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Sample records for pygmy rabbit programmatic

  1. Grand Coulee Dam Wildlife Mitigation Program : Pygmy Rabbit Programmatic Management Plan, Douglas County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    1992-06-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council and the Bonneville Power Administration approved the pygmy rabbit project as partial mitigation for impacts caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The focus of this project is the protection and enhancement of shrub-steppe/pygmy rabbit habitat in northeastern Washington.

  2. Pygmy Rabbit Surveys on State Lands in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as 'sensitive-vulnerable,' meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of

  3. Relationships between gas field development and the presence and abundance of pygmy rabbits in southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen; Carter, Sarah; Ignizio, Drew A.; Freeman, Aaron T.

    2017-01-01

    More than 5957 km2 in southwestern Wyoming is currently covered by operational gas fields, and further development is projected through 2030. Gas fields fragment landscapes through conversion of native vegetation to roads, well pads, pipeline corridors, and other infrastructure elements. The sagebrush steppe landscape where most of this development is occurring harbors 24 sagebrush-associated species of greatest conservation need, but the effects of gas energy development on most of these species are unknown. Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are one such species. In 2011, we began collecting three years of survey data to examine the relationship between gas field development density and pygmy rabbit site occupancy patterns on four major Wyoming gas fields (Continental Divide–Creston–Blue Gap, Jonah, Moxa Arch, Pinedale Anticline Project Area). We surveyed 120 plots across four gas fields, with plots distributed across the density gradient of gas well pads on each field. In a 1 km radius around the center of each plot, we measured the area covered by each of 10 gas field infrastructure elements and by shrub cover using 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery. We then modeled the relationship between gas field elements, pygmy rabbit presence, and two indices of pygmy rabbit abundance. Gas field infrastructure elements—specifically buried utility corridors and a complex of gas well pads, adjacent disturbed areas, and well pad access roads—were negatively correlated with pygmy rabbit presence and abundance indices, with sharp declines apparent after approximately 2% of the area consisted of gas field infrastructure. We conclude that pygmy rabbits in southwestern Wyoming may be sensitive to gas field development at levels similar to those observed for greater sage-grouse, and may suffer local population declines at lower levels of development than are allowed in existing plans and policies designed to conserve greater sage-grouse by limiting

  4. Hierarchical spatial models for predicting pygmy rabbit distribution and relative abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Odei, J.B.; Hooten, M.B.; Edwards, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Conservationists routinely use species distribution models to plan conservation, restoration and development actions, while ecologists use them to infer process from pattern. These models tend to work well for common or easily observable species, but are of limited utility for rare and cryptic species. This may be because honest accounting of known observation bias and spatial autocorrelation are rarely included, thereby limiting statistical inference of resulting distribution maps. We specified and implemented a spatially explicit Bayesian hierarchical model for a cryptic mammal species (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis). Our approach used two levels of indirect sign that are naturally hierarchical (burrows and faecal pellets) to build a model that allows for inference on regression coefficients as well as spatially explicit model parameters. We also produced maps of rabbit distribution (occupied burrows) and relative abundance (number of burrows expected to be occupied by pygmy rabbits). The model demonstrated statistically rigorous spatial prediction by including spatial autocorrelation and measurement uncertainty. We demonstrated flexibility of our modelling framework by depicting probabilistic distribution predictions using different assumptions of pygmy rabbit habitat requirements. Spatial representations of the variance of posterior predictive distributions were obtained to evaluate heterogeneity in model fit across the spatial domain. Leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to evaluate the overall model fit. Synthesis and applications. Our method draws on the strengths of previous work, thereby bridging and extending two active areas of ecological research: species distribution models and multi-state occupancy modelling. Our framework can be extended to encompass both larger extents and other species for which direct estimation of abundance is difficult. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 British Ecological Society.

  5. Pygmy locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, A E; Saibene, F; Ardigò, L P; Atchou, G; Schena, F; Ferretti, G

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that Pygmies may differ from Caucasians in some aspects of the mechanics of locomotion was tested. A total of 13 Pygmies and 7 Caucasians were asked to walk and run on a treadmill at 4-12 km.h-1. Simultaneous metabolic measurements and three-dimensional motion analysis were performed allowing the energy expenditure and the mechanical external and internal work to be calculated. In Pygmies the metabolic energy cost was higher during walking at all speeds (P stride frequency and the internal mechanical work were higher for Pygmies at all walking (P stride frequency (+9.45, SD 0.44% for Pygmies), which affected the mechanical internal work. This explains the observed higher total mechanical work of walking in Pygmies, even when the external component was the same. Most of the differences between Pygmies and Caucasians, observed during walking, tended to disappear when the speed was normalized as the Froude number. However, this was not the case for running. Thus, whereas the tested hypothesis must be rejected for walking, the data from running, do indeed suggest that Pygmies may differ in some aspects of the mechanics of locomotion.

  6. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  7. Pygmy resonances and nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoneva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical approach based on a self-consistent density functional theory for the nuclear ground state and QRPA formalism extended with multi-phonon degrees of freedom for the nuclear excited states is implemented in investigations of new low-energy modes called pygmy resonances. Advantage of the method is the unified description of low-energy multiphonon excitations, pygmy resonances and core polarization effects. This is found of crucial importance for the understanding of the fine structure of nuclear response functions at low energies. Aspects of the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions around the neutron threshold are discussed in a connection to nucleosynthesis.

  8. Pygmies, Giants, and Skins

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.

  9. 77 FR 46516 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Including a Programmatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ..., pygmy rabbits, migratory birds, etc.) and maintain the proposed power line within an existing utility... system of groundwater conveyance and treatment facilities in southeastern Nevada which would transport... alignments of pipelines, power lines, and other ancillary facilities; alternative pumping locations/scenarios...

  10. Experimental results on the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savran Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance, an additional structure of low-lying electric dipole strength, has attracted strong interest in the last years. Different experimental approaches have been used in the last decade in order to investigate this new interesting nuclear excitation mode. In this contribution an overview on the available experimental data is given.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: pygmy chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate ...Pan_paniscus_L.png Pan_paniscus_NL.png Pan_paniscus_S.png Pan_paniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NS ...

  12. Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesús; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel A; Lewis, Jerome; Hewlett, Barry; Breuer, Thomas; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M; Fernández, María; Germi, Francesco; Hattori, Shiho; Head, Josephine; Ichikawa, Mitsuo; Kitanaishi, Koichi; Knights, Jessica; Matsuura, Naoki; Migliano, Andrea; Nese, Barbara; Noss, Andrew; Ekoumou, Dieudonné Ongbwa; Paulin, Pascale; Real, Raimundo; Riddell, Mike; Stevenson, Edward G J; Toda, Mikako; Vargas, J Mario; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654) in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC) is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.

  13. Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Olivero

    Full Text Available Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654 in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.

  14. Pygmy dipole resonance in stable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Von Neumann-Cosel

    2010-07-01

    Two examples of recent work on the structure of low-energy electric dipole modes are presented. The first part discusses the systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable tin isotopes deduced from high-resolution (, ′) experiments. These help to distinguish between microscopic QRPA calculations based on either a relativistic or a non-relativistic mean-field description, predicting significantly different properties of the PDR. The second part presents a novel approach to measure the complete electric dipole strength distribution from excitation energies starting at about 5 MeV across the giant dipole resonance (GDR) with high-resolution inelastic proton scattering under 0° at energies of a few 100 MeV/nucleon. The case of 208Pb is discussed in detail and first result from a recent experiment on 120Sn is presented.

  15. Pygmy dipole resonance in 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Poltoratska, I; Tamii, A; Adachi, T; Bertulani, C A; Carter, J; Dozono, M; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Fujita, Y; Hatanaka, K; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Kalmykov, Y; Krumbholz, A M; Litvinova, E; Matsubara, H; Nakanishi, K; Neveling, R; Okamura, H; Ong, H J; Özel-Tashenov, B; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Rubio, B; Sakaguchi, H; Sakemi, Y; Sasamoto, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Smit, F D; Suzuki, T; Tameshige, Y; Wambach, J; Yosoi, M; Zenihiro, J

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of protons of several hundred MeV is a promising new spectroscopic tool for the study of electric dipole strength in nuclei. A case study of 208Pb shows that at very forward angles J^pi = 1- states are strongly populated via Coulomb excitation. A separation from nuclear excitation of other modes is achieved by a multipole decomposition analysis of the experimental cross sections based on theoretical angular distributions calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon model. The B(E1) transition strength distribution is extracted for excitation energies up to 9 MeV, i.e., in the region of the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). The Coulomb-nuclear interference shows sensitivity to the underlying structure of the E1 transitions, which allows for the first time an experimental extraction of the strength and energy centroid of the PDR.

  16. Physical comparison between Rampasasa Pygmy and Yogyakarta children of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In growth studies, somatotyping allows one to characterize changes in physique during growth in order to monitor growth patterns and to better understand variations in adult physique. Information on the physique of children with short stature is limited In Indonesia the study of somatotype for Pygmy children had never been done. The aims of this study were to compare the physiques of Rampasasa Pygmy and Yogyakarta children and to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in physiques. The sample consisted of 61 Rampasasa Pygmy (32 boys and 29 girls and 319 Javanese children in Yogyakarta (173 boys and 146 girls aged 8–13 years. Height, weight, biepicondylar breadths of the humerus and femur, calf and upper arm circumferences, and skinfolds (at triceps, subscapula, calf, and supraspine were measured on each subject. We used somatotyped by the Heath-Carter method. The results showed that the Pygmy children were shorter, lighter, and less endomorphic than the Yogyakarta children. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Rampasasa Pygmy and Yogyakarta children could be related mainly to environment background in the two areas.

  17. Knowledge management - a programmatic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froats, J.P.S. [CANDU Owners Group (COG), Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation give a programmatic view of knowledge management in the nuclear industry. A knowledge management program must deal with forecasting needs, acquisition, retention, training and supporting elements of culture, process, codification error prevention, information management and networks to reduce exposure.

  18. Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Bastian T.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, Hippocampus denise and Hippocampus pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is given. A detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history of the alcyonacean genera Annella (Subergorgiidae) and Muricella (Acanthogorgiidae) are included as baseline for future revisions. The host specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the reliability of (previous) identifications and conservation issues. PMID:21747677

  19. Polycystic kidney disease in the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Stephanie; Schade, Benjamin; Clauss, Marcus; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Ehrensperger, Felix; Steck, Beatrice; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2009-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was diagnosed at necropsy in a captive aged female pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), which presented with numerous cysts in both kidneys, the liver, and the duodenum and with one single cyst in the pancreas. There were no premonitory clinical signs of a nephropathy observed prior to its death. Similar findings were made in a male cage mate 6 mo later. Both animals had been wild caught. A literature review revealed that another seven cases of PKD have been reported in pygmy hippopotamuses, and an additional screening of records available from the international studbook for the species revealed yet another six cases. In all cases, aged females were affected, and in several instances, affected animals were related to each other. These patterns indicated familiar transmission similar that associated with PKD in humans and other animals. The disease, and especially the presumptive bias in diagnosis toward females, indicated that the male animal of this report was the first case of PKD reported in a male pygmy hippopotamus; thus, further investigation is warranted. The status of the kidneys with respect to PKD should be assessed (including histology) in every deceased pygmy hippopotamus, and whenever possible by ultrasonography in live animals.

  20. Two novel arenaviruses detected in pygmy mice, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronmann, Karl C; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus.

  1. Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in Sn-124

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Kruecken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlueter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Zilges, A.; Wortche, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of

  2. Programmatic Impact of SDRAM SEFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Steven M.; Allen, Gregory R.; Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Elpida EDS5104(08)ABTA 512Mb SDRAM is examined for programmatic impact of SEE. Use cases for the devices including EDAC and mode register reload are examined. Results indicate some SEE mitigation methods require careful application to achieve system-level benefits, while some event types are essentially mitigated by the application use. In the studied devices MBE and SEFI are identified and investigated as mechanisms requiring special consideration.

  3. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from remote African Babongo Pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (CA-MRSA predominantly encode the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, which can be associated with severe infections. Reports from non-indigenous Sub-Saharan African populations revealed a high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. The objective of our study was to investigate the S. aureus carriage among a remote indigenous African population and to determine the molecular characteristics of the isolates, particularly those that were PVL-positive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal S. aureus carriage and risk factors of colonization were systematically assessed in remote Gabonese Babongo Pygmies. Susceptibility to antibiotics, possession of toxin-encoding genes (i.e., PVL, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins, S. aureus protein A (spa types and multi-locus sequence types (MLST were determined for each isolate. The carriage rate was 33%. No MRSA was detected, 61.8% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Genes encoding PVL (55.9%, enterotoxin B (20.6%, exfoliative toxin D (11.7% and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (11.7% were highly prevalent. Thirteen spa types were detected and were associated with 10 STs predominated by ST15, ST30, ST72, ST80, and ST88. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates among Babongo Pygmies demands our attention as PVL can be associated with necrotinzing infection and may increase the risk of severe infections in remote Pygmy populations. Many S. aureus isolates from Babongo Pygmies and pandemic CA-MRSA-clones have a common genetic background. Surveillance is needed to control the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs and to assess the impact of the high prevalence of PVL in indigenous populations.

  4. Evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance in Sn isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, H. K.; Larsen, A. C.; Bürger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Görgen, A.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear level density and γ-ray strength functions of Sn121,122 below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the (He3,He3'γ) and (He3,αγ) reactions. The level densities of Sn121,122 display steplike structures, interpreted as signatures of neutron pair breaking. An enhancement in both strength functions, compared to standard models for radiative strength, is observed in our measurements for Eγ≳5.2 MeV. This enhancement is compatible with pygmy resonances centered at ≈8.4(1) and ≈8.6(2) MeV, respectively, and with integrated strengths corresponding to ≈1.8-5+1% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Similar resonances were also seen in Sn116-119. Experimental neutron-capture cross reactions are well reproduced by our pygmy resonance predictions, while standard strength models are less successful. The evolution as a function of neutron number of the pygmy resonance in Sn116-122 is described as a clear increase of centroid energy from 8.0(1) to 8.6(2) MeV, but with no observable difference in integrated strengths.

  5. 7 CFR 25.623 - Programmatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 25.623 Section 25.623 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Round II and Round IIS Grants § 25.623 Programmatic changes. Prior approval from USDA is required for...

  6. 7 CFR 4284.19 - Programmatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 4284.19 Section 4284.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Grant Programs § 4284.19 Programmatic changes. The Grantee shall obtain prior approval for any change...

  7. 7 CFR 3570.85 - Programmatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 3570.85 Section 3570.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.85 Programmatic changes. The...

  8. 7 CFR 4284.668 - Programmatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 4284.668 Section 4284.668 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Programmatic changes. The Grantee shall obtain prior approval for any change to the scope or objectives of...

  9. Fine structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in (136)Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, D; Fritzsche, M; Hasper, J; Lindenberg, K; Müller, S; Ponomarev, V Yu; Sonnabend, K; Zilges, A

    2008-06-13

    The photoresponse of the semimagic N=82 nucleus (136)Xe was measured up to the neutron separation energy S(n) using the (gamma, gamma') reaction. A concentration of strong dipole excitations is observed well below S(n) showing a fragmented resonancelike structure. Microscopic calculations in the quasiparticle phonon model including complex configurations of up to three phonons agree well with the experimental data in the total integrated strength, in the shape and the fragmentation of the resonance, which allows us to draw conclusions on the damping mechanism of the pygmy dipole resonance.

  10. 33 CFR 385.1 - Purpose of the programmatic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the programmatic..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General Provisions § 385.1 Purpose of the programmatic regulations. (a) The programmatic regulations of this...

  11. Programmatic Formation: Practical Applications of Parametric Design

    OpenAIRE

    Madkour, Yehia; Erhan, Halil; Neumann, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Programmatic Formation explores design as a responsive process.The study we present engages the complexity of the surroundings using parametric and generative design methods. It illustrates that responsiveness of designs can be achieved beyond geometric explorations.The parametric models can combine and respond simultaneously to design and its programmatic factors, such as performance-sensitive design-decisions, and constraints.We demonstrate this through a series of case st...

  12. Recent acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Nell

    Full Text Available Both anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8% than non-Baka (80.2%. We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication of H. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using

  13. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea margi...

  14. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  15. Disposal rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  16. A possible proton pygmy resonance in 17Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The low-lying electric dipole strengths in proton-rich nuclei 17F and 17Ne, which can be produced at HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, are investigated. In the framework of the covariant density functional theory the self-consistent relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov model and the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with the NL3 parameter set and Gogny pairing interaction are adopted in the calculations. A pronounced dipole peak appears below 10 MeV in17Ne, but does not occur in 17F. The prop erties of this low-lying E1 excitation in 17Ne are studied, which may correspond to a proton pygmy resonance with different characteristics from those of giant dipole resonance.

  17. Pygmy dipole resonance and dipole polarizability in 90Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, C.; Tamii, A.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Nakada, H.; Shima, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Yamagata, T.; Kawabata, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M.; Sakuda, M.; Mori, T.; Izumi, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kondo, T.; Lui, T.-W.; Bilgier, B.; Kozer, H. C.; Hatanaka, K.

    2014-05-01

    Electric dipole (E1) reduced transition probability B(E1) of 90Zr was obtained by the inelastic proton scattering near 0 degrees using a 295 MeV proton beam and multipole decomposition analysis of the angular distribution by the distorted-wave Born approximation with the Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation model and inclusion of El Coulomb excitation, and the E1 strength of the pygmy dipole resonance was found in the vicinity of the neutron threshold in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. Using the data, we plan to determine the precise dipole polarizability αD which is defined as an inversely energy-weighted sum value of the elecrric dipole strength. The dipole polarizability is expected to constrain the symmetry energy term of the neutron matter equation of state. Thus systematical measurement of the dipole polarizability is important.

  18. Pygmy dipole resonance and dipole polarizability in {sup 90}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, C.; Tamii, A.; Shima, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, H.; Hatanaka, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kondo, T. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Nakada, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fujita, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Matsubara, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-21-2 (Japan); Sakuda, M.; Mori, T. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 900-0082 (Japan); and others

    2014-05-02

    Electric dipole (E1) reduced transition probability B(E1) of {sup 90}Zr was obtained by the inelastic proton scattering near 0 degrees using a 295 MeV proton beam and multipole decomposition analysis of the angular distribution by the distorted-wave Born approximation with the Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation model and inclusion of El Coulomb excitation, and the E1 strength of the pygmy dipole resonance was found in the vicinity of the neutron threshold in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. Using the data, we plan to determine the precise dipole polarizability α{sub D} which is defined as an inversely energy-weighted sum value of the elecrric dipole strength. The dipole polarizability is expected to constrain the symmetry energy term of the neutron matter equation of state. Thus systematical measurement of the dipole polarizability is important.

  19. Music Induces Universal Emotion-Related Psychophysiological Responses: Comparing Canadian Listeners To Congolese Pygmies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke eEgermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mbenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29 to 99 seconds in duration in random order (8 from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts. For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface, peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation. Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.

  20. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29–99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935

  1. A practical approach to programmatic assessment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, A A; Dijkstra, J

    2017-01-24

    Assessment of complex tasks integrating several competencies calls for a programmatic design approach. As single instruments do not provide the information required to reach a robust judgment of integral performance, 73 guidelines for programmatic assessment design were developed. When simultaneously applying these interrelated guidelines, it is challenging to keep a clear overview of all assessment activities. The goal of this study was to provide practical support for applying a programmatic approach to assessment design, not bound to any specific educational paradigm. The guidelines were first applied in a postgraduate medical training setting, and a process analysis was conducted. This resulted in the identification of four steps for programmatic assessment design: evaluation, contextualisation, prioritisation and justification. Firstly, the (re)design process starts with sufficiently detailing the assessment environment and formulating the principal purpose. Key stakeholders with sufficient (assessment) expertise need to be involved in the analysis of strengths and weaknesses and identification of developmental needs. Central governance is essential to balance efforts and stakes with the principal purpose and decide on prioritisation of design decisions and selection of relevant guidelines. Finally, justification of assessment design decisions, quality assurance and external accountability close the loop, to ensure sound underpinning and continuous improvement of the assessment programme.

  2. Programmatic assessment and Kane's validity perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Programmatic assessment is a notion that implies that the strength of the assessment process results from a careful combination of various assessment instruments. Accordingly, no single instrument is superior to another, but each has its own strengths, weaknesses and purpose in a programme.

  3. 33 CFR 385.6 - Review of programmatic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of programmatic..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General Provisions § 385.6 Review of programmatic regulations. (a) The Secretary of the Army shall review, and...

  4. 33 CFR 385.2 - Applicability of the programmatic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the programmatic..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General Provisions § 385.2 Applicability of the programmatic regulations. (a) This part applies to all...

  5. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  6. Proton pygmy resonances: predictions for N=20 isotones

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y

    2015-01-01

    We study theoretically the low-energy electric-dipole response of N=20 isotones to assess the possibility of detecting a proton-pygmy mode in the near future and to examine the factors that would determine such an outcome. We present results from a quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) and a continuum random-phase approximation (CRPA), and we compare our results with other calculations of proton-rich nuclei. According to our analysis, enhanced E1 strength is expected energetically well below the giant dipole resonance in the proton-rich isotones. A proton-skin oscillation could develop especially in 46Fe. We identify factors which affect theoretical predictions, besides the equation of state (EoS) of infinite matter: the nucleon separation energy, accordingly the proper description of non localized threshold transitions, and the nucleon effective mass in mean-field treatments. Future measurements of E1 transitions in proton-rich nuclei and comparisons with mirror stable nuclei could help disentangle...

  7. Addisonian Crisis due to Metastatic Adenocarcinoma in a Pygmy Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Nogradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old Pygmy doe was evaluated for acute onset of lethargy, anorexia, and weakness. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed based on physical exam findings, blood work abnormalities (hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and hypoglycemia, and lack of cortisol response to the ACTH stimulation test. Abdominal ultrasound exam revealed an intact urinary tract and multiple bilateral peri-renal masses. The doe was treated with intravenous fluid therapy aimed at correcting the electrolyte abnormalities and intravenous corticosteroids. She responded favorably to medical therapy in 24 hours, with dramatic improvement in attitude and appetite. Fluid therapy was discontinued, and the doe was discharged from the hospital on steroid supplementation. She deteriorated rapidly and died at home 36 hours after discharge. Necropsy results revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma originating from the uterus that infiltrated the urinary bladder, the region of the adrenal glands, the left and right renal lymph nodes, the left kidney, the caudal vena cava, the submandibular lymph nodes, the diaphragm, the lungs, and the omentum. Addison’s syndrome in ruminants should be considered as an uncommon sequel of intra-abdominal neoplastic processes.

  8. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium.

  9. Observation of double pygmy resonances in $^{195,196}$Pt and enhanced astrophysical reaction rates

    CERN Document Server

    Giacoppo, F; Eriksen, T K; Görgen, A; Guttormsen, M; Hagen, T W; Larsen, A C; Kheswa, B V; Klintefjord, M; Koehler, P E; Nyhus, H T; Renstr\\om, T; Sahin, E; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G

    2014-01-01

    Our measurements of $^{195,196}$Pt $\\gamma$-strength functions show a double-humped enhancement in the $E_{\\gamma}= 4-8$ MeV region. For the first time, the detailed shape of these resonances is revealed for excitation energies in the quasicontinuum. We demonstrate that the corresponding neutron-capture cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates are increased by up to a factor of 2 when these newly observed pygmy resonances are included. These results lend credence to theoretical predictions of enhanced reaction rates due to such pygmy resonances and hence are important for a better understanding of r-process nucleosynthesis.

  10. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR—the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea–Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  11. Control of luminescence from pygmy shark (Squaliolus aliae) photophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Julien M; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2012-05-15

    The smalleye pygmy shark (Squaliolus aliae) is a dwarf pelagic shark from the Dalatiidae family that harbours thousands of tiny photophores. In this work, we studied the organisation and physiological control of these photogenic organs. Results show that they are mainly situated on the ventral side of the shark, forming a homogeneous ventral photogenic area that appears well suited for counterillumination, a well-known camouflage technique of pelagic organisms. Isolated ventral skin patches containing photophores did not respond to classical neurotransmitters and nitric oxide but produced light after melatonin (MT) application. Prolactin and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibited this hormonally induced luminescence as well as the spontaneous luminescence from the photogenic tissue. The action of MT seems to be mediated by binding to the MT(2) receptor subtype, as the MT(2) receptor agonist 4P-PDOT inhibited the luminescence induced by this hormone. Binding to this receptor probably decreases the intracellular cAMP concentration because forskolin inhibited spontaneous and MT-induced luminescence. In addition, a GABA inhibitory tonus seems to be present in the photogenic tissue as well, as GABA inhibited MT-induced luminescence and the application of bicuculline provoked luminescence from S. aliae photophores. Similarly to what has been found in Etmopteridae, the other luminous shark family, the main target of the luminescence control appears to be the melanophores covering the photocytes. Results suggest that bioluminescence first appeared in Dalatiidae when they adopted a pelagic style at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, and was modified by Etmopteridae when they started to colonize deep-water niches and rely on this light for intraspecific behaviours.

  12. Nature of the pygmy dipole resonance in Ce-140 studied in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Matic, A.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2006-01-01

    A concentration of electric-dipole excitations below the particle threshold, which is frequently denoted as the pygmy dipole resonance, has been studied in the semimagic nucleus Ce-140 in (alpha, alpha(')gamma) experiments at E-alpha=136 MeV. The technique of alpha-gamma coincidence experiments allo

  13. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) coincidence experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the separatio

  14. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  15. 78 FR 60766 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Species Status for Spring Pygmy Sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... from juried (peer-reviewed) professional journals whenever available. All decisions are made on the... commenter postulated that mechanical disturbance and siltation actually benefit the spring pygmy sunfish. He... the species weighed against the benefits provided through the current and proposed CCAAs. The...

  16. 32 CFR 651.27 - Programmatic NEPA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Programmatic NEPA analyses. 651.27 Section 651.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.27 Programmatic NEPA...

  17. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M. Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  18. The decay pattern of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance of 140 Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löher, B.; Savran, D.; Aumann, T.; Beller, J.; Bhike, M.; Cooper, N.; Derya, V.; Duchêne, M.; Endres, J.; Hennig, A.; Humby, P.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Knörzer, M.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Romig, C.; Scheck, M.; Scheit, H.; Silva, J.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wamers, F.; Weller, H.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.

    2016-05-01

    The decay properties of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) have been investigated in the semi-magic N=82 nucleus 140Ce using a novel combination of nuclear resonance fluorescence and γ–γ coincidence techniques. Branching ratios for transitions to low-lying excited states are determined in a direct and model-independent way both for individual excited states and for excitation energy intervals. Comparison of the experimental results to microscopic calculations in the quasi-particle phonon model exhibits an excellent agreement, supporting the observation that the Pygmy Dipole Resonance couples to the ground state as well as to low-lying excited states. A 10% mixing of the PDR and the [21+×PDR] is extracted.

  19. The decay pattern of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance of 140Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löher, B.; Savran, D.; Aumann, T.; Beller, J.; Bhike, M.; Cooper, N.; Derya, V.; Duchêne, M.; Endres, J.; Hennig, A.; Humby, P.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Knörzer, M.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Romig, C.; Scheck, M.; Scheit, H.; Silva, J.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wamers, F.; Weller, H.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.

    2016-05-01

    The decay properties of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) have been investigated in the semi-magic N = 82 nucleus 140Ce using a novel combination of nuclear resonance fluorescence and γ-γ coincidence techniques. Branching ratios for transitions to low-lying excited states are determined in a direct and model-independent way both for individual excited states and for excitation energy intervals. Comparison of the experimental results to microscopic calculations in the quasi-particle phonon model exhibits an excellent agreement, supporting the observation that the Pygmy Dipole Resonance couples to the ground state as well as to low-lying excited states. A 10% mixing of the PDR and the [21+ × PDR ] is extracted.

  20. On the collectivity of Pygmy Dipole Resonance within schematic TDA and RPA models

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, V; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M; Croitoru, A; Nicolin, A I

    2014-01-01

    Within schematic models based on the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation and the Random-Phase Approximation with separable interactions, we investigate the physical conditions which determine the emergence of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in the E1 response of atomic nuclei. We find that if some particle-hole excitation manifests a different, weaker residual interaction, an additional mode will appear, with an energy centroid closer to the distance between two major shells and therefore well below the Giant Dipole Resonance. This state, together with Giant Dipole Resonance, exhausts all the transition strength in the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation and all the Energy Weighted Sum Rule in the Random-Phase Approximation. These features suggest a collective nature for this mode which we identify with the Pygmy Dipole Resonance.

  1. Excitation of pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei via Coulomb and nuclear fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Vitturi; E G Lanza; M V Andrés; F Catara; D Gambacurta

    2010-07-01

    We study the nature of the low-lying dipole strength in neutron-rich nuclei, often associated with the pygmy dipole resonance. The states are described within the Hartree–Fock plus RPA formalism, using different parametrizations of the Skyrme inter-action. We show how the information from combined reaction processes involving the Coulomb and different mixtures of isoscalar and isovector nuclear interactions can provide a clue to reveal the characteristic features of these states.

  2. Epidemiology and genetic variability of HHV-8/KSHV in Pygmy and Bantu populations in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8 is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi sarcoma. Molecular epidemiology of the variable K1 region identified five major subtypes exhibiting a clear geographical clustering. The present study is designed to gain new insights into the KSHV epidemiology and genetic diversity in Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bantu and Pygmy populations from remote rural villages were studied. Antibodies directed against latent nuclear antigens (LANA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence using BC3 cells. Peripheral blood cell DNAs were subjected to a nested PCR amplifying a 737 bp K1 gene fragment. Consensus sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. We studied 2,063 persons (967 females, 1,096 males, mean age 39 years, either Bantus (1,276 or Pygmies (787. The Bantu group was older (42 versus 35 years: P<10(-4. KSHV anti-LANA seroprevalence was of 37.2% (768/2063, with a significant increase with age (P<10(-4 but no difference according to sex. Seroprevalence, as well as the anti-LANA antibodies titres, were higher in Bantus (43.2% than in Pygmies (27.6% (P<10(-4, independently of age. We generated 29 K1 sequences, comprising 24 Bantus and five Pygmies. These sequences belonged to A5 (24 cases or B (five cases subtypes. They exhibited neither geographical nor ethnic aggregation. A5 strains showed a wide genetic diversity while the B strains were more homogenous and belonged to the B1 subgroup. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate high KSHV seroprevalence in the two major populations living in Southern and Eastern Cameroon with presence of mostly genetically diverse A5 but also B K1 subtypes.

  3. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  4. Vocal characteristics of pygmy blue whales and their change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Alexander N; McCauley, Robert D; Salgado-Kent, Chandra; Tripovich, Joy; Burton, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Vocal characteristics of pygmy blue whales of the eastern Indian Ocean population were analyzed using data from a hydroacoustic station deployed off Cape Leeuwin in Western Australia as part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring network, from two acoustic observatories of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System, and from individual sea noise loggers deployed in the Perth Canyon. These data have been collected from 2002 to 2010, inclusively. It is shown that the themes of pygmy blue whale songs consist of ether three or two repeating tonal sounds with harmonics. The most intense sound of the tonal theme was estimated to correspond to a source level of 179 ± 2 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m measured for 120 calls from seven different animals. Short-duration calls of impulsive downswept sound from pygmy blue whales were weaker with the source level estimated to vary between 168 to 176 dB. A gradual decrease in the call frequency with a mean rate estimated to be 0.35 ± 0.3 Hz/year was observed over nine years in the frequency of the third harmonic of tonal sound 2 in the whale song theme, which corresponds to a negative trend of about 0.12 Hz/year in the call fundamental frequency. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  5. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis: programmatic management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Satyanarayana, S.; Lin, Y.; Zachariah, R.; Lönnroth, K.; Kapur, A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In August 2011, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease launched the Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to guide policy makers and implementers in combatting the epidemics of both diseases. Progress has been made, and includes identifying how best to undertake bidirectional screening for both diseases, how to provide optimal treatment and care for patients with dual disease and the most suitable framework for monitoring and evaluation. Key programmatic challenges include the following: whether screening should be directed at all patients or targeted at those with high-risk characteristics; the most suitable technologies for diagnosing TB and diabetes in routine settings; the best time to screen TB patients for DM; how to provide an integrated, coordinated approach to case management; and finally, how to persuade non-communicable disease programmes to adopt a cohort analysis approach, preferably using electronic medical records, for monitoring and evaluation. The link between DM and TB and the implementation of the collaborative framework for care and control have the potential to stimulate and strengthen the scale-up of non-communicable disease care and prevention programmes, which may help in reducing not only the global burden of DM but also the global burden of TB. PMID:26162352

  6. Inferring the demographic history of African farmers and pygmy hunter-gatherers using a multilocus resequencing data set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Patin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainforests and are characterized by their short mean stature. However, little is known about the chronology of the demographic events-size changes, population splits, and gene flow--ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. We resequenced 24 independent noncoding regions across the genome, corresponding to a total of approximately 33 kb per individual, in 236 samples from seven Pygmy and five agricultural populations dispersed over the African continent. We used simulation-based inference to identify the historical model best fitting our data. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and farming populations approximately 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups approximately 20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data. An appreciation of the demographic and adaptive history of African populations with different modes of subsistence should improve our understanding of the influence of human lifestyles on genome diversity.

  7. Rabbit hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kemba L

    2008-09-01

    Using laboratory animal medicine as an established resource, companion animal veterinarians have access to many physiologic and basic science studies that we can now merge with our clinical impressions. By working with reference laboratories, companion animal veterinarians are poised to accelerate our knowledge of the normal rabbit rapidly. The aim of this article is to discuss normal hematopoiesis and infectious and metabolic diseases that specifically target the hemolymphatic system. Additionally, photographic representation of cell types is provided.

  8. 10 CFR 1021.330 - Programmatic (including site-wide) NEPA documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... documents. (a) When required to support a DOE programmatic decision (40 CFR 1508.18(b)(3)), DOE shall prepare a programmatic EIS or EA (40 CFR 1502.4). DOE may also prepare a programmatic EIS or EA at any... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic (including site-wide) NEPA documents....

  9. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  10. Excitation energy and strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in stable tin isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Özel, B; Lenske, H; Von Neumann-Cosel, P; Poltoratska, I; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Savran, D; Tsoneva, N

    2009-01-01

    The $^{112,120}$Sn$(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ reactions have been studied at the S-DALINAC. Electric dipole (E1) strength distributions have been determined including contributions from unresolved strength extracted by a fluctuation analysis. Together with available data on $^{116,124}$Sn, an experimental systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable even-mass tin isotopes is established. The PDR centroid excitation energies and summed strengths are in reasonable agreement with quasiparticle-phonon model calculations based on a nonrelativistic description of the mean field but disagree with relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions.

  11. Test of the Brink-Axel hypothesis for the pygmy dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, D; Tamii, A; Aoi, N; Bassauer, S; Bertulani, C A; Carter, J; Donaldson, L; Fujita, H; Fujita, Y; Hashimoto, T; Hatanaka, K; Ito, T; Krugmann, A; Liu, B; Maeda, Y; Miki, K; Neveling, R; Pietralla, N; Poltoratska, I; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Shima, T; Yamamoto, T; Zweidinger, M

    2016-01-01

    The gamma strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) of 1- states in 96Mo have been extracted from a high-resolution study of the (p,p') reaction at 295 MeV and extreme forward angles. The GSF agrees with results of compound nucleus gamma decay experiments in the energy region of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR), validating the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis commonly assumed in astrophysical reaction network calculations. The consistency of the LD deduced from the present data with those of the gamma decay experiments provides independent confirmation of the methods used to separate GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  12. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  13. Ecological risks of DOE`s programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  14. Inbreeding and Offspring Sex Ratio in the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Cheoropsis liberiensis) Population Kept in Zoological Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Cwiertnia, Piotr; Borowska, Alicja; Barczak, Elżbieta; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the inbreeding level and its impact on offspring sex ratio in the pygmy hippopotamus population kept in zoological gardens. Records of pygmy hippopotamus born between 1873-2013 were extracted from the international studbook. Totally, 1357 individuals originating from 148 breeding units were included (individuals with unknown sex were omitted). The offspring sex ratio is defined as the number of sons to the total number of progeny of each dam and sire. Spearman's rank correlation was employed to examine the relationships between the inbreeding level and offspring sex ratio. Inbreeding coefficients and individual increase in inbreeding coefficients (included as a linear co-variable) were examined as well as the geographic region and birth period using general linear models. The average inbreeding coefficient was 5.39%. The following sex proportion was observed for the inbred population: 57% and 43% for females and males, respectively. A significant relationship between inbreeding level of parents and their offspring sex ratio were estimated for European zoological gardens, whereas in others geographic regions the dependencies were insignificant.

  15. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides.

  16. The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: the last of the cetotheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, R Ewan; Marx, Felix G

    2013-02-22

    The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the most enigmatic of the living baleen whales (Mysticeti). Its highly disparate morphology and the virtual absence of a described fossil record have made it extremely difficult to place Caperea into a broader evolutionary context, and molecular and morphological studies have frequently contradicted each other as to the origins and phylogenetic relationships of the species. Our study of a wealth of material from New Zealand collections, representing a wide range of ontogenetic stages, has identified several new features previously unreported in Caperea, which suggest that the pygmy right whale may be the last survivor of the supposedly extinct family Cetotheriidae. This hypothesis is corroborated by both morphology-based and total evidence cladistic analyses, including 166 morphological characters and 23 taxa, representing all the living and extinct families of toothless baleen whales. Our results allow us to formally refer Caperea to Cetotheriidae, thus resurrecting the latter from extinction and helping to clarify the origins of a long-problematic living species.

  17. Novel mastadenovirus infection and clinical disease in a pygmy marmoset (Callithrix [Cebuella] pygmaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, János; Hornyák, Ákos; Mándoki, Míra; Bakonyi, Tamás; Balka, Gyula; Szeredi, Levente; Marosán, Miklós; Ludányi, Tibor; Forgách, Petra; Sós, Endre; Demeter, Zoltán; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2013-12-27

    We describe the detection and successful isolation of a novel mastadenovirus from a pygmy marmoset (Callithrix [Cebuella] pygmaea) that died following an episode of severe respiratory signs. Pathologic/histopathologic examination revealed hydrothorax and catarrhal bronchopneumonia with pronounced desquamation of the bronchiolar epithelial cells, while in other airways a marked hyperplasia of the epithelial lining and numerous giant cells could be observed. We obtained partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase gene of the isolated strain and analyses of this region showed the highest level of identity to the recently described bat adenoviruses (strains PPV1 and TJM) and the type 2 canine adenovirus. Similar results were gained by phylogenetic calculations indicating that this novel marmoset adenovirus is only distantly related to reference Old and New World primate adenoviruses and formed a monophyletic group with bat and canine adenoviruses and the equine adenovirus 1. Even though the source of the infection remained unknown, our results could imply the possibility of a cross-species transmission of the virus from an anonymous host to the pygmy marmoset.

  18. The pygmy quadrupole resonance and neutron-skin modes in 124Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, M.; Tsoneva, N.; Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lenske, H.; Pietralla, N.; Popescu, L.; Scheck, M.; Schlüter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present an extensive experimental study of the recently predicted pygmy quadrupole resonance (PQR) in Sn isotopes, where complementary probes were used. In this study, (α ,α‧ γ) and (γ ,γ‧) experiments were performed on 124Sn. In both reactions, Jπ =2+ states below an excitation energy of 5 MeV were populated. The E2 strength integrated over the full transition densities could be extracted from the (γ ,γ‧) experiment, while the (α ,α‧ γ) experiment at the chosen kinematics strongly favors the excitation of surface modes because of the strong α-particle absorption in the nuclear interior. The excitation of such modes is in accordance with the quadrupole-type oscillation of the neutron skin predicted by a microscopic approach based on self-consistent density functional theory and the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM). The newly determined γ-decay branching ratios hint at a non-statistical character of the E2 strength, as it has also been recently pointed out for the case of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). This allows us to distinguish between PQR-type and multiphonon excitations and, consequently, supports the recent first experimental indications of a PQR in 124Sn.

  19. Nuclear deformation and neutron excess as competing effects for pygmy dipole strength

    CERN Document Server

    Massarczyk, R; Dönau, F; Frauendorf, S; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Beyer, R; Bhatia, C; Birgersson, E; Butterling, M; Elekes, Z; Ferrari, A; Gooden, M E; Hannaske, R; Junghans, A R; Kempe, M; Kelley, J H; Kögler, T; Matic, A; Menzel, M L; Müller, S; Reinhardt, T P; Röder, M; Rusev, G; Schilling, K D; Schmidt, K; Schramm, G; Tonchev, A P; Tornow, W; Wagner, A

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic dipole strength below the neutron-separation energy has been studied for the xenon isotopes with mass numbers A = 124, 128, 132, and 134 in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using the ELBE bremsstrahlung facility at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the HIgS facility at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory Durham. The systematic study gained new information about the influence of the neutron excess as well as of nuclear deformation on the strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The results are compared with those obtained for the chain of molybdenum isotopes and with predictions of a random-phase approximation in a deformed basis. It turned out that the effect of nuclear deformation plays a minor role compared with the one caused by neutron excess. A global parametrization of the strength in terms of neutron and proton numbers allowed us to derive a formula capable of predicting the summed E1 strengths in the pygmy region for a wide mass range of nuclides.

  20. 77 FR 76474 - Extension of Public Review and Comment Period for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating From... of availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Recycling of Scrap... address printed in the Draft PEA was correct and now both that email address (...

  1. Programmatic research to increase the effectiveness of health communication campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Nancy Grant; Palmgreen, Philip C; Donohew, Lewis

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews a long program of research designed to investigate ways to increase the effectiveness of televised antidrug public service announcements. The review highlights the importance of audience targeting (adolescent and young adult high sensation seekers) and message design (message sensation value) in campaign research. It also emphasizes the role of theory and evaluation in programmatic research.

  2. A model for programmatic assessment fit for purpose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Schuwirth, L.W.; Driessen, E.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Tigelaar, D.; Baartman, L.K.; Tartwijk, J. van

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model for programmatic assessment in action, which simultaneously optimises assessment for learning and assessment for decision making about learner progress. This model is based on a set of assessment principles that are interpreted from empirical research. It specifies cycles of train

  3. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 33 CFR 385.4 - Limitation on applicability of programmatic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... programmatic regulations. 385.4 Section 385.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General Provisions § 385.4 Limitation on applicability of programmatic regulations. In...

  5. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  6. Pygmy and Giant Dipole Resonances by Coulomb Excitation using a Quantum Molecular Dynamics model

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, C; Zhang, G Q; Cao, X G; Wang, D Q Fang H W

    2012-01-01

    Pygmy and Giant Dipole Resonance (PDR and GDR) in Ni isotopes have been investigated by Coulomb excitation in the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (IQMD). The spectra of $\\gamma$ rays are calculated and the peak energy, the strength and Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of GDR and PDR have been extracted. Their sensitivities to nuclear equation of state, especially to its symmetry energy term are also explored. By a comparison with the other mean-field calculations, we obtain the reasonable values for symmetry energy and its slope parameter at saturation, which gives an important constrain for IQMD model. In addition, we also studied the neutron excess dependence of GDR and PDR parameters for Ni isotopes and found that the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) $PDR_{m_1}/GDR_{m_1}%$ increases linearly with the neutron excess.

  7. Pygmy dipole strength close to particle-separation energies - the case of the Mo isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rusev, G; Erhard, M; Junghans, A; Kosev, K; Schilling, K D; Schwengner, R; Wagner, A; Rusev, Gencho; Grosse, Eckart; Erhard, Martin; Junghans, Arnd; Kosev, Krasimir; Schilling, Klaus-Dieter; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of electromagnetic dipole strength in 92, 98, 100 Mo has been investigated by photon scattering using bremsstrahlung from the new ELBE facility. The experimental data for well separated nuclear resonances indicate a transition from a regular to a chaotic behaviour above 4 MeV of excitation energy. As the strength distributions follow a Porter-Thomas distribution much of the dipole strength is found in weak and in unresolved resonances appearing as fluctuating cross section. An analysis of this quasi-continuum - here applied to nuclear resonance fluorescence in a novel way - delivers dipole strength functions, which are combining smoothly to those obtained from (g,n)-data. Enhancements at 6.5 MeV and at ~9 MeV are linked to the pygmy dipole resonances postulated to occur in heavy nuclei.

  8. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) coincidence experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savran, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Babilon, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Berg, A.M. van den [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Hasper, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Woertche, H.J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Zilges, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    We report on first results from experiments using the ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) reaction at E{sub {alpha}}=136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (E1) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 140}Ce. The method of ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) allows the separation of E1 excitations from states of higher multipolarity, provides an excellent energy resolution and therefore allows a detailed analysis for each single state. Studying bound E1 excitations in {alpha}-scattering experiments at intermediate energies becomes feasible for the first time even in nuclei with a high level density. The surprising results of the first experiment on {sup 140}Ce point to a splitting of the PDR in this nucleus.

  9. Structure and decay of the pygmy dipole resonance in 26Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, M

    2016-01-01

    The low-lying spectra of $^{24,25,26}{\\rm Ne}$ and the structure of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in $^{26}{\\rm Ne}$ have been theoretically studied by the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) and its extended version called shifted-basis AMD. The calculated energy and strength of the PDR reasonably agree with the observation, and the analysis of the wave function shows that the PDR is dominated by neutron excitation coupled to the quadrupole excited core nucleus $^{25}{\\rm Ne}$, which explains the observed unexpected decay of PDR to the excited states of $^{25}{\\rm Ne}$. The large isoscalar component of PDR is also shown and the enhancement of the core excitation in neutron-rich Ne isotopes is conjectured.

  10. Operating an Advertising Programmatic Buying Platform: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gonzalvez-Cabañas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how new technological developments and the possibilities generated by the internet are shaping the online advertising market. More specifically it focuses on a programmatic advertising case study. The origin of the problem is how publishers resort to automated buying and selling when trying to shift unsold inventory. To carry out our case study, we will use a programmatic online advertising sales platform, which identifies the optimal way of promoting a given product. The platform executes, evaluates, manages and optimizes display advertising campaigns, all in real-time. The empirical analysis carried out in the case study reveals that the platform and its exclusion algorithms are suitable mechanisms for analysing the performance and efficiency of the various segments that might be used to promote products. Thanks to Big Data tools and artificial intelligence the platform performs automatically, providing information in a user-friendly and simple manner.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Nautilus and pygmy squid developing eye provides insights in lens and eye evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Ogura, Atsushi; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods like squids have a camera-type eye similar to vertebrates. On the other hand, Nautilus (Nautiloids) has a pinhole eye that lacks lens and cornea. Since pygmy squid and Nautilus are closely related species they are excellent model organisms to study eye evolution. Having being able to collect Nautilus embryos, we employed next-generation RNA sequencing using Nautilus and pygmy squid developing eyes. Their transcriptomes were compared and analyzed. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology revealed that contigs related to nucleic acid binding were largely up-regulated in squid, while the ones related to metabolic processes and extracellular matrix-related genes were up-regulated in Nautilus. These differences are most likely correlated with the complexity of tissue organization in these species. Moreover, when the analysis focused on the eye-related contigs several interesting patterns emerged. First, contigs from both species related to eye tissue differentiation and morphogenesis as well as to cilia showed best hits with their Human counterparts, while contigs related to rabdomeric photoreceptors showed the best hit with their Drosophila counterparts. This bolsters the idea that eye morphogenesis genes have been generally conserved in evolution, and compliments other studies showing that genes involved in photoreceptor differentiation clearly follow the diversification of invertebrate (rabdomeric) and vertebrate (ciliated) photoreceptors. Interestingly some contigs showed as good a hit with Drosophila and Human homologues in Nautilus and squid samples. One of them, capt/CAP1, is known to be preferentially expressed in Drosophila developing eye and in vertebrate lens. Importantly our analysis also provided evidence of gene duplication and diversification of their function in both species. One of these genes is the Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1/Nf1), which in mice has been implicated in lens formation, suggesting a hitherto unsuspected role in the evolution

  12. Characterization and analysis of a de novo transcriptome from the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongying; Liu, Fei; Lu, Huimeng; Huang, Yuan

    2016-06-11

    The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica is a common insect distributed throughout the world, and it has the potential for use in studies of body colour polymorphism, genomics and the biology of Tetrigoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera). However, limited biological information is available for this insect. Here, we conducted a de novo transcriptome study of adult and larval T. japonica to provide a better understanding of its gene expression and develop genomic resources for future work. We sequenced and explored the characteristics of the de novo transcriptome of T. japonica using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 107 608 206 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 61 141 unigenes using the trinity software; the mean unigene size was 771 bp, and the N50 length was 1238 bp. A total of 29 225 unigenes were functionally annotated to the NCBI nonredundant protein sequences (Nr), NCBI nonredundant nucleotide sequences (Nt), a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of putative genes that are potentially involved in pigment pathways, juvenile hormone (JH) metabolism and signalling pathways were identified in the T. japonica transcriptome. Additionally, 165 769 and 156 796 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms occurred in the adult and larvae transcriptomes, respectively, and a total of 3162 simple sequence repeats were detected in this assembly. This comprehensive transcriptomic data for T. japonica will provide a usable resource for gene predictions, signalling pathway investigations and molecular marker development for this species and other pygmy grasshoppers.

  13. Polyphenols, fungal enzymes, and the fate of organic nitrogen in a Californian pygmy forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, E.

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a diverse family of plant secondary compounds which may influence litter decay and soil nutrient turnover. The "short circuit" hypothesis for polyphenol function proposes that polyphenolic compounds provision plants with nitrogen in nutrient-poor soils by facilitating the accumulation of organic nitrogen in soil humus. By binding peptides, polyphenols may sequester nitrogen in a bank of recalcitrant organic matter, granting competitive advantage to plants with the mycorrhizal fungi most capable of recapturing the tightly bound organic nitrogen. Specifically, fungi may retrieve nitrogen from polyphenol-peptide complexes with an extracellular enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In order to evaluate the "short circuit" hypothesis, I measured soil PPO activity during four seasons in the Mendocino "ecological staircase," a soil age-gradient consisting of a series of wave-cut terraces along stretches of the northern California coast. Stunted, pygmy-forest plants growing in the nutrient-poor soils of the older marine terraces produce more polyphenols than their con-specifics on nutrient-rich younger terraces, potentially influencing PPO facilitated nitrogen cycling. I found that PPO activity reached its maximum in the younger terrace forest during the spring, achieving levels nearly twice as high as those observed on the younger terrace in other seasons and in the older terrace forest year-round. In both terraces, PPO activity was greatest in the organic humus at the soil surface, decreasing dramatically in the lower mineral horizon. When PPO activity reached its maximum in the younger terrace, I found that soil polyphenol content positively correlated (Rsq=0.63) with enzyme activity, suggesting that polyphenols might induce enzyme production. However, in the tannin-rich soil of the pygmy forest on the older terrace, enzyme activity remained low, and was most strongly correlated with soil moisture. The results do not support the hypothesis that nutrient

  14. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  15. Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC). Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    growth of benthic algae (limu). The Ewa - RIMPAC Programmatic EA 3-19 Beach area is a popular seaweed harvesting area on Oahu. Organisms offshore of...low numbers in the littoral waters. Macroalgae ( seaweed ) is very abundant in the offshore areas. (State of Hawaii, 2001) A diverse and abundant...organisms living in pelagic communities may be drifters ( plankton ) or swimmers (nekton). The plankton includes larvae of benthic species, so a pelagic

  16. Migratory Movements of Pygmy Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as Revealed by Satellite Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Double, Michael C.; Virginia Andrews-Goff; Jenner, K. Curt S.; Micheline-Nicole Jenner; Laverick, Sarah M.; Branch, Trevor A; Nicholas J. Gales

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales wer...

  17. The Measurement of the 12C(n, γ)13C Reaction in the Pygmy Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengde, Huang; Lihua, Zhu; Long, Ho; Xiamin, Shi; Dazho, Ding

    1991-10-01

    The excitation function of 12(n, γ0)13C reaction has been measured in the pygmy resonance region. The present results are in agreement with the results of ref. 8 and DSD calculation of ref. 7. The angular distributions of 12C(n,γ0) reaction were fitted by Legendre polynomials. It is concluded that the E1 transitions dominate in the 12C(n,γ0)13C reaction.

  18. Programmatic screening for colorectal cancer: the COLONPREV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The COLONPREV study is an ongoing multicenter, nationwide, randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of once-only colonoscopy and biennial fecal immunochemical testing with respect to the reduction of CRC-related mortality at 10 years in average-risk colorectal cancer screening population. Following a pragmatic approach, this study may contribute to establishing the most cost-effective strategy in a programmatic, population-based setting. In this review, we report the results obtained at the first screening round, as well as others achieved in nested evaluations using the COLONPREV dataset with the aim of clarifying some controversial issues on the different strategies of colorectal cancer screening.

  19. Content Analysis as a Foundation for Programmatic Research in Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous arguments that content analyses provide the descriptive foundation for media effects research (McLeod & Reeves, 1980) are extended to include that content analyses can provide a sound and useful foundation for programmatic research by individual communication scientists. I discuss examples from my own work and from that of colleagues in communication and related disciplines. Use of messages sampled and coded in a content analysis in combination with survey data sets or as stimuli in experiments are highlighted. The particular potential for employing larger numbers of randomly sampled messages in experimental designs, and, with use of appropriate statistical methods, being able to generalize to populations of messages, is described. PMID:23914276

  20. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 1 - Nationwide Programmatic Agreement for the Collocation of Wireless Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... improved coordination of Section 106 compliance regarding wireless communications projects affecting... out. I. Definitions For purposes of this Nationwide Programmatic Agreement, the following definitions...

  1. Autoantibody Production in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, G. L.; Rose, M. Elaine

    1963-01-01

    The finding that the serum of apparently healthy rabbits fixed complement with rabbit liver and kidney has been confirmed. Experimental infection of rabbits with Eimeria stiedae, the cause of hepatic coccidiosis, led to a rise in the titre of serum complement-fixing factors. The rise was statistically significant 14, 21 and 28 days after infection. The factors were regarded as antibodies because they behaved as macroglobulins on diethylaminoethyl—cellulose chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation, and as autoantibodies because they fixed complement with the kidney of the rabbits in which they occurred. The antibody reacted with widely distributed antigen(s) with high activity in brain and low activity in skeletal muscle. The possibility that coccidial infection may be responsible for the natural autoantibody of rabbits is discussed. PMID:13965167

  2. On the issue of costs in programmatic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2016-10-01

    Programmatic assessment requires labour and cost intensive activities such as feedback in a quantitative and qualitative form, a system of learner support in guiding feedback uptake and self-directed learning, and a decision-making arrangement that includes committees of experts making a holistic professional judgment while using due process measures to achieve trustworthy decisions. This can only be afforded if we redistribute the resources of assessment in a curriculum. Several strategies are suggested. One is to introduce progress testing as a replacement for costly cognitive assessment formats in modules. In addition, all assessments should be replaced by assessment formats that are maximally aligned with the learning tasks. For performance-based assessment, OSCEs should be sparsely used, while education and work-embedded assessment should be maximized as part of the routine of ongoing instruction and assessment. Information technology may support affordable feedback strategies, as well as the creation of a paper trail on performance. By making more dramatic choices in the way we allocate resources to assessment, the cost-intensive activities of programmatic assessment may be realized.

  3. Programmatic assessment of student experiences using a longitudinal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draugalis JR

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to gather longitudinal data on a pharmacy class cohort concerning programmatic components as well as develop a profile of student experiences as they progress through the curriculum.Methods: The Class of 2006 (n = 67 completed a 2 page instrument at the conclusion of the first 3 professional years (PY concerning hours spent in various activities, overall quality of various programmatic components, relationships with others in the college, and employment information. During senior week, a more extensive exit survey was administered.Results: At the conclusion of PY1, 56.5% of the class was working as a pharmacy intern. By PY3 this increased to 88.1% with a decrease to 65.7% in the final year. The hourly range of hours worked followed the same pattern. The rating of Dean’s Office Staff and interactions with faculty members remained constant across all 4 years. In the final exit survey the 2 lowest rated program components were the quality of the interaction with assigned faculty advisor and the availability of professional electives. There was no difference across the professional years for the quality of relationships with staff or faculty; however, the mean rating of the quality of relationships with other students was higher for PY4 when compared to PY1.Conclusions: College faculty, administrators, and committees have used the information gathered from students in program assessment and enhancement efforts. Longitudinal data collection allows for tracking of changes and interventions.

  4. Pygmy dipole strength in {sup 86}Kr and systematics of N=50 isotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwengner, R.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Junghans, A.R.; Marta, M.; Schilling, K.D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Germany); Massarczyk, R.; Hannaske, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Rusev, G.; Kelley, J.H.; Kwan, E.; Raut, R.; Tonchev, A.; Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Durham NC (United States); Tsoneva, N.; Lenske, H. [Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We present results of the first photon-scattering study of {sup 86}Kr. Experiments were carried out with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE accelerator of HZDR and with monoenergetic, polarized γ rays at the HIγS facility of TUNL. A high-pressure gas target was used. We identified about 40 states with J{sup π} = 1{sup -} up to the neutron-separation energy for the first time. For the determination of the absorption cross section, strength in the quasicontinuum was taken into account and a correction of the cross section for inelastic transitions was performed on the basis of simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades. The resulting absorption cross section shows enhanced strength considered as a pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) and is compared with predictions of the quasiparticle-phonon model. The behavior of PDR strength within the series of N=50 isotones is discussed. Enhanced photon strength may influence neutron-capture reaction rates relevant for transmutation studies.

  5. Evolution of pygmy angelfishes: Recent divergences, introgression, and the usefulness of color in taxonomy

    KAUST Repository

    Gaither, Michelle R.

    2014-05-01

    The pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge, family Pomacanthidae) are brightly colored species that occupy reef habitats in every tropical ocean. Some species are rarely observed because they occur below conventional scuba depths. Their striking coloration can command thousands of U.S. dollars in the aquarium trade, and closely related species are often distinguished only by coloration. These factors have impeded phylogenetic resolution, and every phylogeographic survey to date has reported discordance between coloration, taxonomy, and genetic partitions. Here we report a phylogenetic survey of 29 of the 34 recognized species (N= 94 plus 23 outgroups), based on two mtDNA and three nuclear loci, totaling 2272. bp. The resulting ML and Baysian trees are highly concordant and indicate that the genus Centropyge is paraphyletic, consistent with a previous analysis of the family Pomacanthidae. Two recognized genera (Apolemichthys and Genicanthus) nest within Centropyge, and two subgenera (Xiphypops and Paracentropyge) comprise monophyletic lineages that should be elevated to genus level. Based on an age estimate of 38. Ma for the family Pomacanthidae, Centropyge diverged from the closest extant genus Pygoplites about 33. Ma, three deep lineages within Centropyge diverged about 18-28. Ma, and four species complexes diverged 3-12. Ma. However, in 11 of 13 cases, putative species in these complexes are indistinguishable based on morphology and genetics, being defined solely by coloration. These cases indicate either emerging species or excessive taxonomic splitting based on brightly colored variants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Acoustic property reconstruction of a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) forehead based on computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchang; Xu, Xiao; Dong, Jianchen; Xing, Luru; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Xuecheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Songhai; Berggren, Per

    2015-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging and sound experimental measurements were used to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the forehead tissues of a deceased pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). The forehead was segmented along the body axis and sectioned into cross section slices, which were further cut into sample pieces for measurements. Hounsfield units (HUs) of the corresponding measured pieces were obtained from CT scans, and regression analyses were conducted to investigate the linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density. The distributions of the acoustic properties of the head at axial, coronal, and sagittal cross sections were reconstructed, revealing that the nasal passage system was asymmetric and the cornucopia-shaped spermaceti organ was in the right nasal passage, surrounded by tissues and airsacs. A distinct dense theca was discovered in the posterior-dorsal area of the melon, which was characterized by low velocity in the inner core and high velocity in the outer region. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in density, velocity, and acoustic impedance between all four structures, melon, spermaceti organ, muscle, and connective tissue (p acoustic properties of the forehead tissues provide important information for understanding the species' bioacoustic characteristics.

  7. Decay Pattern of Pygmy States Observed in Neutron-Rich Ne26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelin, J.; Beaumel, D.; Motobayashi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Aoi, N.; Baba, H.; Elekes, Z.; Fortier, S.; Frascaria, N.; Fukuda, N.; Gomi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Lima, V.; Nakamura, T.; Saito, A.; Satou, Y.; Scarpaci, J.-A.; Takeshita, E.; Takeuchi, S.; Teranishi, T.; Togano, Y.; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2008-11-01

    Coulomb excitation of the exotic neutron-rich nucleus Ne26 on a Pb208 target was measured at 58MeV/u in order to search for low-lying E1 strength above the neutron emission threshold. This radioactive beam experiment was carried out at the RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility. Using the invariant mass method in the Ne25+n channel, we observe a sizable amount of E1 strength between 6 and 10 MeV excitation energy. By performing a multipole decomposition of the differential cross section, a reduced dipole transition probability of B(E1)=0.49±0.16e2fm2 is deduced, corresponding to 4.9±1.6% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. For the first time, the decay pattern of low-lying strength in a neutron-rich nucleus is measured. The extracted decay pattern is not consistent with several mean-field theory descriptions of the pygmy states.

  8. The cerebral cortex of the pygmy hippopotamus, Hexaprotodon liberiensis (Cetartiodactyla, Hippopotamidae): MRI, cytoarchitecture, and neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butti, Camilla; Ewan Fordyce, R; Ann Raghanti, Mary; Gu, Xiaosi; Bonar, Christopher J; Wicinski, Bridget A; Wong, Edmund W; Roman, Jessica; Brake, Alanna; Eaves, Emily; Spocter, Muhammad A; Tang, Cheuk Y; Jacobs, Bob; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2014-04-01

    The structure of the hippopotamus brain is virtually unknown because few studies have examined more than its external morphology. In view of their semiaquatic lifestyle and phylogenetic relatedness to cetaceans, the brain of hippopotamuses represents a unique opportunity for better understanding the selective pressures that have shaped the organization of the brain during the evolutionary process of adaptation to an aquatic environment. Here we examined the histology of the cerebral cortex of the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) by means of Nissl, Golgi, and calretinin (CR) immunostaining, and provide a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural and volumetric dataset of the anatomy of its brain. We calculated the corpus callosum area/brain mass ratio (CCA/BM), the gyrencephalic index (GI), the cerebellar quotient (CQ), and the cerebellar index (CI). Results indicate that the cortex of H. liberiensis shares one feature exclusively with cetaceans (the lack of layer IV across the entire cerebral cortex), other features exclusively with artiodactyls (e.g., the morphologiy of CR-immunoreactive multipolar neurons in deep cortical layers, gyrencephalic index values, hippocampus and cerebellum volumetrics), and others with at least some species of cetartiodactyls (e.g., the presence of a thick layer I, the pattern of distribution of CR-immunoreactive neurons, the presence of von Economo neurons, clustering of layer II in the occipital cortex). The present study thus provides a comprehensive dataset of the neuroanatomy of H. liberiensis that sets the ground for future comparative studies including the larger Hippopotamus amphibius. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, Francis E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-17

    tailed rabbit (Lepus californicus melanotis), raccoon (Procyon lotor hirtus), coyote ( Canis latrans) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). The rich...livia), European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus ) are known to occur year-round on the installation. Fish are...Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) that addresses the identification , investigation, and cleanup of contamination from hazardous substances

  10. Getting to know you: Identification of pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata and melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Siciliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra and Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata are very poorly known species and are often confused with each other. We examined in detail Figure 3 in MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 who reported that two melon-headed whales were taken in a surface driftnet about 90 nm off Santos, Brazil. We concluded they were in fact pygmy killer whales and explain our reasoning. To aid in future identifications, we illustrate and describe some of the main differences between these two species of small cetaceans. The incident reported by MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 might represent the 'tip of the iceberg' regarding the incidental catches of cetaceans by pelagic drift nets off Brazil. Offshore driftnetting operating along the south-southeastern coast of Brazil may threaten pygmy killer whales.

  11. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  12. 76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National... Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS) for Biscayne National Park, Florida. The...

  13. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park, Florida...

  14. 10 CFR 603.895 - Protection of information in programmatic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of information in programmatic reports. 603.895 Section 603.895 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... Protection of information in programmatic reports. If a TIA is awarded under the authority of 42 U.S.C....

  15. 78 FR 23926 - Extension of the Public Comment Period for the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Extension of the Public Comment Period for the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental... Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft ULP PEIS, DOE/EIS-0472D),...

  16. Measuring the performance of multi-agency programmatic permits for Washington State Department of Transportation activities

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Washington State Legislature established the Transportation Permit Efficiency and Accountability Committee (TPEAC) to identify measures to streamline permit procedures for transportation activities and improve environmental outcomes. A programmatic subcommittee was created to develop a multi-agency approach for developing programmatic permits that would cover 60 to 70 percent of Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) activities (mostly maintenance and preservation ...

  17. 77 FR 44267 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States AGENCY: Bureau of Land... availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six... Programmatic EIS and Proposed RMP Amendments, references, and additional information regarding solar...

  18. 10 CFR 609.7 - Programmatic, technical and financial evaluation of Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic, technical and financial evaluation of Applications. 609.7 Section 609.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.7 Programmatic, technical and...

  19. The Tips, Tricks, and Challenges of Teaching Undergraduate Kinesiology Students Research Methodology through a Programmatic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a programmatic approach to undergraduate research (UGR) at Washington State University. In a programmatic approach, UGR is woven throughout the curriculum, with the expressed intent of producing undergraduate students who have at least a moderate ability to read, use, conduct, and present research. Washington State…

  20. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige

    2011-09-01

    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.

  1. Rabbit orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Gregory A

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery in rabbits poses several unique parameters for the veterinary surgeon. It is imperative for the veterinarian to be knowledgeable about the anatomic features of the surgical repair site and to become familiar with a rabbit's pain and discomfort often associated with orthopedic injuries. Handling the perioperative and postoperative pain and potential GI disturbances are crucial for a successful outcome of the surgical case. This article is designed to help the veterinary surgeon prepare for the orthopedic surgical procedure and the peripheral physiologic needs of the rabbit from presentation through recovery.

  2. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  3. Clinical outcome of skin yaws lesions after treatment with benzathinebenzylpenicillin in a pygmy population in Lobaye, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manirakiza Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment with benzathinepenicillin in this population, we conducted a cohort survey of 243 patients in the Lobaye region. Findings and conclusion The rate of healing of lesions after 5 months was 95.9%. This relatively satisfactory level of therapeutic response implies that yaws could be controlled in the Central African Republic. Thus, reinforcement of the management of new cases and of contacts is suggested.

  4. Pygmy and core polarization dipole modes in 206Pb: Connecting nuclear structure to stellar nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Tsoneva, N.; Bhatia, C.; Arnold, C. W.; Goriely, S.; Hammond, S. L.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Lenske, H.; Piekarewicz, J.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Shizuma, T.; Tornow, W.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution study of the electromagnetic response of 206Pb below the neutron separation energy is performed using a (γ → ,γ‧) experiment at the HI γ → S facility. Nuclear resonance fluorescence with 100% linearly polarized photon beams is used to measure spins, parities, branching ratios, and decay widths of excited states in 206Pb from 4.9 to 8.1 MeV. The extracted ΣB (E 1) ↑ and ΣB (M 1) ↑ values for the total electric and magnetic dipole strength below the neutron separation energy are 0.9 ± 0.2 e2fm2 and 8.3 ± 2.0 μN2, respectively. These measurements are found to be in very good agreement with the predictions from an energy-density functional (EDF) plus quasiparticle phonon model (QPM). Such a detailed theoretical analysis allows to separate the pygmy dipole resonance from both the tail of the giant dipole resonance and multi-phonon excitations. Combined with earlier photonuclear experiments above the neutron separation energy, one extracts a value for the electric dipole polarizability of 206Pb of αD = 122 ± 10 mb /MeV. When compared to predictions from both the EDF+QPM and accurately calibrated relativistic EDFs, one deduces a range for the neutron-skin thickness of Rskin206 = 0.12- 0.19 fm and a corresponding range for the slope of the symmetry energy of L = 48- 60 MeV. This newly obtained information is also used to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged radiative cross section 205Pb (n , γ)206Pb at 30 keV to be σ = 130 ± 25 mb. The astrophysical impact of this measurement-on both the s-process in stellar nucleosynthesis and on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter-is discussed.

  5. 25 CFR 900.65 - What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Programmatic Reports and Data Requirements § 900.65 What programmatic reports and data shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization provide?...

  6. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature.

  7. Influence of mercury and selenium chemistries on the progression of cardiomyopathy in pygmy sperm whales, Kogia breviceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Colleen E; Davis, W Clay; McFee, Wayne E; Neumann, Carola A; Schulte, Jennifer; Bossart, Gregory D; Christopher, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    More than half of pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) that strand exhibit signs of cardiomyopathy (CMP). Many factors may contribute to the development of idiopathic CMP in K. breviceps, including genetics, infectious agents, contaminants, biotoxins, and dietary intake (e.g. selenium, mercury, and pro-oxidants). This study assessed trace elements in K. breviceps at various stages of CMP progression using fresh frozen liver and heart samples collected from individuals that stranded along US Atlantic and Gulf coasts between 1993 and 2007. Standard addition calibration and collision cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed for total Se analysis and pyrolysis atomic absorption (AA) was utilized for total Hg analysis to examine if the Se/Hg detoxification pathway inhibits the bioavailability of Se. Double spike speciated isotope dilution gas chromatography ICP-MS was utilized to measure methyl Hg and inorganic Hg. Immunoblot detection and colorimetric assays were used to assess protein oxidation status. Data collected on trace elements, selenoproteins, and oxidative status were evaluated in the context of animal life history and other complementary histological information to gain insight into the biochemical pathways contributing to the development of CMP in K. breviceps. Cardiomyopathy was only observed in adult pygmy sperm whales, predominantly in male animals. Both Hg:Se molar ratios and overall protein oxidation were greater in males than females and increased with progression of CMP.

  8. Acoustic detection and long-term monitoring of pygmy blue whales over the continental slope in southwest Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, Alexander N; McCauley, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    A 9-yr dataset of continuous sea noise recording made at the Cape Leeuwin station of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty hydroacoustic network in 2002-2010 was processed to detect calls from pygmy blue whales and to analyze diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations in their vocal activity. Because the conventional spectrogram correlation method for recognizing whale calls in sea noise resulted in a too high false detection rate, alternative algorithms were tested and the most robust one applied to the multi-year dataset. The detection method was based on multivariate classification using two spectrogram features of transients in sea noise and Fisher's linear discriminant, which provided a misclassification rate of approximately 1% for missed and false detections at moderate sensitivity settings. An analysis of the detection results revealed a consistent seasonal pattern in the whale presence and considerable interannual changes with a steady increase in the number of calls detected in 2002-2006. An apparent diurnal pattern of whales' vocal activity was also observed. The acoustic detection range for pygmy blue whales was estimated to vary from about 50 km to nearly 200 km from the Cape Leeuwin station, depending on the ambient noise level, source level, and azimuth to a vocalizing whale.

  9. Twisted sister species of pygmy angelfishes: discordance between taxonomy, coloration, and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Joseph D.; Waldrop, Ellen; Bowen, Brian W.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Pyle, Richard L.; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2012-09-01

    The delineation of reef fish species by coloration is problematic, particularly for the pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge), whose vivid colors are sometimes the only characters available for taxonomic classification. The Lemonpeel Angelfish ( Centropyge flavissima) has Pacific and Indian Ocean forms separated by approximately 3,000 km and slight differences in coloration. These disjunct populations hybridize with Eibl's Angelfish ( Centropyge eibli) in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Pearl-Scaled Angelfish ( Centropyge vrolikii) in the western Pacific. To resolve the evolutionary history of these species and color morphs, we employed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and three nuclear introns (TMO, RAG2, and S7). Phylogenetic analyses reveal three deep mtDNA lineages ( d = 7.0-8.3 %) that conform not to species designation or color morph but to geographic region: (1) most Pacific C. flavissima plus C. vrolikii, (2) C. flavissima from the Society Islands in French Polynesia, and (3) Indian Ocean C. flavissima plus C. eibli. In contrast, the nuclear introns each show a cluster of closely related alleles, with frequency differences between the three geographic groups. Hence, the mtDNA phylogeny reveals a period of isolation (ca . 3.5-4.2 million years) typical of congeneric species, whereas the within-lineage mtDNA ΦST values and the nuclear DNA data reveal recent or ongoing gene flow between species. We conclude that an ancient divergence of C. flavissima, recorded in the non-recombining mtDNA, was subsequently swamped by introgression and hybridization in two of the three regions, with only the Society Islands retaining the original C. flavissima haplotypes among our sample locations. Alternatively, the yellow color pattern of C. flavissima may have appeared independently in the central Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean. Regardless of how the pattern arose, C. flavissima seems to be retaining species identity where it interbreeds with C. vrolikii and C

  10. Pygmy and core polarization dipole modes in 206 Pb: Connecting nuclear structure to stellar nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Tsoneva, N.; Bhatia, C.; Arnold, C. W.; Goriely, S.; Hammond, S. L.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Lenske, H.; Piekarewicz, J.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Shizuma, T.; Tornow, W.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution study of the electromagnetic response of 206Pb below the neutron separation energy is performed using a (γ→,γ') experiment at the HIγ→S facility. Nuclear resonance fluorescence with 100% linearly polarized photon beams is used to measure spins, parities, branching ratios, and decay widths of excited states in 206Pb from 4.9 to 8.1 MeV. The extracted ΣB(E1)↑ and ΣB(M1)↑ values for the total electric and magnetic dipole strength below the neutron separation energy are 0.9±0.2e2fm2 and 8.3±2.0μ$2\\atop{N}$, respectively. These measurements are found to be in very good agreement with the predictions from an energy-density functional (EDF) plus quasiparticle phonon model (QPM). Such a detailed theoretical analysis allows to separate the pygmy dipole resonance from both the tail of the giant dipole resonance and multi-phonon excitations. Combined with earlier photonuclear experiments above the neutron separation energy, one extracts a value for the electric dipole polarizability of 206Pb of αD=122±10mb/MeV. When compared to predictions from both the EDF+QPM and accurately calibrated relativistic EDFs, one deduces a range for the neutron-skin thickness of R$206\\atop{skin}$=0.12–0.19fm and a corresponding range for the slope of the symmetry energy of L=48–60MeV. This newly obtained information is also used to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged radiative cross section 205Pb(n,γ)Pb206 at 30 keV to be σ=130±25mb. The astrophysical impact of this measurement—on both the s-process in stellar nucleosynthesis and on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter—is discussed.

  11. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  12. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Programmatic Requirements for Yaws Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Oriol; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Asiedu, Kingsley; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.W.; Funk, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Yaws is targeted for eradication by 2020. The mainstay of the eradication strategy is mass treatment followed by case finding. Modeling has been used to inform programmatic requirements for other neglected tropical diseases and could provide insights into yaws eradication. We developed a model of yaws transmission varying the coverage and number of rounds of treatment. The estimated number of cases arising from an index case (basic reproduction number [R0]) ranged from 1.08 to 3.32. To have 80% probability of achieving eradication, 8 rounds of treatment with 80% coverage were required at low estimates of R0 (1.45). This requirement increased to 95% at high estimates of R0 (2.47). Extending the treatment interval to 12 months increased requirements at all estimates of R0. At high estimates of R0 with 12 monthly rounds of treatment, no combination of variables achieved eradication. Models should be used to guide the scale-up of yaws eradication. PMID:27983500

  14. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  16. Systems Engineering Design Via Experimental Operation Research: Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Unique and innovative graph theory, neural network, organizational modeling, and genetic algorithms are applied to the design and evolution of programmatic and organizational architectures. Graph theory representations of programs and organizations increase modeling capabilities and flexibility, while illuminating preferable programmatic/organizational design features. Treating programs and organizations as neural networks results in better system synthesis, and more robust data modeling. Organizational modeling using covariance structures enhances the determination of organizational risk factors. Genetic algorithms improve programmatic evolution characteristics, while shedding light on rulebase requirements for achieving specified technological readiness levels, given budget and schedule resources. This program of research improves the robustness and verifiability of systems synthesis tools, including the Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE).

  17. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dut

  18. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  19. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  20. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  1. Characterizing the reproductive biology of the female pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) through non-invasive endocrine monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacke, Gabriella L; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Penfold, Linda M; Walker, Susan L; Martin, Graeme B; Millar, Robert Peter; Paris, Monique C J

    2017-10-15

    The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is endangered in the wild and very little is known about its reproductive biology. In zoological facilities, this species experiences a number of reproductive issues that complicate breeding management, including a high rate of stillbirths and failure of many pairs to reproduce. We conducted a comprehensive study to evaluate reproductive cycles and pregnancy in this species using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for fecal hormone metabolite analysis. Fresh fecal samples were collected twice weekly for a one to three year period from 36 female pygmy hippos housed at 24 zoological institutions. Samples were analyzed in three separate laboratories. Three progestogen metabolite EIAs (Pg-diol: 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol 3HS:BSA; PdG: pregnanediol-3-glucuronide R13904; mono-P4: Quidel clone 425) and three estrogen metabolite EIAs (E2a: estradiol-17β-OH 17-HS:BSA; E2b: estradiol 17β R0008; E2c: estradiol 17β R4972) accurately reflected reproductive events. Average estrous cycle length was 31.8 ± 7.4 days based on estrogen metabolite peaks and 30.9 ± 7.3 days based on nadir to nadir progestogen metabolite concentrations. Cyclical patterns in both estrogen and progestogen metabolites were detected throughout the year, indicating a lack of seasonality. Estrogen metabolite peaks were also observed during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that follicular development occurs during both reproductive states. Pregnancy was most reliably demonstrated by elevation in progestogen metabolites (Pg-diol or PdG) in the second half of gestation. Average gestation length based on breeding to calving date was 203 ± 4 days for 15 pregnancies. This comprehensive overview of the reproductive biology of the female pygmy hippo provides valuable data for guiding long-term breeding management for this endangered species and serves as a baseline for future studies addressing the potential influence of social structure, diet, body condition

  2. WEIGHTS or RABBITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    heart and spleen from_male and femalerabbits were made, in rabbits fed graded levels (0, 4, 8, 12%) of oil palm indiets. ..... aeetyl CoA derived mainly from carbohydrate wasdepressed ... an integral part in the synthesis and metabolism of.

  3. A Clever Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼振璞; 付晓明

    2002-01-01

    1. Once there lived an elephant and a lion in the mountains, who both wanted to be the king of the beasts. One day the lion caught a rabbit. Before he ate it, he said, “Do you know I am the king here? ”

  4. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  5. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  6. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823, in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAR. Dias

    Full Text Available Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea.

  7. Isospin Character of Low-Lying Pygmy Dipole States in Pb208 via Inelastic Scattering of O17 Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F. C. L.; Bracco, A.; Nicolini, R.; Mengoni, D.; Pellegri, L.; Lanza, E. G.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Avigo, R.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bottoni, S.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Morales, A. I.; Vandone, V.; Wieland, O.; Bednarczyk, P.; Ciemała, M.; Grebosz, J.; Krzysiek, M.; Mazurek, K.; Zieblinski, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bellato, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Bortolato, D.; Calore, E.; Cederwall, B.; Charles, L.; de Angelis, G.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Isocrate, R.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Karkour, N.; Korten, W.; Menegazzo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Molini, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Pullia, A.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Rosso, D.; Sahin, E.; Salsac, M. D.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Simpson, J.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stezowski, O.; Theisen, Ch.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    The properties of pygmy dipole states in Pb208 were investigated using the Pb208(O17, O17'γ) reaction at 340 MeV and measuring the γ decay with high resolution with the AGATA demonstrator array. Cross sections and angular distributions of the emitted γ rays and of the scattered particles were measured. The results are compared with (γ, γ') and (p, p') data. The data analysis with the distorted wave Born approximation approach gives a good description of the elastic scattering and of the inelastic excitation of the 2+ and 3- states. For the dipole transitions a form factor obtained by folding a microscopically calculated transition density was used for the first time. This has allowed us to extract the isoscalar component of the 1- excited states from 4 to 8 MeV.

  8. Isospin character of low-lying pygmy dipole states in 208Pb via inelastic scattering of 17O ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F C L; Bracco, A; Nicolini, R; Mengoni, D; Pellegri, L; Lanza, E G; Leoni, S; Maj, A; Kmiecik, M; Avigo, R; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Boiano, C; Bottoni, S; Brambilla, S; Camera, F; Ceruti, S; Giaz, A; Million, B; Morales, A I; Vandone, V; Wieland, O; Bednarczyk, P; Ciemała, M; Grebosz, J; Krzysiek, M; Mazurek, K; Zieblinski, M; Bazzacco, D; Bellato, M; Birkenbach, B; Bortolato, D; Calore, E; Cederwall, B; Charles, L; de Angelis, G; Désesquelles, P; Eberth, J; Farnea, E; Gadea, A; Görgen, A; Gottardo, A; Isocrate, R; Jolie, J; Jungclaus, A; Karkour, N; Korten, W; Menegazzo, R; Michelagnoli, C; Molini, P; Napoli, D R; Pullia, A; Recchia, F; Reiter, P; Rosso, D; Sahin, E; Salsac, M D; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Simpson, J; Söderström, P-A; Stezowski, O; Theisen, Ch; Ur, C; Valiente-Dobón, J J

    2014-07-04

    The properties of pygmy dipole states in 208Pb were investigated using the 208Pb(17O, 17O'γ) reaction at 340 MeV and measuring the γ decay with high resolution with the AGATA demonstrator array. Cross sections and angular distributions of the emitted γ rays and of the scattered particles were measured. The results are compared with (γ, γ') and (p, p') data. The data analysis with the distorted wave Born approximation approach gives a good description of the elastic scattering and of the inelastic excitation of the 2+ and 3- states. For the dipole transitions a form factor obtained by folding a microscopically calculated transition density was used for the first time. This has allowed us to extract the isoscalar component of the 1- excited states from 4 to 8 MeV.

  9. Influence of anthropogenic transformation of the forest ecosystems in Easten Fennoscandia on the populations of pygmy and masked shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanter Ernest

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the long-term (1965-2013 stationary and expedition studies in the Easten Fennoscandia, different species of shrews react differently to clear-cutting and the formation of transformed anthropogenic landscape. The dominant species (common shrew increases in the number in these conditions, however, the population becomes unstable, and the number fluctuates severely from year to year and from season to season (Kurhinen et al., 2006, but the other species - pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus L. and masked shrew (Sorex caecutiens Laxm. – respond to these changes otherwise. The first one reduces in the number, especially in highly transformed habitats, but in general, its populations acquire the necessary stability and sustainability, while the masked shrew is affected by the massive lumbering negatively. Nevertheless, the latter is regularly found in the newly formed coniferous plantations emerging after the radical forest devastation.

  10. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Double

    Full Text Available In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day. Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km. Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  11. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double, Michael C; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K Curt S; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M; Branch, Trevor A; Gales, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  12. 蜂猴、倭蜂猴肢端特征%Characteristics of the limb in slow loris and pygmy loris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝晖; 胡建业; 周孟业; 邓大军

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the morphological characteristics of the limbs in slow loris (Nycticebus coucang)and pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus).Methods:7 adult slow loris (2 male,5 female) and 4 adult pygmy loris (3 male,1 female) were observed and their length of the digit was measured.Results:The limbs in the slow loris were bigger than those in the pygmy loris.Both the second digit in the slow loris and the pygmy loris had 1-1.2 cm nail in the length curling to middle part,others digits were flat.The order of the length of the digit in the forelimb was 4>3>5>1>2 and 4>3>5>2>1 in the hindlimb in the slow loris.There existed differences between the lengths of the digit of the forelimb and hindlimb in the slow loris.However,the order of the digit of the forelimb and hindlimb in length was 4>3>5>1>2 in pygmy loris.Conclusion:Those distinctive morphological differences in forelimb and hindlimb between the slow loris and pygmy loris are related with the species feature.%目的:研究蜂猴、倭蜂猴肢端形态的种属特征.方法:本研究通过观察成年7只蜂猴(2雄,5雌)和4只倭蜂猴(3雄,1雌),测量了它们的指(趾)骨长度,并将所得数据进行了分析.结果:蜂猴肢端大于倭蜂猴;蜂猴和倭蜂猴的第2趾端均有长1~1.2cm卷向内侧的细长趾甲,而其他指(趾)甲均呈扁平状.蜂猴的指骨长度顺序依次为4>3>5>1>2,趾骨顺序为4>3>5>2>1,指骨与趾骨长度排序有差异;倭蜂猴的指骨与趾骨排序无差异,都是4>3>5>1>2.结论:蜂猴和倭蜂猴其肢端形态差异与种属特征相关.

  13. Implementation of Programmatic Quality and the Impact on Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huls, Dale Thomas; Meehan, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of a programmatic quality assurance discipline within the International Space Station Program and the resulting impact on safety. NASA culture has continued to stress safety at the expense of quality when both are extremely important and both can equally influence the success or failure of a Program or Mission. Although safety was heavily criticized in the media after Colimbiaa, strong case can be made that it was the failure of quality processes and quality assurance in all processes that eventually led to the Columbia accident. Consequently, it is possible to have good quality processes without safety, but it is impossible to have good safety processes without quality. The ISS Program quality assurance function was analyzed as representative of the long-term manned missions that are consistent with the President s Vision for Space Exploration. Background topics are as follows: The quality assurance organizational structure within the ISS Program and the interrelationships between various internal and external organizations. ISS Program quality roles and responsibilities with respect to internal Program Offices and other external organizations such as the Shuttle Program, JSC Directorates, NASA Headquarters, NASA Contractors, other NASA Centers, and International Partner/participants will be addressed. A detailed analysis of implemented quality assurance responsibilities and functions with respect to NASA Headquarters, the JSC S&MA Directorate, and the ISS Program will be presented. Discussions topics are as follows: A comparison of quality and safety resources in terms of staffing, training, experience, and certifications. A benchmark assessment of the lessons learned from the Columbia Accident Investigation (CAB) Report (and follow-up reports and assessments), NASA Benchmarking, and traditional quality assurance activities against ISS quality procedures and practices. The lack of a coherent operational

  14. Implementation of Programmatic Quality and the Impact on Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huls, Dale Thomas; Meehan, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of a programmatic quality assurance discipline within the International Space Station Program and the resulting impact on safety. NASA culture has continued to stress safety at the expense of quality when both are extremely important and both can equally influence the success or failure of a Program or Mission. Although safety was heavily criticized in the media after Colimbiaa, strong case can be made that it was the failure of quality processes and quality assurance in all processes that eventually led to the Columbia accident. Consequently, it is possible to have good quality processes without safety, but it is impossible to have good safety processes without quality. The ISS Program quality assurance function was analyzed as representative of the long-term manned missions that are consistent with the President s Vision for Space Exploration. Background topics are as follows: The quality assurance organizational structure within the ISS Program and the interrelationships between various internal and external organizations. ISS Program quality roles and responsibilities with respect to internal Program Offices and other external organizations such as the Shuttle Program, JSC Directorates, NASA Headquarters, NASA Contractors, other NASA Centers, and International Partner/participants will be addressed. A detailed analysis of implemented quality assurance responsibilities and functions with respect to NASA Headquarters, the JSC S&MA Directorate, and the ISS Program will be presented. Discussions topics are as follows: A comparison of quality and safety resources in terms of staffing, training, experience, and certifications. A benchmark assessment of the lessons learned from the Columbia Accident Investigation (CAB) Report (and follow-up reports and assessments), NASA Benchmarking, and traditional quality assurance activities against ISS quality procedures and practices. The lack of a coherent operational

  15. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  16. The researchers developed luminous rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Their efforts produced two rabbits out of a litter of eight that went from being a normal, fluffy(蓬松的) white to glowing green in the dark. The rabbits were born at the University of Istanbul as part of a collaboration between scientists from universities in Turkey and Hawaii. The rabbits glow to show that a genetic manipulation technique can work efficiently,

  17. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  18. 75 FR 60515 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Pygmy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... other rabbits by its small size, gray color, short rounded ears, small hind legs, and the absence of... (Canis latrans), bobcats (Felis rufus), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), long-eared owls (Asio otus...

  19. The Year of the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Every year of the Chinese lunar calendar corresponds with an animal. The rat,ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse,sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig make up the Chinese zodiac, which repeats in a12-year cycle. This year’s Chinese NewYear rings in the Year of the Rabbit.

  20. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  1. 78 FR 27416 - Notice of Availability of the Final Record of Decision for the Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ..., analysis, and review; John Petrilla (CBP), B.S. Environmental Economics and Policy, M.P.P. Policy Studies... Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Northern Border Activities and Technical Corrections to the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Northern Border Activities AGENCY: U.S....

  2. 78 FR 33090 - Re-Opening of the Public Comment Period for the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Re-Opening of the Public Comment Period for the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental... Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft ULP PEIS, DOE/EIS-0472D),...

  3. 42 CFR 137.71 - May the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? 137.71 Section 137... Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe develop separate programmatic reporting requirements for statutorily mandated grants? Yes, the Secretary and the Self-Governance Tribe may develop separate...

  4. 78 FR 73555 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS). The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS considers programmatic... programmatic restoration alternatives. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS evaluates these restoration alternatives... the Framework Agreement. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS also evaluates the environmental consequences...

  5. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, T. M.

    1930-01-01

    The virus of infectious myxomatosis of rabbits (Sanarelli) induces multiple lesions in the skin, lymph glands, tunica vaginalis,epididymis, testicle, spleen, and lungs. Growth and destruction of cells in the epidermis overlying the myxomatous masses leads to the formation of vesicles. Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in affected epidermal cells. Occasionally, similar inclusions are seen in other involved epithelial cells. The nature of the inclusions is an open question. In the myxomatous masses situated in the subcutaneous and other tissues, evidences of alteration and growth of certain cells are observed. PMID:19869741

  6. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  7. Programmatic Assessment in U.S. Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy: A Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Alicia S.; Wilkin, Noel E.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed deans of 80 U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy on programmatic assessment. Forty-nine percent reported having assessment committees, 71 percent have approved a list of general education abilities, and deans were most frequently reported as driving development of assessment. The North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) was…

  8. 77 FR 4825 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... assessment (DEA) for an application for the programmatic take of golden eagles. The DEA evaluates... our new permitting regulations under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA). We announced receipt of the application and the availability of the DEA in our January 3, 2012, Federal Register notice...

  9. 34 CFR 611.52 - What are a grantee's programmatic responsibilities for ensuring that scholarship recipients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.52 What are... teaching; (b) Provide LEAs with which the grantees collaborate in teacher recruitment activities with... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are a grantee's programmatic responsibilities...

  10. The impact of programmatic assessment on student learning: theory versus practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeneman, S.; Pool, A. Oudkerk; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Driessen, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: It is widely acknowledged that assessment can affect student learning. In recent years, attention has been called to 'programmatic assessment', which is intended to optimise both learning functions and decision functions at the programme level of assessment, rather than according to individ

  11. 77 FR 73996 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of Scrap Metals... Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating from Radiological Areas. On... order previously governing release procedures). This Draft PEA for the Recycling of Scrap...

  12. The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wreathall, J.; Fragola, J.; Appignani, P.; Burlile, G.; Shen, Y. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. 32 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. 76 FR 71070 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Integrated Water Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton, Kittitas, Klickitat, and Yakima... Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The draft Programmatic... approach for efficient management of basin water supplies. Initial efforts in the mid-1980s (Phase...

  14. 78 FR 57449 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) for the California-Nevada Interstate Maglev... and 2000s, the California- Nevada Super Speed Train Commission (CNSSTC), a public agency chartered... implementing the Maglev Deployment Program (Program) created by Congress in the Transportation Equity Act...

  15. Contribution of Professional School Counselors' Values and Leadership Practices to Their Programmatic Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors are called to be leaders to support the development of all students. The study in this article investigated the contributions of the values (Schwartz, 1992) and leadership practices (Posner & Kouzes, 1988) of 163 school counselors to their programmatic service delivery (Scarborough, 2005). Leadership practices made…

  16. 78 FR 50049 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Activities and Operations at Yuma Proving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Department of the Army Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Activities and Operations at...). This document ] analyzes and evaluates potential environmental impacts associated with short-term and... impacts from new construction, changes in testing and training, and activities conducted under...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.508 - If the recipient monitoring identifies programmatic concerns, what happens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the recipient monitoring identifies programmatic concerns, what happens? 1000.508 Section 1000.508 Housing and Urban Development... Monitoring, Oversight and Accountability § 1000.508 If the recipient monitoring identifies...

  18. The Programmatic Approach; a Flexible and Complex Tool to Achieve Environmental Quality Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Boeve; G.M. van den Broek

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the integrated or programmatic approaches at both the European and national level, which are used as a tool to attain environmental quality standards. These approaches leave much room for flexibility with respect to the choice of measures to be adopted in order to achiev

  19. A populist Zeitgeist? Programmatic contagion by populist parties in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rooduijn; S.L. de Lange; W. van der Brug

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the programmatic reactions to the rise of populist parties. It has been argued that populism is not necessarily the prerogative of populist parties; it has been adopted by mainstream parties as well. The article investigates whether populism is contagious. On the basis of

  20. The use of programmatic assessment in the clinical workplace: a Maastricht case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, E.W.; Tartwijk, J. van; Govaerts, M.; Teunissen, P.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    The differences of learning experiences in the workplace put challenges on the assessment: the assessment programme should be aligned with the general competency framework of the curriculum and also fit to the differences in learning contexts of the workplace. We used van der Vleuten's programmatic

  1. 76 FR 13985 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA222 Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill... (NOAA), U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public scoping meetings; correction. SUMMARY:...

  2. 76 FR 11426 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA222 Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Public Scoping Meetings for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...), U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public scoping meetings. SUMMARY: In a February...

  3. An Empirical Typology of the Latent Programmatic Structure of Community College Student Success Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Deryl K.; Bohlig, E. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The definition and description of student success programs in the literature (e.g., orientation, first-year seminars, learning communities, etc.) suggest underlying programmatic similarities. Yet researchers to date typically depend on ambiguous labels to delimit studies, resulting in loosely related but separate research lines and few…

  4. 78 FR 8444 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1710 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic... entitled ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program,'' which expands upon policies and procedures specific to loans for a new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. The program would...

  5. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  6. Who Really Cares? Urban Youths' Perceptions of Parental and Programmatic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Desireé; Moore, James L., III; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the perceptions of parental and programmatic support among 20 urban youth. Existing literature indicates that educators often place blame on parents for their perceived lack of involvement in their children's schooling. However, the participants identified their family members (e.g., parents, siblings) as providing…

  7. Low genetic diversity in pygmy blue whales is due to climate-induced diversification rather than anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Jenner, K Curt S; Gill, Peter C; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole M; Morrice, Margaret G; Teske, Peter R; Möller, Luciana M

    2015-05-01

    Unusually low genetic diversity can be a warning of an urgent need to mitigate causative anthropogenic activities. However, current low levels of genetic diversity in a population could also be due to natural historical events, including recent evolutionary divergence, or long-term persistence at a small population size. Here, we determine whether the relatively low genetic diversity of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Australia is due to natural causes or overexploitation. We apply recently developed analytical approaches in the largest genetic dataset ever compiled to study blue whales (297 samples collected after whaling and representing lineages from Australia, Antarctica and Chile). We find that low levels of genetic diversity in Australia are due to a natural founder event from Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) that occurred around the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by evolutionary divergence. Historical climate change has therefore driven the evolution of blue whales into genetically, phenotypically and behaviourally distinct lineages that will likely be influenced by future climate change.

  8. Observations on the endemic pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus of Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Kaviar

    Full Text Available Our objective was to ascertain the population status of the Pygmy Three-toed Sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus, an IUCN Critically Endangered species, on Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama. Bradypus pygmaeus are thought to be folivorous mangrove specialists; therefore we conducted a visual systematic survey of all 10 mangrove thickets on the island. The total mangrove habitat area was measured to be 1.67 ha, comprising 0.024% of the total island area. The population survey found low numbers of B. pygmaeus in the mangrove thickets and far lower numbers outside of them. The connectivity of subpopulations between these thickets on the island is not established, as B. pygmaeus movement data is still lacking. We found 79 individuals of B. pygmaeus; 70 were found in mangroves and 9 were observed just beyond the periphery of the mangroves in non-mangrove tree species. Low population number, habitat fragmentation and habitat loss could lead to inbreeding, a loss of genetic diversity, and extinction of B. pygmaeus.

  9. Catchment-scale conservation units identified for the threatened Yarra pygmy perch (Nannoperca obscura in highly modified river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J Brauer

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation caused by human activities alters metapopulation dynamics and decreases biological connectivity through reduced migration and gene flow, leading to lowered levels of population genetic diversity and to local extinctions. The threatened Yarra pygmy perch, Nannoperca obscura, is a poor disperser found in small, isolated populations in wetlands and streams of southeastern Australia. Modifications to natural flow regimes in anthropogenically-impacted river systems have recently reduced the amount of habitat for this species and likely further limited its opportunity to disperse. We employed highly resolving microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and the spatial scale that dispersal takes place across the distribution of this freshwater fish and used this information to identify conservation units for management. The levels of genetic variation found for N. obscura are amongst the lowest reported for a fish species (mean heterozygosity of 0.318 and mean allelic richness of 1.92. We identified very strong population genetic structure, nil to little evidence of recent migration among demes and a minimum of 11 units for conservation management, hierarchically nested within four major genetic lineages. A combination of spatial analytical methods revealed hierarchical genetic structure corresponding with catchment boundaries and also demonstrated significant isolation by riverine distance. Our findings have implications for the national recovery plan of this species by demonstrating that N. obscura populations should be managed at a catchment level and highlighting the need to restore habitat and avoid further alteration of the natural hydrology.

  10. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents.

  11. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  12. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior in Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hae Ji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanganya virus (TGNV, the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae, and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus and Imjin virus (MJNV in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura. The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi, 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae, 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV, was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution

  13. Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of primary cell types from lung tissue of a stranded pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalaura Mancia; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; McFee, Wayne E; Newton, Danforth A; Baatz, John E

    2012-01-01

    Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm whale (PSW), Kogia breviceps, comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the southeastern United States. Thus, development of a method for preserving live tissues and retrieving live cells from deceased stranded individuals was initiated. This report documents successful cryopreservation of PSW lung tissue. We established in vitro cultures of primary lung cell types from tissue fragments that had been cryopreserved several months earlier at the stranding event. Dissociation of cryopreserved lung tissues readily provides a variety of primary cell types that, to varying degrees, can be expanded and further studied/manipulated in cell culture. In addition, PSW-specific molecular markers have been developed that permitted the monitoring of fibroblast, alveolar type II, and vascular endothelial cell types. Reconstitution of 3-D cultures of lung tissues with these cell types is now underway. This novel system may facilitate the development of rare or disease-specific lung tissue models (e.g., to test causes of PSW stranding events and lead to improved treatments for pulmonary hypertension or reperfusion injury in humans). Also, the establishment of a "living" tissue bank biorepository for rare/endangered species could serve multiple purposes as surrogates for freshly isolated samples.

  14. Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin against Caparinia tripilis in African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyu-Rim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy and safety of a combination formulation of 10% imidacloprid + 1.0% moxidectin spot-on (Advocate® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany was tested in 40 African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris naturally infested with Caparinia tripilis. Methods The optimal dosage level of the combination for hedgehogs was determined by assigning 20 hedgehogs into three treatment groups (0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 ml/Kg b.w., and one untreated control group of 5 hedgehogs each. Twenty naturally infested hedgehogs were then randomly assigned to either treatment or control group with 10 animals each, and the number of live mites was counted from 13 body regions on day 0, 3, 9, 16, and 30 after single treatment at the dosage level of 0.1 ml/Kg. Results Before the chemotherapy, the highest density of mite was observed in external ear canals followed by the dorsal and the lowest in the ventral regions of the body surface. The dosage level of 0.1 ml/Kg, which corresponded to the recommended dosage level for cats, containing 10 mg imidacloprid and 1 mg moxidectin was also the optimal dosage level for hedgehogs. No hedgehogs in the treatment group showed live mites from day 3 post treatment. Side effects such as ataxia, depression, nausea, and weight fluctuation were not observed during the whole period of study. Conclusions This report suggests that a combination formulation of 0.1 ml/Kg of 10% imidacloprid + 1% moxidectin spot-on for cats is also useful for the control of Caparinia tripilis infestation in hedgehogs.

  15. Analysis of corrective action data from trial program on programmatic performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the use of cause codes as performance indicators (PIs) to monitor licensee performance. In conjunction with the cause codes, corrective action codes are also under consideration to describe licensee corrective actions for problems as represented by the cause codes. The set of cause codes and corrective actions employed in a trial program to assess their usefulness included: (1) administrative error -- training; (2) design/installation -- procedure modification; (3) fabrication error -- discipline; (4) random equipment failure -- management change; (5) licensed operator error -- design modification; and (6) other personal error -- equipment replacement/adjustment. These causes were selected to represent a broad range of licensee programs, hence the designation of programmatic PIs, that could be monitored in a systematic manner to identify trends in performance. They should establish a basis and focus for further investigation of a particular programmatic area if undesirable trends are evidence. 2 figs.

  16. Comprehensiveness and programmatic vulnerability to stds/hiv/aids in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Ferreira do Val

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify programmatic vulnerability to STDs/HIV/AIDS in primary health centers (PHCs. This is a descrip - tive and quantitative study carried out in the city of São Paulo. An online survey was applied (FormSUS platform, involving administrators from 442 PHCs in the city, with responses received from 328 of them (74.2%, of which 53.6% were nurses. At - tention was raised in relation to program - matic vulnerability in the PHCs regarding certain items of infrastructure, prevention, treatment, prenatal care and integration among services on STDs/HIV/AIDS care. It was concluded that in order to reach comprehensiveness of actions for HIV/ AIDS in primary health care, it is necessary to consider programmatic vulnerability, in addition to more investment and reor - ganization of services in a dialogue with the stakeholders (users, multidisciplinary teams, and managers, among others.

  17. 关于OTT与Programmatic TV 你必须知道的几件事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程华奕

    2015-01-01

    2014至2015,"OTT互联网电视"风风火火成为行业焦点。作为最传统强势的电视媒体,终于也无法逃脱"所有媒体都将数字化,所有数字化媒体都将程序化"的"宿命"。作为多屏/跨屏营销的最后,同时也是最大的一块屏幕,TV终于迈入了互联网时代。伴随OTT的兴起,Programmatic TV也浮出水面逐步被行业认知。3月底,由RTBChina发布的《中国程序化广告技术生态图》中,正式添加新类别"Programmatic TV"。

  18. Programmatic-methodical providing of preparation of student commands on basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troyan V.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic directions of perfection of sporting preparation of student team are considered on basketball. The terms of effective education of personality of student are selected. The positive and subzero aspects of forms of physical preparation of sportsmen are rotined. The ways of rational development and use of natural capabilities of sportsman are certain in his professional and public activity. It is presented programmatic-methodical providing of training process of student commands in the institutes of higher of Russia.

  19. Critical Programmatic Success Factors of Select Arts Programs for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cada, Suzanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the pivotal factors contributing to programmatic success of arts programs for people, age sixty-five and older, in the United States. This study examines select programs within five arts disciplines: Elders Share the Arts (theatre), Museum One (visual art), Liz Lerman Dance Exchange (dance), New Horizons Music (music), and Arts for the Aging (writing/literature). The selected programs serve a heterogeneous population of older adults and exist independe...

  20. Critical Programmatic Success Factors of Select Arts Programs for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the pivotal factors contributing to programmatic success of arts programs for people, age sixty-five and older, in the United States. This study examines select programs within five arts disciplines: Elders Share the Arts (theatre), Museum One (visual art), Liz Lerman Dance Exchange (dance), New Horizons Music (music), and Arts for the Aging (writing/literature). The selected programs serve a heterogeneous population of older adults and exist indepen...

  1. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  2. Scenario Analysis for Programmatic Tuberculosis Control in Western Province, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; Waseem, Saba; Ragonnet, Romain; McBryde, Emma S

    2016-06-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) are major health problems in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. While comprehensive expansion of TB control programs is desirable, logistical challenges are considerable, and there is substantial uncertainty regarding the true disease burden. We parameterized our previously described mathematical model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dynamics in Western Province, following an epidemiologic assessment. Five hypothetical scenarios representing alternative programmatic approaches during the period from 2013 to 2023 were developed with local staff. Bayesian uncertainty analyses were undertaken to explicitly acknowledge the uncertainty around key epidemiologic parameters, and an economic evaluation was performed. With continuation of existing programmatic strategies, overall TB incidence remained stable at 555 cases per 100,000 population per year (95% simulation interval (SI): 420, 807), but the proportion of incident cases attributable to MDR-TB increased from 16% to 35%. Comprehensive, provincewide strengthening of existing programs reduced incidence to 353 cases per 100,000 population per year (95% SI: 246, 558), with 46% being cases of MDR-TB, while incorporating programmatic management of MDR-TB into these programs reduced incidence to 233 cases per 100,000 population per year (95% SI: 198, 269) with 14% MDR-TB. Most economic costs were due to hospitalization during the intensive treatment phase. Broad scale-up of TB control activities in Western Province with incorporation of programmatic management of MDR-TB is vital if control is to be achieved. Community-based treatment approaches are important to reduce the associated economic costs.

  3. Programmatic conversion of crystal structures into 3D printable files using Jmol

    OpenAIRE

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Williams, Antony J.; Tkachenko, Valery; Karapetyan, Karen; Pshenichnov, Alexey; Hanson, Robert M; Liddie, Jahred M.; Bara, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) printed crystal structures are useful for chemistry teaching and research. Current manual methods of converting crystal structures into 3D printable files are time-consuming and tedious. To overcome this limitation, we developed a programmatic method that allows for facile conversion of thousands of crystal structures directly into 3D printable files. Results A collection of over 30,000 crystal structures in crystallographic information file (CIF) format from...

  4. Programmatic material on perfection of competition activity of highly skilled basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushko Ruslana Aleksandrovna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The special facilities are considered for creation of the programs of correction of training process and perfection of competitiveness activity. Basic estimations and structure of correction of technical tactical actions are resulted. It is set that programmatic material must take into account playing specialization of basketball-player, model indexes. It is also necessary to take into account optimization and modification of existent technologies of estimation of technical tactical actions.

  5. FY 2016 Grant Announcement: FY 2016 Technical Analysis and Programmatic Evaluation Support to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is announcing a Request for Proposals for applicants to provide the Chesapeake Bay Program partners with a proposal(s) for providing technical analysis and programmatic evaluation

  6. 78 FR 39726 - FFP Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...] FFP Missouri 2, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule 2010... Order issuing a license. FFP Missouri 2, LLC, as applicant for the proposed Arkabutla Lake...

  7. Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, Andreas; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Jannigje M; Oordt-Speets, Anouk M; van Kessel, Gerarda B; de Vlas, Sake J; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-08-25

    Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies. This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes. Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control.

  8. Using multi-disciplinary strategic master facilities planning for organizations experiencing programmatic re-direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Weimer, W.C.; Bruce, W.A.

    1993-12-01

    Facility master planning is critical to the future productivity of a laboratory and the quality of worklife for the laboratory staff. For organizations undergoing programmatic re-direction, a master facility planning approach linked to the organization`s strategic planning process is even more important. Major changes in an organization such as programmatic re-direction can significantly impact a broad range of variables which exceed the expertise of traditional planning teams, e.g., capacity variability, work team organization, organizational culture, and work process simplification. By expanding the diversity of the participants of the planning team, there is a greater likelihood that a research organization`s scientific, organizational, economic, and employees` needs can be meshed in the strategic plan and facility plan. Recent recommendations from facility planners suggest drawing from diverse fields in building multi-disciplinary planning teams: Architecture, engineering, natural science, social psychology, and strategic planning (Gibson,1993). For organizations undergoing significant operational or culture change, the master facility planning team should also include members with expertise in organizational effectiveness, industrial engineering, human resources, and environmental psychology. A recent planning and design project provides an example which illustrates the use of an expanded multi-disciplinary team engaged in planning laboratory renovations for a research organization undergoing programmatic re-direction. The purpose of the proposed poster session is to present a multi-disciplinary master facility planning process linked to an organization`s strategic planning process or organizational strategies.

  9. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  10. Study of the pygmy dipole resonance in {sup 94}Mo using the (α,α{sup ′}γ) coincidence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derya, V., E-mail: derya@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Endres, J.; Elvers, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Pietralla, N.; Romig, C. [Institut für Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Savran, D. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Ruth-Moufang-Straße 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Scheck, M.; Siebenhühner, F. [Institut für Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Stoica, V.I. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Sociology/ICS, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Grote Rozenstraat 31, 9712 TG Groningen (Netherlands); Wörtche, H.J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2013-05-15

    The (α,α{sup ′}γ) reaction at E{sub α}=136 MeV was used to study the electric dipole response in the open-shell vibrational nucleus {sup 94}Mo below the neutron-separation threshold. The coincidence experiment has been performed at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands, exploiting the Big-Bite Spectrometer and an array of large volume High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Due to the excellent energy resolution and high selectivity to transitions stemming from the pygmy dipole resonance, singles α-scattering cross sections could be determined for individual electric dipole excitations between 4 and 8 MeV. For three of the excited low-lying J{sup π}=1{sup −} states in {sup 94}Mo a γ-decay branch into the J{sup π}=2{sub 1}{sup +} state could be observed. The experiment extends the systematic studies of the pygmy dipole resonance by real-photon scattering (γ,γ{sup ′}) experiments and (α,α{sup ′}γ) experiments. Recently, a (γ,γ{sup ′}) experiment on {sup 94}Mo was performed at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup at the S-DALINAC in Darmstadt, Germany, permitting the comparison of B(E1)↑ strength distribution and α-scattering cross sections.

  11. Separation of Pygmy Dipole and M1 Resonances in Zr90 by a High-Resolution Inelastic Proton Scattering Near 0°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, C.; Utsunomiya, H.; Tamii, A.; Akimune, H.; Nakada, H.; Shima, T.; Yamagata, T.; Kawabata, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, H.; Sakuda, M.; Mori, T.; Izumi, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kondo, T.; Bilgier, B.; Kozer, H. C.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hatanaka, K.

    2012-06-01

    A high-resolution measurement of inelastic proton scattering off Zr90 near 0° was performed at 295 MeV with a focus on a pronounced strength previously reported in the low-energy tail of giant dipole resonance. A forest of fine structure was observed in the excitation energy region 7-12 MeV. A multipole decomposition analysis of the angular distribution for the forest was carried out using the ECIS95 distorted-wave Born approximation code with the Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation model of E1 and M1 transition densities and inclusion of E1 Coulomb excitation. The analysis separated pygmy dipole and M1 resonances in the forest at EPDR=9.15±0.18MeV with ΓPDR=2.91±0.64MeV and at EM1=9.53±0.06MeV with ΓM1=2.70±0.17MeV in the Lorentzian function, respectively. The B(E1)↑ value for pygmy dipole resonance over 7-11 MeV is 0.75±0.08e2fm2, which corresponds to 2.1±0.2% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule.

  12. The mammals in the zoological culture of the Mbuti Pygmies in north-eastern Zaire / I mammiferi nella cultura zoologica dei Pigmei Mbuti nello Zaire nord-orientale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carpaneto

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work deals with the mammals and their role in the zoological culture of the Mbuti Pygmies, hunter-gatherers of the Ituri Forest of Zaire. The ethnozoological information was gathered in parallel to faunistic investigation. A checklist of the mammals inhabiting the Ituri Forest was compiled on the basis of both carefully selected literature and direct field research. Field work was conducted in many study sites (pygmy camps and agriculturalists' settlements throughout the region. Several Mbuti hunters of each band were interviewed in order to ensure reliability to the information they were giving. Direct observation of their hunting activities, feeding habits and relations with animals were also carried out. For each mammalian species the exact words of the Pygmies were translated into English. From their own culture, the Pygmies gave a great deal of information about habits, food, interspecific relations, reproduction and behaviour of 59 species of mammals. Details were also given by the Mbuti hunters on their own taboos, food restrictions, medicine and villagers' witchcraft, concerning mammals, as well as the utilization of animal parts for making objects and tools. Vernacular names of the mammals are reported in six local languages, as well as the names of plants which, according to the Mbuti, are used by the animals as food. The hunting techniques of the Ituri Pygmies are summarized together with quantitative data from 60 net casts and 4 bow-hunting days. Riassunto Nel presente lavoro vengono studiati i mammiferi nella cultura zoologica dei Pigmei Mbuti, cacciatori-raccoglitori della Foresta dell'Ituri in Zaire. Gli autori hanno condotto parallelamente sia l'indagine etnozoologica che ricerche faunistiche di base sui mammiferi. Un elenco sistematico delle specie viventi nella regione studiata è stato compilato sia sulla base di osservazioni dirette che attraverso una revisione critica dei

  13. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  14. [Review] Mary Toft's Rabbit Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Emrys

    2013-01-01

    Originally broadcast in April 2011 and aired again by BBC Radio 4 this November, Mary Toft’s Rabbit Tale is a radio drama retelling the story of its titular fraudster’s brief notoriety. With a high-profile cast – including singer Will Young as Toft’s husband and Rupert Graves as man-midwife, John Howard – the play explores a number of issues related to the alleged rabbit births of 1726 and their impact on public discourse of the time.

  15. [On the taxonomic rank of ciscaucasicus and its relationships with the pygmy wood mouse Sylvaemus uralensis inferred from the mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, A E; Baskevich, M I; Gmyl', A P; Okulova, N M; Andreeva, T A; Sokolenko, O V; Malygin, V M; Khliap, L A; Opatin, M L; Orlov, V N

    2007-12-01

    To specify the taxonomic rank of form ciscaucasoides (independent species Sylvaemus ciscaucasoides, or intraspecific form of pygmy wood mouse, S. uralensis), a 402-bp the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment (402 bp) was examined in S. ciscaucasoides individuals from six geographic localities of the Caucasus and Ciscaucasus, (Krasnodar krai and Adygeya Republic) and 17 S. uralensis individuals from seven localities of the Russian Plai (Saratov oblast, Smolensk oblast, Voronezh oblast, Tula oblast, Moscow oblast, and Tver' oblast). For comparison, the cytochrome b gene was partly sequenced in the samples of yellow necked, S. flavicollis (n = 2, Samara oblast), and Caucasian, S. ponticus (n = 6, Krasnodar krai), wood mice. One Mus musculus specimen from Western Europe, whose nucleotide sequences were deposed in the GenBank, was used as intergeneric outgroup. Phylogenetic trees for the forms examined were constructed based on the mtDNA sequence variation and using the neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods. The network of the cytochrome b haplotypes was also constructed. The level of genetic divergence was evaluated using Kimura's two-parameter algorithm. Based on the data on the sequence variation in a 402-bp mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, the hypothesis on the species status of the ciscaucasicus form was. The mean intergroup distances (d) between the geographic groups of S. uralensis varied from 0.0036 to 0.0152. At the same time, the distances between the pygmy wood mice and the group of S.flavicollis-S. ponticus varies in the range from 0.0860 to 0.0935, and the level of intergeneric genetic differentiation (Sylvaemus-Mus) is higher than the latter index (d = 0.142). Ciscaucasoides should be considered as geographic substitution form of S. uralensis. Furthermore, the Caucasian populations of S. uralensis (= ciscaucasoides) were characterized by a threefold lower value of intergroup genetic divergence (d = 0.0062) than the East European populations (d= 0

  16. Programmatic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Few would probably characterize contemporary relational and social art by a distinctive richness in its use of pictorial means of expression. Relational art often turns to other media such as design, performance, and installation in order to invite the art audience to participate in activities wi...

  17. Through Rubrics and Scaffolded Instruction: A Programmatic Self-Study of Writing Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfu Mi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colleagues in a teacher education program describe their journey of programmatic self-study as they examine how they teach and assess teacher candidates’ writing in a series of three required and sequenced undergraduate literacy courses. They lead the reader through the questions they asked themselves about their instruction and their reflective process with a goal of improving teacher candidates’ technical, reflective, and creative writing. Readers are encouraged to reflect on their expectations for teacher candidates’ writing in light of instruction and assessment. Implications for teacher education are explored.

  18. Purpose and tasks of physical education of students in programmatic-normative documents of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikeyev D.M.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The review of aims of physical education of students is resulted in programmatic-normative documents of Ukraine. The requirements generally accepted in world practice of management are expounded to the aims of physical education of students. Is made the analysis of conforming resulted formulations to these requirements. A primary orientation of a purpose and tasks of physical education of students is certain. Difficulties are conditioned in determination of clear criteria of efficiency of the system of physical education of students, their quantitative measuring, selection of facilities and methods.

  19. Hardware and Programmatic Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will execute the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle (Figure 1), will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  20. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2004-05-01

    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  1. RPR test for serological survey of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masayo; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2003-07-01

    Since the RPR (rapid plasma regain) test was found to be useful for the diagnosis of rabbit syphilis, serological survey by this test has been carried out in Japanese companion rabbits. A hundred virgin household rabbits kept alone and without signs and history of syphilis were examined by RPR test from April 2001 to March 2002, in Tokyo, Japan. The test was positive in 35 cases and negative in 65 cases. RPR negative rabbits should be selected for breeding to prevent the spread of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits in Japan.

  2. SEM study of Anisakis brevispiculata Dollfus, 1966 and Pseudoterranova ceticola (Deardoff and Overstreet, 1981 (Nematoda: Anisakidae, parasites of the pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Abollo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to study different topo-morphological characteristics of the architecture (cuticle, excretory pore, lips and adjacent structures, number and distribution patterns of caudal papillae and papillae-like structures of the anisakid nematodes Anisakis brevispiculata and Pseudoterranova ceticola, parasites in the stomach of the pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps. SEM micrographs herein help to accurately define the above surface topographical features by adding a more adequate 3-D picture to the original descriptions of both parasitic species. In A. brevispiculata the entire body cuticle structure, well-differentiated paracloacal papillae and the wrinkle cuticle of the papillae are clear examples that enhance the above differentiation of structures as seen by LM or SEM. Similarly, in P. ceticola the cuticle striations, bulky cloacal lips, rectangular distribution pattern of distal papillae and the absence of a groove separating paracloacal papillae which are obliquely arranged are all different to those features previously described.

  3. [Description of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and first general considerations on the fauna of cestode parasites of the pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Fons, R; Galan-Puchades, M T; Valero, M A

    1986-01-01

    Description and differentiation of the adult stage of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the Pygmy white-toothed shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in the region of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Cerbère (Oriental Pyrenees, France). The new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. The general composition of the fauna of Cyclophyllidea parasitizing S. etruscus is analysed. There are three less specialised Hymenolepis species with a scolex of the same type and one Pseudhymenolepis species, with the absence of unarmed species lacking a rostrum. The oioxenous character of the Cestodes parasitizing Suncus species sustains the validity of the genus Suncus. The resemblance of the Cestodefaunas suggests a narrow phyletic relationship between the genera Suncus and Crocidura.

  4. Surgical interventions for pulmonary tuberculosis in Mumbai, India: surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirodkar, S.; Anande, L.; Dalal, A.; Desai, C.; Corrêa, G.; Laxmeshwar, C.; Mansoor, H.; Remartinez, D.; Trelles, M.; Isaakidis, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: While surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is considered an important adjunct for specific cases, including drug-resistant tuberculosis, operational evidence on its feasibility and effectiveness is limited. Objective: To describe surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges of providing surgery for PTB in Mumbai, India. Design: A descriptive study of routinely collected data of surgical interventions for PTB from 2010 to 2014 in two Mumbai hospitals, one public, one private. Results: Of 85 patients, 5 (6%) died and 17 (20%) had complications, with wound infection being the most frequent. Repeat operation was required in 12 (14%) patients. Most procedures were performed on an emergency basis, and eligibility was established late in the course of treatment. Median time from admission to surgery was 51 days. Drug susceptibility test (DST) patterns and final treatment outcomes were not systematically collected. Conclusion: In a high-burden setting such as Mumbai, important data on surgery for PTB were surprisingly limited in both the private and public sectors. Eligibility for surgery was established late, culture and DST were not systematically offered, the interval between admission and surgery was long and TB outcomes were not known. Systematic data collection would allow for proper evaluation of surgery as adjunctive therapy for all forms of TB under programmatic conditions. PMID:27695683

  5. Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Joseph C E

    2009-11-01

    There continues to be intense public, professional, and scientific focus on the welfare of animals in zoos and aquariums, but implementing welfare assessment tools consistently throughout this community remains challenging. Indirect measures can be used to assess "welfare potential"-the potential that animals will experience good welfare based on the care that they are provided with. Zoos and aquariums focus on welfare potential with their continued commitment to develop animal care guidelines (e.g. Animal Care Manuals) that can play a role within institutional accreditation or certification. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Animal Welfare Committee has been pursuing approaches to maximize welfare potential by developing the concept of an integrated welfare approach or framework-an attempt to identify recommended animal care programs (e.g. enrichment, nutrition, veterinary care, research, and animal training programs) and their programmatic components. Objectively assessing the influence that animal care recommendations have on the welfare of individual animals is important to determine the efficacy of programmatic approaches. The future of welfare assessment within zoos and aquariums will include population-level evaluations-tracking emerging trends in health and behavior that come from both formal and informal institutional animal reports. Sharing this information, and performing meta-analyses of the data using epidemiological approaches, will become easier with advances in technology and database management software. Identifying welfare "red/green flags" throughout captive populations will provide direction for more focused assessments that will ultimately inform the design of more effective animal care programs.

  6. Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenback, B. [Midwest Technical, Inc. (United States); Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document.

  7. Health care for women over 50: programmatic vulnerability in the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Karine Pasqual

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the health care process for women over 50 at a Family Health Unit based on the concept of programmatic vulnerability. METHOD: This study is inserted in the field of health care assessments. The framework proposed by Donabedian was used to analyze 90.5% of the 790 records of women registered at the unit. RESULTS: It was observed that none of the women that did not have a diagnosed pathology attended the recommended consultations or underwent the recommended tests. Of the total number of women with hypertension or diabetes, 20.7% were registered in the Hiperdia Programme and less than 1.0% had attended the consultations and undergone the necessary tests. Only 11.9% of the women had had a gynaecological examination, a clinical breast examination and a mammography the year before data collection. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that women over 50 are in a situation of programmatic vulnerability in terms of the indicators established in this study. Knowledge of this reality can help nurses provide care that is best suited for this group.

  8. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Raquel M; Teixeira, Luzia; Aguas, Artur P; Ribeiro, Joana C; Costa-e-Silva, António; Ferreira, Paula G

    2014-02-04

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection.

  9. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  10. Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Doe productivity indices are important in evaluating rabbit population since it influences the efficiency and profitability of rabbit ... Key words: Heterogeneous rabbit population, Doe productivity, Sire families). ..... Paris, France, 11-14. Cited in:.

  11. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariaut, Romain

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews what is known about the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases in the pet rabbit. Current knowledge is based on anecdotal reports, derived from research data using the rabbit as an animal model of human cardiovascular diseases, but most importantly canine and feline cardiology. It is likely that, as cardiovascular diseases are more often recognized, more specific information will soon become available for the treatment of the pet rabbit with cardiac disease.

  12. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Fabio Luzi; Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these ...

  13. Rabbits' eye globe sonographic biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Maria Carolina; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Camacho, Aparecido Antônio; Laus, José Luiz; Canola, Júlio Carlos

    2010-11-01

    To measure intraocular structures in New Zealand White breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) using A-mode and B-mode ultrasound with a 20 MHz transducer. In this study, the eyes of 15 rabbits were evaluated for determination of intraocular measurements using an ophthalmic ultrasound unit able to operate in both A and B-modes. The distances from the cornea to the anterior capsule of the lens (D1), from the anterior capsule of the lens to the posterior capsule of the lens (D2), from the posterior capsule of the lens to the retina (D3) and the complete length of the eye, which corresponds to the distance from the cornea to the retina (D4) were taken. The mean values obtained were 2.70 mm (± 0.22 mm) for D1, 7.32 mm (± 0.40 mm) for D2, 7.10 mm (± 0.45 mm) for D3 and 17.12 mm (± 0.41 mm) for D4. Statistical analyses using the Student's t-test showed that there were no differences between the eyes. The study was feasible without the need of pharmacological restraint and yielded normal mean values for ocular sonographic biometry in rabbits. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nassar, Somya A; Mohamed, Amira H; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M; Mahran, K. M

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged...

  15. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares withou

  16. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  17. Peer Review of Teaching: Best Practices for a Non-Programmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaena Alabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many academic librarians who provide library instruction have never received formal training in educational theory and methods. In an effort to bridge this gap and improve the teaching skills of instruction librarians, some academic libraries have established peer review of teaching programs. Despite the recognized benefits of peer review, it may not be feasible for every library to establish such a program. In an effort to aid those who are interested in peer review, but who may not be able to participate in a formal program, the authors identify the principles of peer review that can be applied on a non-programmatic basis. Six areas of best practice are described: establishing an environment of trust, respect, and confidentiality; selecting a suitable partner for the process; communicating with a peer reviewer; focusing on specific aspects of teaching where feedback is desired; making time for the process; and preparing oneself to accept criticism.

  18. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  19. Conceptual design and programmatics studies of space station accommodations for Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs and programmatics of the space station accommodations for the Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF) are presented. The animal ECLSS system for the LSRF provides temperature-humidity control, air circulation, and life support functions for experimental subjects. Three ECLSS were studied. All configurations presented satisfy the science requirements for: animal holding facilities with bioisolation; facilities interchangeable to hold rodents, small primates, and plants; metabolic cages interchangeable with standard holding cages; holding facilities adaptable to restrained large primates and rodent breeding/nesting cages; volume for the specified instruments; enclosed ferm-free workbench for manipulation of animals and chemical procedures; freezers for specimen storage until return; and centrifuge to maintain animals and plants at fractional g to 1 g or more, with potential for accommodating humans for short time intervals.

  20. Towards the semantic characterization of digital representations of architectural artifacts: programmatic lines of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio De Luca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available These programmatic lines of research, at the intersection between the disciplinary fields of the built heritage documentation and the information and communication technologies, aims to define a set of technical elements concerning the development of information systems at an architectural scale integrating it into methodological reflections related to scientific issues concerning the study of historic buildings. Three main aspects are integrated in a cross approach. First, the definition of protocols for acquisition, processing and semantic structuring of digital representations of architectural artifacts. Secondly, the identification of solutions for interconnecting multiple representation systems at various scales. Finally, the definition of new way for the comparative analysis of architectural artifacts based on dimensional, morphological and semantic criteria.

  1. 32 CFR 37.900 - May I tell a participant that information in financial and programmatic reports will not be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 286.23(h) (and any DoD Component supplementary procedures) to determine whether it is privileged... at 32 CFR 286.12(d). (b) If the participant also provides information in the course of a competition... financial and programmatic reports will not be publicly disclosed? 37.900 Section 37.900 National...

  2. 76 FR 36097 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the U.S. Department...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... acts; Air quality: including potential impacts on regional air quality and climate change; Land use... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the U.S. Department of Energy...

  3. Extending the Common Framework for Earth Observation Data to other Disciplinary Data and Programmatic Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B. J. K.; Wyborn, L. A.; Druken, K. A.; Richards, C. J.; Trenham, C. E.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages a large geospatial repository (10+ PBytes) of Earth systems, environmental, water management and geophysics research data, co-located with a petascale supercomputer and an integrated research cloud. NCI has applied the principles of the "Common Framework for Earth-Observation Data" (the Framework) to the organisation of these collections enabling a diverse range of researchers to explore different aspects of the data and, in particular, for seamless programmatic data analysis, both in-situ access and via data services. NCI provides access to the collections through the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP) - a comprehensive and integrated data platform with both common and emerging services designed to enable data accessibility and citability. Applying the Framework across the range of datasets ensures that programmatic access, both in-situ and network methods, work as uniformly as possible for any dataset, using both APIs and data services. NCI has also created a comprehensive quality assurance framework to regularise compliance checks across the data, library APIs and data services, and to establish a comprehensive set of benchmarks to quantify both functionality and performance perspectives for the Framework. The quality assurance includes organisation of datasets through a data management plan, which anchors the data directory structure, version controls and data information services so that they are kept aligned with operational changes over time. Specific attention has been placed on the way data are packed inside the files. Our experience has shown that complying with standards such as CF and ACDD is still not enough to ensure that all data services or software packages correctly read the data. Further, data may not be optimally organised for the different access patterns, which causes poor performance of the CPUs and bandwidth utilisation. We will also

  4. Satin and their crossbred rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit productivity in intensive management to be evaluated considering development in the rabbit farming were rapidly increased. Rex, Satin and their crossbred (Reza rabbits have been developed in Research Institute for Animal Production and productivity information of each breed can be used as basis for policy or model of cultivation and breeding in the community. Research conducted by evaluating the productivity of growth, carcass and the carcass proportion of the three strains of rabbit. Rex and satin growth were no different, and Reza was higher at 12-14 weeks of age. Carcass production comes from cutting the rabbit at the age of six months, this trait is strongly influenced by the weight of rabbits, and Reza gives the lowest performance compared to Rex and Satin. Rex, Satin and Reza were medium type rabbits with dual-purpose product (fur and meat. These rabbits showed the child's growth is good enough, to adapt the environment temperature and high food and have adequate carcass production.

  5. Congenital Transmission of Schistosoma japonicumin the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QianBao-zhen; H.O.Bogh; M.V.Johansen; WangPeng-peng

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen pregnant rabbits were each infected with 300 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum and divided into two groups.Group M (n =8)was infected during mid-gestation (the organogenetic stage)and group L (n=6)was infected during late-gestation (the post-organogenetic stage).Mother rabbits and rabbit kittens were killed 45-60 days after infection and perfused in order to obtain worm counts.Furthermore,faecal egg counts and tissue egg counts from livers were obtained from the mother rabbits as well as the rabbit kittens.All mother rabbits became infected harbouring 207.6+20.2 and 220.0+27.5 adult worms in group M and L,respectively.In groups M and L, 13.5%and 46.7% of the kittens were infected,respectively,In 12 of 14 litters at least one kitten was infected.Tne infected kittens harboured between one and three adult S.japonicum.The livers of the kittens infected with a worm pair displaced lesions,as a result of egg deposition.The results, therefore,show that congenital transmission of S.japonicum can occur in rabbits.The close anatomical resemblance between the rabbit and human placenta may be indicative of the presence of congenital transmssion of S.japomcum infection in humans.

  6. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Calicivirus Identified in Rabbits, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Annabel G.; Bolin, Steven R.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Kiupel, Matti; Maes, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    We report a disease outbreak in a Michigan rabbitry of a rabbit calicivirus distinct from the foreign animal disease agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The novel virus has been designated Michigan rabbit calicivirus (MRCV). Caliciviruses of the Lagovirus genus other than RHDV have not been described in US rabbit populations. The case-fatality rate was 32.5% (65/200). Clinical signs included hemorrhage and sudden death, with hepatic necrosis. Analysis of viral RNA sequence from >95% of the viral genome showed an average similarity of 79% with RHDV. Similarity of the predicted MRCV capsid amino acid sequence ranged from 89.8% to 91.3%, much lower than the 98% amino acid similarity between RHDV strains. Experimentally infected rabbits lacked clinical disease, but MRCV was detected in tissues by PCR. We propose that MRCV primarily causes subclinical infection but may induce overt RHD-like disease under certain field conditions. PMID:19961675

  8. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  9. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  10. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  11. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  12. Programmatic access to data and information at the IRIS DMC via web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weertman, B. R.; Trabant, C.; Karstens, R.; Suleiman, Y. Y.; Ahern, T. K.; Casey, R.; Benson, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) has developed a suite of web services that provide access to the DMC's time series holdings, their related metadata and earthquake catalogs. In addition, services are available to perform simple, on-demand time series processing at the DMC prior to being shipped to the user. The primary goal is to provide programmatic access to data and processing services in a manner usable by and useful to the research community. The web services are relatively simple to understand and use and will form the foundation on which future DMC access tools will be built. Based on standard Web technologies they can be accessed programmatically with a wide range of programming languages (e.g. Perl, Python, Java), command line utilities such as wget and curl or with any web browser. We anticipate these services being used for everything from simple command line access, used in shell scripts and higher programming languages to being integrated within complex data processing software. In addition to improving access to our data by the seismological community the web services will also make our data more accessible to other disciplines. The web services available from the DMC include ws-bulkdataselect for the retrieval of large volumes of miniSEED data, ws-timeseries for the retrieval of individual segments of time series data in a variety of formats (miniSEED, SAC, ASCII, audio WAVE, and PNG plots) with optional signal processing, ws-station for station metadata in StationXML format, ws-resp for the retrieval of instrument response in RESP format, ws-sacpz for the retrieval of sensor response in the SAC poles and zeros convention and ws-event for the retrieval of earthquake catalogs. To make the services even easier to use, the DMC is developing a library that allows Java programmers to seamlessly retrieve and integrate DMC information into their own programs. The library will handle all aspects of dealing with the services and will parse the returned

  13. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  14. Newer antipsychotics and the rabbit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masalehdan Azadeh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbit syndrome is a movement disorder that is associated with long-term exposure to neuroleptic medications. Of particular interest and importance is the risk of rabbit syndrome with exposure to the newer atypical antipsychotics. Our recent experience with such a case brought to light the importance of exploring this risk. Methods MEDLINE and PubMed (1972–2006 databases were searched for English language articles using the keywords rabbit syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotic, extrapyramidal symptoms and side effects. A recent case study is used to expand upon the literature available on newer antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome. Results We reviewed papers that addressed the following aspects of rabbit syndrome 1 the clinical manifestations 2 prevalence and risk factors, 3 etiopathogenesis 4 older antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome 5 newer antipsychotics, 6 treatment options. Moreover, we report a case of RS in a 50 year old white female, diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, that, after the discontinuation of risperidone, developed involuntary movements of the mouth that were fine, rhythmic and rapid, along the vertical axis, and without involvement of the tongue. After the re-introduction of risperidone, the symptoms decreased in a few hours and disappeared after 3 days. Conclusion Eleven cases of rabbit syndrome have been documented since the implementation of newer antipsychotics. Future research is needed to better understand the etiopathogenesis of rabbit syndrome in psychiatric populations treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Understanding the differences and similarities of rabbit syndrome and tardive dyskinesia is crucial to the creation of a successful treatment paradigm.

  15. Odor familiarity and female preferences for males in a threatened primate, the pygmy loris Nycticebus pygmaeus: applications for genetic management of small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Heidi S; Swaisgood, R R; Fitch-Snyder, H

    2003-11-01

    Here we use sexual selection theory to develop a logistically simple, yet effective, method for the manipulation of female reproductive behavior for conservation goals. Mate choice leading to nonrandom mating patterns can exacerbate the loss of genetic diversity in small populations. On theoretical grounds, females should choose high-quality mates. A prediction stemming from chemical communication theory is that competitive males will be better able to saturate an area with scent marks. If this is true, females should mate preferentially with males whose odors they encounter most frequently. We tested this hypothesis with the pygmy loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus, a threatened and poorly studied nocturnal prosimian. For several weeks females were exposed repeatedly to the urine from a particular male, and were then allowed to choose between a male whose odors were familiar and one whose odors were novel. Females showed an unusually strong preference for the familiar-odor male, as indicated by several behavioral measures of mate preference. Conservation managers can use this method as a tool to obtain reproductive pairings that will maximize genetic compatibility and diversity. For example, unsuccessful males may be given the opportunity to reproduce. In captive populations, studbook managers often select pairs in order to optimize outbreeding, but these selected pairings may not coincide with the preferences of the individual animals involved. Although several authors have made theoretical arguments for manipulating mate choice for conservation, this is a novel test of a proximate mechanism that can be manipulated, cultivating applications rather than mere implications.

  16. Study of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (p,p'γ) and (d,pγ) experiments with SONIC@HORUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickstone, S. G.; Derya, V.; Hennig, A.; Mayer, J.; Spieker, M.; Weinert, M.; Wilhelmy, J.; Zilges, A.

    2015-05-01

    Last year, the new silicon-detector array SONIC with up to 8 silicon-detector positions was installed inside the existing γ-ray spectrometer HORUS consisting of 14 HPGe detectors. The combined setup SONIC@HORUS allows for a coincident detection of γ-rays and light charged particles in the exit channel of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions. As a first physics case, the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in 92Mo has been investigated in a (p,p'γ) experiment at Ep = 10.5 MeV. Since specific excitation energy can be chosen offline in the coincidence data, the sensitivity to weak decay branchings of PDR states is increased. Additionally, a second reaction mechanism for the excitation of PDR states has been tested with the new setup. In a 119Sn(d,pγ) transfer reaction at Ed = 8.5 MeV, PDR states in 120Sn could be excited. Since this one-neutron transfer reaction is sensitive to the neutron single-particle structure, it could reveal new information on the microscopic structure of the PDR.

  17. Study of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (p,p’γ and (d,pγ experiments with SONIC@HORUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickstone S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Last year, the new silicon-detector array SONIC with up to 8 silicon-detector positions was installed inside the existing γ-ray spectrometer HORUS consisting of 14 HPGe detectors. The combined setup SONIC@HORUS allows for a coincident detection of γ-rays and light charged particles in the exit channel of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions. As a first physics case, the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR in 92Mo has been investigated in a (p,p’γ experiment at Ep = 10.5 MeV. Since specific excitation energy can be chosen offline in the coincidence data, the sensitivity to weak decay branchings of PDR states is increased. Additionally, a second reaction mechanism for the excitation of PDR states has been tested with the new setup. In a 119Sn(d,pγ transfer reaction at Ed = 8.5 MeV, PDR states in 120Sn could be excited. Since this one-neutron transfer reaction is sensitive to the neutron single-particle structure, it could reveal new information on the microscopic structure of the PDR.

  18. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae.

  19. Methane production by two non-ruminant foregut-fermenting herbivores: The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Furrer, Samuel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lawrenz, Arne; Lange, Bastian; Munn, Adam; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Methane (CH4) production varies between herbivore species, but reasons for this variation remain to be elucidated. Here, we report open-circuit chamber respiration measurements of CH4 production in four specimens each of two non-ruminant mammalian herbivores with a complex forestomach but largely differing in body size, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu, mean body mass 17kg) and the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis, 229kg) fed lucerne-based diets. In addition, food intake, digestibility and mean retention times were measured in the same experiments. CH4 production averaged 8 and 72L/d, 18 and 19L/kg dry matter intake, and 4.0 and 4.2% of gross energy intake for the two species, respectively. When compared with previously reported data on CH4 production in other non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting as well as hindgut-fermenting species, it is evident that neither the question whether a species is a foregut fermenter or not, or whether it ruminates or not, is of the relevance previously suggested to explain variation in CH4 production between species. Rather, differences in CH4 production between species on similar diets appear related to species-specific differences in food intake and digesta retention kinetics.

  20. Application of rabbits in biomedical research: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bosze, Zs.; Houdebine, L M

    2006-01-01

    The first transgenic rabbits were obtained two decades ago by pronuclear microinjection. Several characteristics of rabbit made it the first and classical model for the study of lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Rabbit models include normal cholesterol-fed rabbits, spontaneous mutants for lipid metabolism and transgenic rabbits. Though most molecular investigations of the cardiovascular system have used transgenic mice, the small rodents do not accurately reflect crucial facets of human cardi...

  1. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  2. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A

    2017-06-01

    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand.IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand RCV

  3. THE PROBLEM OF PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF HUMANITARIAN CYCLE SUBJECTS TO THE USE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMATIC FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena S. Tselykh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The actual questions related to the development of methods and receptions of improvement of preparation of future teachers of humanitarian cycle subjects to application the educational programmatic facilities (EPF in their professional activity are examined in the article. On the basis of the conducted research the level of readiness of students of humanitarian faculties of the South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University by K. D. Ushinskogo is analyzed the noted activity. It is set that application of educational programmatic facilities considerably intensifies professional preparation of future teachers of humanitarian cycle subjects. It is well-proven that teaching technologies which oriented on application of EPF in professional activity can considerably facilitate and improve teacher’s work to high-quality level, increase the level of knowledge and abilities of students.

  4. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa: thinking ahead on programmatic tasks and related operational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Rony

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until now, we have all been desperately trying to run behind the HIV/AIDS epidemic and catch up with it, but despite all our efforts, the epidemic remains well ahead of us. In 2010, the antiretroviral treatment (ART gap was about 60%, AIDS-related deaths were almost two million a year, and on top of these figures, for every one person started on ART, there were two new HIV infections. What is needed to change this situation is to think ahead of the epidemic in terms of the programmatic tasks we will be faced with and try to act boldly in trying to implement those tasks. From a programmatic perspective, we: a highlight what needs to fundamentally change in our thinking and overall approach to the epidemic; and b outline a number of key task areas for implementation and related operational research.

  5. Interim findings of programmatic options for a building design competition for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-27

    The purpose of this report is to present various programmatic options for the Buildings and Community Systems (BCS) to use in utilizing a building design competition as a mechanism to promote the widescale adoption of energy conservation in new buildings design. The general program requirements were that: (1) the design competition focus on the multi-family low-rise residential market; (2) the design competition would result in the construction of a building or buildings under a Federally-assisted housing program; (3) the competition would be among competitors who are professional architects, designers, and/or developers; (4) the design competition would generate a high degree of public and professional awareness of conservation options in building design; and (5) the competition would be based on the use of a common standard of judgement (e.g., Btu's per square foot). The purpose of the initial phase of this study has been: (1) to assess the feasibility of developing a design competition that can meet the general requirements; (2) to identify potential program options for the competition; and (3) to develop a preliminary structural framework for it. This paper reports the study approach and the preliminary findings. (MCW)

  6. Multi-Programmatic and Institutional Computing Capacity Resource Attachment 2 Statement of Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M

    2002-04-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has identified high-performance computing as a critical competency necessary to meet the goals of LLNL's scientific and engineering programs. Leadership in scientific computing demands the availability of a stable, powerful, well-balanced computational infrastructure, and it requires research directed at advanced architectures, enabling numerical methods and computer science. To encourage all programs to benefit from the huge investment being made by the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASCI) at LLNL, and to provide a mechanism to facilitate multi-programmatic leveraging of resources and access to high-performance equipment by researchers, M&IC was created. The Livermore Computing (LC) Center, a part of the Computations Directorate Integrated Computing and Communications (ICC) Department can be viewed as composed of two facilities, one open and one secure. This acquisition is focused on the M&IC resources in the Open Computing Facility (OCF). For the M&IC program, recent efforts and expenditures have focused on enhancing capacity and stabilizing the TeraCluster 2000 (TC2K) resource. Capacity is a measure of the ability to process a varied workload from many scientists simultaneously. Capability represents the ability to deliver a very large system to run scientific calculations at large scale. In this procurement action, we intend to significantly increase the capability of the M&IC resource to address multiple teraFLOP/s problems, and well as increasing the capacity to do many 100 gigaFLOP/s calculations.

  7. New tools and methods for direct programmatic access to the dbSNP relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Scott F; Quan, Jiaxi; Mehta, Gaurang; Bolze, Raphael; Thomas, Prasanth; Deelman, Ewa; Tischfield, Jay A; Rice, John P

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies often incorporate information from public biological databases in order to provide a biological reference for interpreting the results. The dbSNP database is an extensive source of information on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for many different organisms, including humans. We have developed free software that will download and install a local MySQL implementation of the dbSNP relational database for a specified organism. We have also designed a system for classifying dbSNP tables in terms of common tasks we wish to accomplish using the database. For each task we have designed a small set of custom tables that facilitate task-related queries and provide entity-relationship diagrams for each task composed from the relevant dbSNP tables. In order to expose these concepts and methods to a wider audience we have developed web tools for querying the database and browsing documentation on the tables and columns to clarify the relevant relational structure. All web tools and software are freely available to the public at http://cgsmd.isi.edu/dbsnpq. Resources such as these for programmatically querying biological databases are essential for viably integrating biological information into genetic association experiments on a genome-wide scale.

  8. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ly Wane, Coudy Thierno

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children nutrition division was developed to support a national nutrition strengthening programme; (4) the national nutrition counsel was organized to coordinate nutritional activities across various organizations and governmental sectors, involving representatives from health, agriculture and surveillance; and (5) an integrated communications programme was developed to support harmonized behaviour change communication tools for the health and nutrition sectors. Along with these activities, a number of programme evaluations were conducted to ensure that programmes obtain desired results. Although useful, these evaluations were not rigorous enough to identify effective programmes that contributed to the mentioned reductions in the prevalence of underweight and mortality, and increases in exclusive breastfeeding. The policy and programme framework is well established for support of optimal IYCN practices in Senegal. Despite the recent improvements in infant and young child nutritional status indicators, there is still much to do. Greater resources and continued capacity building are needed to: (1) conduct necessary research for adapting training materials and programme protocols to programmatic needs; (2) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective programme components; and (3) apply these findings in developing, expanding and improving effective programmes.

  9. Learning Team Review 2016-0001: Installing Outlets for Programmatic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Kimberly Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bridgewater, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Frank X. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brenner, Andrew Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Ted T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henderson, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gordon, Lloyd Baumgardner [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blumberg, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilburn, Dianne Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of a Learning Team is to transfer and communicate the information into operational feedback and improvement. We want to pay attention to the small things that go wrong because they are often early warning signals and may provide insight into the health of the whole system. An ESR was placed in the October of 2015 to move/install a number of 120V and 208V outlets in 455-104B to support programmatic furnace needs. Electrical design review was completed for ESR 22217 on February 22, 2016 and a Design Change Form completed describing the modification needed as: demolish 1 existing receptacle and circuit leaving conduit and jbox for use to install new receptacle and 5 new receptacles/circuits are required and one existing receptacle is to be relocated, listed under FSR 149229. The FSR scope of work was written:: Please have the Electricians come out to perform demolition (1ea.), installation (6ea.)& relocation (1ea.) of receptacles / circuits. ESR 22217 & DCF-16-35-0455-1281 is in place for this work. Coordinate final receptacle locations with Laboratory Resident. Contact John Dunwoody or O-MC for this information. WO# 545580-01 was signed on April 20, 2016.: Electricians to perform demolition, installation, & relocation of receptacles / circuits PER attached DCF-16-0455-1281-SK-1.

  10. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  11. Choosing the optimal method in programmatic colorectal cancer screening: current evidence and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem all over the world, being the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The most important strategy for CRC prevention is screening (i.e. secondary prevention). Since it is widely accepted that adenomas and serrated polyps are the precursors of the vast majority of CRC, early detection and removal of these lesions is associated with a reduction of CRC incidence and, consequently, mortality. Moreover, cancers detected by screening are usually diagnosed at early stages and, therefore, curable by endoscopic or surgical procedures. This review will be address CRC screening strategies in average-risk population, which is defined by those individuals, men and women, 50 years of age or older, without any additional personal or familial predisposing risk factor. In order to maximize the impact of screening and ensure high coverage and equity of access, only organized screening programs (i.e. programmatic screening) should be implemented, as opposed to case-finding or opportunistic screening. For that reason and considering that the optimal approach for colorectal screening may differ depending on the scenario, this review will be focused on the advantages and limitations of each screening strategy in an organized setting.

  12. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  13. Challenges for energy efficiency under programmatic CDM: case study of a CFL project in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakosta, Charikleia; Askounis, Dimitris [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Management & Decision Support Systems Lab (NTUA-EPU), 9, Iroon Polytechniou str., 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Energy Efficiency (ENEF) is one of the most promising sectors for reducing emissions of sustained growth and increasing energy security in developing countries. ENEF is, however, severely under-represented in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), due in large part to its dispersed nature, which cannot be easily accommodated into traditional CDM modalities. Furthermore, in the present context, uncertainty prevails to whether the CDM is actually procuring its aims in terms of achieving Sustainable Development (SD) as well as to what extent. On the other hand, programmatic CDM (pCDM) could become an important tool to both bundle small-scale projects and organise similar (not necessarily small-scale) projects carried out at different locations and scales. In this respect, pCDM could offer a promising framework to maximize SD benefits through the inclusion of ENEF activities in developing countries. Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) technology has a significant technical potential within Chile, but 'somehow' do not receive sufficient attention from relevant stakeholders and key market players. This paper presents an analysis that explores for Chile, the potential of CFLs to deliver key energy services for the country. In the above framework, a simulation will be presented on the potential of large-scale CFL deployment in Chile in CDM emissions trading, energy and environmental terms.

  14. Gendered Empowerment and HIV Prevention: Policy and Programmatic Pathways to Success in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L.; Kambou, Sarah Degnan; Sutherland, Carla; Moalla, Khadija; Kapoor, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Although HIV in the Middle East and North Africa is currently characterized as a low seroprevalence epidemic, there are numerous factors that are present in the region that could prevent—or exacerbate—the epidemic. The time to invest substantially in prevention—and gender-specific prevention in particular—is now. Given that most policy makers do not make gender-specific plans as epidemics progress, our research team—which draws upon expertise from both within and outside the region—worked together to make programmatic and policy suggestions in the Middle East and North Africa region in 5 key areas: (1) gender-specific and gender transformative HIV prevention interventions; (2) access to quality education and improvements in life skills and sex education; (3) economic empowerment; (4) property rights; and (5) antiviolence. In short, this work builds upon many ongoing efforts in the region and elucidates some of the links between gendered empowerment and health outcomes around the world, particularly HIV and AIDS. PMID:19553778

  15. DeepBlue epigenomic data server: programmatic data retrieval and analysis of epigenome region sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Felipe; List, Markus; Bock, Christoph; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at http://deepblue.mpi-inf.mpg.de.

  16. A Pharmacotherapy Capstone Course to Target Student Learning and Programmatic Curricular Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saseen, Joseph J; Linnebur, Sunny A; Borgelt, Laura M; Trujillo, Jennifer; Fish, Douglas N; Mueller, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Objective. To describe how a pharmacotherapy capstone course was used for student learning and programmatic curricular assessment. Design. A pharmacotherapy capstone course was included in the University of Colorado curriculum for 13 years from 2002 through 2014. This 9-credit hour course was the last course prior to Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). Students were held accountable for prior learning using complex patient cases and other activities that are seen in APPEs. Application of knowledge, skills, and critical thinking were integrated in this course using exclusively active learning methodologies. Students were expected to actively participate and learn independently, from peers and through self-assessment. Assessment. Evidence of student learning was demonstrated based on student performance on written and verbal evaluations analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Survey and self-evaluation data indicated that students learned within the course. An increase in student confidence in critical thinking, problem-solving, decision making, and lifelong learning was also seen during APPEs. Student performance in this course prompted changes to prerequisite courses and guided development of a renewed curriculum. Conclusion. The University of Colorado pharmacotherapy capstone course prepared students for the rigor of APPEs, provided insight that facilitated improvements in prerequisite courses, and was a nexus for the development of a renewed curriculum, which includes a new clinical capstone course.

  17. Programmatic Considerations to Reduce the Risk of Adverse Renal Stone Events in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity exposure may alter the likelihood that astronauts will experience renal stones. The potential risk includes both acute and chronic health issues, with the potential for significant impact on mission objectives. Methods: To understand the role of the NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) research agenda in both preventing and addressing renal stones in spaceflight, current astronaut epidemiologic data and a summary of programmatic considerations are reviewed. Results: Although there has never been a symptomatic renal stone event in a U.S. crewmember during spaceflight, urine chemistry has been altered - likely due to induced changes in renal physiology as a result of exposure to microgravity. This may predispose astronauts to stone formation, leading the HRP to conduct and sponsor research to: 1) understand the risk of stone formation in space; 2) prevent stones from forming; and 3) address stones that may form by providing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Discussion: The development of a renal stone during spaceflight is a significant medical concern that requires the HRP to minimize this risk by providing the ability to prevent, diagnose, monitor and treat the condition during spaceflight. A discussion of the risk as NASA understands it is followed by an overview of the multiple mitigations currently under study, including novel ultrasound techniques for stone detection and manipulation, and how they may function as part of a larger exploration medical system.

  18. Identification of Rabbit Myostatin Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Amalianingsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of selection on the rabbits with potential for meat has only been seen from phenotypic aspects including performance and productivity, while the molecular genetic studies are still very rare. One of the candidate genes for meat production traits in rabbit is myostatin. Totally 50 blood samples of male rabbits from Rex, Satin, Reza (crossing from Rex and Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 (crossing from Flemish Giant and Reza breed were used at Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Genetic polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method used FspBI restriction enzyme. PCR-RFLP data were analyzed by calculating allele and genotype frequencies. Sequencing was performed in rabbit with different genotypes which represents each of the samples. Genotype of AT had two cut points of the FspBI restriction enzyme at the base position of 508 bp and 444 bp. The cut point at the base position of 446 bp was site mutation base T became A. Genotype of TT had one cut point at the base position of 508 bp and no mutation site. Allele T had higher frequency than allele A and just Rex and Reza rabbit breeds had two alleles. The other rabbits (Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 only had one allele i.e., allele T. PCR - RFLP analysis of the MSTN|FspBI gene segments was polymorphic in Rex and Reza rabbit breeds. All of rabbit breeds in this study did not have AA genotype.

  19. Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J M

    1984-01-01

    A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used.

  20. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  1. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  2. Adult rabbits acquire resistance to lethal calicivirus infection by adoptive transfer of sera from infected young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P G; Dinís, M; Costa-E-Silva, A; Aguas, A P

    2008-02-15

    Calicivirus infection of adult rabbits induces the so-called rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) that kills 90% or more of the infected animals; in contrast, young rabbits (up to 8-week-old animals) are resistant to the same infectious agent. We report that calicivirus inoculation of young rabbits induced moderate titres of antiviral antibodies. When these rabbits reached adulthood, a second calicivirus inoculation resulted in resistance to RHD and boosting of antibody titres in half of the rabbits. Adoptive transfer of sera from calicivirus-infected young rabbits to naïve adult rabbits conferred resistance to RHD. We conclude that calicivirus infection of young rabbits induces specific anti-calicivirus antibodies that will protect them from RHD when they reach adulthood.

  3. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field.

  4. Technical and programmatic constraints in dynamic verification of satellite mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidis, C.; Klein, M.; Brunner, O.; Newerla, A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and verification of satellite systems covers various programmatic options. In the mechanical systems area, spacecraft test verification options include static, shaker vibration, modal survey, thermoelastic, acoustic, impact and other environmental tests. Development and verification tests influence the provision of satellite hardware, e.g. the structural model, engineering model, flight model, postflight etc., which need to be adopted by projects. In particular, adequate understanding of the satellite dynamic characteristics is essential for flight acceptance by launcher authorities. In general, a satellite shaker vibration test is requested by launcher authorities for expendable launchers. For the latter the launcher/satellite interface is well defined at the launcher clampband/separation device, and the interface is considered conveniently as a single point at the centre of the clampband. Recently the need has been identified to refine the interface idealization in launcher/satellite coupled loads dynamic analysis, particularly in cases where concentrated satellite loads are introduced at the interface, e.g. platform support struts. In the case of shuttle payloads, which are attached directly to the shuttle, shaker vibration at a single interface is not meaningful. Shuttle launcher authorities require identification of the satellite dynamic characteristics, e.g. by modal survey, and structural verification can be demonstrated by analysis, testing or a combination of analysis and testing. In the case of large satellite systems, which cannot be tested due to the limitation of the vibration shaker test facilities, a similar approach can be adapted for expendable launchers. In such an approach the dynamic characteristics of the satellite system will be identified by the modal survey test, and detailed satellite verification/qualification will be accomplished by analysis supported by subsystem and component level tests. Mechanical strength verification

  5. Balancing efficiency, equity and feasibility of HIV treatment in South Africa – development of programmatic guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    South Africa, the country with the largest HIV epidemic worldwide, has been scaling up treatment since 2003 and is rapidly expanding its eligibility criteria. The HIV treatment programme has achieved significant results, and had 1.8 million people on treatment per 2011. Despite these achievements, it is now facing major concerns regarding (i) efficiency: alternative treatment policies may save more lives for the same budget; (ii) equity: there are large inequalities in who receives treatment; (iii) feasibility: still only 52% of the eligible population receives treatment. Hence, decisions on the design of the present HIV treatment programme in South Africa can be considered suboptimal. We argue there are two fundamental reasons to this. First, while there is a rapidly growing evidence-base to guide priority setting decisions on HIV treatment, its included studies typically consider only one criterion at a time and thus fail to capture the broad range of values that stakeholders have. Second, priority setting on HIV treatment is a highly political process but it seems no adequate participatory processes are in place to incorporate stakeholders’ views and evidences of all sorts. We propose an alternative approach that provides a better evidence base and outlines a fair policy process to improve priority setting in HIV treatment. The approach integrates two increasingly important frameworks on health care priority setting: accountability for reasonableness (A4R) to foster procedural fairness, and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to construct an evidence-base on the feasibility, efficiency, and equity of programme options including trade-offs. The approach provides programmatic guidance on the choice of treatment strategies at various decisions levels based on a sound conceptual framework, and holds large potential to improve HIV priority setting in South Africa. PMID:24107435

  6. Balancing efficiency, equity and feasibility of HIV treatment in South Africa - development of programmatic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Rob; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Tromp, Noor; Hurtig, Annekarin; Byskov, Jens; Olsen, Oystein; Bærøe, Kristine; Hontelez, Jan A; Singh, Jerome; Norheim, Ole F

    2013-10-09

    South Africa, the country with the largest HIV epidemic worldwide, has been scaling up treatment since 2003 and is rapidly expanding its eligibility criteria. The HIV treatment programme has achieved significant results, and had 1.8 million people on treatment per 2011. Despite these achievements, it is now facing major concerns regarding (i) efficiency: alternative treatment policies may save more lives for the same budget; (ii) equity: there are large inequalities in who receives treatment; (iii) feasibility: still only 52% of the eligible population receives treatment.Hence, decisions on the design of the present HIV treatment programme in South Africa can be considered suboptimal. We argue there are two fundamental reasons to this. First, while there is a rapidly growing evidence-base to guide priority setting decisions on HIV treatment, its included studies typically consider only one criterion at a time and thus fail to capture the broad range of values that stakeholders have. Second, priority setting on HIV treatment is a highly political process but it seems no adequate participatory processes are in place to incorporate stakeholders' views and evidences of all sorts.We propose an alternative approach that provides a better evidence base and outlines a fair policy process to improve priority setting in HIV treatment. The approach integrates two increasingly important frameworks on health care priority setting: accountability for reasonableness (A4R) to foster procedural fairness, and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to construct an evidence-base on the feasibility, efficiency, and equity of programme options including trade-offs. The approach provides programmatic guidance on the choice of treatment strategies at various decisions levels based on a sound conceptual framework, and holds large potential to improve HIV priority setting in South Africa.

  7. Stress-associated radiation effects in pygmy wood mouse Apodemus uralensis (Muridae, Rodentia) populations from the East-Urals Radioactive Trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, Natal'ya A; Modorov, Makar V

    2016-09-01

    This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. The functional-metabolic shifts seen with large population sizes were characterized by delipidisation of adrenocortical cells, increased LPO as the main mechanism for steroidogenesis, growth of the protein components of the adrenal glands to maintain their hyperfunction, as well as immunosuppression associated with the restriction of carbohydrates providing splenocytes, reduction of DNA synthesis, and the development of a pro-/antioxidant imbalance. Reactivity of the neuroendocrine and hematopoietic systems of animals experiencing a high population density was higher in the EURT zone compared with the reference group. This difference can be explained by the additional stress from the chronic radiation exposure. The level of LPO, catalase activity, and DNA/protein ratio in the spleen and the total protein content in the adrenal glands were the most sensitive to the interaction of population size and radiation exposure. The harmful effect (distress) of the interaction of non-radiation and radiation factors can manifest when there is a population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden which exceeds the lower boundary of the Derived Consideration Reference Levels, which is above 0.1 mGy/day.

  8. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  9. Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local Government Area Of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... It involved the collection of primary data from a sample of SO rabbit farmers spread over 10 ...

  10. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez; José Salvador Vicente

    2017-01-01

    ... parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed...

  11. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  12. Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Coura Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. METHODS: An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". RESULTS: A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. CONCLUSION: To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease.

  13. Genotoxic effects of copper sulfate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotoxic effects of oral application of CuSO4 in rabbits by the chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. Ten male New Zealand rabbits (5 months old, weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were allocated into two groups. The first group received CuSO4 (5H2O in drinking water for 6 consecutive days. The second group was used as a control. On the 7th day, blood samples were taken from the ear marginal vein and the SCE and CA tests in peripheral lymphocytes were used as genotoxicity and mutagenicity endpoints, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of the aberrant cells (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 and CA (chromatid fragments 3.2±0.37, chromosome fragments 4.2±0.37, P<0.001, and total aberrations (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 after the treatment with CuSO4 when compared with the control group. The level of SCE per cell in the CuSO4-treated rabbits (9.66±0.062 was significantly higher than in rabbits from the control group. These findings show that copper exhibits a genotoxic and mutagenic potential in rabbits.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia impaired sperm functionality in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E Saez Lancellotti

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR. Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a "folded head"-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events.

  15. Diagnosis of dental problems in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Dental problems are very common in pet rabbits. To establish a correct diagnosis of rabbit dental pathology, a general knowledge of normal dental anatomy and physiology is necessary. The specific anatomy and the most common pathologies of rabbit dentition are reviewed. Techniques for diagnosing dental abnormalities - such as clinical examination, radiography and computed tomography (CT) - are summarized. Finally two clinical cases of rabbits with dental pathologies are described.

  16. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2013-01-01

    In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.). For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed prod...

  17. SPF rabbits infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus isolate experimentally showing the chronicity of hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits.

  18. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  19. Policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambisya Yoswa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a severe health worker shortage and a high demand for health care services. This study aimed to assess the policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative, descriptive study through 34 key informant interviews and eight (8 focus group discussions, with participants from various levels of the health system. Results Policy makers understood task shifting, but front-line health workers had misconceptions on the meaning and intention(s of task shifting. Examples were cited of task shifting within the Ugandan health system, some formalized (e.g. psychiatric clinical officers, and some informal ones (e.g. nurses inserting IV lines and initiating treatment. There was apparently high acceptance of task shifting in HIV/AIDS service delivery, with involvement of community health workers (CHW and PLWHA in care and support of AIDS patients. There was no written policy or guidelines on task shifting, but the policy environment was reportedly conducive with plans to develop a policy and guidelines on task shifting. Factors favouring task shifting included successful examples of task shifting, proper referral channels, the need for services, scarcity of skills and focused initiatives such as home based management of fever. Barriers to task shifting included reluctance to change, protection of professional turf, professional boundaries and regulations, heavy workload and high disease burden, poor planning, lack of a task shifting champion, lack of guidelines, the name task shifting itself, and unemployed health professionals. There were both positive and negative views on task shifting: the positive ones cast task shifting as one of the solutions to the dual problem of lack of skills and high demand for service, and as something that is already happening; while negative ones saw it as a quick fix intended for the poor, a threat to quality care and likely to compromise the health

  20. Programmatic Need for a Zero Emission Steam Technology (ZEST) Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzer, M; Followill, F; Johnson, J

    2001-06-30

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct an on-site research facility for a novel electric power generation system that exploits clean-burning fossil fuels. This system, termed Zero Emission Steam Technology (ZEST), offers unique economic and environmental benefits, including: (1) Highly efficient power generation using the most advanced combustion and turbine technologies. (2) Ability to burn a range of fossil fuels, including natural gas, synthetic gas from coal (''coal syngas''), and coal-bed methane. (3) No oxides of nitrogen generated that would contribute to air pollution. (4) No greenhouse gases emitted. (5) Secure geologic sequestration of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) combustion product. (6) Use of the CO{sub 2} combustion product to enhance oil recovery in mature fields. The proposed research facility will provide a necessary step toward commercialization of ZEST. Despite the technology's promise, it will not be implemented by the U.S. electric power industry unless an agency such as DOE takes on the task of demonstrating its scientific and economic viability. The U.S. electric power industry typically requires 50,000 hours of operational data--nearly six years of continuous duty--before investing in a major new technology. Hence, there is a strong programmatic need for DOE to provide such data for ZEST, to accelerate commercial investment in this technology. The ZEST combustion process is based on rocket engine technology. It burns pure oxygen with a hydrocarbon fuel under stoichiometric conditions to produce power with virtually no oxides of nitrogen generated. The flexibility of ZEST's gas generator, which has independent temperature and pressure control, will allow modular upgrading of turbine systems as new, more efficient technology becomes available. It is envisioned that the ZEST research facility will serve as a testing laboratory for new turbine technology being designed by the U

  1. Effect of trichlorfon on selenium distribution in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, S; Dziura, A

    1987-01-01

    The investigations were performed on 94 rabbits intoxicated with trichlorfon which were untreated or treated. The intoxicated rabbits were given per os Na75SeO3. Selenium distribution in different organs and tissues was examined radiometrically. In intoxicated untreated rabbits and in those at the beginning of treatment decreased selenium level was found.

  2. problems and prospects of rabbit production in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, waste fruits, vegetables and poultry droppings. The manure can .... descendants of the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus ... most popular in commercial rabbit industries in the .... and a water supply for cleaning purposes (Aduku and ..... Journal of Biotechnology, 2:6 34-39.

  3. A Preliminary internet survey of pet rabbit owners’ characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Oxley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a preliminary survey to investigate basic ownership factors, frequency of microchipping and insurance and views of pet rabbit owners  n these areas and general rabbit management. More specifically, we aimed to investigate whether owners possess insurance, whether their rabbits are microchipped, and owners’ views on the recommendations relating to rabbits (e.g. recommended enclosure sizes and the law. A questionnaire was designed and promulgated through social media sites and rabbit forums. A total of 1183 responses were received. Just over 29% of respondents sourced their rabbits through rescue centres. 73.9% (867/1174 of owners stated that they had no pet insurance for their rabbits. Concerning microchips, 78.3% (919/1173 of rabbits were not microchipped, while 21.7% (254/1173 were. This preliminary study found that the majority of individuals are of the opinion that the relevant law is insufficiently publicised. A more detailed study would be beneficial to investigate and provide further insight into rabbit owners and their views and concerns for rabbits. The results of such a study could help formulate rabbit-related information and guidelines which in turn could have a direct impact on pet rabbit welfare.

  4. Effects of Rosiglitazone on Rabbit Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing; WEI Meng; ZHAO Bing-hui

    2008-01-01

    We sought to validate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for documenting the effects of rosiglitazone on rabbit atherosclerosis and the possible mechanism by treatment on the lesions.24 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into normal group,control group and treatment group.After 4 weeks,all rabbits underwent MRI.After examination,the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and level of lipid,glucose,nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O-2.) were measured.MRI demonstrated the regression of atherosclerotic lesions by rosiglitazone which has good correlation with histopathology.Treatment not only increased the level of EPCs and NO,but also raised the ability of inhibition of O-2..MRI is a promising noninvasive technology to detect the effects of therapeutic interventions.Rosiglitazone slows the progression of atherosclerosis that may in part attribute to its improvement of mobilization of EPCs and the reduced oxidative stress.

  5. Images in Rabbit, Run from Archetypal Perspective%Images in Rabbit,Run from Archetypal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓芳

    2016-01-01

    John Updike is regarded as one of the greatest American novelists in the 20th century. His Rabbit series brought him a worldwide reputation, especially the first one Rabbit, Run is considered as his magnum opus and has drawn the most concern from the critics. This thesis is intended to shed light on Rabbit, Run by applying some important archetypal terms, especially the archetypal images. By sorting out the employment of images, this thesis aims to prove Harry's plight and to dig out the theme of the empty mental condition of the whole society. Therefore, it hopes to provide a new way to interpret this novel.

  6. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  7. Plasma PIVKA proteins in rabbits given warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivelin, A; Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1996-06-01

    The presence of partially carboxylated forms of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (PIVKA) was evaluated in the plasma of rabbits treated with warfarin. Excess antigen over activity as measured in rabbit specific assays was taken as evidence for PIVKA. Our data confirm a previous report of the absence of plasma PIVKA prothrombin. In contrast, plasma PIVKA factors VII, IX, and X were demonstrable. A striking excess of plasma factor IX antigen over activity was measured and a large fraction of the factor IX antigen persisted in the plasma after its adsorption with barium citrate.

  8. Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, R.B.; Cooke, R.T. Jr.

    1986-05-29

    Chromate was reduced during the oxidation of 1-methylnicotinamide chlorine by partially purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. In addition to l-methylnicotinamide, several other electron donor substrates for aldehyde oxidase were able to support the enzymatic chromate reduction. The reduction required the presence of both enzyme and the electron donor substrate. The rate of the chromate reduction was retarded by inhibitors or aldehyde oxidase but was not affected by substrates or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results are consistent with the involvement of aldehyde oxidase in the reduction of chromate by rabbit liver cytosolic enzyme preparations.

  9. Detection of pathological lesions in slaughtered rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse is considered an important control point for the monitoring of rabbit diseases. In our study, 59,440 rabbit carcasses were examined, but only 1% of pathological lesions were recorded at postmortem inspection. Mainly affected were tegumentary, digestive and urinary systems. The most consistent lesion was the subcutaneous abscess; nephritis, probably caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi, was also frequent. Pathological alterations of the liver, classified as “necrotizing hepatitis” and localized at the caudate lobe, were observed for the first time.

  10. Sensitivity of rabbit fibrochondrocytes to mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Carlos Manuel de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from rabbit meniscus (fibrochondrocytes-FcrC was infected for 24 hours with different inocula (10² to 10(7 Colony Forming Units-CFU of Mycoplasma hominis PG-21, M. pneumoniae FH and 1428 or M. arthritidis PG-6. The severity of the different obtained cytophatic effects-CPE was inoculum, Mycoplasma species and strain dependant. These bacteria were recovered from all infected FcrC and the SP4 medium for mycoplasmas also caused toxic effect on the FcrC. It was concluded that rabbit fibrochondrocytes were sensitive to mycoplasma infection, as well as to the SP4 mycoplasma medium.

  11. Experimental infection of wild-caught European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a naturally infected wild rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J; Casais, R; Colomar, V; Bach, E; Prieto, J M; Velarde, R

    2013-06-01

    Scabies was recently reported for the first time in the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). We experimentally exposed 10 seronegative wild-caught rabbits to skin from a mangy wild rabbit. Serological, physiological, parasitological and histopathological changes were recorded. Three rabbits developed antibodies at 2-5 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.), two of which then developed lesions at 7 w.p.i. One of these had a small area of alopecia on the hind limb that healed naturally within 1 week; the other developed more extensive lesions restricted to the hind limbs (as typically observed in wild rabbits) that lasted until the rabbit died (12.5 w.p.i.). The third rabbit died of trauma 5 w.p.i. before developing any lesions. Antibodies in the healed rabbit disappeared from serum at 8 w.p.i., whereas antibody levels in the sick rabbit increased until its death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis, probably arising from a concomitant infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, were the likely final cause of death in this rabbit. The mangy rabbit that served as a donor died of a multifocal fibrinosuppurative pneumonia that may have been secondary to the skin bacterial pyoderma.

  12. Study on the Prevention of Rabbit Hair from Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世春; 张华鹏; 姚穆

    2001-01-01

    A new method is presented to solve the problem of loss of rabbit hair by using ES fiber blending with rabbit hair. ES fiber is used to bond the rabbit hair to prevent the rabbit hair from losing after heat setting. The factors affecting hair loss are heat setting temperature, rabbit hair/ES fiber blend ratio, fabric heating setting, twistsof yarn, etc. Temperature of heat setting and ES fiber content are the two key factors This method has almost no detrimental effect on the coziness of the fabric, which is better than other hair loss prevention methods.

  13. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  15. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  16. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  17. Prevalence and pathological study on rabbit hepatic coccidiosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J S; Tsai, S F

    1991-10-01

    Five breeds of rabbits, which included the New Zealand, Californian, Spot, Rex and Angora rabbit, were found from a survey of 1,152 rabbits in Taiwan. The prevalence of coccidia in young rabbits (weaning-2 months old) was 95% to 100%. Adult female rabbits usually acted as carriers within the farm and transmitted the parasite to young rabbits, which caused severe infection with clinical signs and even death. Parasitism of hepatic coccidia (Eimeria stiedai) in the rabbit led to severe mortality. Numerous and scattered white nodules about 0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter were seen on the liver surface and dark greenish mucoid exudate was found in intestinal lumen. Histopathologic lesions included hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium with different developmental stages of coccidia within. Oocysts could be seen in the lumen, and granuloma tissues encircle the bile duct with infiltration of inflammatory cells. The other organs were not infected.

  18. Encephalitozoonosis in household pet Nederland Dwarf rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencakova, A; Balent, P; Petrovova, E; Novotny, F; Luptakova, L

    2008-05-31

    The paper presents the results of examination of 32 domestically bred rabbits, the breed Nederland Dwarf of Oryctolagus cuniculus, for the presence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidian species. The results of serological tests for E. cuniculi in 32 rabbits are reviewed along with other follow-up studies of clinical cases. Blood samples were taken from 7 asymptomatic rabbits and 25 rabbits showing neurological and ocular signs suggestive of encephalitozoonosis. In the asymptomatic group, 5 out of 7 rabbits were seropositive (71%). 16 rabbits with clinical diseases showed neurological sings, including torticollis, circus-like movements, loss of weight; 6 of them also showed ataxia, anorexia, asthenia of hind-limbs and 3 showed ocular signs. All 25 rabbits were seropositive. The spores of E. cuniculi were isolated from the faecal samples or kidneys and brain of an animal and subsequently were used for DNA isolation and PCR analysis.

  19. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  20. Rabbit trochlear model of osteochondral allograft transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Nhat; Curtiss, Shane; Neu, Corey P; Salgado, Christopher J; Jamali, Amir A

    2011-10-01

    Allografting and autografting of osteochondral tissues is a promising strategy to treat articular cartilage lesions in damaged joints. We developed a new model of fresh osteochondral allografting using the entire rabbit trochlea. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that this model would achieve reproducible graft-host healing and maintain normal articular cartilage histologic, immunolocalization, and biochemical characteristics after transplantation under diverse storage and transplantation conditions. New Zealand white (n = 8) and Dutch belted (n = 8) rabbits underwent a 2-stage transplantation operation using osteochondral grafts that had been stored for 2 or 4 wk. Trochlear grafts harvested from the left knee were transplanted to the right knee as either autografts or allografts. Grafts were fixed with 22-gauge steel wire or 3-0 nylon suture. Rabbits were euthanized for evaluation at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 wk after transplantation. All grafts that remained in vivo for at least 4 wk demonstrated 100% interface healing by microCT. Trabecular bridging was present at the host-graft interface starting at 2 wk after transplantation, with no significant difference in cartilage histology between the various groups. The combined histology scores indicated minimal evidence of osteoarthritis. Immunostaining revealed that superficial zone protein was localized at the surface of all transplants. The rabbit trochlear model met our criteria for a successful model in regard to the ease of the procedure, low rate of surgical complications, relatively large articular cartilage surface area, and amount of host-graft bone interface available for analysis.

  1. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  2. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Somya A.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M.; Mahran, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits. PMID:22654648

  3. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  4. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G; Chalmers, R M

    2010-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been found in the faeces of over 150 mammalian host species, but the risks to public health from wildlife are poorly understood. In summer 2008, the Cryptosporidium sp. rabbit genotype was identified as the aetiological agent in an outbreak of waterborne human cryptosporidiosis. The source was a wild rabbit that had entered a treated water tank. To establish current knowledge about Cryptosporidium spp. infecting lagomorphs, especially the host range and biological characteristics of the rabbit genotype, and the potential risks to public health that rabbits may pose in the transmission of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis, we undertook a literature and data review. The literature returned demonstrates that although the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has been the most widely studied lagomorph, few large scale studies were found. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rabbit populations in the two large scale studies was 0.9% (95%CI 0.2-5.0) and 0.0% (95%CI 0.0-1.6). Neither study provided age nor sex profiles nor typing of Cryptosporidium isolates. The infecting Cryptosporidium species was confirmed in just four other studies of rabbits, all of which showed the rabbit genotype. Human-infectious Cryptosporidium species including Cryptosporidium parvum have caused experimental infections in rabbits and it is likely that this may also occur naturally. No published studies of the host range and biological features of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype were identified, but information was generated on the identification and differentiation of the rabbit genotype at various genetic loci. Both pet and wild rabbits are a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis and as such, good hygiene practices are recommended during and after handling rabbits or exposure to their faeces, or potentially contaminated surfaces. Water supplies should be protected against access by wildlife, including rabbits.

  5. Risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Dubois, Martine; Abravanel, Florence; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Izopet, Jacques

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. Further issues remain to be clarified, including whether the genotype of rabbit HEV differs from human and swine HEV genotype 3 and whether rabbit HEV can infect human and other animals. HEV was found in farmed rabbits in several geographic areas of China, in USA and more recently in France. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV was 36%, 57% and 55% in rabbits from Virginia (USA), Gansu Province and Beijing (China), respectively. HEV RNA was detected in 16.5% of serum samples from farmed rabbits in Virginia, 7.5% in Gansu Province and 7.0% in Beijing. HEV RNA was detected in 7% of bile samples from farmed rabbits and in 23% of liver samples from wild rabbits in France. The full-length genomic sequences analysis indicates that all the rabbit strains belong to the same clade. Nucleotide sequences were 72.2-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4. Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains circulating in France and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit HEV. A 93-nucleotide insertion in the X domain of the ORF1 of the human strain and in all the rabbit HEV strains was found. Moreover, the ability of rabbit HEV to cause cross-species infection in a pig model has recently been demonstrated. Rabbit HEV can replicate efficiently in human cell lines. Collectively, these data support the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

  6. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; She, Ruiping; Cao, Binbin; Xiao, Peng; Wu, Qiaoxing; Guo, Zhaojie; Ma, Longhuan; Soomro, Majid Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  7. Crossbreeding effects on rabbit reproduction from four maternal lines of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Mínguez, C; Baselga, M

    2016-07-01

    Litter size is essential for an efficient production of rabbit meat. A diallel cross between four maternal lines was carried out and the analysis of the components of litter size has been already done. This paper presents the analysis of litter size traits themselves (total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW)) and kindling interval (KI), that complete the analysis of the reproductive performance. The 16 genetic groups were distributed in four Spanish farms. The V line was present in all farms in order to be used as reference group. A total of 34 546 parities from 7111 does, were analysed. The crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson model. The differences between lines performance were of low magnitude and not significant for litter size traits. The LP line showed the shortest KI followed by H respect to lines A and V. These differences reflected the differences between direct and maternal genetic effects. The differences between the average of all crosses and line V were found to be significant and seemed to be important, being 0.46 for TB, 0.56 for NBA, 0.75 for NW and -2.21 days for KI. The differences between reciprocal crosses for litter size were of low magnitude and non-significant, which indicate that the maternal effects are not important between these lines. In general, the lines did not show significant differences in direct and maternal genetic effects for TB, NBA and NW but there were some significant differences for KI, which ranged from 1.54 to 6.85 days in direct effects and from 0.63 to 3.38 days for maternal effects. A positive and, in some cases, relevant heterosis was found. The largest heterosis was for TB in the HV cross (1.05 rabbits), followed by the AH (0.74 rabbits), AV (0.57 rabbits) and LH (0.55 rabbits) crosses. For NBA, significant heterosis was found in HV (1.11 rabbits) and AV (0.49 rabbits) and for NW in AV (0.90 rabbits), LH (0.70 rabbits) and LV (0.58 rabbits). Favourable and significant

  8. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities: Phase A conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are highlighted. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or Follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSRF to the FOC LSRF.

  9. Adverse reactions in a population of Sydney pet rabbits vaccinated against rabbit calicivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, T; Phalen, D; Toribio, J-Alml

    2015-11-01

    To determine the general clinical presentation and incidence of adverse reactions to Cylap® RCD vaccinations, of a nature serious enough for veterinary attention, in a Sydney population of pet rabbits. A retrospective survey using hospital databases. Nine veterinary hospitals in Sydney participated in a database search for the number of rabbits vaccinated within a 2-year period. The hospitals involved had an identified interest in rabbit medicine and included general, specialist and teaching hospitals. Details of the rabbit, vaccination event and any possible reaction were collected and analysed. Of 933 events recorded in 705 rabbits, 17 (1.8%) adverse reactions were observed. Of the adverse events, local injection site reactions (alopecia, abrasions and scabbing) were most common. Other reactions, including systemic signs of gastrointestinal tract stasis, lethargy and forelimb lameness, were also documented. Overall, rabbits presented for vaccination were mostly male (57.7%) and desexed (71.3%), with an average age of 28.1 months (median 19.0, range 1.4-149.8 months) and an average weight at first vaccination of 2.12 kg (median 2.08 kg, range 0.18-5.6 kg). A significant association between increasing age and decreased incidence of adverse events was demonstrated (P value, 0.038). The benefits of vaccination against RCV outweigh the risks of an adverse reaction occurring. Data from this study show that adverse reactions occur infrequently, are generally mild and self-resolving, and decrease in incidence with increasing age. These results are similar to previous field research on wild rabbit colonies and reports from government and industry. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  11. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  12. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Activities on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Kirkland AFB, New Mexico 87117-5776 Dear Sir or madam : Please find enclosed the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Final Programmatic Environmental...0 9 -:g .~2 ISF ’R E vi0 OM Ŕ I; ba C6z I ts’a bO Ej 0~~I00 ) ~ ~ 2 E§ 4"D 0 . :! n0 0 -a -ý 00 -4 -c 0.0 0 -Z u o 0~. 00-~ U~~ . -Q. ý ’- Eam 0 r...0 bO 0’ 0 CIO 0 0 u. al S5 0 - t0. E ~ ~ U >0 - L .- m. 00. ’-o o- 00 co 0. 0. .. . m u. 0 -,I bo a - ’I it 00 u .00 0 n 0I ’t cl I ~ -~~ ~ Z u~O

  13. An Analysis of Programmatic Variables Relating to the Pass Rates on the Licensure Examination by Practical Nurses in Tennessee Technology Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janis Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the degree to which Licensed Practical Nursing programmatic variables positively correlate with select Tennessee Technology Center institution pass rates on the licensure examination--NCLEX-PNRTM. This study investigated the relationship between the dependent variable of NCLEX-PNRTM…

  14. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  15. Rabbit lung injury induced by explosive decompression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of rabbit lunginjury caused by explosive decompression. Methods: A total of 42 rabbits and 10 rats were served as the experimental animals. A slow recompressiondecompression test and an explosive decompression test were applied to the animals, respectively. And the effects of the given tests on the animals were discussed. Results: The slow recompression-decompression did not cause an obvious lung injury, but the explosive decompression did cause lung injuries in different degrees. The greater the decompression range was, the shorter the decompression duration was, and the heavier the lung injuries were. Conclusions: Explosive decompression can cause a similar lung injury as shock wave does. The primary mechanical causes of the lung injury might be a tensile strain or stress in the alveolar wall and the pulmonary surface's impacts on the inside wall of the chest.

  16. Sex Difference in the Repolarization Currents of Rabbit Ventricular Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Yanfei; LIU Nian; ZHOU Qiang; LI Yang; WANG Lin

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The current difference between male and female rabbit ventricular myocytes was investigated for elucidating the mechanism of longer QT interval and higher incidence of drug-associated torsade de pointes in female rabbits than in male rabbits. Whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record APD, Ito, IK,tail, IK1 and ICa,L of myocytes from left ventricular apex. There was no difference in the membrane capacitance between male and female rabbit myocytes. APD90 was longer in female rabbits (560.4±26.5 ms, n=15) than in male ones (489.0±20.7 ms, n=14), P0.05). The lower IK,tail of female rabbit myocytes may contribute to the longer repolarization and the higher incidence of drug-associated torsade de pointes.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Control of oxyuriasis in rabbits by fenbendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düwel, D; Brech, K

    1981-04-01

    Death, poor condition and unsatisfactory breeding performance in a rabbit colony was attributed to infection with Passalurus ambiguus. The trouble disappeared after treatment with 50 ppm fenbendazole in the food for 5 days. In laboratory trials 12.5 ppm for 5 days eliminated more than 99% of adult and most immature pinworms, 25 and 50 ppm eliminated all immature and adult pinworms. These doses were also effective against Obeliscoides cuniculi.

  19. The rabbit pup, a natural model of nursing anticipatory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Caba, Mario; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Mother rabbits nurse their young once a day with circadian periodicity. Nursing bouts are brief (ca. 3 min) and occur inside the maternal burrow. Despite this limited contact mother rabbits and their pups are tuned to each other to ensure that the capacities of each party are used efficiently to ensure the weaning of a healthy litter. In this review we present behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and hormonal correlates of this phenomenon in mother rabbits and their pups. Research is revealing tha...

  20. Medetomidine--ketamine--diazepam anesthesia in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, M; Vainionpää, S; Vasenius, J; Vihtonen, K; Rokkanen, P

    1989-01-01

    Orthopaedic operations were performed in 340 rabbits when developing biodegradable rods for the fixation of fractures. The rabbits were anaesthesized by injecting medetomidine combined with ketamine and diazepam (MKD) subcutaneously. The mortality due to the anaesthesia was zero. Arterial blood gas analyses showed a moderate decrease in the haemoglobin oxygen saturation and compensated respiratory acidosis, which was well tolerated by the animals. It is concluded that MKD anaesthesia is well suited for orthopaedic operations in the rabbit.

  1. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouy, Didier; Duverger, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Florence; Denefle, Patrice; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Viglietta, Celine; Rubin, Edward M.; Hughes, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  2. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  3. Exogenous Streptococcus pneumoniae Endophthalmitis in Diabetic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Angela H.; Fulton, Linda K.; Marquart, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetics are at increased risk for eye infections including bacterial endophthalmitis. It is unclear whether the severity of endophthalmitis is greater in these patients due to confounding factors such as pre-existing ocular diseases in some but not others. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that disease severity and/or bacterial loads would be significantly higher in a Type I diabetic rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae endophthalmitis. Rabbits were treated with alloxan to destroy pancreatic islet cells, or mock-treated with vehicle, and maintained for 10 days before intravitreal infection with S. pneumoniae E353. Clinical scoring of the eyes was performed 24 and 48 hours after infection, followed by euthanasia and vitreous harvest to quantitate bacterial loads. There were no significant differences in clinical scores (P ≥ 0.440) or bacterial loads (P = 0.736), however, 4/12 (33%) of the diabetic rabbits became bacteremic. This finding not only indicates a breakdown in the blood-ocular barrier, but also prompts further investigation into the exploitation of the diabetic eye by the streptococci. PMID:28387365

  4. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  5. Intravitreal memantine retinal toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Páramo, D; Reyna Vielma, S; Rodríguez Reyes, A; Hernández Ayuso, I; Quiroz Mercado, H

    2016-02-01

    To histologically evaluate whether the intravitreal application of memantine produces retinal toxicity in rabbits. A cross-sectional design, experimental, descriptive study was performed on 16 eyes of 16 New Zealand rabbits of 3 kg, divided in 4 groups of 4 rabbits. A dose of 70 ng/ml of intravitreal memantine was administered in Group A, a dose of 150 ng/ml in Group B, a dose of 400 ng/ml in Group C, and Group D received 1 ml of balanced salt solution. The injected eye of half of each group was enucleated 15 days after the injection, and the rest within 30 days after injection. Following enucleation, each eye was placed in 10% formaldehyde. Histopathological analysis was performed on all enucleated eyes. The animals were treated according to the guidelines of the Association for Research on Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO). Groups A, B and D did not show any histopathological changes after their enucleation at 15 and 30 days. Group C showed changes in the photoreceptor layer after enucleation at 15 and 30 days. In our study, it was observed that memantine concentrations at 70 ng/ml and 150 ng/ml are safe when administered intravitreally; however, doses of 400 ng/ml produced retinal structural changes. This research should continue to assess its clinical usefulness. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ΔΨm. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  7. Nerve growth factor enhances sleep in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Krueger, J M

    1999-04-02

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) in cats. Removal of NGF receptor-positive cholinergic basal forebrain neurons inhibits REMS in rats. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of NGF on sleep and brain temperature (Tbr) in rabbits. Male rabbits were implanted with electroencephalograph (EEG) electrodes, a brain thermistor and an intraventricular (i.c.v.) guide cannula. Rabbits received human beta-NGF i.c.v. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg] and on a separate day, 25 microl pyrogen-free saline i.c.v. as control. EEG and Tbr were recorded for 23 h after injections. The highest two doses of NGF increased both non-REMS and REMS across the 23-h recording period. REMS was enhanced dose-dependently. Tbr was not affected by any dose of NGF. These results suggest that NGF is involved in both REMS and non-REMS regulation.

  8. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of a Novel Vaccine Against Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacho, Sonsoles; Dahdouh, Elias; Merino, Javier; Suárez, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb) is the new variant of the classical RHDV, a virulent pathogen responsible for an acute disease in young rabbits. The virus invades internal organs, especially the liver, spleen, kidneys, and gut; prevents coagulation; and causes liver necrosis. This eventually leads to quick death of the animal because of hemorrhage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a new vaccine against RHDVb in rabbits at a young age, after experimental infection using four different viral isolates. Our findings show that the vaccine had a protective effect with survival rates reaching 80-100% against the different isolates. These results suggest that this vaccine, when applied to young animals, is an effective tool to protect against the disease caused by RHDVb in rabbitries.

  10. An Annotated Bibliography on the Rabbit Novels by John Updike

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un registro comentado de los principales estudios, libros y artículos sobre la serie narrativa del novelista estadounidense John Updike, conocida bajo el título común de novelas sobre Conejo (Corre, Conejo; El regreso de Conejo; Conejo es rico, etc.).This annotated bibliography includes a brief introduction to the Rabbit novels and comments on the main studies, books and articles on these novels by the U.S. writer John Updike (Rabbit, Run; The Redux of Rabbit; Rabbit Is Rich, etc....

  11. Human handling promotes compliant behavior in adult laboratory rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli.

  12. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Humans and Rabbits in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqian Pan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China.Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA.An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76% and 29/300 (9.76% in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01 than Sichuan Province (9% and Chongqing Municipality (6%. Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01 higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18% followed by Sichuan Province (6% and Chongqing Municipality (5%.The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China.

  13. Abstracts of the 27th Hungarian conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abstracts, Conferences, Congresses, Symposiums...

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available About 100 participants took part in the 27th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production at Kaposvár, organised by the Kaposvár University, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Thirteen papers were presented by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered almost all fields of rabbit research (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  14. Fattening and slaughter traits of four rabbit genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Zgur; Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Growth rate of 4 genotypes, two lines of Slovene SIKA meat rabbit (maternal line A and sire line C, both 50 rabbits), hybrid AxC (50 rabbits) and crossbred AxCal (A and Californian, 38 rabbits) was recorded from weaning (35 days of age) to slaughter (93 days). Growth performance and slaughter traits of AxC were different from line A (live weight at 91st day: A 2720, C 3158, AxC 3043 g (P£0.05), heterosis effect (H) +3.38%; carcass weight: A 1490, C 1787, AxC 1716 g (P£0.05), H +5....

  15. Rapid depletion of marbofloxacin residues in rabbit after therapeutic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue, Matteo; Lucchetti, Dario; Catone, Tiziana; Fabrizi, Laura; Marvasi, Luigi; Zaghini, Anna; Coni, Ettore

    2005-11-01

    Although rabbit meat production represents a very small percentage of the world meat market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the last 30 years. Rabbit is considered a minor food species, and therefore no drugs are specifically registered for this animal. This situation encourages rabbit farmers to make off-label use of antibacterial drugs authorized for food-producing animal species other than rabbits. In the present study, the distribution and elimination of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent marbofloxacin in rabbit muscle, liver, and kidney was investigated. Marbofloxacin was chosen as a representative of a new generation of antibacterial drugs active against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and mycoplasms; it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in bovine and swine species. Rabbits were treated with marbofloxacin at 2 mg kg of body weight(-1) for 5 days. Residual concentrations in liver, kidney, and muscle tissues were determined posttreatment with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Marbofloxacin was rapidly distributed and eliminated from rabbit tissues. Concentrations were higher in the liver and kidney than in muscle. However, 48 h after the end of treatment, marbofloxacin concentrations dropped below the maximum residue level fixed for this antibacterial drug in cattle and pigs. Considering the efficacy of marbofloxacin for the treatment of the most common rabbit diseases, its tolerability, and its short elimination time as verified in the present study, use of this antibacterial drug could be extended to therapeutic treatment of rabbits.

  16. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  17. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  18. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  19. Apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes from rabbits infected with non-haemagglutinating strains of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Paulina; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2012-09-15

    The report demonstrates that the induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood granulocytes and lymphocytes of rabbits infected with three non-haemagglutinating RHDV strains (English Rainham, German Frankfurt, and Spanish Asturias) is a crucial determinant of the pathogenesis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometric detection of caspase activity. These studies demonstrated that the investigated RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) viral strains affected leukocyte apoptosis to varying degrees. Enhanced leukocyte apoptosis was detected between 4 and 36 h after infection and was more pronounced in lymphocytes than in granulocytes. The data presented here thus provide a preliminary understanding of the kinetics of apoptosis in leukocytes of rabbits infected with RHDV.

  20. Detection of L1, infectious virions and anti-L1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Culp, Timothy D; Balogh, Karla K; Christensen, Neil D

    2007-12-01

    Shope papillomavirus or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) is one of the first small DNA tumour viruses to be characterized. Although the natural host for CRPV is the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), CRPV can infect domestic laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and induce tumour outgrowth and cancer development. In previous studies, investigators attempted to passage CRPV in domestic rabbits, but achieved very limited success, leading to the suggestion that CRPV infection in domestic rabbits was abortive. The persistence of specific anti-L1 antibody in sera from rabbits infected with either virus or viral DNA led us to revisit the questions as to whether L1 and infectious CRPV can be produced in domestic rabbit tissues. We detected various levels of L1 protein in most papillomas from CRPV-infected rabbits using recently developed monoclonal antibodies. Sensitive in vitro infectivity assays additionally confirmed that extracts from these papillomas were infectious. These studies demonstrated that the CRPV/New Zealand White rabbit model could be used as an in vivo model to study natural virus infection and viral life cycle of CRPV and not be limited to studies on abortive infections.

  1. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  2. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  3. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  4. Poikilocytosis in rabbits: prevalence, type, and association with disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Christopher

    Full Text Available Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs were found in 150/482 (31% rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs were found in 127/482 (27% of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7% rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes were found in 25/403 (6% diseased and 0/79 (0% healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240. Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01. The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05. Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05. Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001, % echinocytes (P = 0.0069, and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109, but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02. These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research

  5. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  6. Apoptosis of peripheral blood leucocytes in rabbits infected with different strains of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Paulina; Hukowska-Szematowicz, Beata; Tokarz-Deptuła, Beata; Trzeciak-Ryczek, Alicja; Działo, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity of RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) is mainly associated with its affinity to blood vessels, with causing disseminated intravascular coagulations (DIC), and with the stimulation of the host immune system. Moreover, there are implications suggesting that apoptosis may be a pivotal process in understanding the basis of viral haemorrhagic disease in rabbits - a serious infectious disease causing mortality to wild and domestic rabbits. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of flow cytometry, the dynamics of apoptosis in peripheral blood granulocytes and lymphocytes in rabbits experimentally infected with seven different strains of RHDV and so-called antigenic variants of RHDV denominated as RHDVa, i.e.: Hungarian 24V/89, 1447V/96, 72V/2003; Austrian 01-04, 237/04, V-412 and French 05-01. The results showed that all of the RHDV and RHDVa strains cause an increase in the number of apoptotic cells throughout the infection, which might indicate the need for further analysis of the importance of this process.

  7. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using aci

  8. Pea-derived vaccines demonstrate high immunogenicity and protection in rabbits against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikschofsky, Heike; Schirrmeier, Horst; Keil, Günther M; Lange, Bodo; Polowick, Patricia L; Keller, Wilf; Broer, Inge

    2009-08-01

    Vaccines against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are commercially produced in experimentally infected rabbits. A genetically engineered and manufactured version of the major structural protein of RHDV (VP60) is considered to be an alternative approach for vaccine production. Plants have the potential to become an excellent recombinant production system, but the low expression level and insufficient immunogenic potency of plant-derived VP60 still hamper its practical use. In this study, we analysed the expression of a novel multimeric VP60-based antigen in four different plant species, including Nicotiana tabacum L., Solanum tuberosum L., Brassica napus L. and Pisum sativum L. Significant differences were detected in the expression patterns of the novel fusion antigen cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)::VP60 (ctbvp60(SEKDEL)) at the mRNA and protein levels. Pentameric CTB::VP60 molecules were only detected in N. tabacum and P. sativum, and displayed equal levels of CTB, at approximately 0.01% of total soluble protein (TSP), and traces of detectable VP60. However, strong enhancement of the CTB protein content via self-fertilization was only observed in P. sativum, where it reached up to 0.7% of TSP. In rabbits, a strong decrease in the protective vaccine dose required from 48-400 microg potato-derived VP60 [Castanon, S., Marin, M.S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Boga, J.A., Casais, R., Humara, J.M., Ordas, R.J. and Parra, F. (1999) Immunization with potato plants expressing VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. J. Virol. 73, 4452-4455; Castanon, S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Marin, M.S., Boga, J.A., Alonso, P., Parra, F. and Ordas, R.J. (2002) The effect of the promoter on expression of VP60 gene from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in potato plants. Plant Sci. 162, 87-95] to 0.56-0.28 microg antigenic VP60 (measured with VP60 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of crude CTB::VP60 pea extracts was demonstrated. Rabbits immunized with pea-derived CTB

  9. Protecting short-term intravascular ear catheters in healthy rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Orchard, Rekha N; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Hamilton, Donald L

    2012-01-20

    Researchers may place a catheter in the ear vessel of a rabbit for a short period of time in order to collect repeated blood samples without extensive restraint of the animal. Maintaining such a catheter in a healthy rabbit can be challenging, as the animal may scratch at the ear, removing the catheter or forming a large hematoma that might impede blood sampling. The authors developed a technique for protecting the indwelling catheter by cutting a section of moleskin to the same shape as the ear and gluing it to the surface of the ear and the catheter. They applied this technique to collect multiple blood samples during 12-h periods from nine rabbits in a pharmacokinetics study. Catheters remained patent in five rabbits for 12 h, in two rabbits for 8 h, in one rabbit for 6 h and in one rabbit for 4 h. This technique allowed for collection of repeated blood samples and prevented the rabbits from interfering with the catheter while allowing them to move freely during the sampling period.

  10. Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed Leucaena ... the 13.47g weight gain on rabbits fed the control diet but statistically (P<0.05) lower ... economic efficiency of 0.35 and 194.44%, respectively indicated the optimal ...

  11. Infection in rabbits with the Lyme disease spirochete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblatt, A. N.; Steere, A. C.; Brownstein, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Of 33 rabbits inoculated with Lyme disease spirochetes, two developed erythema chronicum migrans at the site of inoculation. Spirochetes were seen in skin biopsies of one of the lesions with immunoperoxidase and Warthin-Starry stains. Spirochetes were also recovered from the blood of two additional rabbits two weeks post-inoculation. These findings are characteristic of early Lyme disease in humans. PMID:6393613

  12. Clinical symptoms and diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Gruber, Andrea; Tichy, Alexander; Edelhofer, Renate; Nell, Barbara; Hassan, Jasmin; Leschnik, Michael; Thalhammer, Johann G; Joachim, Anja

    2008-02-14

    Infections with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits are observed at increasing frequency and are known as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised humans. 191 pet rabbits with suspected encephalitozoonosis, presented at the Animal Hospital of the Veterinary University of Vienna (Austria), were included in this study. Rabbits were serologically examined for antibodies against E. cuniculi (144 positive out of 184 rabbits with suspected encephalitozoonosis compared to 14 positive out of 40 clinically healthy rabbits tested as part of a standard health check) and Toxoplasma gondii (8 positive out of 157). Of the 144 seropositive rabbits with clinical signs, 75% showed neurological symptoms, 14.6% demonstrated phacoclastic uveitis and 3.5% suffered from renal failure. 6.9% of the animals had combined symptoms. Vestibular disease dominated within the rabbits that showed neurological symptoms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could not detect parasite DNA in urine or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but did so in 4 out of 5 samples of liquefied lens material in cases with phacoclastic uveitis due to lens capsule rupture. Additionally further diagnostic procedures, such as inspection of the external ear canal (N=69), radiography of the tympanic bullae (N=65) were performed to rule out differential diagnosis. 54.2% of the patients exhibiting neurological symptoms recovered within a few days, while 87.5% of the rabbits suffering from renal failure died or had to be euthanized.

  13. Home-Based and Facility-Based Directly Observed Therapy of Tuberculosis Treatment under Programmatic Conditions in Urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhimbira, Francis; Hella, Jerry; Maroa, Thomas; Kisandu, Shadrack; Chiryamkubi, Magreth; Said, Khadija; Mhalu, Grace; Mkopi, Abdallah; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Reither, Klaus; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) for tuberculosis (TB) to the community (home-based DOT) has improved the coverage of TB treatment and reduced the burden to the health care facilities (facility-based DOT). We aimed to compare TB treatment outcomes in home-based and facility-based DOT under programmatic conditions in an urban setting with a high TB burden. A retrospective analysis of a cohort of adult TB patients (≥15 years) routinely notified between 2010 and 2013 in two representative TB sub-districts in the Temeke district, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We assessed differences in treatment outcomes by calculating Risk Ratios (RRs). We used logistic regression to assess the association between DOT and treatment outcomes. Data of 4,835 adult TB patients were analyzed, with a median age of 35 years, 2,943 (60.9%) were men and TB/HIV co-infection prevalence of 39.9%. A total of 3,593 (74.3%) patients were treated under home-based DOT. Patients on home-based DOT were more likely to die compared to patients on facility-based DOT (RR 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.52-2.73), and more likely to complete TB treatment (RR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.23), but less likely to have a successful treatment outcome (RR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). Home-based DOT was preferred by women (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 1.55, 95% CI: 1.34-1.80, p<0.001), older people (aOR 1.01 for each year increase, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02, p = 0.001) and patients with extra-pulmonary TB (aOR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.16-1.81, p = 0.001), but less frequently by patients on a retreatment regimen (aOR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.08-0.19, p<0.001). TB patients under home-based DOT had more frequently risk factors of death such as older age, HIV infection and sputum smear-negative TB, and had higher mortality compared to patients under facility-based DOT. Further operational research is needed to monitor the implementation of DOT under programmatic conditions.

  14. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  15. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrantes Joana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus.

  16. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

  17. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  18. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    2.~ .* - ,.. 2"? - - .=--. • L A- 12 Genetics and expression of kappa and lambda light chains in BASILEA rabbits. N. McCartney-Francis, G. 0...the bas mRNA also reveal two distinct light chain RNA specie): kappa with the expected size of 1.15 kb and lambda of 1.04 kb size. Poly(A) RNAs of... kappa light chain * with the b5 (97-108) region determined for the first time in this work suggest that this portion, similar to the 96-1l7 3 region

  19. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  20. GROWTH ANALYSIS IN RABBIT USING GOMPERTZ NON-LINEAR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Setiaji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the growth curve of rabbit. Three breeds of rabbit,namely Indonesian Local Rabbit (IL, Flamish Giant (FG and Rex (R were used in the study.Individual body weights of each breed was measured from birth to 63 days of age with 3-days interval.Those periodical data were separated into different sex, be then it was averaged to analysis growthpattern. Growth curve parameters were estimated to fit growth data. There was no difference in bodyweight between sexs within breed. Indonesian local rabbit had the lowest body weight. The resultsshowed that growth curve paramaters among three breeds were significantly different (P<0.05 for bothsexes. FG had the highest value of asymptotic mature weight, followed by R and IL. In conclusion,Gompertz model was excellent fit for the growth data in rabbