori infection was confirmed by positive bacterial culture results.All of the children received triple H.pylori eradication therapy (a 2 wk course of omeprazole,amoxicillin,and clarithromycin).The children were divided into two groups based on the success of the H.pylori treatment:group 1 (eradicated)-patients who had a negative 13C-urea breath test 2 mo after the end of therapy; and group 2 (non-eradicated)-patients who had a positive 13C-urea breath test.Plasma ghrelin,gastric ghrelin mRNA,and the body mass index were evaluated in both groups before and after the H.pylori treatment.The plasma ghrelin levels were measured by a radioimmunoassay.The expression of gastric gnrelin mRNA was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS:A total of 50 children with H.pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were treated with triple H.pylori eradication therapy.The mean age of the children was 5.52 ± 0.83 years,and there were 28 males and 22 females.Among the 50H.pylori-positive children,30 successfully achieved eradication,and 20 did not.The mean plasma ghrelin levels of group 1 were 22.17 ± 1.73 ng/L and 26.59 ± 2.05 ng/L before and after the treatment,respectively,which was a significant increase (P =0.001).However,the mean plasma ghrelin level of group 2 before and after the H.pylori treatment was 21.34 ± 2.40 ng/L and 22.24 ± 2.10ng/L (P =0.785).The plasma ghrelin levels increased substantially after treatment in group 1 but showed only minor changes in group 2.Similarly,the gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in group 1 before treatment was 2.84 ± 0.08.After treatment,the level was 3.11± 0.65,which was significantly different (P =0.023).The gastric ghrelin m

  20. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouras, J; Tsolaki, M; Gavalas, E; Boziki, M; Zavos, C; Karatzoglou, P; Chatzopoulos, D; Venizelos, I

    2006-03-28

    The authors investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-I) and Alzheimer disease (AD) by using histology for diagnosis of Hp-I. Fifty patients with AD and 30 iron deficiency anemic control participants without AD were included. The histologic prevalence of Hp-I was 88% in patients with AD and 46.7% in controls (p < 0.001).

  1. Rare Gastric Lesions Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Histopathological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Mee

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, some rare gastric lesions exhibiting distinctive histological features may also be associated with H. pylori infection, including lymphocytic gastritis, granulomatous gastritis, Russell body gastritis, or crystal-storing histiocytosis. Although diverse factors can contribute to their development, there is convincing evidence that H. pylori infection may play a pathogenic role. These findings are mainly based on studies in patients with these lesions who exhibited clinical and histological improvements after H. pylori eradication therapy. Thus, H. pylori eradication therapy might be indicated in patients with no other underlying disease, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. This review describes the characteristic histological features of these rare lesions and evaluates the evidence regarding a causative role for H. pylori infection in their pathogenesis.

  2. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aparna Singh; Nathaniel Hodgson; Ming Yan; Jungsoo Joo; Lei Gu; Hong Sang; Emmalena Gregory-Bryson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host.METHODS:In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes.We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector,pIVET8,which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors,pIVET11 and pIVET12.Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H.pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase.Additionally,each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene.We used a mouse macrophage cell line,RAW 264.7 and mice,as selective media to identify specific genes that H.pylori expresses in vivo.Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H.pylori.This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes.RESULTS:In this study,we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens.These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families,including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs.Virulence factors,vacA and cagA,were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H.pylori infection,colonization and pathogenesis.Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems.Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H.pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H.pylori RNA isolated from H.pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages.We compared the expression profile of H.pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H.pylori only

  3. Attitude to Helicobacter pylori infection among Swiss gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, J; Fantin, A C; Meyenberger, C

    1999-03-20

    To assess the current attitude to Helicobacter pylori infection in Switzerland, since a review of the literature reveals few publications dealing with application of therapeutic recommendations. The initial diagnostic methods, the indications for eradication therapy, the therapeutic regimen and its duration, together with eradication control, were indicated in questionnaires sent out to the members of the Swiss Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the beginning of 1997. Helicobacter pylori was diagnosed mainly with a rapid urease test and/or histology. Peptic ulcer disease (100%), mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (94.5%) and therapy-resistant dyspepsia (78.7%) were clear indications for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Only a minority eradicated Helicobacter pylori in all positive subjects. 7-day triple therapy (with proton pump inhibitors, a macrolide antibiotic and an imidazole derivative) is the preferred first line treatment. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in ulcer disease is established practice. Non-ulcer dyspepsia remains a controversial but often used indication. Two antibiotics together with proton pump inhibitors constitute the mostly widely used eradication therapy.

  4. Helicobacter Pylori Transmission and Risk Factors for Infection in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-08

    was able to experimentally infect na"ive cats with H. pylori. to culture H. pylori from feline salivary and gastric sections, and to find H. pylori DNA...in feline feces and dental plaque.217,218 Although peR cannot determine the viability of the H. pylori organism, these studies raised the possibility...Helicobacter pylori. Scand.J.GastroenteroLSuppl. 1995; 208:33-46:33-46. 16. Blaser MJ. Ecology of Helicobacter pylori in the human stomach. J.Clin.fnvest

  5. Unintended consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Dulciene MM; Rocha, Andreia MC; Crabtree, Jean E

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is predominantly acquired early in life. The prevalence of the infection in childhood is low in developed countries, whereas in developing countries most children are infected by 10 y of age. In poor resource settings, where malnutrition, parasitic/enteropathogen and H. pylori infection co-exist in young children, H. pylori might have potentially more diverse clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the impact of childhood H. pylori infection in developing countries that should now be the urgent focus of future research. The extra-gastric manifestations in early H. pylori infection in infants in poor resource settings might be a consequence of the infection associated initial hypochlorhydria. The potential role of H. pylori infection on iron deficiency, growth impairment, diarrheal disease, malabsorption and cognitive function is discussed in this review. PMID:23988829

  6. Approach to Helicobacter pylori infection in geriatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizginer, Sevdenur; Ordulu, Zehra; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-08-06

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and its complications increase with age. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic throughout the life but 10%-20% develops peptic ulcer disease and 1% gastric malignancies. The incidence of ulcers and their complications are more common in the older population resulting in higher hospitalization and mortality rates. The increased use of medications causing gastric mucosal damage and the decreased secretion of protective prostaglandins in elderly are major factors increasing gastric mucosal sensitivity to the destructive effects of H. pylori. Due to higher prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies, upper GI endoscopy is mostly preferred in elderly for the diagnosis of infection. Therefore, "endoscopy and treat" strategy may be more appropriate instead of "test and treat" strategy for dyspeptic patients in older age. Urea breath test and stool antigen test can be used for control of eradication, except for special cases requiring follow-up with endoscopy. The indications for treatment and suggested eradication regimens are similar with other age groups; however, the eradication failure may be a more significant problem due to high antibiotic resistance and low compliance rate in elderly. Multidrug usage and drug interactions should always be considered before starting the treatment. This paper reviews briefly the epidemiology, diagnosis, disease manifestations, and treatment options of H. pylori in the geriatric population.

  7. Approach to Helicobacter pylori infection in geriatric population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevdenur; Cizginer; Zehra; Ordulu; Abdurrahman; Kadayifci

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection and its complications increase with age. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic throughout the life but 10%-20% develops peptic ulcer disease and 1% gastric malignancies. The incidence of ulcers and their complications are more common in the older population resulting in higher hospitalization and mortality rates. The increased use of medications causing gastric mucosal damage and the decreased secretion of protective prostaglandins in elderly are major factors increasing gastric mucosal sensitivity to the destructive effects of H. pylori. Due to higher prevalence of gastrointestinal(GI) malignancies,upper GI endoscopy is mostly preferred in elderly for the diagnosis of infection. Therefore,"endoscopy and treat" strategy may be more appropriate instead of "test and treat" strategy for dyspeptic patients in older age. Urea breath test and stool antigen test can be used for control of eradication,except for special cases requiring follow-up with endoscopy. The indications for treatment and suggested eradication regimens are similar with other age groups; however,the eradication failure may be a more significant problem due to high antibiotic resistance and low compliance rate in elderly. Multidrug usage and drug interactions should always be consid-ered before starting the treatment. This paper reviews briefly the epidemiology,diagnosis,disease manifesta-tions,and treatment options of H. pylori in the geriatric population.

  8. Third-line rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rossella Cianci; Massimo Montalto; Franco Pandolfi; Giovan Battista Gasbarrini; Giovanni Cammarota

    2006-01-01

    H pylori gastric infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. The discovery that most upper gastrointestinal diseases are related to H pylori infection and therefore can be treated with antibiotics is an important medical advance. Currently, a first-line triple therapy based on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) plus two antibiotics (darithromycin and amoxicillin or nitroimidazole) is recommended by all consensus conferences and guidelines. Even with the correct use of this drug combination, infection can not be eradicated in up to 23% of patients. Therefore, several second line therapies have been recommended. A 7 d quadruple therapy based on PPI, bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole is the more frequently accepted. However, with second-line therapy, bacterial eradication may fail in up to 40% of cases. When H pylori eradication is strictly indicated the choice of further treatment is controversial. Currently, a standard third-line therapy is lacking and various protocols have been proposed. Even after two consecutive failures, the most recent literature data have demonstrated that H pylori eradication can be achieved in almost all patients, even when antibiotic susceptibility is not tested. Different possibilities of empirical treatment exist and the available third-line strategies are herein reviewed.

  9. Vascular risks and complications in diabetes mellitus: the role of helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa Ahmed; Amine, Nabila F; Galal, Ghada M; Helal, Shaaban R; Tag El-Din, Lubna M; Shawky, Ola A; Ahmed, Eman A; Abdel Rahman, Mohamed S

    2008-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at risk for Helicobacter pylori infection. This infection has been linked to atherosclerosis and its vascular complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the: (1) prevalence of H pylori infection in patients with DM; (2) association between diabetic vascular complications and H pylori infection; and (3) influence of H pylori infection on atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers. In this study, we evaluated 80 patients with DM for atherosclerosis; cardiac, cerebral, and peripheral vascular diseases; retinopathy; neuropathy; and nephropathy. We estimated the blood levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, complete blood cell count, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and anti-H pylori IgG antibodies. H pylori infection was detected in 85% of patients versus 76.7% for control subjects. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was significant in H pylori-infected patients. IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were significantly associated with H pylori infection. In multivariate analysis, blood glucose, triglycerides, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased the odds for atherothrombotic cause of cerebral ischemia in H pylori infection. We concluded that H pylori infection is common in DM and seems to be linked to the presence of atherosclerosis and ischemic cerebrovascular stroke. This effect could be mediated by increasing cytokine levels.

  10. Lack of commensal flora in H. pylori-infected INS-GAS mice reduces gastritis and delays intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Jennifer L.; Whary, Mark T.; Ge, Zhongming; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Taylor, Nancy S.; Mobley, Melissa; Potter, Amanda; Varro, Andrea; Eibach, Daniel; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Wang, Timothy C.; Fox, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Transgenic, insulin–gastrin (INS–GAS) mice have high circulating levels of gastrin. On a FVB/N background, these mice develop spontaneous atrophic gastritis and gastrointestinal intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) with 80% prevalence 6 months after Helicobacter pylori infection. GIN is associated with gastric atrophy and achlorhydria, predisposing mice to non-helicobacter microbiota overgrowth. We determined if germ-free INS–GAS mice spontaneously develop GIN and if H. pylori accelerates GIN in gnotobiotic INS–GAS mice. Methods We compared gastric lesions and levels of mRNA, serum inflammatory mediators, antibodies, and gastrin among germ-free and H. pylori-monoinfected INS-GAS mice. Microbiota composition of specific pathogen-free (SPF) INS-GAS mice was quantified by pyro-sequencing. Results Germ-free INS-GAS mice had mild hypergastrinemia but did not develop significant gastric lesions until they were 9 months old; they did not develop GIN through 13 months. H. pylori monoassociation caused progressive gastritis, epithelial defects, oxyntic gland atrophy, marked foveolar hyperplasia and dysplasia, and strong serum and tissue proinflammatory immune responses (particularly in male mice) between 5 and 11 months post infection (P<0.05, compared with germ-free controls). Only 2 of 26 female, whereas 8 of 18 male, H. pylori-infected INS-GAS mice developed low- to high-grade GIN by 11 months post infection. Stomachs of H. pylori-infected SPF male mice had significant reductions in Bacteroidetes and significant increases in Firmicutes. Conclusions Gastric lesions take 13 months longer to develop in germ-free INS–GAS mice than male SPF INS-GAS mice. H. pylori-monoassociation accelerated gastritis and GIN but caused less-severe gastric lesions and delayed onset of GIN compared to H. pylori-infected INS-GAS mice with complex gastric microbiota. Changes of gastric microbiota composition might promote GIN in the achlorhydric stomachs of SPF mice. PMID

  11. STUDY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of most cases of gastritis and peptic ulcer. The diagnosis of H. pylori is an essential element in the management of many common gastrointestinal pathologies. AIMS 1. Comparison of invasive and non-invasive tests to choose the appropriate test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. 2. Validation of the comparison of the different diagnostic tests. METHOD Blood and antral biopsy specimens from 100 acid peptic disease patients and blood samples from 10 control subjects were collected. Biopsies were used for Rapid Urease Test (RUT, culture and Gram’s stain by conventional method. Serology using Euroimmun Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG ELISA was done. The efficacy of these tests was determined by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy using culture as gold standard. RESULTS Of the 100 cases 14% were culture positive, 18% Gram stain positive, 36% Rapid urease test positive and 42% were positive for Serology IgG antibodies for H. pylori. Maximum percentage of positivity was in peptic ulcer cases (52.9% followed by Gastritis cases (23.6% and Dyspepsia cases (14.2%. Among the 100 cases of study group, 42(42% were positive by serological test IgG ELISA for H. pylori, whereas 3(30% were positive out of 10 in control group. RUT, IgG Serology showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value and Gram stain showed highest specificity (90.1%. CONCLUSION RUT+Gram’s stain+IgG Serology showed highest Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value and Accuracy. IgG Serology indicates a marker for infection. It can be used as a primary diagnostic procedure.

  12. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication therapy on interleukin-6 levels in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, A M; Demirturk, L; Aydogdu, A; Gultepe, M; Yazgan, Y; Imirzalioglu, N; Gurbuz, A K; Narin, Y

    2008-05-01

    It is being questioned if Helicobacter pylori infection, which causes a chronic inflammatory response, can increase the frequency and severity of attacks in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) and if the impact of inflammatory response can be diminished by eradication of the infection. To evaluate if there is difference in interleukin (IL)-6 levels of H. pylori-positive and -negative patients both before and during FMF attacks; if there is a change in IL-6 levels following successful eradication treatment; and if MEFV gene mutations have an effect on IL-6 levels. IL-6 levels were evaluated in 47 FMF patients before and during FMF attacks. Genetic testing to determine M694V, M694I, E148Q, V726V, M680I mutations was also performed in all patients. IL-6 levels were also determined after successful eradication of the infection in H. pylori-positive patients. IL-6 levels were compared in H. pylori-positive and -negative patients, and before and after eradication treatment in patients who cleared the infection. Number of patients in tested mutation groups was not enough to compare IL-6 levels in these groups. Thirty-four patients (73.9%) were H. pylori-positive. Before FMF attack there was no statistically significant difference in IL-6 levels of H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. IL-6 levels were significantly higher in both groups during the attacks than before the attacks (p FMF attacks, following eradication therapy in patients who cleared the infection (p FMF attacks were not significantly different in H. pylori-positive and -negative groups, despite a much lower level found in H. pylori-negative group (p > 0.05). Comparisons were not performed in other mutation groups because of small number of patients in each group. C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen levels were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05). We believe that the observation of IL-6 levels are lower both before and during FMF attacks both in H. pylori

  13. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...

  14. Helicobacter pylori as a zoonotic infection: the detection of H. pylori antigens in the milk and faeces of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Zandi, Ashkan; Rashidipour, Alireza

    2011-02-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may increase the risk of gastritis, peptic ulcers, and cancer, has increased worldwide. This number is estimated to be around 70-90% in developing countries and 25-50% in developed countries. It is possible that the bacterium can be transmitted via food and water as well as zoonotically and iatrogenically. Because of high prevalence of this infection in Iran, the aim of this study is to examine whether H. pylori infection might be transmitted from cow's milk and faeces. The existence of the H. pylori antibody and antigen was investigated in samples of serum, milk, and faeces from 92 lactating Holstein cows in Shahrekord, Iran. The H. pylori antigen and antibody were detected using ELISA and were confirmed by PCR. It was found that out of 92 serum specimens, 25 (27%) of the cows were positive for the H. pylori antibody and 67 specimens were negative. From these 25 seropositive cows, 10 (40%) faeces samples and four (16%) milk samples were antigen positive for H. pylori. Four of the antigen-positive milk specimens were also antigen positive for faeces. The existence of the UreC gene was also confirmed in positive samples of milk and faeces. There is a possibility that cow's milk is a transmission mode in H. pylori infection and faecal contamination and inappropriate management processes could transfer H. pylori to humans. The awareness of the H. pylori epidemiology and its method of distribution are necessary for public health measures and controlling the spread of this bacterium. Further investigation with a greater sample number is necessary to verify the ability of H. pylori transmission via milk consumption.

  15. The Possible Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan-Dan; He, Cong; Ai, Hong-Hui; Huang, Ying; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which colonizes the stomach can cause a wide array of gastric disorders, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Recently, accumulating evidence has implicated H. pylori infection in extragastrointestinal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases. At the same time, many scholars have noted the relationship between H. pylori infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Despite the positive association between H. pylori and NAFLD reported in some researches, there are opposite perspectives denying their relationship. Due to high prevalence, unclear etiology and difficult treatment of NAFLD, confirming the pathogenicity of H. pylori infection in NAFLD will undoubtedly provide insights for novel treatment strategies for NAFLD. This paper will review the relationship between H. pylori infection and NAFLD and the possible pathogenic mechanisms.

  16. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among children of low socioeconomic level in São Paulo

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    Aurea Cristina Portorreal Miranda

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mainly acquired during childhood, and is associated with significant morbidity in adults. The aim here was to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection among children of low socioeconomic level attended at a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, among patients attended at an outpatient clinic. METHODS: 326 children were evaluated (150 boys and 176 girls; mean age 6.82 ± 4.07 years in a cross-sectional study. Patients with chronic diseases or previous H. pylori treatment, and those whose participation was not permitted by the adult responsible for the child, were excluded. The adults answered a demographic questionnaire and blood samples were collected. The serological test used was Cobas Core II, a second-generation test. Titers > 5 U/ml were considered positive. RESULTS: H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 116 children (35.6%. Infected children were older than uninfected children (7.77 ± 4.08 years versus 5.59 ± 3.86 years; p < 0.0001. The seroprevalence increased from 20.8% among children aged two to four years, to 58.3% among those older than 12 years. There were no significant relationships between seropositivity and gender, color, breastfeeding, number of people in the home, number of rooms, bed sharing, living in a shantytown, maternal educational level, family income or nutritional status. In multivariate analysis, the only variable significantly associated with H. pylori seropositivity was age. CONCLUSION: Infection had intermediate prevalence in the study population, and age was associated with higher prevalence.

  17. A Helicobacter pylori Homolog of Eukaryotic Flotillin Is Involved in Cholesterol Accumulation, Epithelial Cell Responses and Host Colonization

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    Melanie L. Hutton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori acquires cholesterol from membrane raft domains in eukaryotic cells, commonly known as “lipid rafts.” Incorporation of this cholesterol into the H. pylori cell membrane allows the bacterium to avoid clearance by the host immune system and to resist the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. The presence of cholesterol in H. pylori bacteria suggested that this pathogen may have cholesterol-enriched domains within its membrane. Consistent with this suggestion, we identified a hypothetical H. pylori protein (HP0248 with homology to the flotillin proteins normally found in the cholesterol-enriched domains of eukaryotic cells. As shown for eukaryotic flotillin proteins, HP0248 was detected in detergent-resistant membrane fractions of H. pylori. Importantly, H. pylori HP0248 mutants contained lower levels of cholesterol than wild-type bacteria (P < 0.01. HP0248 mutant bacteria also exhibited defects in type IV secretion functions, as indicated by reduced IL-8 responses and CagA translocation in epithelial cells (P < 0.05, and were less able to establish a chronic infection in mice than wild-type bacteria (P < 0.05. Thus, we have identified an H. pylori flotillin protein and shown its importance for bacterial virulence. Taken together, the data demonstrate important roles for H. pylori flotillin in host-pathogen interactions. We propose that H. pylori flotillin may be required for the organization of virulence proteins into membrane raft-like structures in this pathogen.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis for H. pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Flores, Juan L; Fernandez-Rivero, Justo A; Marroquín-Fabian, Erika; Téllez-Ávila, Félix I; Sánchez-Jiménez, Beatriz A; Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Uribe, Misael; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C

    2017-01-01

    Background The term nodular is not included in the Sydney classification and there is no widely accepted histopathological definition. It has been proposed that the presence of antral nodularity could predict Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis (NG) for H. pylori infection after a rigorous standardization process, and to describe the associated histopathological characteristics. Materials and methods Endoscopic images of patients submitted to endoscopy with biopsy sampling were included. Endoscopic images were distributed among six endoscopists. The analysis was performed sequentially in three rounds: the first round assessed the interobserver variability, the second evaluated the intraobserver variability, and the third calculated the interobserver variability after training. A correlation analysis between endoscopic and histopathological findings was performed. Results A total of 917 studies were included. In the first analysis of interobserver variability, a poor kappa value (0.078) was obtained. The second evaluation yielded good intraobserver variability, with kappa values of 0.62–0.86. The evaluation of interobserver variability after training revealed an improvement in the kappa value of 0.42. A correlation was found between endoscopic images and histopathological reports. Conclusion There was a strong correlation between NG and H. pylori, but only after rigorous evaluation. The use of the term NG requires extensive standardization before it can be used clinically. PMID:28031716

  19. Helicobacter Pylori - Specific Antigen Tests in Saliva to Identify an Oral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajie; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Shumin; Yee, John Kc

    2017-05-01

    Over the past twenty years, the existence of oral Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been controversial and is still disputed. It proposes that living H. pylori do not exist in the oral cavity. However, the progressive loss of efficacy of standard eradication therapies has made the treatment of H. pylori more challenging than ever due to oral H. pylori infection. We conducted a study to explore the existence of oral H. pylori infection among 4321 adults. A total 4321 adults (age range, 20-89 years old) comprising 2849 men and 1472 women were recruited by annual physical exam and evaluated using the saliva H. pylori antigen test (HPS) to diagnose oral H. pylori infection and the urea breath test (UBT) to diagnose stomach H. pylori infection. According to the classification on age grouping of World Health Organization, patients were divided into three age groups: A group, the young age subgroup (pylori was 59.59% in the 95% confidence interval (CI) ranges on A group. The lowest positive rate of H. pylori in D group was 25.48% in the 95% confidence interval CI ranges. There was a statistically significant difference (ppylori infection of individuals who have no risk for H. pylori gastric infection. The positive rate of oral H. pylori was 59.59% and this varies across different age groups. This information was not provided by UBT methods. It further identified that the prevalence of oral H. pylori infection is lower in the elder group that may be associated with fewer number of teeth. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  20. -------------Gastric malignancy : Clinicopathologic spectrum and relationship to helicobacter pylori infection

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    Satti Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper gastrointestinal cancer particularly of stomach is a relatively frequent form of cancer. Gastric H pylori infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Gastric carcinoma has been addressed by many articles in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and the Middle East, while only a few addressed gastric lymphoma. Aim of the study: To investigate the relative frequency of gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma and their association with H pylori infection in endoscoped patients. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of patients endoscoped at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA during the period 1983-1999 was performed. Endoscopy and pathology records were retrieved and reviewed. The histopathology slides were re-examined, applying immunohistochemical techniques on corresponding paraffin sections to classify the various tumors. H pylori were identified on routine histology and by utilizing Giemsa stain. Results: During the study period of 17 years (1983-1999, a total of 94 endoscopically-diagnosed, histologically-confirmed cases of gastric malignancy were identified. Of these, there were 55 gastric adenocarcinoma and 39 gastric lymphoma. H pylori was identified in the adjacent gastric mucosa in 18 of all cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and in 27 of the 39 cases of lymphoma. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the comparatively high frequency of gastric lymphoma in this population and confirms the intimate association of H-pylori infection to both gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT-lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric malignancy and the use of immunohistochemistry is essential for the differential diagnosis of some of these tumors

  1. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  2. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

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    Karen J. Goodman

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  3. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gallstones: Epidemiological survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fen-Ming; Yu, Chao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Tan; Shen, Zhe; Hu, Feng-Ling; Yuan, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the prevalence and risk factors for gallstones, primarily focusing on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. METHODS: A total of 10016 Chinese subjects, who had undergone physical examination, fasting 13C urea breath test and abdominal ultrasonography, had sufficient blood test data, and had finished a questionnaire, were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants (n = 1122) who had previous eradication of H. pylori were studied separately. RESULTS: Gallstones were discovered in 9.10% of men and 8.58% of women, with no significant sex difference. Multivariate analyses displayed that age, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, H. pylori infection, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and fatty liver had a significant association with gallstones (P gallstones. After age stratification, H. pylori infection and fatty liver still had a significant positive association with gallstones in any age-specific groups, whereas HCV infection had a significant positive association in patients aged > 40 years. The prevalence of gallstones among H. pylori-positive, H. pylori-eradicated, and H. pylori-negative subjects was 9.47%, 9.02%, and 8.46%, respectively. The matched analysis showed that gallstones among H. pylori eradicated subjects was significantly lower compared with H. pylori-positive subjects (P gallstones. H. pylori eradication may lead to prevention of gallstones. PMID:26269681

  5. N-acetylcysteine prevents the development of gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sungil; Bak, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen, causing various gastric diseases ranging from gastritis to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been reported that combining N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with conventional antibiotic therapy increases the success rate of H. pylori eradication. We evaluated the effect of NAC itself on the growth and colonization of H. pylori, and development of gastritis, using in vitro liquid culture system and in vivo animal models. H. pylori growth was evaluated in broth culture containing NAC. The H. pylori load and histopathological scores of stomachs were measured in Mongolian gerbils infected with H. pylori strain 7.13, and fed with NAC-containing diet. In liquid culture, NAC inhibited H. pylori growth in a concentration-dependent manner. In the animal model, 3-day administration of NAC after 1 week from infection reduced the H. pylori load; 6-week administration of NAC after 1 week from infection prevented the development of gastritis and reduced H. pylori colonization. However, no reduction in the bacterial load or degree of gastritis was observed with a 6-week administration of NAC following 6-week infection period. Our results indicate that NAC may exert a beneficial effect on reduction of bacterial colonization, and prevents the development of severe inflammation, in people with initial asymptomatic or mild H. pylori infection.

  6. Gene expression profiling in gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori-infected and uninfected patients undergoing chronic superficial gastritis.

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    Ze-Min Yang

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection reprograms host gene expression and influences various cellular processes, which have been investigated by cDNA microarray using in vitro culture cells and in vivo gastric biopsies from patients of the Chronic Abdominal Complaint. To further explore the effects of H. pylori infection on host gene expression, we have collected the gastric antral mucosa samples from 6 untreated patients with gastroscopic and pathologic confirmation of chronic superficial gastritis. Among them three patients were infected by H. pylori and the other three patients were not. These samples were analyzed by a microarray chip which contains 14,112 cloned cDNAs, and microarray data were analyzed via BRB ArrayTools software and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA website. The results showed 34 genes of 38 differentially expressed genes regulated by H. pylori infection had been annotated. The annotated genes were involved in protein metabolism, inflammatory and immunological reaction, signal transduction, gene transcription, trace element metabolism, and so on. The 82% of these genes (28/34 were categorized in three molecular interaction networks involved in gene expression, cancer progress, antigen presentation and inflammatory response. The expression data of the array hybridization was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays. Taken together, these data indicated that H. pylori infection could alter cellular gene expression processes, escape host defense mechanism, increase inflammatory and immune responses, activate NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, disturb metal ion homeostasis, and induce carcinogenesis. All of these might help to explain H. pylori pathogenic mechanism and the gastroduodenal pathogenesis induced by H. pylori infection.

  7. Prevalence and dynamics of Helicobacter pylori infection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Torrres, Beatriz; Lucero, Yalda; Lagomarcino, Anne J; Orellana-Manzano, Andrea; George, Sergio; Torres, Juan P; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2017-06-23

    Long-term persistent Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with ulceropeptic disease and gastric cancer. Although H. pylori is predominantly acquired early in life, a clear understanding of infection dynamics during childhood has been obfuscated by the diversity of populations evaluated, study designs, and methods used. Update understanding of true prevalence of H. pylori infection during childhood, based on a critical analysis of the literature published in the past 5 years. Comprehensive review and meta-analysis of original studies published from 2011 to 2016. A MEDLINE(®) /PubMed(®) search on May 1, 2016, using the terms pylori and children, and subsequent exclusion, based on abstract review using predefined criteria, resulted in 261 citations. An Embase(®) search with the same criteria added an additional 8 citations. In healthy children, meta-analysis estimated an overall seroprevalence rate of 33% (95% CI: 27%-38%). Seven healthy cohort studies using noninvasive direct detection methods showed infection prevalence estimates ranging from 20% to 50% in children ≤5 and 38% to 79% in children >5 years. The probability of infection persistence after a first positive sample ranged from 49% to 95%. Model estimates of cross-sectional direct detection studies in asymptomatic children indicated a prevalence of 37% (95% CI: 30%-44%). Seroprevalence, but not direct detection rates increased with age; both decreased with increasing income. The model estimate based on cross-sectional studies in symptomatic children was 39% (95% CI: 35%-43%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection varied widely in the studies included here; nevertheless, model estimates by detection type were similar, suggesting that overall, one-third of children worldwide are or have been infected. The few cohort and longitudinal studies available show variability, but most studies, show infection rates over 30%. Rather surprisingly, overall infection prevalence in symptomatic

  8. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangda, Sonam; Richter, James M; Kuenzang, Pema; Wangchuk, Kinley; Choden, Tashi; Tenzin, Karma; Malaty, Hoda M

    2017-09-22

    Bhutan is a small mountainous country between Tibet and India with relatively homogenous population. According to the World Health Organization, gastric cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in Bhutan. This study examined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children in Bhutan with emphasis on water source and living conditions. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiologic study was conducted among schoolchildren who attended public schools in Thimphu, Bhutan. Between 2015 and 2016, blood samples from schoolchildren were collected after obtaining an informed consent from the school management and the children's parents. Demographic information, parents' education, family size living in the same household, and aspects of household environment including type of latrines, boiling drinking water were collected. All serum samples were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) by commercial ELISA kits. There were 327 children between 4 and 19 years of age participated, 44% boys, mean age = 13.6 ± 3 years. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 66% with no difference between boys and girls (66 vs 64%, respectively), P = .42. H. pylori prevalence was 75% among both 4-7 and 15-19 years and not statically different from that of the 8-10 or 11-14 age groups (59% and 63%, respectively), P = .1. H. pylori prevalence was inversely correlated with the level of mother's education (70% vs 55%) for those without and with a college education, respectively (OR = 2.3; 95%CI = 0.9-1.7), P = .08. The total number of people living in the same household did not correlate with H. pylori sero-prevalence, but households had less than 3 children had lower prevalence than those with 3 or more children (62% vs 71%, respectively OR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0-2.6], P = .05). H. pylori infection is prevalent among all age group children in Bhutan. The results suggest that transmission of H. pylori is related to personal care practices that directly correlate with

  9. Recent Advances in Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children: From the Petri Dish to the Playgound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Yuan Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired in childhood, plays a causative role in chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is associated with the development of gastric cancer. The present review focuses on recent advances in the scientific knowledge of H pylori infection in children, including clinical sequelae, diagnosis and treatment. In addition, recent insights regarding both bacterial and host factors that mediate human diseases associated with H pylori infection are discussed.

  10. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Iranian Adolescents: the CASPIAN- III Study

    OpenAIRE

    Enayatollah Kalantar; Mohammad Javad gharavi; Mojgan Oshaghi; Behnaz Gharegozlou; Sara Mohammadi; Ramin Heshmat; Shervin Ghaffari Hoseini; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Mostafa Qorbani; Roya Kelishadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a common bacterial infection, with considerably high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium represents a key factor in the etiology of various chronic infections ranging from gastritis, peptic ulcer disease to gastric cancer; but the prevalence has large variations in different communities. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence H. pylori infection in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents.Materials and ...

  11. Rapid urine antibody test for Helicobacter pylori infection in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masumi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Lin, Yingsong; Chaochen, Wang; Taniguchi, Yohei; Kato, Mototsugu; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric cancer; thus, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Given that H. pylori infection in adolescents or young adults has few symptoms, screening tests are necessary for this population. In this study, the accuracy of the rapid urine H. pylori antibody (u-HpAb) test was evaluated and compared with that of urine and serum H. pylori enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (u-HpELISA and s-HpELISA, respectively) in junior high school students. All 1,225 students attending the junior high schools in Sasayama City were invited to participate in this study. Urine and blood samples were assayed for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies, and rapid u-HpAb was performed by three investigators independently. When all investigators were in agreement, the test was confirmed as positive or negative. Non-concordance was defined as undetermined. In total, 187 students participated in this study and provided both urine and blood samples. Three students had undetermined rapid u-HpAb. Excluding these results, the positivity rate of rapid u-HpAb was 3.3% (6/184), whereas that for u-HpELISA and s-HpELISA was 4.8% (10/187) and 5.9% (11/187), respectively. Using s-HpELISA and u-HpELISA as the standards, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of rapid u-HpAb were 85.7%, 100%, 100%, and 99.4%, respectively, excluding the undetermined rapid u-HpAb results. Rapid urine-HpAb test had excellent specificity but relatively low sensitivity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Postoperative Helicobacter pylori Infection as a Prognostic Factor for Gastric Cancer Patients after Curative Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da Hyun; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Chung, Hyunsoo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the prognosis of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer (GC) after curative surgery. We investigated the association between the H. pylori infection status and clinical outcome after surgery. We assessed the H. pylori status of 314 patients who underwent curative resection for GC. The H. pylori status was examined using a rapid urease test 2 months after resection. Patients were followed for 10 years after surgery. An H. pylori infection was observed in 128 of 314 patients. The median follow-up period was 93.5 months. A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with H. pylori had a higher cumulative survival rate than those who were negative for H. pylori. Patients with stage II cancer who tested negative for H. pylori were associated with a poor outcome. In a multivariate analysis, H. pylori-negative status was a significant independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival. Having a negative H. pylori infection status seems to indicate poor prognosis for patients with GC who have undergone curative resection. Further prospective controlled studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism by which H. pylori affects GC patients after curative surgery in Korea.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Genetic Instability of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA in Gastric Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette;

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastric carcinoma. To investigate a possible link between bacterial infection and genetic instability of the host genome, we examined the effect of H. pylori infection on known cellular repair pathways in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, various types...... of genetic instabilities in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were examined. Experimental Design: We observed the effects of H pylori infection on a gastric cell line (AGS), on C57BL/6 mice, and on individuals with chronic gastritis. In AGS cells, the effect of H pylori infection on base excision...... cells and chronic gastritis tissue were determined by PCR, single-stranded conformation polymorphism, and sequencing. H pylori vacA and cagA genotyping was determined by multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization. Results: Following H pylori infection, the activity and expression of base excision repair...

  14. Alterations in metabolic pathways in stomach of mice infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Numerous studies of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been performed, but few studies have evaluated the effects of H. pylori infections using metabolome analysis, which involves the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites. In this study, the metabolites in the stomach tissue of mice that had been infected with H. pylori SS1 for 1, 3, or 6 months were analyzed, and then evaluations of various metabolic pathways were performed to gain novel understandings of H. pylori infections. As a result, it was found that the glycolytic pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the choline pathway tended to be upregulated at 1 month after the H. pylori SS1 infection. The urea cycle tended to be downregulated at 6 months after the infection. High levels of some amino acids were observed in the stomach tissue of the H. pylori SS1-infected mice at 1 month after the infection, whereas low levels of many amino acids were detected at 3 and 6 months after the infection. These results suggest that H. pylori infection causes various metabolic alterations at lesional sites, and these alterations might be linked to the crosstalk between H. pylori and the host leading to transition of disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental infection of Mongolian gerbils with wild-type and mutant Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, H P; Beins, M H; Yang, M; Tham, K T; Blaser, M J

    1998-10-01

    Experimental Helicobacter pylori infection was studied in Mongolian gerbils with fresh human isolates that carry or do not carry cagA (cagA-positive or cagA-negative, respectively), multiply passaged laboratory strains, wild-type strain G1.1, or isogenic ureA, cagA, or vacA mutants of G1.1. Animals were sacrificed 1 to 32 weeks after challenge, the stomach was removed from each animal for quantitative culture, urease test, and histologic testing, and blood was collected for antibody determinations. No colonization occurred after >/=20 in vitro passages of wild-type strain G1.1 or with the ureA mutant of G1.1. In contrast, infection occurred in animals challenged with wild-type G1.1 (99 of 101 animals) or the cagA (25 of 25) or vacA (25 of 29) mutant of G1.1. Infection with G1.1 persisted for at least 8 months. All 15 animals challenged with any of three fresh human cagA-positive isolates became infected, in contrast to only 6 (23%) of 26 animals challenged with one of four fresh human cagA-negative isolates (P < 0.001). Similar to infection in humans, H. pylori colonization of gerbils induced gastric inflammation and a systemic antibody response to H. pylori antigens. These data confirm the utility of gerbils as an animal model of H. pylori infection and indicate the importance of bacterial strain characteristics for successful infection.

  16. Evolution of Brunner gland hamartoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurella, Ravi R; Ancha, Hanumantha R; Hussain, Sanam; Lightfoot, Stan A; Harty, Richard

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. This case report describes the chronology of the development of Brunner gland hamartoma from Brunner gland hyperplasia over a 12-year interval. The study subject, a 64-year-old man with chronic iron deficiency anemia, underwent serial upper endoscopies during this period. Repeated endoscopies demonstrated the evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia, as manifest endoscopically by a submucosal mass, to a pedunculated polyp with histologic features of Brunner gland hamartoma. The duodenal polypoid mass was removed by snare polypectomy. The patient also had a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. This report details the time-dependent evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia to hamartoma in association with chronic gastric H. pylori infection.

  17. The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells

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    Aleksandra Djekic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available VacA is a pore-forming toxin that has long been known to induce vacuolization in gastric epithelial cells and to be linked to gastric disorders caused by H. pylori infection. Its role as a major colonization and persistence determinant of H. pylori is less well-understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various target cell types of VacA and its mechanism of action; specifically, we focus on the evidence showing that VacA targets myeloid cells and T-cells to directly and indirectly prevent H. pylori-specific T-cell responses and immune control of the infection. In particular, the ability of VacA-proficient H. pylori to skew T-cell responses towards regulatory T-cells and the effects of Tregs on H. pylori chronicity are highlighted. The by-stander effects of VacA-driven immunomodulation on extragastric diseases are discussed as well.

  18. cag Pathogenicity island-dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in infected patients with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghiani, Marzieh; Bagheri, Nader; Shahi, Heshmat; Reiisi, Somayeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Rashidi, Reza; Mahsa, Majid; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Salimi, Elaheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2017-07-12

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been involved in the pathogenesis of most important gastroduodenal diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a large family of zincendopeptidases which play important roles in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we examined MMP-7 mRNA levels in the gastric mucosa of patients with H. pylori infection and evaluated the effects of virulence factors, such as vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin-associated gene), in H. pylori-infected patients upon the MMP-7 mRNA mucosal levels. We also determined the correlation between mucosal MMP-7 mRNA levels and the types of disease. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 50 H. pylori-infected patients and 50 uninfected individuals. Mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and non-infected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presences of cagA and vacA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. MMP-7 expression was significantly higher in biopsies of patients infected with H .pylori compared to uninfected individuals. In addition, mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected patients significantly associated with the cagA status and the types of disease. Our results suggest that MMP-7 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori. Peptic ulcer was associated with cag pathogenicity island-dependent MMP-7 upregulation.

  19. Downregulated regulatory T cell function is associated with increased peptic ulcer in Helicobacter pylori-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Nader; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Elahi, Shokrollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Rashidii, Reza; Sarafnejad, Abdulfatah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Faridani, Rana; Tahmasbi, Kamran; Kheiri, Soleiman; Razavi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) chronically colonizes gastric/duodenal mucosa and induces gastroduodenal disease such as gastritis and peptic ulcer and induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. The objective of this study was to determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer and determined the relationship between main virulence factor of H. pylori and Tregs. A total of 89 patients with gastritis, 63 patients with peptic ulcer and 40 healthy, H. pylori-negative subjects were enrolled in this study. Expression of CD4 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, bacterial virulence factors and histopathological assessments. TGF-β1, IL-10 and FOXP3 expressions were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The numbers of CD4(+) and Foxp3(+) T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3, INF-γ and IL-17A in infected patients were significantly higher than the ones in uninfected patients. Also, the number of CD4(+) T cells was independent on the vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) and outer inflammatory protein A (oipA), but it was positively correlated with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA). Instead, the number of Foxp3(+) T cells was dependent on the vacA and oipA, but it was independent on cagA. The number of Foxp3(+) T cells and the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1 and FOXP3 in infected patients with gastritis were significantly higher than the ones in infected patients with peptic ulcer. Moreover, the number of CD4(+) T cells and the expression of IL-17A and INF-γ was the lowest in the gastritis patients, however, increased progressively in the peptic ulcer patients. Additionally, the numbers of CD4(+) and Foxp3(+) T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3 and INF-γ were

  20. Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Koletzko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive tests can be used for the initial diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and to monitor the success of eradication therapy. In populations with a low prevalence of H pylori infection (children living in North America and Europe, a high sensitivity is required to make the test valuable for clinical practice. The 13C-urea breath test has been validated in children of different age groups in a significant number of infected and noninfected children in several countries and, thus far, is the only noninvasive test that fulfills sensitivity and specificity quality standards. In studies to date, enzyme immunoassays using monoclonal antibodies to detect H pylori antigen in stool provide excellent results, but the number of children tested, particularly post-treatment, is not sufficient to recommend the test. All other noninvasive stool tests or methods based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum, whole blood, urine or saliva have limited accuracy in comparison with the 13C-urea breath test. Therefore, these tests cannot be recommended for clinical decision making in pediatric patients.

  1. Dietary Factors in Relation to Helicobacter pylori Infection

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    Seyyed Ali Mard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Helicobacter pylori (HP and diet are both risk factors for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary habits common in Khuzestan province. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011–2013 on 374 patients. Participants were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire and tissue sample of the antrum was sent for pathology lab. The histopathological major variables were graded on a scale of 3 (mild, moderate, and severe and data analyzed using nonparametric tests. Results. In this study, of 160 patients (43% that were determined, 8.1 percent had severe contamination. Among dietary patterns, relationship between energy intake and carbohydrate with H. pylori was significant. A direct association was found between mean daily intakes of sausage (P=0.001 and burgers (P<0.05 with HP infection. Low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits was the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. Conclusion. There is a possibility that some dietary factors such as consumption of fast foods and low intake of fresh vegetables may increase the chance of HP and severity of this infection.

  2. Relationship between H.Pylori infection and clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guo-Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aimed to assess the relationship between H.Pylori and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer by quantitative detection of H.Pylori. Methods 157 patients were enrolled, all patients had a record of clinicopathological parameters. Specimens including the tumor and non-neoplastic were detected for H.Pylori by Real-Time PCR and analyzed clinical data retrospectively. Variables independently affecting prognosis were investigated by means of multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results H.Pylori infection was greater in non-neoplastic tissue than the tumor tissue (p Conclusions H.Pylori infection status and its copies were related to N staging. The OS and RFS in patients with positive H.Pylori status has no significant difference from the patients with negative H.Pylori status.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection and extragastric disorders in children: A critical update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John F; Tromba, Valeria; Romaggioli, Sara; Bascetta, Stefano; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a highly prevalent, serious and chronic infection that has been associated causally with a diverse spectrum of extragastric disorders including iron deficiency anemia, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, growth retardation, and diabetes mellitus. The inverse relation of H. pylori prevalence and the increase in allergies, as reported from epidemiological studies, has stimulated research for elucidating potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Although H. pylori is most frequently acquired during childhood in both developed and developing countries, clinicians are less familiar with the pediatric literature in the field. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. A further clinical challenge is whether the progressive decrease of H. pylori in the last decades, abetted by modern clinical practices, may have other health consequences. PMID:24587617

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Hyperemesis Gravidarum: A Meta-Analysis

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    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown a possible involvement of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in individuals with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG, but the relationship remains controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to validate and strengthen the association between HG and H. pylori infection. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases up to March 20, 2014, were searched to select studies on the prevalence of H. pylori infection between pregnant women with HG and the normal pregnant control subjects. Results. Of the HG cases, 1289 (69.6% were H. pylori-positive; however, 1045 (46.2% were H. pylori-positive in control group. Compared to the non-HG normal pregnant controls, infection rate of H. pylori was significantly higher in pregnant women with HG (OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 2.32–4.81, P<0.001. Subgroup analysis indicated that H. pylori infection was a risk factor of HG in Asia, Africa, and Oceania, especially in Africa (OR = 12.38, 95% CI: 7.12–21.54, P<0.001. Conclusions. H. pylori should be considered one of the risk factors of HG, especially in the developing countries. H. pylori eradication could be considered to relieve the symptoms of HG in some intractable cases.

  5. Serum hepcidin levels in Helicobacter pylori-infected children with iron-deficiency anemia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F A; Esh, Asmaa M H

    2013-11-01

    Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin integrates signals from diverse physiological inputs, forming a key connection between iron trafficking and response to infection. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori infection modulates serum hepcidin level and response to oral iron therapy in children with iron-deficiency anemia. This was a case-control study including 60 children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA; 30 H. pylori infected and 30 H. pylori noninfected) and 30 healthy children with comparable age and gender as the control group. Iron parameters including serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and after 3 months of oral iron therapy for IDA. Compared to the control group, serum hepcidin was significantly lower in H. pylori-noninfected children with IDA (P iron therapy (P iron therapy (P > 0.05). Although hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb), iron, and transferrin saturation in noninfected children with IDA (P iron, and transferrin saturation in H. pylori-infected children with IDA (P iron therapy in children with iron-deficiency anemia.

  6. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with nodular antritis and follicular gastritis

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    Tomašević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is known to be the must common cause of chronic gastritis having some endoscopic and pathologic characteristies as determinated by the Sydney System for Gastritis Classification. The aim of our case report was to point out the relationship between an endoscopic finding of nodular antritis and the presence of H. pylori infection and active chronic gastritis. Case report. Our patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic complaints and was diagnosed as having nodular antritis, but also underwent urease test and hystopathologic examination of antral mucosa, to determine the presence and density of H. pylori infection and the presence and severity of gastritis. After a course of anti H. pylori treatment, dyspepsia improved and new biopsy specimens obtained two months and six months afterwards revealed no pathological findings. Conclusion. The case report supported the association of H. pylori infection of lymphoid follicles with nodular gastric mucosis.

  7. Gastric carcinoid in a patient infected with Helicobacter pylori : A new entity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pantelis Antonodimitrakis; Apostolos Tsolakis; Staffan Welin; Gordana Kozlovacki; Kjell (O)berg; Dan Granberg

    2011-01-01

    There are four types of gastric carcinoid tumors, classified according to their histology and malignant potential. Only a few cases of carcinoid tumors in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) have been reported so far. We report a patient infected with H. pylori presenting with a small solitary gastric carcinoid tumor with very low proliferative rate and normal gastrin levels. The tumor was endoscopically removed and the patient received an eradication therapy against H. pylori . No signs of metastatic disease have been found so far during more than 3 year of follow-up. Infection with H. pylori may cause chronic gastritis with normal or elevated gastrin levels, leading to the development of gastric carcinoids by mechanisms unrelated to gastrin. Enterochromaffin-like cell tumors related to a chronic H. pylori infection may be considered as a distinct type of gastric carcinoid tumors.

  8. Novel epidermal growth factor receptor pathway mediates release of human β-defensin 3 from Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Jibran S; Zaidi, Syed F; Zhou, Yue; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2016-04-01

    Persistent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in hostile gastric mucosa can result in gastric diseases. Helicobacter pylori induces to express antimicrobial peptides from gastric epithelial cells, especially human β-defensin 3 (hBD3), as an innate immune response, and this expression of hBD3 is mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of a serine residue of EGFR via transforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), and subsequent p38α activation is essential for H. pylori-induced hBD3 release from gastric epithelial cells. We showed that this pathway was dependent on H. pylori type IV secretion system and was independent of H. pylori-derived CagA or peptidoglycan. H. pylori infection induced phosphorylation of serine residue of EGFR, and this phosphorylation was followed by internalization of EGFR; consequently, hBD3 was released at an early phase of the infection. In the presence of TAK1 or p38α inhibitors, synthesis of hBD3 was completely inhibited. Similar results were observed in EGFR-, TAK1- or p38α-knockdown cells. However, NOD1 knockdown in gastric epithelial cells did not inhibit hBD3 induction. Our study has firstly demonstrated that this novel EGFR activating pathway functioned to induce hBD3 at an early phase of H. pylori infection.

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in advanced gastric carcinoma

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    Irami Araújo-Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUD: There is substantial evidence that infection with Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the development of gastric cancer and that it is rarely found in gastric biopsy of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. On advanced gastric tumors, the bacteria can be lost from the stomach. AIMS: To analyze the hypothesis that the prevalence of H.pylori in operated advanced gastric carcinomas and adjacent non-tumor tissues is high, comparing intestinal and diffuse tumors according to Lauren's classification METHODS: A prospective controlled study enrolled 56 patients from "Hospital Universitário", Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, with advanced gastric cancer, treated from February 2000 to March 2003. Immediately after partial gastrectomy, the resected stomach was opened and several mucosal biopsy samples were taken from the gastric tumor and from the adjacent mucosa within 4 cm distance from the tumor margin. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lauren's classification for gastric cancer was used, to analyse the prevalence of H. pylori in intestinal or diffuse carcinomas assessed by the urease rapid test, IgG by ELISA and Giemsa staining. H. pylori infected patients were treated with omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for 7 days. Follow-up endoscopy and serology were performed 6 months after treatment to determine successful eradication of H. pylori in non-tumor tissue. Thereafter, follow-up endoscopies were scheduled annually. Chi-square and MacNemar tests with 0.05 significance were used. RESULTS: Thirty-four tumors (60.7% were intestinal-type and 22 (39.3% diffuse type carcinomas. In adjacent non-tumor gastric mucosa, chronic gastritis were found in 53 cases (94.6% and atrophic mucosa in 36 patients (64.3%. All the patients with atrophic mucosa were H. pylori positive. When examined by Giemsa and urease test, H. pylori positive rate in tumor tissue of intestinal type carcinomas was

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection: effect on malnutrition and growth failure in dyspeptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Ozlem Bekem; Ozturk, Yesim

    2008-05-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with growth failure. We evaluated the role of H. pylori infection on malnutrition and growth failure in dyspeptic children. The study cases included 108 dyspeptic children and were evaluated by endoscopic gastric biopsy, while 50 healthy children constituted the control group. The study cases were grouped as H. pylori [+] (n = 57) and H. pylori [-] (n = 51) by the presence or absence of microorganism in gastric tissue, respectively. Age, gender, height for age (H/A), weight for height (W/H), body mass index (BMI), weight and height z scores and the daily calorie intake of the children were recorded. Malnutrition and growth failure were evaluated by the Waterlow criteria and height z score, respectively. Then, the H. pylori [+], H. pylori [-] and control groups were compared in relation to the variables defined above. All groups were similar with respect to gender and age. The daily calorie intake was lower in dyspeptic children. Although anthropometric variables were similar in the H. pylori [+] and [-] groups, the control cases had higher W/H compared to both H. pylori [+] (p = 0.030) and H. pylori [-] (p = 0.000) cases, and higher BMI (p = 0.001) and weight z scores (p = 0.014) than those in the H. pylori [-] group. The malnutrition rate was similar in the H. pylori [+] and [-] groups. However, mild acute (p = 0.033) and general malnutrition rates (p = 0.000) were lower in the control cases compared to the study cases. The short stature rate was not different significantly in all three groups. In conclusion, the results of this study do not support the data that H. pylori infection plays an extra role in malnutrition and growth failure in children presenting with dyspeptic complaints. However, as a major cause of dyspepsia, H. pylori infection might be considered to cause malnutrition secondary to decreased calorie intake associated with dyspepsia.

  11. Curcumin suppresses gastric NF-κB activation and macromolecular leakage in Helicobacter pylori-infected rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kawiya; Sintara; Duangporn; Thong-Ngam; Suthiluk; Patumraj; Naruemon; Klaikeaw; Tanittha; Chatsuwan

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether curcumin could attenuate nuclear factor(NF)-κB p65 expression and macromolecular leakage in the gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)-infected rats.METHODS:Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into five groups:control rats(Control),control rats supplemented with 600 mg/kg curcumin,H.pylori-infected rats(Hp),H.pylori-infected rats supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin(Hp + curIn H.pylori-infected groups,rats were inoculated with H.pylori suspension twi...

  12. Antiadhesion and anti-inflammation effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts on AGS cells during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Ko, Chien-Hui; Yan, Yeong-Yu; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2014-03-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that adheres to host cells and injects cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is found to possess antibacteria, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation activities, but its effect on H. pylori infection is still unknown. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of noni fruit were used in this study. The inhibitory effect on CagA and H. pylori-induced IL-8, iNOS, and COX-2 were determined. The coculture medium was collected for measuring neutrophil chemotaxis. Both extracts of noni fruit showed weak inhibition on H. pylori. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts provided antiadhesion of H. pylori to AGS cells and down-regulation on the CagA, IL-8, COX-2, and iNOS expressions. Results also indicated both extracts relieved neutrophil chemotaxis. Noni fruit extracts down-regulated inflammatory responses during H. pylori infection, and the phenolic compounds play key role in antiadhesion.

  13. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Malaysian Parkinson's disease patients

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    Nafisah WY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available WY Nafisah,1 A Hamdi Najman,1 R Hamizah,1 S Azmin,1 R Rabani,1 SA Shah,2 MI Norlinah11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Community Health, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: Studies have reported a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in Parkinson's disease.Objectives: To determine the frequency of H. pylori in patients with Parkinson's disease compared to controls and its effect on symptom severity and quality of life.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study involving 29 Parkinson's disease patients and 23 controls. The 13C-urea breath test was used to diagnose H. pylori. Symptom severity and quality of life were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39, respectively.Results: The frequency of H. pylori infection was 48.3% in the Parkinson's disease group and 21.7% in controls (P=0.048. This became more significant (P=0.012 when we excluded relatives of H. pylori-positive patients from the control group. There was no association between Hoehn and Yahr stages, UPDRS and PDQ-39 scores, and H. pylori.Conclusion: H. pylori infection is more prevalent in the Malaysian Parkinson's disease population compared to controls (48.3% versus 21.7%. However, symptom severity and quality of life was not related to H. pylori infection.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Helicobacter pylori, prevalence, 13C-urea breath test

  14. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2) is upregulated in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; Laerum, Ole Didrik; Illemann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    characterized here the pattern of expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in gastric mucosa (45 non-neoplastic and 38 neoplastic tissue samples) and explored the connection between NGAL/Lcn2 expression and H. pylori infection. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high NGAL/Lcn2 expression in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa...... compared to low expression in intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. In normal and gastritis-affected mucosa (n=36 tissue samples), NGAL/Lcn2 was more frequently seen in epithelial cells located at the neck and base of the glands in H. pylori-positive cases than in similar epithelial cells...... of noninfected cases (Fisher's exact test, p=0.04). In conclusion, the high expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa infected with H. pylori suggests that NGAL/Lcn2 is upregulated locally in response to this bacterial infection. It is discussed whether this may have a causal relation...

  15. Gene expression profiling in human gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Véronique J; Moreilhon, Chimène; Brest, Patrick D; Lassalle, Sandra; Le Brigand, Kevin; Sicard, Dominique; Raymond, Josette; Lamarque, Dominique; Hébuterne, Xavier A; Mari, Bernard; Barbry, Pascal Jp; Hofman, Paul M

    2007-09-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms associated with Helicobacter pylori infection enhance susceptibility of the gastric epithelium to carcinogenic conversion. We have characterized the gene expression profiles of gastric biopsies from 69 French Caucasian patients, of which 43 (62%) were infected with H. pylori. The bacterium was detected in 27 of the 42 antral biopsies examined and in 16 of the 27 fundic biopsies. Infected biopsies were selected for the presence of chronic active gastritis, in absence of metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa. Infected antral and fundic biopsies exhibited distinct transcriptional responses. Altered responses were linked with: (1) the extent of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, (2) bacterial density, and (3) the presence of the virulence factors vacA, babA2, and cagA. Robust modulation of transcripts associated with Toll-like receptors, signal transduction, the immune response, apoptosis, and the cell cycle was consistent with expected responses to Gram-negative bacterial infection. Altered expression of interferon-regulated genes (IFITM1, IRF4, STAT6), indicative of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-mediated and Th1-specific responses, as well as altered expression of GATA6, have previously been described in precancerous states. Upregulation of genes abundantly expressed in cancer tissues (UBD, CXCL13, LY96, MAPK8, MMP7, RANKL, CCL18) or in stem cells (IFITM1 and WFDC2) may reveal a molecular switch towards a premalignant state in infected tissues. Tissue microarray analysis of a large number of biopsies, which were either positive or negative for the cag-A virulence factor, when compared to each other and to noninfected controls, confirmed observed gene alterations at the protein level, for eight key transcripts. This study provides 'proof-of-principle' data for identifying molecular mechanisms driving H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis before morphological evidence of changes along the neoplastic progression pathway.

  16. How labile is gastric infection with H pylori?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Hobsley; FI Tovey; J Holton

    2007-01-01

    It is known that patients infected with H pylori can spontaneously become free from infection, and that the reverse change can occur. The time-scale of these conversions is expressed as percentages per year. Since they have been investigated in terms of serology, the changes are called sero-reversion and sero-conversion respectively. Using serological evidence to investigate these phenomena is open to the criticisms that positive serology can be present in the absence of all other evidence of infection, and that a time-lag of 6-12 mo or longer can occur between eradication of the infection and sero-reversion. Investigations using direct evidence of current infection are sparse. The few that exist suggest that some individuals can seroconvert or serorevert within six to twelve weeks. If these findings are confirmed, it means that some patients have an ability that is variable in time to resist, or spontaneously recover from, H pylori infection. Evidence suggests that the deciding factor of susceptibility is the level of gastric secretion of acid.

  17. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on outcomes in resected gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Ozbek, Umut; Harpaz, Noam; Holcombe, Randall F; Ang, Celina

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is a known risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) and has been linked with gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Studies examining the relationship between H. pylori infection, GC characteristics and prognosis are limited and have yielded conflicting results. We report on the clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of gastric and GEJ cancer patients with and without a history of H. pylori treated at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients over the age of 18 years who underwent curative resection for GEJ and GC at Mount Sinai Hospital between 2007 and 2012 who had histopathologic documentation of the presence or absence of H pylori infection. Demographic, clinical, pathologic, treatment characteristics and outcomes including recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared. Ninety-five patients were identified. The majority of patients were male (61%), white (36%) or Asian (34%), with median age at diagnosis 64. Tumors were stage I (51%), stage II (23%), stage III (25%), and stage IV (1%). H pylori infection status was documented at the time of cancer diagnosis in 89 (94%) patients, and following cancer diagnosis and treatment in 6 (6%) patients. Younger age at diagnosis, Asian race and Lauren histologic classification were associated with H Pylori infection. H pylori positive patients exhibited higher 5-year OS and 5-year RFS compared to H pylori negative patients, though the difference was not statistically significant in either univariate or multivariate analyses. In this retrospective series of predominantly early stage GC and GEJ cancers, H. pylori positive patients were significantly younger at cancer diagnosis and were more frequently Asian compared to H. pylori negative patients. Other demographic and histologic classifications except for Lauren histologic classification were similar between the two groups. H pylori positive patients appeared

  18. Multiplex-PCR-Based Screening and Computational Modeling of Virulence Factors and T-Cell Mediated Immunity in Helicobacter pylori Infections for Accurate Clinical Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Oktem-Okullu

    Full Text Available The outcome of H. pylori infection is closely related with bacteria's virulence factors and host immune response. The association between T cells and H. pylori infection has been identified, but the effects of the nine major H. pylori specific virulence factors; cagA, vacA, oipA, babA, hpaA, napA, dupA, ureA, ureB on T cell response in H. pylori infected patients have not been fully elucidated. We developed a multiplex- PCR assay to detect nine H. pylori virulence genes with in a three PCR reactions. Also, the expression levels of Th1, Th17 and Treg cell specific cytokines and transcription factors were detected by using qRT-PCR assays. Furthermore, a novel expert derived model is developed to identify set of factors and rules that can distinguish the ulcer patients from gastritis patients. Within all virulence factors that we tested, we identified a correlation between the presence of napA virulence gene and ulcer disease as a first data. Additionally, a positive correlation between the H. pylori dupA virulence factor and IFN-γ, and H. pylori babA virulence factor and IL-17 was detected in gastritis and ulcer patients respectively. By using computer-based models, clinical outcomes of a patients infected with H. pylori can be predicted by screening the patient's H. pylori vacA m1/m2, ureA and cagA status and IFN-γ (Th1, IL-17 (Th17, and FOXP3 (Treg expression levels. Herein, we report, for the first time, the relationship between H. pylori virulence factors and host immune responses for diagnostic prediction of gastric diseases using computer-based models.

  19. Multiplex-PCR-Based Screening and Computational Modeling of Virulence Factors and T-Cell Mediated Immunity in Helicobacter pylori Infections for Accurate Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem-Okullu, Sinem; Tiftikci, Arzu; Saruc, Murat; Cicek, Bahattin; Vardareli, Eser; Tozun, Nurdan; Kocagoz, Tanil; Sezerman, Ugur; Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Sayi-Yazgan, Ayca

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of H. pylori infection is closely related with bacteria's virulence factors and host immune response. The association between T cells and H. pylori infection has been identified, but the effects of the nine major H. pylori specific virulence factors; cagA, vacA, oipA, babA, hpaA, napA, dupA, ureA, ureB on T cell response in H. pylori infected patients have not been fully elucidated. We developed a multiplex- PCR assay to detect nine H. pylori virulence genes with in a three PCR reactions. Also, the expression levels of Th1, Th17 and Treg cell specific cytokines and transcription factors were detected by using qRT-PCR assays. Furthermore, a novel expert derived model is developed to identify set of factors and rules that can distinguish the ulcer patients from gastritis patients. Within all virulence factors that we tested, we identified a correlation between the presence of napA virulence gene and ulcer disease as a first data. Additionally, a positive correlation between the H. pylori dupA virulence factor and IFN-γ, and H. pylori babA virulence factor and IL-17 was detected in gastritis and ulcer patients respectively. By using computer-based models, clinical outcomes of a patients infected with H. pylori can be predicted by screening the patient's H. pylori vacA m1/m2, ureA and cagA status and IFN-γ (Th1), IL-17 (Th17), and FOXP3 (Treg) expression levels. Herein, we report, for the first time, the relationship between H. pylori virulence factors and host immune responses for diagnostic prediction of gastric diseases using computer—based models. PMID:26287606

  20. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II contributes to inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase complex activation in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubach, Gunter; Sokolova, Olga; Wolfien, Markus; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Naumann, Michael

    2013-09-15

    Helicobacter pylori, a class I carcinogen, induces a proinflammatory response by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in gastric epithelial cells. This inflammatory condition could lead to chronic gastritis, which is epidemiologically and biologically linked to the development of gastric cancer. So far, there exists no clear knowledge on how H. pylori induces the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. In our study, we investigated the role of Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII), calmodulin, protein kinases C (PKCs) and the CARMA3-Bcl10-MALT1 (CBM) complex in conjunction with H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB via the inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase (IKK) complex. We use specific inhibitors and/or RNA interference to assess the contribution of these components. Our results show that CAMKII and calmodulin contribute to IKK complex activation and thus to the induction of NF-κB in response to H. pylori infection, but not in response to TNF-α. Thus, our findings are specific for H. pylori infected cells. Neither the PKCs α, δ, θ, nor the CBM complex itself is involved in the activation of NF-κB by H. pylori. The contribution of CAMKII and calmodulin, but not PKCs/CBM to the induction of an inflammatory response by H. pylori infection augment the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved and provide potential new disease markers for the diagnosis of gastric inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer.

  1. Expression of differential nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠振兴; 龚燕芳; 丁华; 许国铭; 李兆申; 满晓华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in human gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection. Methods: Gastric mucosa samples were obtained from antrum of 33 patients received gastroendoscopy. H.pylori infection was confirmed by Giems staining and bacteria culture under microaerophilic conditions. Expression of iNOS, eNOS and nitrotyrosine were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: (1) The positive rate of H. pylori infection was 66.7%(22/33). (2) iNOS positive staining in inflammatory cells was detected in 77.3%(17/22) of samples with H.pylori and 27.3%(3/11) without H.pylori infection (P0.05). (5) Moderate and severe infiltrations of inflammatory cells were found in 86.4%(19/22) of gastric biopsies with H. pylori and 9.1%(1/11) of samples without H. pylori infection (P<0.01). Conclusion: H.pylori infection might promote infiltration of mononuclear cells and macrophages in gastric mucosa and induce iNOS expression in these cells. The accumulated nitric oxide in local area may result in gastric mucosa damage.

  2. Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Chronic Urticaria: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some studies have shown the possible involvement of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in chronic urticaria, but the relationship remains controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively assess the association between H. pylori infection and chronic urticaria. Methods. Observational studies comparing the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria and control subjects were identified through a systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to July 2014. H. pylori infection was confirmed by serological or nonserological tests. For subgroup analyses, studies were separated by region, publication year, and H. pylori detection method to screen the potential factors resulting in heterogeneity. Results. 16 studies involving 965 CU cases and 1235 controls were included. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in urticarial patients than in controls (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.12–2.45; P=0.01. This result persisted in subanalysis of nine high-quality studies (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03–1.80; P=0.03. Subgroup analysis showed that detection method of H. pylori is also a potential influential factor for the overall results. Conclusions. Our present meta-analysis suggests that H. pylori infection is significantly, though weakly, associated with an increased risk of chronic urticaria.

  3. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  4. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population.

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    Zhe Shen

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with extragastric diseases. The thyroid may be one of the targets of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to investigate whether H. pylori infections were associated with the presence of thyroid nodules. A total of 988 euthyroid subjects from China were included in this cross-sectional study. Four hundred thirty-five (44.0% subjects were diagnosed as having thyroid nodules, and 486 (49.2% were diagnosed with H. pylori infections. The thyroid nodules group had a higher proportion of H. pylori infections than the control group (P = 0.002. Free thyroxine (FT4 levels were lower and the prevalence of thyroid nodules was higher in patients with H. pylori infection compared to those without infection, even after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI; all P < 0.05. The prevalence of H. pylori infection showed a decreasing trend as serum FT4 level increased (P(trend = 0.020. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of thyroid nodules (odds ratio: 1.390, 95% confidence interval: 1.059-1.824, P = 0.018. Our results suggested that H. pylori infections were positively associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population, whose thyroid functions were in the reference range.

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection induces genetic instability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette

    2009-01-01

    of genetic instabilities in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were examined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We observed the effects of H. pylori infection on a gastric cell line (AGS), on C57BL/6 mice, and on individuals with chronic gastritis. In AGS cells, the effect of H. pylori infection on base excision...... cells and chronic gastritis tissue were determined by PCR, single-stranded conformation polymorphism, and sequencing. H. pylori vacA and cagA genotyping was determined by multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization. RESULTS: Following H. pylori infection, the activity and expression of base excision repair...... and MMR are down-regulated both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, H. pylori induces genomic instability in nuclear CA repeats in mice and in mtDNA of AGS cells and chronic gastritis tissue, and this effect in mtDNA is associated with bacterial virulence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that H. pylori...

  7. IgG immune responses to different proteins of Helicobacter Pylori as defined by immunoblot assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeiszadeh M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori is an etiologic factor for chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. Serological testing of H.pylori infection is common in Iran, as other parts of the world. There are geographical variations in the humoral immune response to various H. pylori strains in different parts of the worl. We studied the immunogenic proteins of H.pylori by means of an Immunoblot assay with antigens of H.pylori strains isolated in Iran. Sera of 64 patients suffering from dyspepsia were analyzed to determine antibodlies which were good marker of infection and the antibody patterns associated with peptic ulcer.54 out of 64 dyspeptic patients were infected by H. pylori based on positive culture or positive results of both rapid urease test and direct examination. 14 out of fity-four had peptic ulcers and the rest were catagoriied as patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Some of them had multiple erosions in the gut or deodenum. Tweny –two major bands were identified by immunoblot. Of these, IgG antibodies against 10 protients, and they produced immunoreative bands at 14, 16, 22, 26, 32 , 32, 44, 87, 92, 120 Kda. Antibody patterns were not identical in the patients. The presence of at least one band at 14, 16, 22, 26, 32, 35Kda was the best marker of infection(sensitivity, 90% and specificity, 80% Major serological cross reactions were found at moderate molecular weight bands (50, 52, 54, 60, 66 KDa. The presence of at least one band at 14, 16, 22, 26, 32, 35Kda was the best marker of infection (sensitivity, 90% and specificity, 80%. Major serological crossreactions were found at moderate molerate molecular weight bands (50, 52, 54, 60, 66 KDa. The presence of antibodies to 120 Kda protein (Cag A and 87 Kda Protein (Vac A were not associated with the presence of peptic ulcers. These were in contradiction to results obtained across Europe and U.S but in agreement with Asian studies. However the presence of at least one band at either 32 or 35 Kda was

  8. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    It is accepted that the success of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment using standard triple therapy is declining. Resistance, particularly to clarithromycin, has been shown in numerous countries to be rising to a level where the use of standard triple therapy in its current form may no longer be justified. The two major factors influencing resistance are prior exposure to the antibiotic and compliance with therapy. Regimes based on bismuth and levofloxacin, which had previously been mainly second-line options, are now emerging as superior first-line options. Trials of sequential and concomitant therapies are also showing the usefulness of these treatments in different populations. Options for third and subsequent line therapies include furazolidone and rifabutin-based regimes. Susceptibility testing should be performed to maintain accurate data on resistance levels, and has also clinical utility in difficult to eradicate cases. None of these, however, will be successful unless compliance is improved upon. If compliance is assured and eradication confirmation pursued, it has been repeatedly illustrated that near full eradication is achievable.

  9. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    This review summarizes important studies regarding Helicobacter pylori therapy published from April 2012 up to March 2013. To begin with, the updated European Consensus Guidelines were published last year, highlighting the role of bismuth and nonbismuth quadruple regimen as first-line treatments. Cure rates for standard triple therapy remain acceptable in quite a few settings nowadays, and some reports on innovative triple therapies look promising. One study evaluating bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line therapy was reported. Regarding nonbismuth quadruple regimens, there is a trend of superiority emerging for the "concomitant" therapy over the "sequential" regimen. "Hybrid" therapy, a combination of sequential and concomitant therapy, has also shown advantage over sequential therapy. Levofloxacin-based therapies appear to be useful and versatile in second- and third-line therapies, with interesting results for newer generation quinolones, which may partially overcome antibiotic resistance. Some promising works have been reported for bismuth-based rescue therapy, using individualized therapies upon antimicrobial information, as well as for rifabutin fourth-line therapy. Probiotics appear to have an effect in terms of reducing side effects and improving compliance, but data on improvement of eradication rates remain controversial.

  10. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...... and cytokines which may improve knowledge concerning the outcome of gastric diseases caused by H. pylori. Antral biopsies from 42 dyspeptic patients including 27 H. pylori-positive and 15 H. pylori-negative patients were tested for apoptotic activity by the TUNEL assay, and immuno-histochemically for p53...... and the proliferative marker Ki-67. H. pylori infection, bacteria load and inflammatory activity were associated with increased cell turnover as judged by enhanced activities of TUNEL, p53 and Ki-67. Only p53 was significantly correlated to IFN-gamma, IL-8 and IL-10. The H. pylori-positive state was furthermore...

  11. Heterogeneity of Helicobacter pylori cag genotypes in experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, M; Crosatti, M; Kim, S K; Romero, J; Blaser, M J

    2001-09-11

    Our aim was to assess whether the Helicobacter pylori population recovered from experimentally infected mice show heterogeneity in cag genotypes. Wild-type FVB/N mice were challenged with strain Hp1 and sacrificed 8 weeks later. Direct PCR on gastric tissue was performed using primers for glmM and cagA, and for these two genes and for cagE and virB11 using DNA from the infecting and the emerging strains. The gastric tissues of two of five mice were PCR+ for glmM but not cagA. For the infecting strain, the PCRs for all four genes studied were strongly positive, but the sweeps from the emerging strains from both mice gave weaker signals for cagA and cagE. Examination of single colonies showed reduced or absent signals for cagA and cagE in relation to glmM and virB11. Serial dilution PCR of sweep isolates from the mice showed a 10- to 100-fold decrease in cagA signal compared to the infecting strain. The decrease of cagA and cagE, but not virB11, amplification and lack of cagA hybridization in Southern blots indicates a selective loss of the right half of the cag island during murine infection. This phenomenon is consistent with host-induced adaptive changes of cag genotype in the population of colonizing H. pylori cells.

  12. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori does not provoke major systemic inflammation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Fröhlich, M

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), in particular infection with virulent strains producing the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by generation of a persistent low-grade inflammatory stimulus. We...

  13. Treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of Parkinson's disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H H; Qiu, J; Friis, S

    2012-01-01

    It has been speculated that gastrointestinal infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP) contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used nationwide Danish registers to investigate this hypothesis.......It has been speculated that gastrointestinal infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP) contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used nationwide Danish registers to investigate this hypothesis....

  14. A review of current guidelines for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Nicola L.

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired in childhood and plays a causative role in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and the development of gastric cancer. The present review focuses on recent advances in the management of H pylori infection in children and provides an update of current Canadian guidelines regarding clinical sequelae, diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Symptoms of Gastroenteritis Due to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Alicia Hsin-Ming; Haggerty, Thomas Dean; de Martel, Catherine; Leung, Cynthia Wai-Mun; Parsonnet, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause hypochlorhydria in some hosts and predispose to diarrheal infections. We tested the hypothesis that chronic H. pylori infection increases the risk of diarrheal illness due to an acid-sensitive organism: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). After testing healthy adu

  16. Human Gastric Mucosal Hydrophobicity Does dot Decrease with Helicobacter Pylori Infection or Chronological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S Al-Marhoon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infection with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe gastric diseases. Previous studies in humans have reported a decreased gastric hydrophobicity with H pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between the effect of cagA+ and cagA- strains on gastric mucus hydrophobicity.

  17. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Symptoms of Gastroenteritis Due to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Alicia Hsin-Ming; Haggerty, Thomas Dean; de Martel, Catherine; Leung, Cynthia Wai-Mun; Parsonnet, Julie

    Helicobacter pylori can cause hypochlorhydria in some hosts and predispose to diarrheal infections. We tested the hypothesis that chronic H. pylori infection increases the risk of diarrheal illness due to an acid-sensitive organism: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). After testing healthy

  18. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Tepehuanos Aged 15 Years and Older in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos (an indigenous ethnic group living in rural Mexico. The prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 156 Tepehuanos in Durango State, Mexico, using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of Tepehuanos associated with seropositivity were investigated. In total, 103 (66% of the 156 participants (mean age years had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies. Fifty-four (52.4% of the 103 seropositive individuals had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. Males and females had comparable seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in women with pregnancies than those without this obstetric characteristic. Logistic regression showed that Helicobacter pylori infection was positively associated with low education (OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.13–10.00; and laborer occupation (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.14–6.42; . This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos and of the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with laborer occupation. Results warrants further research.

  19. Helicobacter pylori Cholesteryl α-Glucosides Contribute to Its Pathogenicity and Immune Response by Natural Killer T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Vela, Jose Luis; Matsumura, Fumiko; Hoshino, Hitomi; Tyznik, Aaron; Lee, Heeseob; Girardi, Enrico; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Liddington, Robert; Kobayashi, Motohiro; Bao, Xingfeng; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Borén, Thomas; Jin, Rongsheng; Zong, Yinong; Seeberger, Peter H.; Nakayama, Jun; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Fukuda, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10–15% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori will develop ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer), while most people infected with H. pylori will be asymptomatic. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic partly due to the inhibition of synthesis of cholesteryl α-glucosides in H. pylori cell wall by α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin O-glycans, which are expressed in the deeper portion of gastric mucosa. However, it has not been determined how cholesteryl α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT), which forms cholesteryl α-glucosides, functions in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here, we show that the activity of αCgT from H. pylori clinical isolates is highly correlated with the degree of gastric atrophy. We investigated the role of cholesteryl α-glucosides in various aspects of the immune response. Phagocytosis and activation of dendritic cells were observed at similar degrees in the presence of wild-type H. pylori or variants harboring mutant forms of αCgT showing a range of enzymatic activity. However, cholesteryl α-glucosides were recognized by invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, eliciting an immune response in vitro and in vivo. Following inoculation of H. pylori harboring highly active αCgT into iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18−/−) or wild-type mice, bacterial recovery significantly increased in Jα18−/− compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, cytokine production characteristic of Th1 and Th2 cells dramatically decreased in Jα18−/− compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that cholesteryl α-glucosides play critical roles in H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and precancerous atrophic gastritis. PMID:24312443

  20. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl α-glucosides contribute to its pathogenicity and immune response by natural killer T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Approximately 10-15% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori will develop ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer, while most people infected with H. pylori will be asymptomatic. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic partly due to the inhibition of synthesis of cholesteryl α-glucosides in H. pylori cell wall by α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin O-glycans, which are expressed in the deeper portion of gastric mucosa. However, it has not been determined how cholesteryl α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT, which forms cholesteryl α-glucosides, functions in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here, we show that the activity of αCgT from H. pylori clinical isolates is highly correlated with the degree of gastric atrophy. We investigated the role of cholesteryl α-glucosides in various aspects of the immune response. Phagocytosis and activation of dendritic cells were observed at similar degrees in the presence of wild-type H. pylori or variants harboring mutant forms of αCgT showing a range of enzymatic activity. However, cholesteryl α-glucosides were recognized by invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells, eliciting an immune response in vitro and in vivo. Following inoculation of H. pylori harboring highly active αCgT into iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18(-/- or wild-type mice, bacterial recovery significantly increased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, cytokine production characteristic of Th1 and Th2 cells dramatically decreased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that cholesteryl α-glucosides play critical roles in H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and precancerous atrophic gastritis.

  1. Soluble adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin in children with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elzbieta Maciorkowska; Maciej Kaczmarski; Anatol Panasiuk; Katarzyna Kondej-Muszynska; Andrzej Kemonai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sP-selectin levels in children withHelicobacter pylori(H pylori)infection and to evaluate their significance for the morphological changes found in gastric mucosa.METHODS: The study included 106 children: 59children (55.7%) with chronic gastritis and positive IgG against H pylori, 29 children (27.3%) after previous H pylori infection without the bacterium colonization but with positive IgG against H pylori, and 18 children (17%) with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal system but with normal IgG against H pylori. Endoscopic and histopathological evaluation of gastric mucosa was performed based on the Sydney System classification.The evaluation of sP-selectin, sIC AM-1, sVCAM-1 levels in the sera of children was carried out using ELISA test.RESULTS: The assessment of gastritis activity degrees indicated statistically significant values in the antrum and corpus (P<0.001) of children examined. Serum sVCAM-1 levels were higher in group with gastritis due to H pylori infection than in group without infection and differed statistically (P<0.05). Serum sVCAM-1 levels proved to be the highest among other adhesive molecules in infected children and decreased after eradication of H pylori. Serum sICAM-1 levels were similar in all examined groups. Serum sP-selectin levels were similar in children with and without H pylori infection.CONCLUSION: Assessment of adhesive molecules (sPselectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) in the sera of children with active H pylori infection can show the participation of sVCAM-1 in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal inflammation, sP-selectin and sICAM-1 concentrations in the sera of children with H pylori infection after eradication cannot reveal any significant differences as compared to healthy children.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Infection Rates in Patients Undergoing Endoscopy in the Interior of Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Feng Yih; Chong, Hock Chin; Tan, Yew Eng; Heng, Sophia Si Ling; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Ridwan, Hashim

    2016-04-01

    Very limited data are available on the Helicobacter pylori infection among the population of interior Borneo. We aimed to investigate the H. pylori infection rate among an endoscoped interior Borneo population and to report the differences between the infected and noninfected patients. We retrospectively analyzed the data of the rapid urease test (RUT) records in Endoscopy Unit Hospital Keningau from January 2009 to May 2014. Student's t-test, chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used accordingly. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Birth cohort was analyzed against H. pylori infection rate with chi-square test. Overall, there were 215 of 774 (27.8%) positive RUTs. Patients with H. pylori infection were younger (47.66 ± 14.93 vs 50.50 ± 15.02 years, p = .019), more likely to be female (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.12-2.13, p = .008) and originated from the Pensiangan district (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.01-2.64, p = .047). Chinese patients were less likely infected with H. pylori (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.80, p = .013). Birth cohort was significantly associated with H. pylori infection rate (χ(2) (7) = 14.71, p = .040) with an increasing trend of H. pylori infection rate in patients born later (χ(2) (1) = 5.26, p = .022). The overall H. pylori infection rate in this population was unexpectedly low. Accordingly, it may be a recent arrival in this community. Gender, age, dietary practice, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity were among the factors associated with H. pylori infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in maintenance hemodialysis patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Mohammad Kazem Hosseini; Nasri, Hamid

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the prevalence of Helico-bacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among stable chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients having non ulcer dyspepsia. The study was carried out on 80 patients consisting of 40 patients with dyspepsia and 40 consecutive control subjects without renal disease and dyspepsic symptoms. Mean age of patients were 56 +/- 14 and 47 +/- 15 respectively. This study showed no significant difference of H. pylori infection between the two groups. Tissue examination of gastric antrum showed higher localization of H. pylori in HD patients in contrast to controls. This finding has not been reported before and needs further confirmation and evaluation for its significance.

  4. Two stomach-originated lactobacillus strains improve Helicobacter pylori infected murine gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential anti-Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori ) and anti-inflammation in vivo effects of two lactobacillus strains from human stomach.METHODS:Forty H.pylori infected Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups:proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics triple treated group,Lactobacillus fermenti(L.fermenti ) treated group,Lactobacillus acidophilus treated group and normal saline control group.Ten uninfected mice were also included as blank control group.The infection of H.pylori was dete...

  5. The influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the risk of developing gastric cancer in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Stubljar David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background.Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastric cancer. The disease progression is influenced by the host inflammatory responses, and cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may have a role in the course of the disease. The aim of our study was to investigate proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms, previously associated with the development of gastric cancer, in a Slovenian population.

  6. Pylera for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleem, Aamir

    2012-02-01

    An ideal antibiotic regimen for Helicobacter pylori should achieve eradication rates of approximately 90%. Current 7-day triple therapy is successful in about two-thirds of patients. A novel treatment is required to achieve higher eradication with minimal induction of bacterial resistance. The aim of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single triple capsule (Pylera) containing bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Extensive literature searches were conducted using PubMed data from 1982 to 2007. This search included headings of H. pylori, bismuth and eradication therapy. The triple capsule Pylera, when given with omeprazole, achieved eradication rates ranging between 84 and 97%. Eradication rates were similar for clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains. Eradication rates with an omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline regimen appeared comparable for metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains. This effect is not seen with the use of triple therapy in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Clinical trials did not report any serious side effects from bismuth-based regimens and compliance was similar to standard triple therapy. Bismuth-based triple therapy using Pylera is a simplified, effective and well-tolerated regimen achieving cure rates of above 90%.

  7. Low prevalence of H. pylori Infection in HIV-Positive Patients in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Cícero IS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study conducted in Northeastern Brazil, evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the presence of gastritis in HIV-infected patients. Methods There were included 113 HIV-positive and 141 age-matched HIV-negative patients, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. H. pylori status was evaluated by urease test and histology. Results The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly lower (p H. pylori status and gender, age, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy and the use of antibiotics. A lower prevalence of H. pylori was observed among patients with T CD4 cell count below 200/mm3; however, it was not significant. Chronic active antral gastritis was observed in 87.6% of the HIV-infected patients and in 780.4% of the control group (p = 0.11. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with chronic active gastritis in the antrum in both groups, but it was not associated with corpus chronic active gastritis in the HIV-infected patients. Conclusion We demonstrated that the prevalence of H. pylori was significantly lower in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative ones. However, corpus gastritis was frequently observed in the HIV-positive patients, pointing to different mechanisms than H. pylori infection in the genesis of the lesion.

  8. Time Trends in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Atrophic Gastritis Over 40 Years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Haruma, Ken; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Manabe, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Hata, Jiro; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Sumii, Koji; Akiyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinji; Shiotani, Akiko; Graham, David Y

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection produces progressive mucosal damage that may eventually result in gastric cancer. We studied the changes that occurred in the presence and severity of atrophic gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infection that occurred coincident with improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. The prevalence of H. pylori infection and histologic grades of gastric damage were retrospectively evaluated using gastric biopsy specimens obtained over a 40-year period. Gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were scored using the updated Sydney classification system. The prevalence of H. pylori and severity of atrophy were examined in 1381 patients including 289 patients examined in the 1970s (158 men; mean age, 44.9 years), 787 in the 1990s (430 men; 44.2 years), and 305 in the 2010s (163 men; 53.2 years). Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection decreased significantly from 74.7% (1970s) to 53% (1990s) and 35.1% (2010s) (p pylori infection. There has been a progressive and rapid decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection as well a fall in the rate of progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected Japanese coincident with the westernization and improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Helicobacter pylori Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that H. pylori also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major H. pylori virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with H. pylori wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. H. pylori disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to H. pylori exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that H. pylori activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  10. Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Helicobacter pylori potentially induces humoral immune response in subjects with peptic ulcer disease and gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection is an independent risk factor of early and advanced colorectal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho; Baek, Sun-Young; Kim, Kyunga; Hong, Sung Noh

    2017-06-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the development of colorectal neoplasm remains controversial. We examined the association between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasm in a large sample of healthy participants who underwent screening colonoscopy. A cross-sectional study of 8916 men, who participated in a regular health-screening examination that included an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G antibody test and colonoscopy, was conducted to evaluate the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasm. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise, regular aspirin use, and family history of colorectal cancer showed that the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma and advanced neoplasm was 1.32 (1.07-1.61) and 1.90 (1.05-3.56) in participants with H. pylori infection and without H. pylori infection, respectively. The association persisted after further adjustment for inflammatory markers or metabolic variables including fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Regarding the location, a positive association was confined to cases with proximal adenomas and was observed similarly in all the evaluated subgroups. In a large-scale study, carefully controlled for confounding factors, involving asymptomatic participants without a history of colonoscopy, H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of any colorectal adenoma and advanced colorectal neoplasm. Prospective studies are necessary to determine whether H. pylori eradication can reduce this risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Establishment of Helicobacter pylori infection model in Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yan; Yi-Hui Luo; Ya-Fei Mao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a stable and reliable model of Helicobacter pyloriinfection model in Mongolian gerbils and to observe pathological changes in gastric mucosa in infected animals. METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into 18 groups; 6 groups were infected with Hpylori clinical strain Y06 (n=6, groups Y), 6 groups were infected with H pylori strain NCTC11637 (n=6, groups N), and 6 uninfected groups as negative controls (n=4,, groups C). Hpylorisuspensions at the concentrations of 2 x 108 and 2x 109 CFU/mL of strain NCTC11637 and strain Y06 were prepared. The animals in three groups N and in three groups Y were orally challenged once with 0.5 mL of the low concentration of the bacterial suspension. The animals in another three groups N and in another three groups Y were orally challenged with 0.5 mL of the high concentration of the bacterial suspension for 3times at the intervals of 24 h, respectively. For the negative controls, the animals in six groups C were orally given with the same volume of Brucella broth at the corresponding inoculating time. The animals were killed after 2nd, 4th and 6th week after the last challenge and the gastric mucosal specimens were taken for urease test, bacterial isolation, pathological and immunohistochemical examinations.RESULTS: Positive isolation rates of Hpyloriin the animals of groups Y at the 2nd, 4th and 6th week after one challenge were 0%, 16.7% and 66.7%, while in the animals of groups N were 0%, 0% and 16.7%, respectively. Positive isolation rates of H pyloriin the animals of groups Y at the 2nd, 4thand 6th week after three challenges were 66.7%, 100% and 100%, while in the animals of groups N were 66.7%, 66.7% and 100%, respectively. In animals with positive isolation of Hpylori, the bacterium was found to colonized on the surface of gastric mucosal cells and in the gastric pits, and the gastric mucosal lamina propria was infiltrated with inflammatory cells.CONCLUSION: By using H pylori suspension at high

  13. Assessment of risk factors of helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Rahul S; Ricardo, Izurieta; Azliyati, Azizan; Laxminarayan, Rajaram; Amol, Bapaye; Santosh, Walujkar; Boo, Kwa

    2013-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer. There have been no studies addressing environmental and dietary risk factors in western India. We conducted a case control study enrolling peptic ulcer patients in Pune, India. Risk factors for peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection were assessed in a participant interview. H. pylori status was assessed from stool by monoclonal antigen detection. We enrolled 190 peptic ulcer, 35 stomach cancer patients, and 125 controls. Fifty-one percent (180/350) of the participants were infected with H. pylori. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) [odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.39], meat consumption (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23), smoking (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.24-4.02), eating restaurant food (OR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.39-10.23), and drinking nonfiltered or nonboiled water (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23) were risk factors for H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89), meat (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.75), fish (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.89) consumption, and a family history of ulcer (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60) were risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.37) and parasite infestation (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.80) were protective against H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection is associated with peptic ulcer. Lower SES, consumption of restaurant food, meat, nonfiltered water, and smoking are risk factors for H. pylori. Consumption of meat, fish, and a family history of peptic ulcer are risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers and concurrent parasite infestation appear to be protective against H. pylori.

  14. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh; Vijayvergiya; Ramalingam; Vadivelu

    2015-01-01

    Though a century old hypothesis, infection as a cause for atherosclerosis is still a debatable issue. Epidemiological and clinical studies had shown a possible association but inhomogeneity in the study population and study methods along with potential confounders have yielded conflicting results. Infection triggers a chronic inflammatory state which along with other mechanisms such as dyslipidemia, hyper-homocysteinemia, hypercoagulability, impaired glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction, contribute in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Studies have shown a positive relations between Cytotoxic associated gene-A positive strains of Helicobacter pylori and vascular diseases such as coronary artery disease and stroke. Infection mediated genetic modulation is a new emerging theory in this regard. Further large scale studies on infection and atherosclerosis focusing on multiple pathogenetic mechanisms may help in refining our knowledge in this aspect.

  15. EXTRAGASTRIC AND ORODENTAL MANIFESTATIONS IN PEDIATRIC INFECTION WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda DIACONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a worlwide spread infection mostly manifested in childhood. Many - both invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests - are now available,. The colonisation effect of gastric mucosa and its consequences are well known and studied. H. pylori can also induce extra-gastric manifestations, like iron-deficiency anemia. The role of oral cavity colonisation is not clearly defined, several studies stating that the oral cavity represents a reservoir for H. pyloris. The presence of this rod in the dental plaque may lead to periodontitis, dental caries, dental calculus and tooth loos. Dental treatment associated with eradication therapy decreases the prevalence of oral H. pylori and improves the eradication rate of gastric H. pylori. Dental treatment in H. pylori infection management should be taken into consideration, especially in children and teens.

  16. [An urease enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, S Z; Jia, B Q; Liu, X G

    1993-05-01

    A sensitive and specific serological diagnostic test for Helicobacter pylori infection has been developed and validated in 120 patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing endoscopy. This test is to use urease, a protein unique to H. pylori, as the basis for the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects serum H. pylori urease antibodies. The ELISA mean optical density (OD) in H. pylori-positive group is higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (0.57 +/- 0.23 vs 0.24 +/- 0.15, P < 0.001), a cut-off 0.3 OD yields a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 93%. Serum absorption test showed that Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Yersinia enterocolotica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell lysate do not influence serum H. pylori urease antibody level, though they all have urease except E. coli. The result implied that H. pylori urease can be a good antigen to detect serum H. pylori antibody and it would be useful for epidemiological survey and routine diagnostic approach. Nearly half of the blood donors showed positive result with H. pylori urease antibody. It is suggested that H. pylori infection is quite common in the asymptomatic population.

  17. Prevalencia de la infección por Helicobacter pylori en el linfoma MALT gástrico: una revisión sistemática Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric MALT lymphoma: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Asenjo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática de los estudios que evalúan la prevalencia de H. pylori en los pacientes con linfoma MALT, así como analizar los factores de los que depende. Métodos: se efectuó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed seleccionando aquellos artículos en los que se estudiaba la prevalencia de H. pylori en pacientes con linfoma MALT. Resultados: se identificaron 38 estudios, incluyendo un total de 1.844 pacientes. La prevalencia media global de infección por H. pylori fue del 79%. En pacientes en los que se utilizaron 2 o más métodos para el diagnóstico de H. pylori la prevalencia fue del 85%, frente al 77% cuando se empleó un método diagnóstico (p Objective: to perform a systematic review of studies evaluating H. pylori prevalence in patients with MALT lymphoma, and to analyze predictive factors of response. Methods: a literature search in Pubmed was performed of papers studying H. pylori prevalence in patients with MALT lymphoma. Results: 38 studies were identified including 1,844 patients. The average prevalence of H. pylori infection was 79%. In patients diagnosed with H. pylori infection using 2 or more methods prevalence was 85%, whereas it was 77% when only one diagnostic method was used (p < 0.0001. H. pylori prevalence in patients diagnosed by histology was 75%, whereas it was 85% when serology was used (p < 0.0001. H. pylori prevalence in high-grade lymphomas was 60%, and 79% in low-grade lymphomas (p < 0.0001. H. pylori infection was detected in 74% of lymphomas confined to the submucosa, but only in 44% of those reaching deeper beyond the submucosa (p < 0.0001. Conclusions: H. pylori prevalence in patients with MALT lymphoma is variable, and seems to depend, at least partly, on the number and type of diagnostic methods used, histologic grade, and deep tumor invasion. If appropriate diagnostic methods are used, and if only low-grade lymphomas are considered, H. pylori prevalence is high, nearly

  18. Changes in serum ammonia concentration in cirrhotic patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study whether liver cirrhosis associated with Helicopacter pylori (H. pylori)infection will induce increased serum ammonia and whether the peripheral serum ammonia reflects the level of portal vein serum ammonia. Methods Blood was taken from the portal vein and the cubital vein in cirrhotic patients with and without H.pylori infection and non-cirrhotic patients (splenic rupiure) with and without H. pylori infection, and the serum ammonia was measured. Results The mean levels of serum ammonia in the group of cirrhotic patients with H. pylori infection were 167.82±8.97 μmol/L (pertal vein) and 142.2±13.35 μmol/L (cubital vein). They were increased significantly as compared with cirrhotic patients without H.pyiori infection(47.68±12.03 μmol/L portal vein and 37.23±7.04 μmol/L cubital vein),and also compared with the groups of splenic rupture patients with and without H. pylori infection (P<0.0t).There was no significant difference between the serum ammonia level of the cubital vein and pertal vein(P>0.05). Conclusions H.pylori intection can induce an increase in serum ammonia in patients with liver dysfunction,and the peripheral serum ammonia measurement may replace the portal vein serum ammania as a monitoring method. Eradication of H.pylori in cirrhotic patients may prevent hepatic encephalopathy(HE).

  19. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  20. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  1. Inverse Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Asthma Among Adults Younger than 40 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Nayoung; Lim, Seon Hee; Kwon, Jin-Won; Shin, Cheol Min; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have suggested that Helicobacter pylori could prevent allergic disease, particularly in children. However, whether this is true in adults is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is negative association between H. pylori infection and asthma among adults in an area with a high prevalence of H. pylori. This was a cross-sectional study using 2011 health surveillance data. Blood samples were taken from all participants to measure serum H. p...

  2. Helicobacter pylori: the primary cause of duodenal ulceration or a secondary infection?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Hobsley; Fl Tovey

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION It is generally accepted that Helicobacter pylori ( H.pylori) infection has a role in duodenal ulceration .Eradicaton of H .pylori accelerates healing compared with placebo in the absence of control of gastric secretion and reduces ulcer recurrence .There is increasing evidence ,however ,that is may not be the primary cause of duodenal ulceration ,but that is may be a secondary factor in a nnmber of cases .This possibility is supported by four sets of observations : 1 Geographical distribution:

  3. Characterization of the Cag pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori from naturally infected rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Emma C; Deck, Samuel L; Entwistle, Hasan D; Hansen, Lori M; Solnick, Jay V

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori commonly infects the epithelial layer of the human stomach and in some individuals causes peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma or gastric lymphoma. Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse species, and the most important bacterial virulence factor that increases the risk of developing disease, versus asymptomatic colonization, is the cytotoxin associated gene pathogenicity island (cagPAI). Socially housed rhesus macaques are often naturally infected with H. pylori similar to that which colonizes humans, but little is known about the cagPAI. Here we show that H. pylori strains isolated from naturally infected rhesus macaques have a cagPAI very similar to that found in human clinical isolates, and like human isolates, it encodes a functional type IV secretion system. These results provide further support for the relevance of rhesus macaques as a valid experimental model for H. pylori infection in humans.

  4. Oral immunization with HpaA affords therapeutic protective immunity against H. pylori that is reflected by specific mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Johanna; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2007-03-30

    In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of Helicobacter pylori adhesin A (HpaA), a H. pylori specific colonization factor, to induce therapeutic protection against H. pylori infection in mice. We found that oral immunization of H. pylori infected mice with HpaA induced protection, i.e. significant reduction in bacterial load in the stomach. This was even more pronounced when a combination of HpaA and urease was used. The protection was strongly related to specific mucosal CD4+ T cell responses with a Th1 profile as well as to mucosal IgA responses locally in the stomach. These findings suggest that HpaA is a promising vaccine candidate antigen for use in a therapeutic vaccine against H. pylori.

  5. Proinflammatory cytokines and thrombomodulin in patients with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Haghazali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Helicobacter pylori infect more than half of the global population. It is suggested to be related with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD, and gastric cancer. Aims: The aim of this present study was to evaluate proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1, 6, 8, 10, and thrombomodulin in H. pylori-infected patients with PUD and gastric cancer. Patients: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Taleghani Hospital on 111 patients with H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided into three groups of PUD, cancer, and control (normal on endoscopy, according to the results of endoscopy. The serum levels of interleukins 1, 6, 8, and 10 and thrombomodulin was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of the endoscopic biopsy. Results: One hundred eleven patients were included in the study; 30 as PUD group, 30 as gastric cancer group, and 51 as controls. There was no significant difference between the means of IL-1 and IL-10 levels among the three groups (P = 0.744 and 0.383, respectively. IL-6, IL-8, and thrombomodulin levels were found to be statically different among the three groups (P < 0.05. The level of IL-6, IL-8, and thrombomodulin in cancer group was significantly higher than PUD and control groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: There is a significant association between H. pylori infection and serum IL-6, IL-8, and thrombomodulin but such relation is not present between H. pylori and IL-1 and IL-10. Immunity response (IL-6, IL-8 and thrombomodulin is more severe in cancer patient than PUD.

  6. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with the Lewis and ABO blood groups in dyspeptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryana, Kamran; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Akbari, Hedieh

    2013-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a basic risk factor for chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Based on some studies, the reason is binding of H. pylori to H and Le(b) antigens in gastric mucosa. However, some other findings have not determined any association between the infection and these antigens. Because of this controversy and the fact that H. pylori infection and gastric adenocarcinoma are common diseases in Iran, the assessment of the association of H. pylori infection with these blood groups could be valuable. In a cross sectional study on 135 adult dyspeptic patients in Mashhad, Iran, from 2009 to 2010, H. pylori infection was evaluated by using the Heliprobe (14)C-urea breath test and the ABO and Lewis blood group antigens were determined by the tube method. Association between the Lewis and ABO phenotypes with H. pylori infection were analysed by Fisher's exact test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. 68 (50.4%) patients were positive for H. pylori infection. The frequencies of the ABO, Lewis and secretion phenotypes were not significant in the infected and non-infected patients. We also did not find a significant association between Le(a) and Le(b) antigens and this infection. We could not establish a significant association between the Lewis, ABO and secretion phenotypes with H. pylori infection. Diversity of sequences of blood group antigen b-binding adhesion (babA gene) of H. pylori may be a reason why our findings are different from other studies in other geographic areas.

  7. Role of childhood infection in the sequelae of H. pylori disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul R; Smythies, Lesley E; Smith, Phillip D; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection plays a fundamental role in the development of H. pylori-associated complications. Since the majority of infected persons acquire the bacteria during early childhood, an examination of the immunobiology of H. pylori infection in children compared with that of adults may help identify host factors that contribute to persistent infection. Therefore, we begin our review of the role of persistence in H. pylori disease with an assessment of the clinical features of H. pylori infection in children. We next review the bacterial factors that promote colonization and evasion of host defense mechanisms. We then focus our attention on the early host immunological factors that promote persistence of the infection and its complications in humans and mouse models. We also highlight topics in which further research is needed. An examination of how immunological factors cause divergent manifestations of H. pylori infection in children compared with adults may provide new insight for therapeutic modification or prevention of persistent H. pylori infection and its complications. PMID:24275060

  8. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Association with Cell Proliferation,Apoptosis and Prostaglandin E2 Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Kai-feng; ZHANG Yang; ZHANG Lian; MA Jun-ling; FENG Guo-shuang; ZHOU Tong; YOU Wei-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between H. pylori infection with cell proliferation, apoptosis and PGE2 levels. Methods: A population-based study was conducted in Linqu, a high-risk area of gastric cancer in China. A total of 1523 subjects, aged 35-64, participating in a gastric cancer screening survey were investigated. H. pylori status were determined by 13C-urea breath test, expressions of Ki-67 were assessed by immunohistochemistry, apoptotic cells were detected by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method, and PGE2 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results: H. pylori infection was positively associated with cell proliferation activity. The mean and median percentage of Ki-67 labeling index (LI) in subjects with H. pylori positive were 14.1±10.3 and 12.0, significantly higher than those with H. pylori negative (-x±s: 8.4±7.0;median: 5.8;P<0.0001). Moreover, the prevalence rates of H. pylori infection showed a tendency to increase according to severity score of cell apoptosis (Ptrend <0.0001), from score 0 to 3, the percentage of H. pylori positivity increased from 67.5% to 96.7%. Furthermore, The mean and median of PGE2 concentration were 628.84±726.40 pg/mL and 411.33 pg/mL among subjects with H. pylori positive compared with 658.19±575.91pg/mL and 455.97 pg/mL among those with H. pylori negative (P=0.209). Conclusion: H. pylori infection was positively associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis activity, suggesting that H. pylori infection plays an important role in the gastric epithelial cell malignant transformation.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in newly arrived refugees attending the Migrant Health Service, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Nur R; Benson, Jill; Grocke, Kathryn; Vather, Deeva; Zimmerman, Jessica; Moody, Tessa; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the refugee population attending the Migrant Health Service, South Australia, identify demographic factors associated with infection and compare prevalence of infection in refugees with that of the nonrefugee population in Australia. Cross-sectional study conducted between October 2010 and August 2013. Monoclonal stool antigen testing for H. pylori infection is performed as part of a comprehensive health assessment for newly arrived refugees. The sample population included 922 adults and children. Outcome measures were (i) prevalence of H. pylori infection (ii) association between demographic factors such as sex, ethnicity and age, and H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection was detected in 198 (21.5%) participants (95% CI 18.9%-24.3%). The odds of infection were lower in females OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.51-0.98) compared to males. Compared to Middle Eastern participants, the odds of infection were 1.75 (95% CI 1.17-2.62) times higher in African and 1.90 (95% CI 1.10-3.26) times higher in Burmese participants. Infection was not associated with age. H. pylori infection is common among newly arrived refugees. The long latency of infection to development of complications and the availability of testing and relatively effective eradication regimens all add weight to a decision to screen in this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Insulin resistance in H pylori infection and its association with oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Aslan; Mehmet Horoz; Yasar Nazligul; Cengiz Bolukbas; F Fusun Bolukbas; Sahbettin Selek; Hakim Celik; Ozcan Erel

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To determine the insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative status in H pylori infection and to find out if there is any relationship between these parameters and insulin resistance.METHODS:Fifty-five H pylori positive and 48 H pylori negative patients were enrolled. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined in all subjects.RESULTS:The total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (1.36 ± 0.33 and 1.70 ± 0.50,respectively; P < 0.001), while the total oxidant status and oxidative stress index were significantly higher in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (6.79 ± 3.40 and 5.08 ± 0.95, and 5.42 ± 3.40 and 3.10± 0.92, respectively; P < 0.001). Insulin resistance was significantly higher in H pylori positive group than in H pylori negative group (6.92 ± 3.86 and 3.61 ± 1.67, respectively; P < 0.001). Insulin resistance was found to be significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (r= -0.251, P < 0.05), total oxidant status (r = 0.365, P <0.05), and oxidative stress index (r = 0.267, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance seems to be associated with increased oxidative stress in H pylori infection.Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association and elucidate the effect of adding antioxidant vitamins to H pylori eradication therapy on insulin resistance during H pylori infection.

  12. Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Positively Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwanese Adults: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Po; Hung, Hui-Fang; Chen, Meng-Kan; Lai, Ho-Hsien; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Kuen-Cheh

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection and metabolic syndrome have been reported to be positively associated. However, only a few studies have focused on this issue, and H. pylori serum antigen was used to diagnose infection in most of them. We aimed to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome factors and H. pylori infection, as diagnosed via a (13)C-urea breath test. This cross-sectional study consisted of 3578 subjects (18-64 years old) enrolled from one health management center between 2008 and 2013. H. pylori infection was defined as a positive urea breath test. The risk of metabolic syndrome from H. pylori infection was assessed using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of the H. pylori was similar in both genders (20.6% in men and 19.7% in women). H. pylori -infected participants had significantly higher body mass index, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein (p pylori -infected subjects than uninfected ones (men: 12.4% vs. 7.4%, p pylori infection prevalence increased with metabolic score (P for trend pylori infection is positively associated with metabolic syndrome, especially in females. The causal relationship between H. pylori infection and metabolic syndrome warrants further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with reduced prevalence of colonic diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Lars Erik; Jepsen, Peter; Tøttrup, Anders; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a common disorder with increasing incidence in Western societies. The intestinal microbiome may be among etiological factors. Helicobacter pylori may protect against some intestinal diseases, and incidence of H. pylori is decreasing in Western societies. Thus, we aimed to determine whether H. pylori is associated to decreased prevalence of registered colonic diverticular disease. In a historical cohort study, patients were enrolled from primary health care centers after urea breath test for H. pylori and then followed for a median of 6 years. The patient's diagnostic codes and country of birth were acquired from nationwide Danish administrative registries. We used logistic regression to compare prevalence and Cox regression to compare incidence of diverticular disease between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients, adjusting for confounding variables. Patients infected with H. pylori had lower prevalence of colonic diverticular disease (0.87% vs 1.14%, OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.78). This phenomenon was observed whether we studied all registered diagnoses or only cases registered as primary diagnoses at discharge. After urea breath test, we observed no statistical difference in incidence rates of diverticular disease. H. pylori is associated with reduced prevalence of colonic diverticular disease. The inverse association was absent after the urea breath test. Thus, we speculate that H. pylori may provide protection from colonic diverticular disease. Alternatively, H. pylori is a marker for other factors affecting disease development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd: pharmaco-epidemilological investigation

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    Magnitskaya O.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article represents results of pharmacoepidemiological research of H.pylori eradication treatment of adults and children in Volgograd. The aim was to determine H. pylori pharmacotherapy stereotypes and compare with international experts' recommendations. Material and Methods. There were analyzed CRFs of 94 adults and 132 children with H.pylori associated diseases in Volgograd region. Results. There were identified mistakes of treatment regimes and eradication control principles. Conclusion. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd does not match to international experts' recommendations.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection: Clinical, Endoscopic and Pathological findings in Iranian children

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    Farzaneh Motamed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori infection has an important role in promoting gastrointestinal disease in human. It may be acquired early in life, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between H.pylori infection and clinical manifestations in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, H. pylori status was assessed by pathological examination of gastric biopsy in symptomatic children. A total of 266 patients were diagnosed as infected by H. pylori, compared with 268 uninfected patients matched by age and sex. Reported symptoms, endoscopic and pathological findings in the two groups were analyzed using chi square test. The limit of statistical significance was set at P

  16. IRAK-M expression limits dendritic cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Shiu

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infects the gastric mucosa and persists for the life of the host. Bacterial persistence may be due to the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs whichmay have protective effects against other diseases such as asthma. It has been shown that H. pylori modulates the T cell response through dendritic cell reprogramming but the molecular pathways involved are relatively unknown. The goal of this study was to identify critical elements of dendritic cell (DC activation and evaluate potential influence on immune activation. Microarray analysis was used to demonstrate limited gene expression changes in H. pylori stimulated bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs compared to the BMDCs stimulated with E. coli. IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, was upregulated and we selectedit for investigation of its role in modulating the DC and T cell responses. IRAK-M(-/- and wild type BMDC were compared for their response to H. pylori. Cells lacking IRAK-M produced significantly greater amounts of proinflammatory MIP-2 and reduced amounts of immunomodulatory IL-10 than wild type BMDC. IRAK-M(-/- cells also demonstrated increased MHC II expression upon activation. However, IRAK-M(-/- BMDCs were comparable to wild type BMDCs in inducing T-helper 17 (TH17 and Treg responses as demonstrated in vitro using BMDC CD4+ T cells co-culture assays,and in vivo though the adoptive transfer of CD4(+ FoxP3-GFP T cells into H. pylori infected IRAK-M(-/- mice. These results suggest that H. pylori infection leads to the upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecules like IRAK-M and that IRAK-M has a direct impact on innate functions in DCs such as cytokine and costimulation molecule upregulation but may not affect T cell skewing.

  17. Symptomatic infantile Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection in indigenous African infants: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malande, Oliver Ombeva

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection rate increases with age. Higher rates have however been reported among young people in the developing countries of the world. The infection however has rarely been reported in infants, especially in Africa. This case series describes three cases of Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection as diagnosed in three infants. The goal is to raise the suspicion index of medical practitioners about the possibility of this this infection among infants who present with suggestive symptoms. On three separate occasions in 2012 and 2013, three ill, indigenous, black African female infants aged 4, 6 and 7 months, were brought to hospital with symptoms ranging from fever, refusal to feed, diarrhoea, restlessness, vomiting and irritability. In each case, systemic examination findings were unremarkable. After several laboratory investigations, each infant was found to have Helicobacter pylori infection following positive blood antibody (using Tell Me Fast H. Pylori antibody serum and Plasma test manufactured by Biocan Diagnostics Canada) and fecal HpSA ImmunoCardSTAT antigen tests. Repeat stool antigen test was negative in each case after completion of the recommended triple therapy. Helicobacter pylori infection has been rarely reported among infants. This case series highlights the need for health care providers to have a high index of suspicion so that infants with suggestive symptoms, especially in settings with high Helicobacter pylori colonization prevalence can be evaluated for Helicobacter pylori gastritis infection.

  18. Curcumin Inhibits Gastric Inflammation Induced by Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Mouse Model

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    António M. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection triggers a sequence of gastric alterations starting with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa that, in some cases, evolves to gastric cancer. Efficient vaccination has not been achieved, thus it is essential to find alternative therapies, particularly in the nutritional field. The current study evaluated whether curcumin could attenuate inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to H. pylori infection. Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice, were inoculated with the H. pylori SS1 strain; ten non-infected mice were used as controls. H. pylori infection in live mice was followed-up using a modified 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Histologically confirmed, gastritis was observed in 42% of infected non-treated mice at both 6 and 18 weeks post-infection. These mice showed an up-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as of toll-like receptors (TLRs and MyD88, at both time points. Treatment with curcumin decreased the expression of all these mediators. No inflammation was observed by histology in this group. Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation while the eradication or prevention of colonization by effective vaccine is not available.

  19. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection--a Working Party Report of the Malaysian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, K L; Mahendra Raj, S; Parasakthi, N; Kew, S T; Kandasami, P; Mazlam, Z

    1998-09-01

    The Working Party Report on the Management of Helicobacter pylori serves as a clinical practice guideline for Malaysian doctors. H. pylori is not uncommon in the Malaysian population. Marked racial differences and the consistently low prevalence rates amongst Malays are noted. The working party recommends that if endoscopy is to be performed, a rapid urease test should be used for diagnosis. Where suspicion of the infection is strong and the urease test is negative, histology should be performed on gastric biopsies. Culture should be used to monitor resistance patterns to antibiotics and regional laboratories should assume this responsibility. The urea breath tests are highly accurate tests for diagnosis of H. pylori but is as yet not widely available in Malaysia. The working party strongly recommends that all peptic ulcer patients infected with H. pylori whether active, in remission and complicated ulcers should be treated for the infection. Patients with low-grade gastric mucosal lymphoid tissue lymphoma should also be treated for H. pylori infection. It is considered advisable that patients on long term nonsteroidal antinflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment with a history of peptic ulcers or dyspepsia and patients following resection of early gastric cancer or those with a family history of gastric cancer should also be tested and treated for H. pylori. The working party recommends, as first line treatment a 7-day combination therapy of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and metronidazole or amoxicillin. High metronidazole resistance rates locally may adversely affect regimens containing the antibiotic. It should also be noted that regimens that yield lower eradication rates may result in higher long term expenditure.

  20. The association of Helicobacter pylori infection with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Rokhsareh; Jafarzadeh, Faria; Ghorbani, Raheb; Khamseh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Salami, Maryam Alsadat; Malek, Mojtaba

    2013-05-30

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD) are multifactorial conditions that result from genetic predisposition in combination with environmental risk factors. Helicobacter pylori infection as an environmental risk factor has been proposed to imitate the antigenic components of the thyroid cell membrane and may play a leading role in the onset of the autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The participants in this case-control study included 43 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 40 healthy individuals without history of autoimmune disease as the control group. Anti HP IgG and anti-TPO antibodies were determined using ELISA method. Results were considered positive when the IgG anti-HP value was higher than 30 IU/ml and the anti-TPO autoantibody value was higher than 75 IU/ml. The mean TSH level was 18.3±16.8 IU/ml for patients and 2.8±1.2 IU/ml for the control group (PHashimoto's thyroiditis was statistically significant (Odds Ratio=7.2, 95%, Confidence Interval: 2.0- 28.8, PHashimoto's thyroiditis. To establish a definite correlation between them, more detailed studies with a more specialized examination and precise consideration regarding species of HP, genetic polymorphism of the host and investigation of environmental factors are needed.

  1. Diet, H pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2007-06-07

    Despite decreasing incidence and mortality rates, gastric cancer (GC) still remains the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Due to the limited treatment options, at present, prevention is likely to be the only effective means of controlling this disease. The success of a prevention strategy depends upon the understanding of etiological and pathogenic mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis. The etiology of GC is multi-factorial, however, in the recent years, mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role. The most important environmental factors implicated in the pathogenesis of GC are diet and H pylori infection. Thus, modifications in lifestyle and dietary habit associated with eradication of H pylori infection could hypothetically represent the most promising potential targets for GC prevention. In this review we will address the evidence and the controversies on the role of these agents in non-cardia GC by focusing on retrospective and prospective observational studies and interventional trials.

  2. Diet, H pylori infection and gastric cancer: Evidence and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alba Rocco; Gerardo Nardone

    2007-01-01

    Despite decreasing incidence and mortality rates, gastric cancer (GC) still remains the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Due to the limited treatment options,at present, prevention is likely to be the only effective means of controlling this disease. The success of a prevention strategy depends upon the understanding of etiological and pathogenic mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis. The etiology of GC is multi-factorial,however, in the recent years, mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role. The most important environmental factors implicated in the pathogenesis of GC are diet and H pylori infection. Thus,modifications in lifestyle and dietary habit associated with eradication of H pylori infection could hypothetically represent the most promising potential targets for GC prevention. In this review we will address the evidence and the controversies on the role of these agents in noncardia GC by focusing on retrospective and prospective observational studies and interventional trials.

  3. Efficacy of the Therapy of Goiter with Subclinical Hypothyroidism Associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Panyushkina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presented results of the treatment (150 mcg/day KI of goitre with subclinical hypothyroidism associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in 54 women. In conclusion total eradication of Helicobacter pylori could increase efficacy of goitre treatment up to 90%.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection as a triggering factor of attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visy, Beáta; Füst, George; Bygum, Anette

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is considered among the causative factors of urticaria and angioedema. Having conducted a study on 65 patients, Hungarian authors reported in 2001 that successful eradication of H. pylori is followed by a significant reduction in the number of attacks in ...

  5. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rhesus Macaques Is Most Consistent with Oral-Oral Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Fong, Julie; Hansen, Lori M.; Chang, Kikuko; Canfield, Don R.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Socially housed rhesus monkeys rapidly acquired Helicobacter pylori infection, although the organism was rarely cultivated from saliva, feces, or the environment. Since the concentrations of H. pylori in vomit were compatible with what is known about the infectious dose, our results are most consistent with an oral-oral means of transmission.

  6. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer:An Asian enigma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kartar Singh; Uday C Ghoshal

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been etiologically linked to gastric cancer. H pylori infection is more frequent in less developed Asian countries like India,Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Thailand and is acquired at early age than in more developed Asian countries like Japan and China. Frequency of gastric cancer, however,is very low in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Thailand compared to that in Japan and China. Similar enigma has been reported from Africa as compared to the West.Seroprevalence of H pylori infection in adult populations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Thailand varies from 55% to 92%. In contrast, seroprevalence of H pylori in Chinese and Japanese adults is 44% and 55%,respectively. Annual incidence rate of gastric cancer in India, Bangladesh, and Thailand is 10.6, 1.3, 7.1 per 100000 populations, respectively; in contrast, that in China and Japan is 32-59 and 80-115 per 100 000 populations,respectively. Several studies from India failed to show higher frequency of H pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer than controls. Available evidences did not support difference in H pylori strains as an explanation for this enigma. Despite established etiological role of H pylori, situation is somewhat enigmatic in Asian countries because in countries with higher frequency of infection,there is lower rate of gastric cancer. Host's genetic makeup and dietary and environmental factors might explain this enigma. Studies are urgently needed to solve this issue.

  7. The treatment of helicobacter pylori infection and its sequelae with emphasis on nitroimidazole resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouden, Egbert-Jan van der

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis two different aspects of the treament of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection are described. The first part (chapters 2-8) explores the epidemiology, mechanism, and clinical significance of nitroimidazole resistance as well as the problems encountered in susceptibility testing fo

  8. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors in patients with benign peptic ulcer disease

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    Depender Kumar Timshina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess and compare the risk factors in patients with benign gastric and duodenal ulcers and to correlate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in benign peptic ulcer disease. Methods: A total of 30 consecutive patients with peptic ulcer disease were included in this study after upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Their clinical profile and endoscopic findings were noted. Antral biopsies were subjected to histopathological examination and urease test for detection of H. pylori. Results were correlated. The study was cleared by the Institute Research Council and the Ethics committee. Results: The male: female ratio was 11:4. Overall, H. pylori infection was prevalent in 93.3% of the patients. Patients who took spicy food had a significantly higher rate of H. pylori positivity (P=0.04. Smoking, alcohol intake and NSAIDs did not affect H. pylori status in patients. There was no significant association between the site of the ulcer and H. pylori infection. Conclusions: Based on our observations we conclude that prevalence of H. pylori infection is similar in duodenal and gastric ulcers and intake of spicy food is a significant risk factor.

  9. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and dietary habits

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    Jabiz Modaresi Esfeh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Iran. Helicobacter pylori (HP and diet are both risk factors for this cancer. The way HP and diet affect each other may be important in controlling this high prevalent cancer. Few researches have been performed in this field around the world. The present study was designed to assess this relationship. Methods: A descriptive - cross sectional study performed in Tabriz. 86 samples were recruited from patients referred to" Tabriz gastrointestinal and liver research center" .A demographic and a food frequency questionnaire were filled in for each subject. After upper GI endoscopy a tissue sample from an antrum was sent to the pathology lab and data analyzed using non parametric tests.Results: Helicobacter Pylori infection rate was 42.6% according to pathologic results. A direct association was found between weekly consumption of fish (P=0.007, water (P=0.016 and green pepper (P=0.01 and HP infection. There was a negative relationship between the amount of tea (P=0.046 and tuna fish (P=0.046 consumed per week and HP infection. The severity of infection was direct associated with weekly consumption of fish (P=0.001 green pepper (P=0.045 and water (P=0.001 indirect associated with the amount of tuna fish (P=0.011 and sugar (P=0.044.Conclusions: This study suggests that there is a possibility that some dietary factors such as fish (except Tuna Fish, green pepper and water may reduce the chance of H.P and severity of this infection. However due to limitations of this study, larger and more accurately designed studies are necessary before any definite conclusion can be drawn.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis for H. pylori infection

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    Romero-Flores JL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Juan L Romero-Flores,1 Justo A Fernandez-Rivero,1 Erika Marroquín-Fabian,1 Félix I Téllez-Ávila,2 Beatriz A Sánchez-Jiménez,1 Eva Juárez-Hernández,3 Misael Uribe,1 Norberto C Chávez-Tapia1,3 1Obesity and Digestive Diseases Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, 3Translational Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Background: The term nodular is not included in the Sydney classification and there is no widely accepted histopathological definition. It has been proposed that the presence of antral nodularity could predict Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis (NG for H. pylori infection after a rigorous standardization process, and to describe the associated histopathological characteristics. Materials and methods: Endoscopic images of patients submitted to endoscopy with biopsy sampling were included. Endoscopic images were distributed among six endoscopists. The analysis was performed sequentially in three rounds: the first round assessed the interobserver variability, the second evaluated the intraobserver variability, and the third calculated the interobserver variability after training. A correlation analysis between endoscopic and histopathological findings was performed. Results: A total of 917 studies were included. In the first analysis of interobserver variability, a poor kappa value (0.078 was obtained. The second evaluation yielded good intraobserver variability, with kappa values of 0.62–0.86. The evaluation of interobserver variability after training revealed an improvement in the kappa value of 0.42. A correlation was found between endoscopic images and histopathological reports. Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between NG and H. pylori, but only after rigorous evaluation. The use of

  11. Impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on ghrelin and various neuroendocrine hormones in plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajime Isomoto; Hiroaki Ueno; Yoshito Nishi; Chun-Yang Wen; Masamitsu Nakazato; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, influences appetite, energy balance, gastric motility and acid secretion. The stomach is the main source of circulating ghrelin. There are inconsistent reports on the influence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on circulating ghrelin levels. We sought to elucidate the relationship between ghrelin and various peptides in plasma, with special reference to H pylori.METHODS: Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 89 subjects who were referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, consisting of 42 H pylori infected and 47 uninfected ones. Plasma gastrin,somatostatin, leptin, insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF-1)and chromogranin A concentrations were also measured.Twelve patients were treated with anti- H pylori regimen.RESULTS: Ghrelin circulating levels were greatly decreased in H pylori-positive than negative individuals (194.2±90.2fmol/mL and 250.4±84.1 respectively, P<0.05), but did not significantly alter following the cure of infection (176.5±79.5 vs 191.3±120.4). There was a significant negative correlation between circulating ghrelin and leptin levels, as well as body mass index, for the whole and uninfected population, but not in H pylori-infected patients. Plasma ghrelin concentrations correlated positively with IGF-1 in H pylori-negative group and negatively with chromogranin A in the infected group.There were no significant correlations among circulating levels of ghrelin, gastrin and somatostatin irrespective of H pylori status.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection influences plasma ghrelin dynamics and its interaction with diverse bioactive peptides involved in energy balance, growth and neuroendocrine function.

  12. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and vomiting induced by gastrointestinal cancer chemotherapy.

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    Yao, Yiwei; Ji, Chushu; He, Yifu; Pan, Yueyin

    2017-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most common adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To discuss the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A total of 112 patients with malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal tract was selected. Based on the 14C-urea breath test results, the patients were divided into H. pylori-positive (n = 59) and H. pylori-negative (n = 53) groups. Both groups received prophylactic antiemetic treatment during chemotherapy. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and their effects on the patients' life functions was recorded using the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) Antiemetic Tool (MAT) and the Functional Living Index Emesis (FLIE) from 0-120 h after chemotherapy. Records of the H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups were compared. The rates of nausea and vomiting remission were higher in the H. pylori -negative group than in the H. pylori -positive group. The proportions of no effect in daily life (NIDL) patients in the nausea and vomiting section were 73.4 and 75.5% in the H. pylori -negative group respectively. There was a higher proportion of NIDL patients in the H. pylori -negative group than in the H. pylori -positive group (P pylori infection was a factor affecting the nausea scores on the FLIE (odds ratio = 0.757, 95% confidence interval 0.597-0.960, P = 0.021). H. pylori infection in patients with cancer may be a factor that increases CINV. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. [Helicobacter pylori infection in Uruguayan patients of African origin: clinical, endoscopic and genetic characteristics].

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    González, Nicolás; Fernández, Lucía; Pérez Pérez, Guillermo; Saona, Gustavo; Raisler, Katherine; Eugenia Torres, María; Olivares, Asalia; Stein, Silvana; Cohen, Henry

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of H pylori varies in different regions around the world and its associated clinical manifestations are more severe in certain ethnic groups. Prevalence of H pylori in different groups is scarcely known in Uruguay. To determine the prevalence, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of H pylori infection in Uruguayan patients of African origin. Fifty Afro-descendant patients attending the Clinics of Gastroenterology at Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, were studied. They were all examined by upper endoscopy and H pylori infection was determined by histology, urease test and culture. Presence of cagA was ascertained by PCR. The prevalence of H pylori infection determined by histology and urease test in Afro-descendants was 70%. No relationship was found between symptoms that led to consultation and the presence of infection. It was not possible either to establish a relationship between H pylori and endoscopic findings. CagA gene was detected in 62% of cases, but there was no relationship between its presence and the endoscopic findings. The prevalence of H pylori infection in Afro-descendant Uruguayan patients is high, comparable with that found in other developing regions. However, an association of the presence of infection with symptoms or endoscopic findings was not found. CagA did not result in a risk factor for the presence of more severe gastroduodenal lesions in this group of patients.

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study

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    Okimoto Tadayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Methods Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Results Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ≤40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusions H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between

  15. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on lipid profiles and cardiovascular diseases.

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    Nam, Su Youn; Ryu, Kum Hei; Park, Bum Joon; Park, Sohee

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship of current Helicobacter pylori infection with lipid profile and cardiovascular disease and its eradication effect. Healthy subjects, who underwent routine checkup between October 2003 and December 2007, were followed up until June 2009. Helicobacter pylori and lipid profiles were measured both baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression models for odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the effects of H. pylori infection and its eradication, on lipids and cardiovascular disease. Current infection with H. pylori with 50.5% (6759/13383) at baseline increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) than H. pylori-negative group. Successful eradication of H. pylori decreased the risk of high LDL compared with the persistent infection (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-96), which was comparable to that of the persistent negative group (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97), and decreased the risk of low HDL (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). Current infection of H. pylori increased the risk of cardiovascular disease (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.31-8.14) at baseline, but its eradication failed to decrease the risk at a 2-year follow-up. However, persistent negative infection decreased the risk (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.94) comparing to persistent positive infection at follow-up. Current infection with H. pylori had a positive association with high LDL, low HDL, and cardiovascular disease. Successful H. pylori eradication decreased the risk of high LDL and low HDL, but did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and dementia: can actual data reinforce the hypothesis of a causal association?

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    Adriani, A; Fagoonee, S; De Angelis, C; Altruda, F; Pellicano, R

    2014-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is involved in the development of several gastroduodenal diseases. Since the latest decade, several studies have reported on the link between chronic H. pylori infection and a variety of extragastric manifestations, including dementia. To identify the publications on the association between H. pylori and dementia, a MEDLINE search was conducted. Although case-control studies reported controversial data, a recent longitudinal population-based cohort study found that after 20 years of follow-up, 28.9% of H. pylori-positive versus 21.1% of H. pylori-negative subjects developed dementia. After correction for confounding factors, the infection was significantly associated with higher risk of developing dementia (P=0.04). Moreover, in another study evaluating the effect of H. pylori eradication on the progression of dementia in Alzheimer's disease patients with peptic ulcer, the cure of the bacterium was associated with a decreased risk of dementia progression compared to persistent infection. To date, defining H. pylori as a target for prevention or treatment of dementia remains a topic with much controversy but of essence, as any relationship would reduce, due to the cost-effectiveness of the therapy, a burden on the National Health Care budget. The need for extensive studies with appropriate epidemiological and clinical approaches is crucial to investigate a potential causal relationship.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 promoter polymorphisms but not dupA-H. pylori correlate to duodenal ulcers in H. pylori-infected females

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    Yeh Yi-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated if the H. pylori dupA genotype and certain host single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs, including MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, might correlate with ulcer risk of H. pylori-infected Taiwanese patients. Results Of the 549 H. pylori-infected patients enrolled, 470 patients (265 with gastritis, 118 with duodenal ulcer, and 87 with gastric ulcer received SNPs analysis of MMP-3-1612 6A > 5A, MMP-7-181 A > G, MMP-9exon 6 A > G, TIMP-1372 T > C and TIMP-2-418 G > C by PCR-RFLP. The 181 collected H. pylori isolates were detected for the dupA genotype by PCR. The rates of dupA-positive H. pylori infection were similar among patients with duodenal ulcer (22.8%, gastric ulcer (20.0%, and gastritis (25.5% (p > 0.05. Males had higher rates of duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer than females (p H. pylori-infected patients, the MMP-3 6A6A genotype were more common in patients with duodenal ulcers than in those with gastritis (87.7% vs. 74.9%, p p H. pylori-infected females. Conclusions The MMP-3 promoter polymorphism, but not the dupA-status, may correlate with susceptibility to duodenal ulcer after H. pylori infection in Taiwanese females.

  18. Impact of Maternal Helicobacter pylori Infection on Trace Elements (Copper, Iron and Zinc and Pregnancy Outcomes

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    Emmanuel I Akubugwo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: H. pylori infection has been suggested to interfere with micronutrient metabolism and influence pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: This study therefore seeks to document the prevalence of H. pylori seroposivity among pregnant women and to determine its impact on some trace element status and pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nine consenting pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27. 04 ± 4. 75 years and gestational age ≤ 25 weeks (mean 21.77 ± 3.14 wks attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, between July 2007 and September 2008 participated in the study. H. Pylori antibody (IgG was determined by a new generation ELISA method. Plasma copper, iron and zinc were analysed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Bulk Scientific AVG 210 Model while haemoglobin and albumin were analysed using standard haematological and biochemical techniques. Both maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric parameters were recorded at recruitment. The women were followed-up till delivery after which neonatal anthropometrics and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: H. pylori seroprevalence of 24.1% (84/349 was recorded with higher prevalence in multiparous and older women. H. pylori infected women had significantly higher BMI (29.00 ± 3.89 vs. 26.86 ± 4.10, p = 0.020 and lower (p > 0.05 plasma levels of Cu, Fe, Zn, albumin, and haemoglobin when compared to non-infected women. Also H. pylori infected women had significantly (p < 0.05 higher rates of convulsion and concomitant illnesses than their non-infected counterparts, although there was no difference in the two groups for other pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: H. pylori infection during pregnancy seems to interfere with trace element metabolism and contribute significantly to increased maternal morbidity. Prior to confirmation of these findings in a well controlled randomised trial, it is suggested that pregnant women be

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection with intestinal metaplasia: An independent risk factor for colorectal adenomas

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    Yan, Ye; Chen, Yi-Na; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Chun-Jing; Jin, Yin; Pan, Shuang; Wu, Jian-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection status, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and colorectal adenomas. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 1641 individuals aged ≥ 40 years who underwent physical examination, laboratory testing, 13C-urea breath testing, gastroscopy, colonoscopy, and an interview to ascertain baseline characteristics and general state of health. Histopathological results were obtained by gastric and colorectal biopsies. RESULTS The prevalence of H. pylori infection and adenomas was 51.5% (845/1641) and 18.1% (297/1641), respectively. H. pylori infection was significantly correlated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas (crude OR = 1.535, 95%CI: 1.044-1.753, P = 0.022; adjusted OR = 1.359, 95%CI: 1.035-1.785, P = 0.028). Individuals with IM had an elevated risk of colorectal adenomas (crude OR = 1.664, 95%CI: 1.216-2.277, P = 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.381, 95%CI: 0.998-1.929, P = 0.059). Stratification based on H. pylori infection stage and IM revealed that IM accompanied by H. pylori infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of adenomas (crude OR = 2.109, 95%CI: 1.383-3.216, P = 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.765, 95%CI: 1.130-2.757, P = 0.012). CONCLUSION H. pylori-related IM is associated with a high risk of colorectal adenomas in Chinese individuals. PMID:28293091

  20. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and acid blockade by lansoprazole on clarithromycin bioavailability

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    R.A.M. Ortiz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of proton pump inhibitors and Helicobacter pylori infection on the bioavailability of antibiotics is poorly understood. We determined the effects of 5-day oral administration of 60 mg lansoprazole on the bioavailability of clarithromycin in individuals with and without H. pylori infection. Thirteen H. pylori-infected and 10 non-infected healthy volunteers were enrolled in a study with an open-randomized two-period crossover design and a 21-day washout period between phases. Plasma concentrations of clarithromycin in subjects with and without lansoprazole pre-treatment were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Clarithromycin Cmax and AUC0-10 h were significantly reduced after lansoprazole administration. In addition, lansoprazole treatment of the H. pylori-positive group resulted in a statistically significant greater reduction in Cmax (40 vs 15% and AUC0-10 h (30 vs 10% compared to lansoprazole-treated H. pylori-negative subjects. Thus, treatment with lansoprazole for 5 days reduced bioavailability of clarithromycin, irrespective of H. pylori status. This reduction, however, was even more pronounced in H. pylori-infected individuals.

  1. Identification of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients in Surabaya, Indonesia, using five diagnostic tests.

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    Miftahussurur, M; Shiota, S; Suzuki, R; Matsuda, M; Uchida, T; Kido, Y; Kawamoto, F; Maimunah, U; Adi, P; Rezkitha, Y; Nasronudin; Nusi, I; Yamaoka, Y

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11.5% in all patients studied, and 2.3% of Javanese patients and 18.0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0.01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA 'on' and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia.

  2. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

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    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  3. Differential effects of multiplicity of infection on Helicobacter pylori-induced signaling pathways and interleukin-8 gene transcription.

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    Ritter, Birgit; Kilian, Petra; Reboll, Marc Rene; Resch, Klaus; DiStefano, Johanna Kay; Frank, Ronald; Beil, Winfried; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. We used four different H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease to examine their differential effects on signaling pathways and IL-8 gene response in gastric epithelial cells. IL-8 mRNA level is elevated in response to high (100) multiplicity of infection (MOI) independent of cagA, vacA, and dupA gene characteristics. By lower MOIs (1 or 10), only cagA ( + ) strains significantly induce IL-8 gene expression. This is based on differential regulation of IL-8 promoter activity. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways indicates that H. pylori clinical isolates induce IL-8 gene transcription through NF-κB p65, but by a MOI-dependent differential activation of MAPK pathways. Thus, the major virulence factors of H. pylori CagA, VacA, and DupA might play a minor role in the level of IL-8 gene response to a high bacterial load.

  4. Effect of total secondary carotenoids extracts from Chlorococcum sp on Helicobacter pylori-infected BALB/c mice.

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    Liu, B H; Lee, Y K

    2003-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen associated with type B gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. A high intake of carotenoids has been suggested to prevent development of gastric malignancies. Microalgae Chlorococcum sp. could accumulate secondary carotenoids under stress conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dietary cell extract of Chlorococcum sp. could affect the bacterial load of H. pylori infected BALB/c mice and whether it could induce modulation of cytokine production. BALB/c mice were infected with H. pylori three times at 2-day intervals. Two weeks later, they were orally fed with cell extract of Chlorococcum sp. for the following 2 weeks. Animals were killed at the end of the experiments. Stomachs were removed and paraffin sections were stained for histology examination. Splenocytes were obtained and cultured in vitro with H. pylori sonicate to evaluate induction of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) secretion. Mice treated with carotenoids-rich algal meal showed significantly reduced bacterial load and gastric inflammation. These changes were associated with a shift of the T-lymphocytes response from a predominant T helper type 1 (Th1) response dominated by IFN-gamma to a Th1/Th2 response with IFN-gamma and IL-4.

  5. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Iranian Adolescents: the CASPIAN- III Study

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    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori is a common bacterial infection, with considerably high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium represents a key factor in the etiology of various chronic infections ranging from gastritis, peptic ulcer disease to gastric cancer; but the prevalence has large variations in different communities. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence H. pylori infection in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples of 882 Iranian adolescents, aged 10-18 years, were examined for seroprevalence of H.pylori. They were randomly selected from the samples obtained in the third survey of a national surveillance program (the CASPIAN III study. Seroprevalence of H. pylori was examined by detection of H. pylori immunoglobulinA (IgA, immunoglobulinG (IgG and immunoglobulinM (IgM in sera by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA.Results: The study participants had a mean age of 14.82 + 2.77 years. Overall, 51.7% of students were boys and 61.52% were urban residents.  The H. pylori IGM and IGA seropositivity had no significant association with demographic characteristics (p>0.05. The H. pylori IgG seropositivity were significantly different in boys and girls (69.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 66.7-72.7 vs. 76.3%, 95%CI= 73.5-79. 1, respectively, P=0.03.Conclusion: The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG in Iranian adolescents is high, and girls had greater risk of H. pylori IgG seropositivity compared to boys. Preventive strategies and health education are recommended to reduce the prevalence of this infection in Iranian adolescent.

  6. The Association of Helicobacter pylori Infection with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

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    Maryam Alsadat Salami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD are multifactorial conditions that result from genetic predisposition in combination with environmental risk factors. Helicobacter pylori infection as an environmental risk factor has been proposed to imitate the antigenic components of the thyroid cell membrane and may play a leading role in the onset of the autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT. The participants in this case-control study included 43 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 40 healthy individuals without history of autoimmune disease as the control group. Anti HP IgG and anti-TPO antibodies were determined using ELISA method. Results were considered positive when the IgG anti-HP value was higher than 30 IU/ml and the anti-TPO autoantibody value was higher than 75 IU/ml. The mean TSH level was 18.3±16.8 IU/ml for patients and 2.8±1.2 IU/ml for the control group (P<0.001. 46.5% of the patient group and 10.8% of the control group were infected with HP. The association between HP and Hashimoto's thyroiditis was statistically significant (Odds Ratio=7.2, 95%, Confidence Interval: 2.0- 28.8, P<0.001. The findings show that, there is an association between HP and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. To establish a definite correlation between them, more detailed studies with a more specialized examination and precise consideration regarding species of HP, genetic polymorphism of the host and investigation of environmental factors are needed.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Polaprezine on the Inflammatory Response to Helicobacter pylori

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    Osamu Handa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori-infected gastrointestinal mucosa is frequently infiltrated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN and monocytes, and these invading cells have been implicated in gastrointestinal mucosal inflammation. To clarify the efficacy of polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, against H pylori-induced inflammation including PMN infiltration, the in vitro effects of this drug on interleukin (IL-8 production by an established gastric cancer cell line (MKN 45 cells and on PMN-endothelial cell adhesive interactions was investigated. Polaprezinc and zinc sulphate inhibited IL-8 production by MKN 45 cells in response to stimulation with H pylori water extract (HPE in a dose-dependent manner from 10-7 M to 10-5 M. In addition, the expression of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and PMN-dependent adhesion to endothelial cells elicited by HPE was inhibited by polaprezinc and zinc sulphate in a concentration-dependent manner. L-carnosine did not have any effects on IL-8 production or PMN-endothelial cell interactions. These results suggest that polaprezinc, mainly the zinc component, may inhibit H pylori-induced PMN-mediated gastric inflammation by attenuating CD11b/CD18 expression on PMN and IL-8 production from gastric epithelial cells.

  8. Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Ectopic Pregnancy

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    Fariba NanBakhsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the importance of cytokine type in embryo implantation in uterus specified and activated macrophages interfere the tube movements and embryo retention in uterine tubes by smooth muscle relaxation and disrupting ciliary function. Therefore, increased risk of infection with HP during pregnancy, we investigated relation between Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and prevalence of ectopic pregnancy (EP in this study.Materials and methods: This is cross-sectional study from March 2012 to May 2013. Totally 207 women were enrolled randomly from which 101 had EP (Case group and 106 were selected as control group with normal pregnancy. A 2-cc blood sample was taken from each patient to evaluate the specific IgG titer by ELISA method. All results of samples with positive H. pylori IgG were assayed for anti-CagA, IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was filled for each subject. The associations between CagA positive cases with odds of Ectopic pregnancy incidence were analyzed by using SPSS software, ver. 19 (Chicago, IL, USA.Results: Mean (± SD of age were 21.0 ± 5.78 and 30.78 ± 5.10 years for cases and controls group respectively. These groups didn’t show any significance difference in age and parity.H. pylori IgG antibodies were positive among 99 and 103 (98.2% vs. 97.2% in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Relationship between IgG status and EP was not significant (OR = 1.31: 95% CI = 0.7-2.52, Pvalue = 0.37. In particular anti-CagA antibodies were positive among 45 and 39(45.92% vs. 36.97% in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Among women with CagA positive strains had higher odds of Ep (OR = 1.46: 95% CI = 0.8-2.65, Pvalue = 0.18, but it wasn’t significant.Conclusion: According to the result of this study there was not any association between HP infection and Ectopic pregnancy. We recommend more studies with larger sample size for determining the effect of CagA positive strains on EP.

  9. Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Ectopic Pregnancy.

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    Nanbakhsh, Fariba; Behrouzi-Lak, Tahereh; Tabean, Mahsa; Oshnouei, Sima; Mazlumi, Pooya

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the importance of cytokine type in embryo implantation in uterus specified and activated macrophages interfere the tube movements and embryo retention in uterine tubes by smooth muscle relaxation and disrupting ciliary function. Therefore, increased risk of infection with HP during pregnancy, we investigated relation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and prevalence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in this study. This is cross-sectional study from March 2012 to May 2013. Totally 207 women were enrolled randomly from which 101 had EP (Case group) and 106 were selected as control group with normal pregnancy. A 2-cc blood sample was taken from each patient to evaluate the specific IgG titer by ELISA method. All results of samples with positive H. pylori IgG were assayed for anti-CagA, IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was filled for each subject. The associations between CagA positive cases with odds of Ectopic pregnancy incidence were analyzed by using SPSS software, ver. 19 (Chicago, IL, USA). Mean (± SD) of age were 21.0 ± 5.78 and 30.78 ± 5.10 years for cases and controls group respectively. These groups didn't show any significance difference in age and parity.H. pylori IgG antibodies were positive among 99 and 103 (98.2% vs. 97.2%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Relationship between IgG status and EP was not significant (OR = 1.31: 95% CI = 0.7-2.52, Pvalue = 0.37). In particular anti-CagA antibodies were positive among 45 and 39(45.92% vs. 36.97%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Among women with CagA positive strains had higher odds of Ep (OR = 1.46: 95% CI = 0.8-2.65, Pvalue = 0.18), but it wasn't significant. According to the result of this study there was not any association between HP infection and Ectopic pregnancy. We recommend more studies with larger sample size for determining the effect of CagA positive strains on EP.

  10. Linked color imaging improves endoscopic diagnosis of active Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Dohi, Osamu; Yagi, Nobuaki; Onozawa, Yuriko; Kimura-Tsuchiya, Reiko; Majima, Atsushi; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Horii, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kentaro; Tomie, Akira; Okayama, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naohisa; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Linked color imaging (LCI) is a new image-enhanced endoscopy technique using a laser light source to enhance slight differences in mucosal color. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of LCI and conventional white light imaging (WLI) endoscopy for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed images from 60 patients examined with WLI and LCI endoscopy between October 2013 and May 2014. Thirty patients had H. pylori infections, and other thirty patients tested negative for H. pylori after eradication therapy. Four endoscopists evaluated the 2 types of images to determine which was better at facilitating a diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Results: H. pylori infection was identified with LCI by enhancing the red appearance of the fundic gland mucosa. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for diagnosing H. pylori infection using WLI were 74.2 %, 81.7 %, and 66.7 %, respectively, while those for LCI were 85.8 %, 93.3 %, and 78.3 %, respectively. Thus, the accuracy and sensitivity for LCI were significantly higher than those for WLI (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). The kappa values for the inter- and intraobserver variability among the 4 endoscopists were higher for LCI than for WLI. Conclusions: H. pylori infection can be identified by enhancing endoscopic images of the diffuse redness of the fundic gland using LCI. LCI is a novel image-enhanced endoscopy and is more useful for diagnosing H. pylori infection than is WLI. PMID:27556101

  11. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spencer Luiz Marques Pay?o; Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity(dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection.

  12. [Fifth Chinese national consensus report on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Xie, J; Lu, Z R; Cheng, L Y; Zeng, Y; Zhou, J B; Chen, Y J; Wang, N H; Du, Yiqi; Lyu, Nonghua

    2017-07-01

    The fifth national consensus conference on the management of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection organized by Chinese Medical Association, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, H. pylori and Peptic Ulcer Study Group was held at Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province on December 15-16, 2016.More than 80 members of the study group and experts in the field of H. pylori research and gastroenterology attended the meeting.Consensus preparatory group was established to draft the related statements.The quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were evaluated by GRADE system.The Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus of relevant statements.Expert advices about the established statements were firstly consulted through the emails.After two rounds of consultation, the preliminary statements of consensus were discussed and modified in the conference item by item.A total of 21 core members voted for the final version, which contained a total of 48 statements and was divided into 6 parts, including indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnosis, treatment, H. pylori and gastric cancer, H. pylori infection in special populations, H. pylori and gastrointestinal microbiota.

  13. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection.

  14. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and gastric carcinogenesis,and to investigate its mechanism.Methods Totally 333elderly patients with different degrees of gastric mucosal lesions in our hospital were selected.Patients were

  15. Kang Wei Granules in Treatment of Gastropathy Related to Helicobacter Pylory Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞松; 危北海; 姚伟; 罗晓梅

    2003-01-01

    @@ Kang Wei Granules,a granular preparation for strengthening the spleen and replenishing Qi and for clearing away heat and resolving dampness,was used in the treatment of 288 cases of gastropathy related to Helicobacter pylori infection.

  16. Determinants of Ethnic or Geographical Differences in Infectivity and Transmissibility of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Fallone

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is variable in different countries. There are two distinct patterns of H pylori prevalence with respect to age depending on the geographical region studied. The first pattern is widespread infection early in childhood with elevated prevalence rates of close to 80% throughout adulthood, and the second is increasing prevalence with age. This variability in pattern suggests a difference in infectivity or transmissibility of H pylori infection. Potential determinants of these differences are reviewed including environmental, bacterial and host factors. The most important determinant is likely socioeconomic class, which affects living conditions and sanitation, thus altering exposure to the bacterium. Host factors also play a role, perhaps via host receptors for H pylori. Bacterial factors may also contribute, although compelling evidence is lacking.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection and expressions of EGF, EGFR and c-erbB-2 proteins in gastric carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kemona

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The family of epidermal growth factor (EGF, EGFR, c-erbB-2 plays a pivotal role in gastric cancer progression, invasion and metastasizing. Helicobacter pylori infection is known to contribute significantly to the formation and progression of gastric cancer. However, the mechanisms responsible for this process have not been yet elucidated. We analysed the relationship between H. pylori infection and expression of proteins belonging to the family of epidermal growth factor (EGF, EGFR, c-erbB-2. Fifty-five patients with gastric cancer were analysed for Helicobacter pylori infection. The expressions of EGF, EGFR, c-erbB-2 proteins were determined using an immunohistochemical method. No statistically significant correlation was found between the degree of H. pylori infection and the expressions of EGF, EGFR and c-erbB-2 in gastric cancer. However, c-erbB-2 expression in the main mass of tumour correlated with tumour expression of EGF and EGFR and with c-erbB-2 expression in local lymph nodes. The expression of c-erbB-2 in lymph nodes was statistically significantly related to the expressions of EGF and EGFR both in the main mass of tumour and in lymph nodes. The expression of EGF was found to correlate with EGFR in the main mass of tumour and the expression of EGF in lymph nodes was related to lymph node EGFR level. Our study did not confirm the relationship between H. pylori infection and the expression of epidermal growth factor in gastric cancer.

  18. Primary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Changes in Children with Helicobacter pylori Infection over 13 Years in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Pierpacifico; Maffini, Valentina; Bizzarri, Barbara; Fornaroli, Fabiola; Madia, Carmen; Salerno, Antonino; Cangelosi, A. Marta; de'Angelis, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is still a challenge for gastroenterologists. One of the main causes of failure in H. pylori eradication is the antibiotic resistance mainly to clarithromycin. Culture from biopsies is maybe the most used method among the antimicrobial susceptibility techniques. In this study, we compared the antimicrobial susceptibility changes in children with H. pylori infection over 13 years and we confirmed that clarithromycin resistance has been increased (16% versus 26%) though with no statistically signficant value. Therefore, clarithromycin should not be used in empiric treatment of H. pylori eradication therapy in children, but its use should be limited only to children with known antimicrobial susceptibility. On the other hand, metronidazole resistance has decreased over this time period in statistically significant manner (56% versus 33%, p = 0.014). Furthermore, ampicillin resistance has been confirmed to be very rare (3% versus 0%) in children with H. pylori infection. In conclusion, in H. pylori infection, if we do not know the antibiotic susceptibility of patients, we should recommend an eradication therapy based on the local distribution of antibiotic resistance rates trying to limit the therapeutic failures. PMID:26064096

  19. In vivo treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with liposomal linolenic acid reduces colonization and ameliorates inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Obonyo, Marygorret; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a vast prevalence and strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Because of the rapid emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics, current treatment regimens show a rapid decline of their eradication rates. Clearly, novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The LipoLLA formulation with a size of ∼100 nm was prone to fusion with bacterial membrane, thereby directly releasing a high dose of linolenic acids into the bacterial membrane. LipoLLA penetrated the mucus layer of mouse stomach, and a significant portion of the administered LipoLLA was retained in the stomach lining up to 24 h after the oral administration. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated because of the H. pylori infection. Finally, a toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this study indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:25422427

  20. Implications of Antibiotic Resistance in the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Canadian Helicobacter Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Hunt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric and duodenal mucosa is an important clinical goal in the treatment of infected patients with peptic ulcer disease and other H pylori-associated conditions. Although several oral drug combination regimens are associated with eradication rates of approximately 85% in controlled trials, the success rate in patients infected with a resistant strain of H pylori is closer to 75%. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin, which are common components of combination treatment regimens, is of greatest concern. Reported rates of H pylori resistance to various antibiotics vary considerably. In Canada, the data documenting H pylori susceptibility are limited but suggest that resistance to these antibiotics varies geographically and within specific treatment groups. Although susceptibility testing is not a prerequisite for initial treatment of individual patients infected with H pylori, formal efforts to identify and monitor both the causes and prevalence of antibiotic resistance across Canada are a much needed step in the ongoing management of this important infection. Recommended treatment regimens may be useful, even for treating apparently resistant H pylori strains. However, it is important to understand the mechanisms of the development of resistant strains to manage patients with treatment failure better.

  1. Diet, Helicobacter pylori strain-specific infection, and gastric cancer risk among Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Gao, Jing; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the association of diet and gastric cancer is equivocal, and the majority of previous studies have not evaluated the interaction of diet and infection with Helicobacter pylori, the leading risk factor for gastric cancer. We examined these associations among 226 cases and 451 controls nested within a prospective cohort. Dietary intakes were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. Blood levels of 15 antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression. Among individuals infected with high-risk Helicobacter pylori (sero-positivity to 5-6 virulent H. pylori proteins), increasing intake of red meat, heme iron, and sodium increased risk (comparing highest tertile to lowest: ORs [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 1.85 [1.01-3.40]; 1.95 [1.06-3.57]; and 1.76 [0.91-3.43], respectively) while increasing intake of fruit decreased gastric cancer risk (comparing highest tertile of intake to lowest: OR [95% CI]: 0.52 [0.28-0.94]). No associations of diet with risk were found among individuals infected with low-risk H. pylori (P for interaction for red meat and sodium: 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In this population with over 90% prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, categorizing individuals using H. pylori multiplex serology may identify individuals for whom a diet intervention may be effective.

  2. A dominant CD4(+) T-cell response to Helicobacter pylori reduces risk for gastric disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yang, Wu-Chen; He, Jia-Lin; Li, Ning-Yi; Hu, Jian; He, Ya-Fei; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Zhuo; Luo, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Li, Hai-Bo; Zeng, Ming; Lu, Dong-Shui; Li, Bo-Sheng; Guo, Hong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Guo, Gang; Mao, Xu-Hu; Chen, Weisan; Wu, Chao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Immunodominance is an important feature of antiviral, antitumor, and antibacterial cellular immune responses, but it is not well demonstrated in the immune responses against Helicobacter pylori. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells protect mice against infection with H pylori. We investigated the immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell response to neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin (HpaA), which is a conserved, H pylori-specific colonization factor that is being investigated as an antigen for vaccination strategies. HpaA-specific CD4(+) T cells were expanded with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells that had been incubated with recombinant HpaA and characterized using overlapping synthetic peptides. We compared the percentage of CD4(+) T cells with specificity for HpaA(88-100), restricted to HLA-DRB1*1501, among 59 H pylori-infected subjects with different gastric diseases. We identified and characterized several immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell epitopes derived from HpaA. The immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell responses specific to HpaA(88-100) were observed in most H pylori-infected individuals who expressed HLA-DRB1*1501 and were significantly more abundant in patients with less severe diseases (P HpaA(88-100) is associated with reduced risk of severe gastric diseases. Further study of these and other immunodominant CD4(+) T-cell responses to H pylori will provide insight into mechanisms of protective immunity and aid in vaccine design. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nickel trafficking system responsible for urease maturation in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Rui-Guang; Wang, Dong-Xian; Hao, Ming-Cong; Sun, Xue-Song

    2013-12-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common human pathogen responsible for various gastric diseases. This bacterium relies on the production of urease and hydrogenase to inhabit the acidic environment of the stomach. Nickel is an essential cofactor for urease and hydrogenase. H. pylori has to uptake sufficient nickel ions for the maturation of urease, and on the other way, to prevent the toxic effects of excessive nickel ions. Therefore, H. pylori has to strike a delicate balance between the import of nickel ions, its efficient intracellular storage, and delivery to nickel-dependent metalloenzymes when required. The assembly and maturation of the urease enzyme is a complex and timely ordered process, requiring various regulatory, uptake, chaperone and accessory proteins. In this review, we focus on several nickel trafficking proteins involved in urease maturation: NikR, NixA, HypAB, UreEFGH, HspA, Hpn and Hpnl. The work will deepen our understanding of how this pathogenic bacterium adapts to severe habitant environments in the host.

  4. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

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    LI Yuling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBC. MethodsA total of 235 patients with HBC who were admitted to our hospitals from October 2008 to October 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The infection rate of H. pylori in those patients was calculated. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices and 97 patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG, the infection rate of H. pylori was compared between those with different degrees of esophagogastric varices or PHG. In the 32 patients whose blood ammonia was determined, the level of blood ammonia was compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. Between-group comparison of continuous data was performed by t test and analysis of variance, and between-group comparison of categorical data was performed by χ2 test. ResultsThe infection rate of H. pylori in the 235 patients with HBC was 80.85% (190/235. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices, who had tortuous serpentine uplift or bead-like changes of esophageal varices and tumor-like changes (with or without gastric erosion of gastric varices visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild, moderate, and severe varices (50.55% (46/91 vs 43.59% (17/39 vs 76% (19/25, χ2=6.913, P<0.05. In the 97 patients with PHG, who had snake skin-like changes, cherry red spots, scarlet rash, and erosion bleeding of gastric mucosa visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild and severe PHG (43.33% (26/60 vs 67.57% (25/37, χ2=5.391, P<005.In patients whose blood ammonia was determined, patients in H. pylori-positive group had a significantly higher average concentration of blood ammonia than those in H. pylori-negative group (62.76±13.43 vs 47.20±12.51 μmol/L, t= 3.39, P<0

  5. Association of autoimmune type atrophic corpus gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lea; Irene; Veijola; Aino; Mirjam; Oksanen; Pentti; Ilmari; Sipponen; Hilpi; Iris; Kaarina; Rautelin

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the association between Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)infection and autoimmune type atrophic gastritis. METHODS:Twenty-three patients with different grades of atrophic gastritis were analysed using enzyme immunoassay-based serology,immunoblot-based serology,and histology to reveal a past or a present H.pylori infection.In addition,serum markers for gastric atrophy(pepsinogenⅠ,pepsinogenⅠ/Ⅱand gastrin)and autoimmunity[parietal cell antibodies(PCA), and intrinsic factor(IF),antibodies]were determi...

  6. ETHNIC AND POPULATION-SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ageeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Immunophenotype profile of lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ from peripheral blood in gastric ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer has been studied in Khakassian aboriginals and migrants. Apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was also evaluated. Some alterations of immunological indexes were revealed in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori, as compared to healthy donors and migrants. The changes were characterized by a more intense apoptotic death of lymphocytes in the patients, when compared with numbers of apoptotic cells in control group. Probable role of apoptotic events in regulation of local and system immunity in Helicobacter pylori infection is discussed.

  7. Determination of the Infectious Dose of Helicobacter pylori during Primary and Secondary Infection in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Hansen, Lori M.; Canfield, Don R.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine the infectious dose of Helicobacter pylori during primary and secondary infection in the rhesus monkey and to determine whether preinoculation acid suppression is necessary to produce colonization. Mixed inoculation with three human-derived strains showed that H. pylori J166 is particularly adapted to colonization of rhesus monkeys, since it outcompeted two other strains. The minimum infectious dose of H. pylori J166 was 104 bacteria in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-fre...

  8. Frequency of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Bagheri, Nader; Zamanzad, Behnam; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-03-01

    The outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been related to specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cagA gene, oipA and babA2 gene are important virulence factor involving gastric diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between virulence factors of H. pylori and histopathological findings. Gastroduodenoscopy was performed in 436 dyspeptic patients. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, virulence factors and for histopathological assessment. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence factors of H. pylori using specific primers. vacA genotypes in patients infected with H. pylori were associated with cagA, iceA1 and iceA2. In the patients with H. pylori infection there was a significant relationship between cagA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and chronic inflammation (P = 0.013) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.034). Neutrophil infiltration was found to be more severe in the s1 group than in the s2 group (P = 0.042). Also was a significant relationship between oipA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.018). No significant relationships were observed between other vacA genotypes and histopathological parameters. H. pylori strains showing cagA, vacA s1 and oipA positivity are associated with more severe gastritis in some histological features but virulence factors of H. pylori do not appear to determine the overall pattern of gastritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Significant association between Helicobacter pylori infection and serum C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric mucosa may cause systemic inflammatory reaction. This study aimed to examine the association between the infection and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods: Subjects were comprised of three groups; 453 health checkup examinees from Yakumo town inhabitants in Hokkaido, Japan (YTI, 153 males and 300 females), 449 health checkup examinees (ENUH, 273 males and 176 females), and 255 female patients of an inferti...

  10. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on growth trajectories in young Ethiopian children: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Bineyam Taye; Fikre Enquselassie; Aster Tsegaye; Alemayehu Amberbir; Girmay Medhin; Andrew Fogarty; Karen Robinson; Gail Davey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with early childhood growth impairment in high- and middle-income countries; however, few studies have examined this relationship within low-income countries or have used a longitudinal design. The possible effects of H. pylori infection on growth trajectories were examined in a cohort of young Ethiopian children. Methods: In 2011/12, 856 children (85.1% of the 1006 original singletons in a population-based birth cohort) were fo...

  11. Changing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer among dyspeptic Sardinian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria Pina; Marras, Giuseppina; Rocchi, Chiara; Soro, Sara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Bassotti, Gabrio; Graham, David Y; Malaty, Hoda M; Pes, Giovanni M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has fallen as standards of living improved. The changes in the prevalence of infection and its manifestations (peptic ulcer disease and gastric mucosal lesions) were investigated in a large cohort of Sardinians undergoing upper endoscopy for dyspepsia. A retrospective observational study was conducted involving patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia from 1995 to 2013. H. pylori status was assessed by histology plus the rapid urease test or 13C-UBT. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated histologically. Data including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use and the presence of peptic ulcers were collected. The prevalence of H. pylori was calculated for each quartile and for each birth cohort from 1910 to 2000. 11,202 records were retrieved for the analysis (62.9% women). The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 43.8% (M: 46.6% vs. F: 42.0%; P = 0.0001). A dramatic decrease in the prevalence of infection occurred over the 19-year observation period. The birth cohort effect was evident in each category (quartile) reflecting the continuous decline in H. pylori acquisition. Over time, the prevalence of peptic ulcers also declined, resulting in an increase in the proportion of H. pylori negative/NSAID positive and H. pylori negative/NSAID negative peptic ulcers. The prevalence of gastric mucosal changes also declined despite aging. The decline in H. pylori prevalence over time likely reflects the improvement in socioeconomic conditions in Sardinia such that H. pylori infection and its clinical outcomes including peptic ulcer are becoming less frequent even among dyspeptic patients.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimczok, Diane; Smythies, Lesley E; Waites, Ken B; Grams, Jayleen M; Stahl, Richard D; Mannon, Peter J; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C Mel; Harris, Paul R; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B; Smith, Phillip D

    2013-06-15

    Increased apoptotic death of gastric epithelial cells is a hallmark of Helicobacter pylori infection, and altered epithelial cell turnover is an important contributor to gastric carcinogenesis. To address the fate of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells and their role in H. pylori mucosal disease, we investigated phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells in H. pylori infection. Human gastric mononuclear phagocytes were analyzed for their ability to take up apoptotic epithelial cells (AECs) in vivo using immunofluorescence analysis. We then used primary human gastric epithelial cells induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to live H. pylori to study apoptotic cell uptake by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. We show that HLA-DR(+) mononuclear phagocytes in human gastric mucosa contain cytokeratin-positive and TUNEL-positive AEC material, indicating that gastric phagocytes are involved in AEC clearance. We further show that H. pylori both increased apoptosis in primary gastric epithelial cells and decreased phagocytosis of the AECs by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. Reduced macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells was mediated in part by H. pylori-induced macrophage TNF-α, which was expressed at higher levels in H. pylori-infected, compared with uninfected, gastric mucosa. Importantly, we show that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa contained significantly higher numbers of AECs and higher levels of nonphagocytosed TUNEL-positive apoptotic material, consistent with a defect in apoptotic cell clearance. Thus, as shown in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, insufficient phagocyte clearance may contribute to the chronic and self-perpetuating inflammation in human H. pylori infection.

  13. Pathological and Clinical Correlation between Celiac Disease and Helicobacter Pylori Infection; a Review of Controversial Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Javad Ehsani-Ardakani, Mohammad; Assadzadeh, Hamid; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ierardi, Enzo; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Zojaji, Homayon; Alizadeh, Amirhoshang Mohammad; Naderi, Nosratollah; Sadeghi, Amir; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-01

    There are overwhelming reports and descriptions about celiac associated disorders. Although there is a clear genetic association between celiac disease (CD) and some gastrointestinal disorders, there are controversial reports claiming an association between CD and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Different studies indicated the possible association between lymphocytic gastritis and both CD and H. pylori infection, although this evidence is not consistently accepted. Also it was shown that an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes count is associated with both H. pylori infection and celiac disease. Therefore the following questions may raise: how far is this infection actually related to CD?, which are the underlying patho-mechanisms for these associations? what are the clinical implications? what is the management? and what would be the role of gluten free diet in treating these conditions? PubMed (PubMed Central), Ovid, ISI of web knowledge, and Google scholar were searched for full text articles published between 1985 and 2015. The associated keywords were used, and papers described particularly the impact of pathological and clinical correlation between CD and H. pylori infection were identified. In this review we tried to answer the above questions and discussed some of the recent developments in the pathological and clinical aspects of CD and H. pylori infection.

  14. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan

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    Chih-Ho Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA, are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70. The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6% was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (P<0.05. Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development.

  15. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju-Chun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Li, Ju-Pi; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Wu, Hua-Shan; Sun, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Ling; Lee, Ju-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70). The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6%) was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (P < 0.05). Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development. PMID:27738429

  16. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  17. Double strain probiotic effect on Helicobacter pylori infection treatment: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Sepehr; Montazer, Majid; Poorshahverdi, Parinaz; Ramouz, Ali; Fakour, Sanam

    2017-01-01

    A decreased rate of successful helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection treatment has revealed serious demand for more effective regimens to eradicate infection. Therefore, probiotics have recently been considered to increase the rate of antibiotic regimens efficacy in H. pylori infections. In current randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the effect of double strain probiotic combination with standard triple therapy (STT), in the eradication rate of H. pylori infection. In current randomized placebo-control study, all patients (176 subjects) underwent the STT for 10 days. However, the study group received triple therapy for the eradication of H. pylori with supplement of Lactobacillus probiotic for 4 weeks and placebo was administered to control group, as well. Adverse effects of the antibiotic regimen were recorded for all patients. Six weeks after the cessation of probiotic intake, all patients underwent H. Pylori with fecal antigen of test, followed by a recurrence evaluation six months later. There was no significant difference in demographic data and presenting symptoms between the study groups. The eradication rate of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in probiotic group (78.4%), compared to that of placebo group (64.8%) (P=0.033). In addition, adverse events were significantly less prevalent in patients that received probiotic (P=0.047). Nonetheless, there was no significant difference in terms of infection recurrence during a 6-month follow-up (P=0.07). Double strain probiotic in combination with STT increased the eradication rate of H. pylori infection, while the adverse events due to antibiotic therapy decreased.

  18. Evaluation of clinico-pathological features and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric inflammatory fibroid polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Andreia; Rios, Elisabete; Carneiro, Fátima; Macedo, Guilherme

    2014-12-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare mesenchymal lesions. The frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa overlying inflammatory fibroid polyps and its relation with the histologic features of the polyps are undetermined. The clinico-pathological features of inflammatory fibroid polyps, the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the overlying gastric mucosa, and its putative impact on the phenotype of the polyps were evaluated. Gastric inflammatory fibroid polyps diagnosed in our Hospital from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed and the histological. The histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and modified Giemsa for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection. Inconclusive cases were further analyzed by immunohistochemistry with anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody. Diagnosis was confirmed in 54 polyps, 85 % developed in females, mean age 63 ± 11 years. Most polyps were sessile (74 %), with a mean size of 15 ± 12 mm, 96 % were located in the antrum and 85 % were removed by snare polypectomy. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 48 % of the polyps. Most inflammatory fibroid polyps developed in the submucosa, and mucosal extension was observed in 96 % of the cases. Chronic gastritis was observed in all cases (63 % with activity, 31 % with intestinal metaplasia, and 61 % with foveolar hyperplasia). Erosion and ulceration of the overlying gastric mucosa was observed in 48 % and 11 % of the polyps, respectively. Onion skin features were present in 52 % of the polyps and were more frequently observed in cases without evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Background changes in gastric mucosa were not distinctive according to Helicobacter pylori infection. Chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia was associated with the presence of perivascular onion skin lesions. To our knowledge, this is the second largest series of gastric inflammatory fibroid polyps. Helicobacter pylori infection was

  19. Helicobacter pylori and Nonmalignant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy.

  20. Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslaw Jarosz; Ewa Rychlik; Magdalena Siuba; Wioleta Respondek; Malgorzata Ry(z)ko-Skiba; Iwona Sajór; Sylwia Gugala; Tomasz Bla(z)ejczyk; Janusz Ciok

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H py/or/infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups;I-examined group (111 persons with Hpy/or/re-infection) and Ⅱ-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001), vegetables (P = 0.02), and fruit (P = 0.008) consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables), might decrease the risk of Hpylori re-infection.

  1. Evaluating the validity of the serologic test for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils.

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    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Yu, Fang-Jung; Tsai, Pei-Yun; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Chang, Lin-Li; Jan, Chang-Ming; Wang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2007-11-01

    A strong correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer has been reported. Mongolian gerbils are regarded as the most suitable animal model in which to study carcinogenesis associated with H. pylori. The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of the serologic test for detecting H. pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils. The model was developed as follows: the H. pylori colony (vacuolating cytotoxin A (+)/cytotoxin-associated gene A (+)) was cultured from the mucosas of previously H. pylori-fed gerbils. These colonies were cultured in broth. Then,we fed the gerbils with 0.5-1 mL of broth (about 10(9) CFU/mL) (intragastric administration) twice within a 3-day period. After inoculation for 6 or 26 weeks, the gerbils were sacrificed and their gastric mucosas were sampled for a series of examinations. Blood samples for serologic testing (STAT-PAK) were collected. H. pylori infection was confirmed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. Differences were regarded as significant when the p value was less than 0.05. A total of 50 gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori and the success rate reached 88%. All 10 gerbils in the control group showed a negative result. Damage to the mucosas was more obvious following increasing periods of inoculation. The rates of sensitivity and specificity, as determined by the STAT-PAK test, were 90.9% and 100%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 60%, respectively. The STAT-PAK test seemed to be more sensitive and accurate (p < 0.05) in high H. pylori densities. In conclusion, the STAT-PAK test (blood-sampling) showed acceptable results and was suitable for long-term observation of H. pylori infection.

  2. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric emptying rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grigoris I Leontiadis; George I Minopoulos; Efstratios Maltezos; Stamatia Kotsiou; Konstantinos I Manolas; Konstantinos Simopoulos; Dimitrios Hatseras

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) remains unclear.We aimed to examine whether gastric emptying rate in NUD patients was associated with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)infection and whether it was affected by eradication of the infection.METHODS: Gastric emptying rate of a mixed solid-liquid meal was assessed by the paracetamol absorption method in NUD patients and asymptomatic controls (n=17). H pylori status was assessed by serology and biopsy urease test.H pylori-positive NUD patients (n=23) received 10-day triple eradication therapy. H pylori status was re-assessed by biopsy urease test four weeks later, and if eradication was confirmed, gastric emptying rate was re-evaluated.RESULTS: Thirty-three NUD patients and 17 controls were evaluated. NUD patients had significantly delayed gastric emptying compared with controls. The mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentration divided by body mass (P=0.02), the mean area under plasma paracetamol concentration-time curve divided by body mass (AUC/BM)Gastric emptying rate did not differ significantly between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative NUD patients. The were initially H pylori-positive, confirmed eradication of the infection did not significantly alter gastric emptying rate.and after Hp eradication, respectively (P=0.64), the mean eradication, respectively (P=0.93).CONCLUSION: Although gastdc emptying is delayed in NUD patients compared with controls, gastric emptying rate is not associated with H pylori status nor it is affected by eradication of the infection.

  3. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection Decreases with Older Age in Atrophic Gastritis

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    Shaohua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical pathological characteristics of 3969 adult patients with chronic atrophic gastritis were retrospectively studied. The positivity of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in atrophic gastric specimens increased with age; however, H. pylori positivity and inflammatory activity decreased significantly with increased age. H. pylori infection was present in 21.01% of chronic atrophic gastritis patients, and 92.33% of the subjects with H. pylori infection were found to have simultaneous inflammatory activity. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity markedly increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. In conclusion, the incidence of H. pylori infection decreased with age and correlated significantly with inflammatory activity in atrophic gastritis patients. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity notably increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. Large population-based prospective studies are needed to better understand the progression of CAG.

  4. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among an adult population of Lima, Peru 2017

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    Arturo Pareja Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among an adult population of Lima, Peru 2017. Materials and methods: Descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study. Population of volunteers older than 18 years, of both sexes, with or without general gastrointestinal discomfort. A screening campaign was carried out in the districts of Magdalena and Chorrillos in the city of Lima, Peru, in January 2017. For the diagnosis, CTK Biotech’s OnSite H. pylori Ab Combo Rapid Test CE was used. Results: One hundred forty (140 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 36.6 years old, being 22.1% male and 77.9% female. The seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 63.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection is common in the city of Lima, with no difference between gender and age.

  5. First detected Helicobacter pylori infection in infancy modifies the association between diarrheal disease and childhood growth in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    WINDLE, HENRY

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In endemic settings, Helicobacter pylori infection can occur shortly after birth and may be associated with a reduction in childhood growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated what factors promote earlier age of first H. pylori infection and evaluated the role of H. pylori infection in infancy (6-11 months) versus early childhood (12-23 months) on height. We included 183 children near birth from a peri-urban shanty town outside of Lima, Peru. Field-workers c...

  6. First detected Helicobacter pylori infection in infancy modifies the association between diarrheal disease and childhood growth in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaganath, D; Saito, M; Gilman, RH; Queiroz, DM; Rocha, GA; Cama, V; Cabrera, L; Kelleher, D; Windle, HJ; Crabtree, JE; Checkley, W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In endemic settings, Helicobacter pylori infection can occur shortly after birth and may be associated with a reduction in childhood growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated what factors promote earlier age of first H. pylori infection and evaluated the role of H. pylori infection in infancy (6-11 months) versus early childhood (12-23 months) on height. We included 183 children near birth from a peri-urban shanty town outside of Lima, Peru. Field-workers collected da...

  7. The Development of Urease Inhibitors: What Opportunities Exist for Better Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif T. S. Hassan; Miroslava Šudomová

    2017-01-01

    Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes severe gastroduodenal diseases in a large number of patients worldwide. The H. pylori infection breaks up in early childhood, persists lifelong if not treated, and is associated with chronic gastritis and an increased risk of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In recent years, the problem of drug-resistant strains has become a global concern that makes the treatment more complicated and the infection persistent at higher levels when...

  8. Alteration or adaptation, the two roads for human gastric mucin glycosylation infected by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncquel Chevalier Curt, Marie; Lecointe, Karine; Mihalache, Adriana; Rossez, Yannick; Gosset, Pierre; Léonard, Renaud; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and infects more than half of the world's human population. Chronic infection may cause gastritis, duodenal ulcer, intestinal metaplasia or gastric cancer. In the stomach, H. pylori interacts with O-glycans of gastric mucins but the mechanism by which the bacteria succeed in altering the mucosa remains mainly unknown. To better understand the physiopathology of the infection, inhibitory adhesion assays were performed with various O-glycans expressed by human gastric mucins, and topographic expression of gastric mucins MUC5AC and MUC6 was analyzed for healthy uninfected individuals, for infected asymptomatic individuals and for patients infected by H. pylori and having the incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia. The glycosylation of the gastric mucosa of asymptomatic individuals infected by H. pylori was determined and compared with the glycosylation pattern found for patients with the incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia. Results show that H. pylori manages to modulate host's glycosylation during the course of infection in order to create a favorable niche, whereas asymptomatic infected individuals seem to counteract further steps of infection development by adapting their mucus glycosylation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Region of CagL is Responsible for Helicobacter Pylori-Induced Il-8 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Hofbaur, Stefan; Loell, Eva; Rieder, Gabriele

    2016-09-29

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H. pylori infection. In the present study, we explored a new recognition pattern on the bacterial adhesion protein CagL inducing IL-8 expression in H. pylori-infected host cells. To analyze the secreted IL-8 concentration, we performed IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To investigate the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expression on the transcriptional level, we transiently transfected gastric epithelial cells (AGS) with a human IL-8 luciferase reporter construct. The results of this study demonstrate that specifically the C-terminal coiled-coil region of the H. pylori CagL protein, a protein described to be located on the tip of the T4SS-pilus, is responsible for several in vitro observations: 1) H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion via the transforming growth factor (TGF)-α activated epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) signaling pathway; 2) H. pylori-induced elongation of the cells, a typical CagA-induced phenotype; and 3) the bridging of the T4SS to its human target cells. This novel bacterial-host recognition sequence allows a new insight into how H. pylori induces the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells and facilitates the development of precancerous conditions.

  10. A C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Region of CagL is Responsible for Helicobacter Pylori-Induced Il-8 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Hofbaur, Stefan; Loell, Eva; Rieder, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H. pylori infection. In the present study, we explored a new recognition pattern on the bacterial adhesion protein CagL inducing IL-8 expression in H. pylori-infected host cells. To analyze the secreted IL-8 concentration, we performed IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To investigate the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expression on the transcriptional level, we transiently transfected gastric epithelial cells (AGS) with a human IL-8 luciferase reporter construct. The results of this study demonstrate that specifically the C-terminal coiled-coil region of the H. pylori CagL protein, a protein described to be located on the tip of the T4SS-pilus, is responsible for several in vitro observations: 1) H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion via the transforming growth factor (TGF)-α activated epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) signaling pathway; 2) H. pylori-induced elongation of the cells, a typical CagA-induced phenotype; and 3) the bridging of the T4SS to its human target cells. This novel bacterial-host recognition sequence allows a new insight into how H. pylori induces the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells and facilitates the development of precancerous conditions. PMID:27766167

  11. Emerging Role of Probiotics in the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Histopathologic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Mohamed H; Elhawari, Soha A; Yousef, Salem; Radwan, Mohamed I; Abdel-Aziz, Hesham R

    2016-02-01

    There is growing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that emphasizes the efficacy of probiotics in the management of Helicobacter (H) pylori infection; it increased the eradication rate, improved patient clinical manifestations and lowered treatment associated side effects. In this review we documented the potential ability of probiotics to ameliorate H. pylori induced histological features. We searched the available literature for full length articles focusing the role of probiotics on H. pylori induced gastritis from histologic perspectives. Probiotics lowered H. pylori density at the luminal side of epithelium, improved histological inflammatory and activity scores both in the gastric corpus and antrum. This effect persists for long period of time after discontinuation of probiotic supplementation and this is probably through an immune mechanism. The current evidence support the promising role of probiotics in improving H. pylori induced histopathological features both in gastric antrum and corpus and for long periods of time. Because increased density of H. pylori on the gastric mucosa is linked to more severe gastritis and increased incidence of peptic ulcers, we can infer that a reduction of the density might help to decrease the risk of developing pathologies, probably the progression toward atrophic gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma. These effects together with improving the H. pylori eradication rates and amelioration of treatment related side effects might open the door for probiotics to be added to H. pylori eradication regimens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ROLE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AND LIFESTYLE HABITS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GASTRODUODENAL DISEASES IN A POPULATION FROM THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

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    Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira VINAGRE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Although more than half of the world's population is colonized with Helicobacter pylori, it remains unknown why this organism is able to produce severe disease in some hosts and be innocuous in others. The clinical outcome of infection is determined by several factors, including differences in the host response to bacterial stimulation, specific virulence factors of the organism and environmental influences, or a combination of these factors. Objectives This study compared the prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors (infection with CagA+ strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and inadequate eating habits between patients with different gastrointestinal disorders and associated these risk factors with the histopathological findings. Methods In a prospective study, samples were collected from 442 patients and a standardized questionnaire regarding lifestyle habits (excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and eating habits was applied. The presence of H. pylori and of the cagA gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Gastric biopsies were obtained for histological assessment. Results The frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, inadequate diet and infection with CagA+ H. pylori was higher among patients with peptic ulcer and adenocarcinoma when compared to those with gastritis. Gastric inflammation was more pronounced in patients infected with CagA+ strains. Conclusion We conclude that infection with CagA+ H. pylori strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and inadequate eating habits increase the risk of developing peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma.

  13. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection and lifestyle habits in the development of gastroduodenal diseases in a population from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Vilar-e-Silva, Adenielson; Fecury, Amanda Alves; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2013-01-01

    Although more than half of the world's population is colonized with Helicobacter pylori, it remains unknown why this organism is able to produce severe disease in some hosts and be innocuous in others. The clinical outcome of infection is determined by several factors, including differences in the host response to bacterial stimulation, specific virulence factors of the organism and environmental influences, or a combination of these factors. This study compared the prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors (infection with CagA+ strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and inadequate eating habits) between patients with different gastrointestinal disorders and associated these risk factors with the histopathological findings. In a prospective study, samples were collected from 442 patients and a standardized questionnaire regarding lifestyle habits (excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and eating habits) was applied. The presence of H. pylori and of the cagA gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gastric biopsies were obtained for histological assessment. The frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, inadequate diet and infection with CagA+ H. pylori was higher among patients with peptic ulcer and adenocarcinoma when compared to those with gastritis. Gastric inflammation was more pronounced in patients infected with CagA+ strains. We conclude that infection with CagA+ H. pylori strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and inadequate eating habits increase the risk of developing peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma.

  14. Indistinguishable cellular changes in gastric mucosa between helicobacter pylori infected asymptomatic tribal and duodenal ulcer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhira Rani Saha; Simanti Datta; Santanu Chattopadhyay; Rajashree Patra; Ronita De; Krishnan Rajendran; Abhijit Chowdhury; Thandavaryan Ramamurthy; Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changing pattern of different histological parameters occurring in the stomach tissue of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infected tribal populations and duodenal ulcer patients among ethnic Bengalis and correlation of the genotypes of H pylori with different histological parameters.METHODS: One hundred and twelve adult individuals were enrolled into this study between 2002 and 2004. Among them, 72 had clinical features of duodenal ulcer (DU) from ethnic Bengali population and 40 were asymptomatic ethnic tribals. Endoscopic gastric biopsy samples were processed for histology, genotyping and rapid urease test. Histologically,haematoxylin and eosin staining was applied to assess the pathomorphological changes and a modified Giemsa staining was used for better detection of Hpylori. For intestinal metaplasia, special stainings, i.e.AIcian blue periodic acid-Schiff and high iron diamineAIcian blue staining, were performed. PCR was performed on bacterial DNA to characterize the presence or absence of virulence-associated genes, like cagA, and distribution of different alleles of vacA and iceA .RESULTS: Intraglandular neutrophil infiltration, a hallmark of activity of gastritis, was present in 34 (94%) of tribals (TRs) and 42 (84%) of DU individuals infected with Hpylori. Lymphoid follicles and aggregates, which are important landmarks in H pylori infection, were positive amongst 15 (41%) of TRs and 20 (40%) of DU subjects. Atrophic changes were observed in 60% and 27.7%, respectively, among DU cases and tribals (P > 0.003). Metaplastic changes were detected in low numbers in both groups. Moderate to severe density distribution of Hpylori in the gastric mucosa was 63% among TRs, whereas it was 62% in DU subjects. There were no significant differences in the distribution of virulence-associated genes like cagA, vacA and iceA of Hpylori strains carried by these two populations.CONCLUSION: Our study showed almost similar distribution of inflammatory

  15. Is hepcidin the bridge linking Helicobacter pylori and anemia of chronic infection? A research proposal.

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    Pellicano, R; Rizzetto, M

    2004-09-01

    Since the last decade, several studies have reported on the link between chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or Helicobacter species (H. species) infection and a variety of extragastric manifestations, comprising iron-deficiency anemia. A crucial question concerns which possible pathogenic mechanism of H. pylori infection may be involved in chronic anemia. Recent findings support the hypothesis that in subjects with H. pylori-positive gastritis, concomitant changes in intragastric pH and ascorbic acid are present that might play a role in impairing alimentary iron absorption with consequent sideropenic anemia. It has also been speculated that H. pylori infected antrum could act as a sequestering focus for iron. The bacterium enhances gastric lactoferrin, which captures iron from transferrin. The iron thus bound to lactoferrin is in turn picked up by the bacterium, by means of its outer membrane receptors, for its own growth. These models, however, are not able to answer why iron-deficiency anemia does not develop in all infected subjects. Recently, a new anti-microbial liver-made peptide, namely hepcidin, has been characterised. The link between hepcidin induction, inflammation and anemia both in humans and in animal models supports its key role as mediator of anemia of inflammation. In the present paper, we highlight the data available on the association between H. pylori and iron-deficiency anemia and, we propose to evaluate a possible mechanism involving hepcidin in a bridging role linking the infection to the anemia.

  16. Meta-analysis: Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with Parkinson's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Yang, Huazhen; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    The results from observational studies on the relationship between helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and Parkinson's disease remain controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between helicobacter pylori infection and Parkinson's disease. A comprehensive literature search was performed on relevant studies published from January 1983 to January 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE databases. The fixed or random effects model was used to pool the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval from individual studies. Publication bias was estimated by Egger's test and the funnel plot. Eight eligible studies involving 33 125 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with the no helicobacter pylori infected person, the pooled odds ratio of Parkinson's disease in helicobacter pylori infected person was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.37-1.85). In subgroup analyzes, the combined odds ratios were 1.96 (1.23-3.12) in Asia, 1.55 (1.32-1.82) in Europe, 1.59 (1.35-1.88) in case-control studies, 1.56 (1.01-2.39) in cross-sectional studies, 1.56 (1.32-1.85) in studies with confounders adjusted, and 1.71 (1.21-2.43) in studies with no confounder adjusted, respectively. This meta-analysis indicated that H. pylori infection might be associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH ACID PEPTIC DISORDERS

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    Chetan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A single centre study was planned to assess prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients suffering from acid peptic disorders, in order to find out the burden of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients suffering from acid peptic disorders. METHODOLOGY: A total of 100 subjects, suspected clinically as cases of acid peptic disorder, were subjected to upper gastro intestinal endoscopy. Two biopsies were taken and sent for rapid urease test and histopathological examination. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The data obtained was coded and entered in Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet. The categorical data was expressed as rates, ratios and percentages and comparison was done using chi-square test. RESULTS: Total of 100 subjects was studied, of which 66 were males and 34 were females. Rapid urease test was positive for H. pylori infection in 40 %(n=40 of the patients and histopathological report revealed 49% (n=49 of the patients with H. pylori infection. Based on both the diagnostic modalities of which either one may be positive (rapid urease test or histopathological examination the H. pyloric prevalence in acid peptic disorder patients was found to be 59%. CONCLUSIONS: Present study showed high prevalence of H. pylori in patients with acid peptic disorders. The infection with H pylori was not associated with age, sex and place of residence

  18. Clinical significance of infection with cag A and vac A positive helicobacter pylori strains

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    Sokić-Milutinović Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical relevance of infection with different Helicobacter pylori strains was reviewed in this paper. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection most probably include acne rosacea and chronic urticaria, while the importance of H. pylori infection for pathogenesis of growth retardation in children, iron deficiency anemia, coronary heart disease, stroke and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura remains vague. The expression of two H. pylori proteins, cytotoxin associated protein (cag A and vacuolization cytotoxin (vac A is considered to be related with pathogenicity of the bacterium. It is clear that presence of cag A+ strains is important for development of peptic ulcer; nevertheless, it is also protective against esophageal reflux disease. On the other hand, cag A+ strains are common in gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma patients, but it seems that certain subtypes of vac A cytotoxin are more important risk factors. Infection with cag A+ strains is more common in patients with acne rosacea, stroke and coronary heart disease.

  19. Does helicobacter pylori infection in chronic renal failure increase the risk of gastroduodenal lesions? A prospective study

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    Abdulrahman Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori plays an important role in gastroduodenal disease. However, there are few data concerning the epidemiology of H.pylori in patients with chronic renal failure and on hemodialysis (HD treatment. Aim of the study: This study is aimed to determine the epidemiology of H.pylori infection in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD on Hemodialysis (HD. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with dyspeptic complaints were included in the study. They were divided into two groups; group one consisted of 46 patients with ESRD on HD and group two (control of 50 patients without renal disease. All patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopies, and gastric biopsies were obtained for histological evidence of H. pylori infection. Results: The mean age of both groups was similar. The prevalence of H.pylori among the two groups was not significantly different (45.7%Vs48%=p>0.05. The prevalence of duodenal ulcers was significantly higher in H.pylori positive than in H.pylori negative ESRD patients (p< 0.05. GERD was significantly lower in H.pylori positive patients in both groups (p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Conclusion: This study showed a similar prevalence of H.pylori infection in both groups. H.pylori infection in patients with ESRD is probably associated with increased risk of gastroduodenal lesions

  20. Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Pancreatic Cancer. A Cumulative Meta-Analysis

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    Guru Trikudanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of various malignant conditions. Notwithstanding, its etiological association with pancreatic cancer remains inconclusive. Studies focusing on the relationship between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded conflicting results. Objective The aim of this study was to obtain a reliable estimate of the risk of H. pylori infection in causing pancreatic cancer, by performing a meta-analysis of the existing observational studies evaluating the association. Methods/Statistics Observational studies comparing the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with pancreatic cancer and healthy controls, conducted in adult populations and published in all languages, were identified through systematic search in the MEDLINE and EMBASE up to April 2010. H. pylori infection was confirmed by serological testing using an antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (AOR and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained by using a DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. Results Six studies involving a total of 2,335 patients met our eligibility criteria. A significant association between H. pylori seropositivity and development of pancreatic cancer (AOR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.75; P=0.009 was seen. No significant association was seen on pooled analysis of the three studies assessing the relationship between cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA positivity and pancreatic cancer. A cumulative meta-analysis suggested a reducing, albeit statistically significant association as the evidence was accumulated. Conclusions The pooled data suggests an association between infection with H. pylori and the development of pancreatic cancer. Further research is needed to confirm our findings.

  1. Declining trends in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection by birth-year in a Japanese population.

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    Watanabe, Miki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Oze, Isao; Ashida, Chieko; Tajima, Kazuo; Katoh, Hisato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Gastric cancer incidence and mortality have been decreasing in Japan. These decreases are likely due to a decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Our aim was to characterize the trends in prevalence of H. pylori infection focused on birth-year. We carried out a cross-sectional study that included 4285 subjects who were born from 1926 to 1989. We defined H. pylori infection by the serum H. pylori antibody titer. Individuals having H. pylori infection and those with negative H. pylori antibody titer and positive pepsinogen test were defined as high-risk individuals for gastric cancer. We estimated the birth-year percent change (BPC) of the prevalence by Joinpoint regression analysis. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among the subjects born from 1927 to 1949 decreased from 54.0% to 42.0% with a BPC of -1.2%. It was followed by a rapid decline in those born between 1949 (42.0%) and 1961 (24.0%) with a BPC of -4.5%, which was followed by those born between 1961 (24.0%) and 1988 (14.0%) with a BPC of -2.1%. The proportion of high-risk individuals for gastric cancer among the subjects born from 1927 to 1942 decreased from 62.0% to 55.0% with a BPC of -0.8%. A subsequent rapid declining trend was observed in those born between 1942 (55.0%) and 1972 (18.0%) with a BPC of -3.6%, and then it became stable. These remarkable declining trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection by birth-year would be useful to predict the future trend in gastric cancer incidence in Japan.

  2. Clinical role and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization method in diagnosis of H pylori infection and determination of clarithromycin resistance in H pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)zlem Yilmaz; Ebru Demiray

    2007-01-01

    H pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.Eradicating H pylori may convert rapidly the outcome of related diseases with the use of more accurate diagnostic molecular tests. Indeed some of the tests cannot give the evidence of current infection; H pylori can be detected by noninvasive and invasive methods,the latter requiring an endoscopy. Eradication failure is a big problem in H pylori infection. Recently, clarithromycin resistance in H pylori strains is increasing and eradication therapy of this bacterium is becoming more difficult.Molecular methods have frequently been applied besides phenotypic methods for susceptibility testing to detect clarithromycin resistance due to mutations in the 2143 and 2144 positions of 23S rRNA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin embedded tissue is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of H pylori infection and to determine clarithromycin resistance within three hours according to the gold standards as a non-culture method. This method can also be applied to fresh biopsy samples and the isolated colonies from a culture of H pylori, detecting both the culturable bacillary forms and the coccoid forms of H pylori, besides the paraffin embedded tissue sections. This technique is helpful for determining the bacterial density and the results of treatment where clarithromycin has been widely used in populations to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to clarify the treatment failure in vitro.

  3. Oxidative DNA damage and oxidized low density lipoprotein in Type II diabetes mellitus among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

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    Nasif, Wesam Ahmed; Mukhtar, Mohammed Hasan; Nour Eldein, Mohammed Mahmoud; Ashgar, Sami Sadagah

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is reported to be associated with various extragastrointestinal conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. H. pylori infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with oxidative stress, this cross-relation between H. pylori induced infection in T2DM and oxidative damage is still debated. Thus, the question arises whether an increase in the serum level of 8-OHdG and Ox-LDL will occurs in patients with T2DM infected H. pylori; this will be through determination and compare frequency of H. pylori infection in T2DM and non-diabetic patients. 100 patients presented with history of epigastric discomfort for more than 1 month; 50 patients with T2DM and 50 non-diabetics. Anti-H. pylori IgG using ELISA, fasting and postprandial glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Serum 8-OHdG and Ox-LDL was measured using ELISA for the 100 patients and 50 control subject. Rates of H. pylori infection of T2DM and non-diabetic were 66 and 58 %, respectively, (p = 0.001). H. pylori IgG antibody was not correlated with HbA1c either in T2DM (p = 0.06) or non-diabetic (p = 0.25). Serum 8-OHdG level in T2DM with positive H. pylori infection showed a significant difference compared to non-diabetics with positive H. pylori infection (p = 0.001) and higher than that in T2DM with negative H. pylori. A correlation between 8-OHdG concentration and HbA1c in T2DM patients infected with H. pylori was observed (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). Serum Ox-LDL level in T2DM with positive H. pylori infection showed a significant difference compared to diabetics with both negative H. pylori infection and in non-diabetics with positive H. pylori infection (p = 0.001). Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) and Ox-LDL suggest the mechanistic link between H. pylori infection combined with diabetes and increased generation of ROS and could play as an important

  4. Previous antibacterial treatment due to concomitant infections in preschool children is associated with a lower Helicobacter pylori positivity.

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    Daugule, Ilva; Rumba, Ingrida; Ejderhamn, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents has been proposed as 1 of the factors that contribute to the loss of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a previous treatment with antibiotics on the prevalence of H. pylori infection in preschool children. Parents of 146 asymptomatic children (aged 0.5-5 y; no antibiotic treatment during the previous 4 weeks) completed a questionnaire about previous treatment with antibiotics and socioeconomic status. Infection with H. pylori was assessed by the monoclonal stool antigen test. H. pylori positivity was 18% (27/146). It was significantly lower in children who had been treated with antibiotics previously compared to those who had been never treated (12.5% (12/96) vs 30% (15/50), p=0.01). It is concluded that previous antibiotic treatment for concomitant infections is associated with a lower prevalence of H. pylori infection in preschool children.

  5. Comprehensive mapping of the Helicobacter pylori NikR regulon provides new insights in bacterial nickel responses

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    Vannini, Andrea; Pinatel, Eva; Costantini, Paolo Emidio; Pelliciari, Simone; Roncarati, Davide; Puccio, Simone; De Bellis, Gianluca; Peano, Clelia; Danielli, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Nickel homeostasis is important for pathogenic and ureolytic bacteria, which use this metal ion as enzymatic cofactor. For example, in the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori an optimal balance between nickel uptake and incorporation in metallo-enzymes is fundamental for colonization of the host. Nickel is also used as cofactor to modulate DNA binding of the NikR regulator, which controls transcription of genes involved in nickel trafficking or infection in many bacteria. Accordingly, there is much interest in a systematic characterization of NikR regulation. Herein we use H. pylori as a model to integrate RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data demonstrating that NikR not only regulates metal-ion transporters but also virulence factors, non-coding RNAs, as well as toxin-antitoxin systems in response to nickel stimulation. Altogether, results provide new insights into the pathobiology of H. pylori and contribute to understand the responses to nickel in other bacteria. PMID:28393877

  6. Clinical value of Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for detecting H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hui Li; Hong Guo; Peng-Bin Zhang; Xiao-Yan Zhao; Si-Ping Da

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reliability of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for detecting H pylori infection.METHODS: Stool specimens were collected from 53 patients who received upper endoscopy examination due to gastrointestinal symptoms. ImmunoCard STAT HpSA wasused to detect H pylori stool antigens. H pyloriinfection wasdetected based on three different tests: the urease test, Warthin-Starry staining and culture. H pylori status wasdefined as positive when both the urease test and histology or culture alone was positive.RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values and the total accuracy of ImmunoCard STAT HpSA for the diagnosis of H pylorinfection were 92.6% (25/27), 88.5% (23/26), 89.3% (25/28), 92%(23/25) and 90.6% (48/53), respectively.CONCLUSION: The stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, is a simple noninvasive and accurate test for the diagnosis of H pyloriinfection.

  7. Regulation of Noxa-mediated apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.

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    Rath, Suvasmita; Das, Lopamudra; Kokate, Shrikant Babanrao; Pratheek, B M; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Goswami, Chandan; Chattopadhyay, Ranajoy; Crowe, Sheila Eileen; Bhattacharyya, Asima

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces the antiapoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) in human gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Apoptosis of oncogenic protein Mcl1-expressing cells is mainly regulated by Noxa-mediated degradation of Mcl1. We wanted to elucidate the status of Noxa in H. pylori-infected GECs. For this, various GECs such as AGS, MKN45, and KATO III were either infected with H. pylori or left uninfected. The effect of infection was examined by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, in vitro binding assay, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Infected GECs, surgical samples collected from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma as well as biopsy samples from patients infected with H. pylori showed significant up-regulation of both Mcl1 and Noxa compared with noninfected samples. Coexistence of Mcl1 and Noxa was indicative of an impaired Mcl-Noxa interaction. We proved that Noxa was phosphorylated at Ser(13) residue by JNK in infected GECs, which caused cytoplasmic retention of Noxa. JNK inhibition enhanced Mcl1-Noxa interaction in the mitochondrial fraction of infected cells, whereas overexpression of nonphosphorylatable Noxa resulted in enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in the infected epithelium. Because phosphorylation-dephosphorylation can regulate the apoptotic function of Noxa, this could be a potential target molecule for future treatment approaches for H. pylori-induced gastric cancer.

  8. Role of the Lewis and ABO Blood Group Antigens in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

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    Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hosein; Badiee, Zahra; Shakibayi, Hosein; Moghimi-Roudi, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. Some findings show increased frequencies of these diseases in individuals with type O blood and in secretors (expressing Le(b) antigen), but other studies have not found any relationship between blood groups and this infection. Given that H. pylori infection and gastric cancer are common in Iran, the assessment of the pathogenesis of this infection in relation to these blood groups could be valuable. In a cross-sectional study, we determined the ABO and Lewis blood groups of participants using the tube method and evaluated the level of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study included 171 Iranian blood donors from Mashhad, Iran, during 2010. The significance of the differences in the frequencies of the Lewis and ABO phenotypes between individuals infected with and without H. Pylori infection were tested using the Chi-square test. A P-value ABO blood group was O (33.9%), and the most common Lewis blood group was Le(a-b+) (54.7%). The frequencies of the ABO, Lewis, and secretion phenotypes were not significantly different between the infected and uninfected subjects. We did not find any significant relationship between the Lewis, ABO, and secretion phenotypes and H. pylori infection.

  9. Assessment of risk factors of helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease

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    Rahul S Mhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer. There have been no studies addressing environmental and dietary risk factors in western India. We conducted a case control study enrolling peptic ulcer patients in Pune, India. Materials and Methods: Risk factors for peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection were assessed in a participant interview. H. pylori status was assessed from stool by monoclonal antigen detection. Results: We enrolled 190 peptic ulcer, 35 stomach cancer patients, and 125 controls. Fifty-one percent (180/350 of the participants were infected with H. pylori. Lower socioeconomic status (SES [odds ratio (OR: 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02-1.39], meat consumption (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23, smoking (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.24-4.02, eating restaurant food (OR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.39-10.23, and drinking nonfiltered or nonboiled water (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23 were risk factors for H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89, meat (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.75, fish (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.89 consumption, and a family history of ulcer (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60 were risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.37 and parasite infestation (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.80 were protective against H. pylori infection. Conclusion: H. pylori infection is associated with peptic ulcer. Lower SES, consumption of restaurant food, meat, nonfiltered water, and smoking are risk factors for H. pylori. Consumption of meat, fish, and a family history of peptic ulcer are risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers and concurrent parasite infestation appear to be protective against H. pylori.

  10. [Helicobacter pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of infection].

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    Rudnicka, Karolina; Graczykowski, Maciej; Tenderenda, Michał; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2014-03-04

    More than 50% of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) - a Gram negative bacterium, which persists in the human stomach and duodenum, causing gastric or duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The majority of H. pylori cells demonstrate rod-shape morphology occurring in two subtypes: spiral and S-shaped. Both are isolated from mucus layer biopsy specimens of the stomach or from short-term cultures. However, results obtained from electron microscopy revealed that H. pylori long-term cultures not only consist of classic, spiral shaped bacteria, but also contain alternative forms of coccoid cells. Further investigations showed that coccoid forms of H. pylori may be divided into two types: viable but non-culturable coccus (VBnC) and a degenerative form, coccoid stage which is probably the effect of bacterial cell death. Transformation from spiral to coccoid form is induced under stress conditions, such as the presence of antibiotics. But still there is no evidence for reversion from the coccoid state to the viable and infectious spiral form. Besides the planktonic form, H. pylori also forms homo-, and heterogenic biofilms, which may constitute a potential environmental reservoir of this bacterium. The antigenic repertoire and the immunomodulatory and infectious properties of different H. pylori forms differ greatly. The variation in those properties suggests that morphological forms of H. pylori are potentially involved in the transmission of the infection. This review presents recent findings on the variability, antigenicity and infectious properties of H. pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of the infection.

  11. Helicobacter pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of infection

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    Karolina Rudnicka,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 50% of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori – a Gram negative bacterium, which persists in the human stomach and duodenum, causing gastric or duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The majority of H. pylori cells demonstrate rod-shape morphology occurring in two subtypes: spiral and S-shaped. Both are isolated from mucus layer biopsy specimens of the stomach or from short-term cultures. However, results obtained from electron microscopy revealed that H. pylori long-term cultures not only consist of classic, spiral shaped bacteria, but also contain alternative forms of coccoid cells. Further investigations showed that coccoid forms of H. pylori may be divided into two types: viable but non-culturable coccus (VBnC and a degenerative form, coccoid stage which is probably the effect of bacterial cell death. Transformation from spiral to coccoid form is induced under stress conditions, such as the presence of antibiotics. But still there is no evidence for reversion from the coccoid state to the viable and infectious spiral form. Besides the planktonic form, H. pylori also forms homo-, and heterogenic biofilms, which may constitute a potential environmental reservoir of this bacterium. The antigenic repertoire and the immunomodulatory and infectious properties of different H. pylori forms differ greatly. The variation in those properties suggests that morphological forms of H. pylori are potentially involved in the transmission of the infection. This review presents recent findings on the variability, antigenicity and infectious properties of H. pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of the infection.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal name: Helicobacter pylori Related tests: Gastrin At a Glance Test Sample ... else I should know? How is it used? Helicobacter pylori testing is used to diagnose an infection due ...

  13. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Early Childhood and Growth at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Goren, Sophy; Cohen, Dani

    2015-12-01

    There are conflicting results regarding the role of H. pylori in children's growth. We examined differences in growth indices at school age according to H. pylori infection acquisition in preschool age. A prospective study was undertaken between 2004 and 2009, in which of healthy children (N = 139, ages 3-5 years at baseline) were tested for the presence of H. pylori antigen in their stool using enzyme-linked immunoassay and followed-up till age 6-9 years (median follow-up time 45 months). Height, weight, and hemoglobin levels were measured, and socioeconomic data were obtained. Z scores of height for age, weight for age, and body mass index for age at baseline and follow-up were calculated using the 2000 Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference curves. Growth velocity (cm/month) between preschool and school age was compared between H. pylori-infected and uninfected children using mixed models. Fifty-three percent of the children were H. pylori positive at baseline, and all except one child tested positive at follow-up. The adjusted mean Z score of height for age at follow-up was significantly lower among H. pylori-infected children than uninfected ones: 0.15 (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.02, 0.29) and 0.45 (95% CI 0.29, 0.60), respectively (p = .002). Growth velocity was slower in the former group -0.0264 cm/month (95% CI -0.047, -0.005) (p = .014), after adjusting for baseline height and age. H. pylori infection was not associated with body weight. Helicobacter pylori infection acquired in early childhood may have long-term adverse influence on linear growth at school age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of indirect immunofloresence (IFA in detection of gastric disorders due to H.pylori infection

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    Alipoor Ghorbani N

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori is the most common human infection in the world. This agent has a strong role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. Therefore introducing of simple and cost effective and non invasive tests are important for diagnosis of H.pylori infections. In this study 215 patient suffering from different gastrointestinal disorders referred to GI endoscopy department of Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital were selected as case and another 50 as control group, which were evaluated for H.pylori infection. Direct smear (staining with Giemsa and urease tests were used as gold standard tests compared with IFA-IgG and culture. Sensitivity and specificity and accuracy for IFA were 94%, 86% and 90%, respectively. Absorption with campylobacter jejoni did not change the level of IgG against H.pylori. Negativity of urease test dose not show the eradication or absence of bacteria, but shows the low number of bacteria in biopsy materials. This report suggest that IFA is an advantageous, sensitive and reliable test in diagnosis of H.pylori infection.

  15. Refractory iron deficiency anemia and Helicobacter Pylori Infection in pediatrics: A review

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    Gheibi, Sh; Farrokh-Eslamlou, HR; Noroozi, M; Pakniyat, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, several clinical reports have demonstrated that H. Pylori infection has emerged as a new cause of refractory iron stores in children. We carried out a systematic literature review to primarily evaluate the existing evidence on the association between childhood H. Pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and secondly, to investigate the beneficial effects of bacterium elimination. Material and Methods This review concerns important pediatric studies published from January 1991 to October 2014. Fourteen case reports and series of cases, 24 observational epidemiologic studies, seven uncontrolled trials, and 16 randomized clinical trials were included in the review. Results Although there are a few observational epidemiologic studies and some randomized trials mostly due to the potential confounders, most studies reported a positive association linking between H. Pylori infection and iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia among children. In addition, it seems that elimination of H. Pylori infection induces beneficial effects on iron deficiency. Conclusions Since the evidence for the association of H. pylori eradication therapy and refractory childhood IDA is not enough and there are contrasting data about such association, future high quality and cohort researches are needed to determine the causal association. PMID:25914802

  16. First case of Helicobacter pylori infection resistant to seven antibiotics in Iran

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    Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with common antibiotics is typically recommended for several digestive conditions, including peptic ulcers. However, reports of resistant H. pylori isolates are increasing, and unfortunately, these do not respond to currently available therapeutic regimens. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with two peptic ulcers in the duodenal antrum. An H. pylori strain was isolated, and tested for antibiotic resistance using agar dilution and disk diffusion. The isolated strain was found to be resistant to all seven antibiotics that were tested. Therefore, constant monitoring for antibiotic resistance should be performed prior to initiating antibiotic therapy.

  17. Mucosal polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hwai-Jeng Lin; Wen-Ching Lo; Chin-Lin Perng; Guan-Ying Tseng; Anna Fen-Yau Li; Yueh-Hsing Ou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori(Hpylori) has been linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and MALT-lymphoma.Conventional invasive tests are less sensitive than noninvasive tests in diagnosing H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Polymerase chain reaction is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosing H pylori infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of mucosal polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers.METHODS: In patients with bleeding, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, we checked rapid urease test,histology, bacterial culture and mucosal polymerase chain reaction for detecting H pylori infection. Positive H pylori infection was defined as positive culture or both a positive histology and a positive rapid urease test. For mucosal polymerase chain reaction of Hpylori, we checked vacA (s1a, s1b, s1c, s2, m1, m1T, m2),iceA1,iceA2 and cag A.RESULTS: Between October 2000 and April 2002, 88 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 60/28, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 55/33), 81 patients with non-bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 54/27, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 45/36) and 37 patients with chronic gastritis (males/females: 24/13) were enrolled in this study. In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, 45 patients (51%), 71 patients (88%)and 20 patients (54%) respectively were found to have positive H pylori infection (P<0.001). In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection was positive in 54 patients (61%), 70 patients (86%) and 20 patients (54%) respectively (P<0.001). The sensitivity,positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mucosal polymerase reaction for Hpylori infection were significantly lower in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (84%, 79%and 81%) than in

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection, serum pepsinogens, and pediatric abdominal pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Eias; Naamna, Medhat; Mawassy, Kadri; Beer-Davidson, Gany; Muhsen, Khitam

    2017-08-01

    The significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in pediatric abdominal pain remains poorly recognized. We examined associations of H. pylori infection and serum pepsinogens (PGs), as non-invasive markers of gastritis, with pediatric abdominal pain. A case-control study was conducted among 99 children aged 5-17 years admitted to one hospital for abdominal pain (cases) without an apparent organic reason. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, sera were tested and compared with 179 controls for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and PGI and PGII levels. Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounders. H. pylori IgG sero-positivity was 34.3 and 36.3% in cases and controls, respectively, P = 0.7. H. pylori-infected children had higher median PGI and PGII levels and a lower PGI/PGII ratio than uninfected children. Cases infected with H. pylori had a higher median PGII level (P pylori. The percentage of cases with PGII ≥7.5 μg/L, as indication for antral inflammation, was higher than in controls: 58.6 versus 44.7%, P = 0.027. Children with PGII levels ≥7.5 μg/L had increased risk for abdominal pain: adjusted prevalence ratio 1.73 [95% confidence intervals 1.02, 2.93], P = 0.039. Children with increased serum PGII levels, as an indication of gastritis, are more likely to have abdominal pain. Serum PGs can be a useful non-invasive marker for gastritis, in evaluating children with severe abdominal pain with no apparent organic reason. What is Known: • The significance of Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatric abdominal pain remains debated. • Serum pepsinogens (PGs), non-invasive markers of gastric inflammation, were rarely utilized in assessing the association between H. pylori in pediatric abdominal pain of unknown origin. What is New: • High serum PGII level, as an indication of gastritis, rather than H. pylori infection itself, was associated with increased risk for abdominal pain.

  19. Defining the Roles of IFN-γ and IL-17A in Inflammation and Protection against Helicobacter pylori Infection.

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    Louise Sjökvist Ottsjö

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells have been shown to be essential for vaccine-induced protection against Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the effector mechanisms leading to reductions in the gastric bacterial loads of vaccinated mice remain unclear. We have investigated the function of IFN-γ and IL-17A for vaccine-induced protection and inflammation (gastritis using IFN-γ-gene-knockout (IFN-γ-/- mice, after sublingual or intragastric immunization with H. pylori lysate antigens and cholera toxin. Bacteria were enumerated in the stomachs of mice and related to the gastritis score and cellular immune responses. We report that sublingually and intragastrically immunized IFN-γ-/- mice had significantly reduced bacterial loads similar to immunized wild-type mice compared to respective unimmunized infection controls. The reduction in bacterial loads in sublingually and intragastrically immunized IFN-γ-/- mice was associated with significantly higher levels of IL-17A in stomach extracts and lower gastritis scores compared with immunized wild-type mice. To study the role of IL-17A for vaccine-induced protection in sublingually immunized IFN-γ-/- mice, IL-17A was neutralized in vivo at the time of infection. Remarkably, the neutralization of IL-17A in sublingually immunized IFN-γ-/- mice completely abolished protection against H. pylori infection and the mild gastritis. In summary, our results suggest that IFN-γ responses in the stomach of sublingually immunized mice promote vaccine-induced gastritis, after infection with H. pylori but that IL-17A primarily functions to reduce the bacterial load.

  20. H pylori infection and systemic antibodies to CagA and heat shock protein 60 in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Lenzi; Fabio Rollo; Ranuccio Nuti; Natale Figura; Alberto Palazzuoli; Nicola Giordano; Giuliano Alegente; Catia Gonnelli; Maria Stella Campagna; Annalisa Santucci; Michele Sozzi; Panagiotis Papakostas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the overall prevalence of H pylori and CagA positive H pylori infection and the prevalence of other bacterial and viral causes of chronic infection in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), and the potential role of anti-heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) antibody response to these proteins in increasing the risk of CHD development.METHODS: Eighty patients with CHD and 160 controls were employed. We also compared the levels of antiheat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) antibodies in the two groups. The H pylori infection and the CagA status were determined serologically, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and a Western blotting method developed in our laboratory.Systemic antibodies to Hsp60 were determined by a sandwich ELISA, using a polyclonal antibody to Hsp60 to sensitise polystyrene plates and a commercially available human Hsp60 as an antigen.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection was 78.7% (n = 63) in patients and 76.2% (n =122) in controls (P = 0.07). Patients infected by CagApositive (CagA+) H pylori strains were 71.4% (n = 45) vs 52.4% of infected controls (P = 0.030, OR = 2.27). Systemic levels of IgG to Hsp60 were increased in H pylorinegative patients compared with uninfected controls (P< 0.001) and CagA-positive infected patients compared with CagA-positive infected controls (P = 0.007).CONCLUSION: CagA positive H pylori infection may concur to the development of CHD; high levels of antiHsp60 antibodies may constitute a marker and/or a concomitant pathogenic factor of the disease.

  1. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in maintenance hemodialysis patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

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    Asl Mohammad Kazem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the prevalence of Helico-bacter pylori (H. pylori infection among stable chronic hemodialysis (HD patients having non ulcer dyspepsia. The study was carried out on 80 patients consisting of 40 patients with dyspepsia and 40 consecutive control subjects without renal disease and dyspepsic symptoms. Mean age of patients were 56 ± 14 and 47 ± 15 respectively. This study showed no significant difference of H. pylori infection between the two groups. Tissue examination of gastric antrum showed higher localization of H. pylori in HD patients in contrast to controls. This finding has not been reported before and needs further confirmation and evaluation for its significance.

  2. Thoughts about populations with unexpected low prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Malaty, Hoda M

    2007-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the few remaining major pathogens that accompanied humans on their travels from Africa. A recently published study reports the unexpected finding of a low H. pylori prevalence among pregnant women in Zanzibar (Farag, T.H., Stolzfus, R.J., Khalfan, S.S., Tielsch, J.M., 2007. Unexpectedly low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among pregnant women on Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 101). The apparent epidemiology of higher prevalence with higher socioeconomic status and decrease with age are unprecedented. As with many 'unexpected' events, a search of the literature reveals evidence of low prevalence populations in Java and Malaysia, with clues dating back to the mid-twentieth century. Why some populations apparently lost H. pylori infection remains an open question. However, the tools needed to resolve the dilemma are readily available and we hope investigators will soon rise to the challenge.

  3. Use of PCR and culture to detect Helicobacter pylori in naturally infected cats following triple antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, S E; Yan, L L; Shen, Z; Hayward, A; Murphy, J C; Fox, J G

    1996-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is linked to gastric cancer. Domestic cats from a commercial source were found to be naturally infected with H. pylori, and studies were undertaken to eradicate H. pylori from infected cats by using triple antimicrobial therapy. Eight cats infected with H. pylori were used in the study. Six cats received a 21-day course of oral amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazole, and two cats served as controls. Two weeks and 4 weeks posttreatment (p.t.), all six treated cats were negative at several sites (saliva, gastric juice, and gastric mucosa) for H. pylori by culture. However, as determined by PCR with primers specific for the 26-kDa product, the majority of cats at 2 and 4 weeks p.t. had gastric fluid samples which were positive for H. pylori and three of three cats at 2 weeks p.t. had dental plaque which was positive for H. pylori. At 6 weeks p.t., all six cats had H. pylori-negative cultures for samples from several gastric sites taken at necropsy, and only one cat had H. pylori cultured from gastric juice. PCR analysis revealed that five of six cats had H. pylori DNA amplification products from plaque, saliva, and/or gastric fluid samples. Negative bacterial cultures for cats for which there was demonstrable PCR amplification of H. pylori DNA may reflect the inability of in vitro culture techniques to isolate small numbers of H. pylori organisms, focal colonization at sites not cultured, or a failure of the antibiotics to successfully eradicate H. pylori from extragastric sites which allowed subsequent recolonization of the stomach after cessation of therapy. Alternatively, the treatment strategy may have induced in vivo viable but nonculturable coccoid forms of H. pylori. The H. pylori cat model should allow further studies to test these hypotheses as well as the efficacies of other combined therapeutic regimens. Also, because 100% of these cats were naturally infected with H.pylori, this model should

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection in bleeding peptic ulcer patients after non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Manguso; Elena Trimarco; Antonio Balzano; Elisabetta Riccio; Germana de Nucci; Maria Luisa Aiezza; Gerardino Amato; Linda Degl'Innocenti; Maria Maddalena Piccirillo; Gianfranco De Dominicis; Tara Santoro

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To establish the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection in patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer after consumption of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). METHODS: A very early upper endoscopy was performed to find the source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to take biopsy specimens for analysis of H. pylori infection by the rapid urease (CLO) test, histological examination, and bacterial culture. IgG anti- CagA were also sought. The gold standard for identifying H. pylori infection was positive culture of biopsy specimens or contemporary positivity of the CLO test and the presence of H. pylori on tissue sections. RESULTS: Eighty patients, 61 males (76.3%), mean age 61.2 ± 15.9 years, were consecutively enrolled. Forty-seven (58.8%) patients occasionally consumed NSAIDs, while 33 (41.3%) were on chronic treatment with low-dose aspirin (LD ASA). Forty-four (55.0%) patients were considered infected by H. pylori . The infection rate was not different between patients who occasionally or chronically consumed NSAIDs. The culture of biopsy specimens had a sensitivity of 86.4% and a specificity of 100%; corresponding figures for histological analysis were 65.9% and 77.8%, for the CLO test were 68.2% and 75%, for the combined use of histology and the CLO test were 56.8% and 100%, and for IgG anti-CagA were 90% and 98%. The highest accuracy (92.5%) was obtained with the culture of biopsy specimens. CONCLUSION: Patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer after NSAID/LD ASA consumption frequently have H. pylori infection. Biopsy specimen culture after an early upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy seems the most efficient test to detect this infection.

  5. Iron Deficiency and IL1β Polymorphisms in Helicobacter pylori-infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carolina A; Villagrán, Andrea; Toledo, Héctor; Crabtree, Jean E; Harris, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with an imbalance of iron homeostasis. IL-1β has been related with iron absorption disturbances through a variety of mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of polymorphic variants for IL-1β cluster and gastric IL1β mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected children and their relationship with hypochlorhydria and iron deficiency (ID). Prospective study of 123 symptomatic children. At endoscopy, antral biopsies were taken for urease test, pathology and culture and blood for analysis of ferritin, transferrin, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity. Polymorphisms in the IL-1β cluster (positions -511, -31, +3954, ILRN) were determined by PCR-RFLP. Gastric mucosal expression of IL-1β mRNA was determined by RT-PCR. After exclusions, of 105 patients, 33 (31.4%) were H. pylori positive. Nine (8.6%) children were classified as iron deficient (ID). Helicobacter pylori positivity was associated with ID (OR: 5.1; 95% CI: 1.2-21.9) (p = .04). No significant differences were found in allele frequency for IL1β gene cluster polymorphisms between infected and uninfected children. Helicobacter pylori-infected children with ID had significantly increased gastric IL1β mRNA in comparison with infected children without ID. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between mucosal IL-1β mRNA and fasting gastric juice pH. Gastric pH values were significantly increased in H. pylori-infected patients with ID compared to uninfected children. The established association between H. pylori infection and ID in children may be mediated by increased gastric mucosal IL-1β. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Histological examination of ulcer margin for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Hui; Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Li-Kuang; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Lee, Mu-Shien

    2013-02-01

    Biopsy of ulcer margin is routinely performed to exclude malignancy in patients with gastric ulcers, but its utility in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection has not yet been fully studied. A cohort of 50 patients with gastric ulcer was prospectively examined. Three tests including histology, rapid urease test, and urea breath test were performed in all patients for diagnosing H pylori infection. Six biopsied specimens from the margin of the gastric ulcer and 1 each specimen from antrum and body of non-ulcer part were obtained for histology using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stain. The criterion used for defining H pylori infection was a positive result in at least 2 of the 3 tests. H pylori infection was diagnosed in 27 (54%) of the patients. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the histological examination of the ulcer margin were 92.6%, 95.7%, 96.2%, 91.7%, and 94%, respectively. The addition of 1 specimen from the antrum or body or a combination of the 2 specimens did not increase the diagnostic yields of those for histological examination of ulcer margin alone. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for the rapid urease test were 96.3%, 100%, 100%, 95.8%, and 98%, respectively, and the corresponding values for the urea breath test were 88.9%, 87%, 88.9%, 87%, and 88%. We performed Giemsa stain for the 3 patients with false-negative and false-positive results of histological examination of ulcer margin using H&E stain, and all were positive for H pylori infection. In conclusion, histological examination of the ulcer margin using hematoxylin-eosin stain was quite accurate and useful for diagnosing H pylori infection in patients with gastric ulcers. A special stain is required when the diagnosis of H pylori infection is questionable on routine H&E staining.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Céu; Seruca, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...

  8. Does the presence of the Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque associate with its gastric infection? A meta-analysis and systematic review

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    Nader Navabi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Co-infection of gastric H. pylori and dental plaque is reported by half of the studies. However, there is not enough evidence for the efficacy of dental treatment on prevention of recurrent gastric H. pylori infection.

  9. Serological study of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome</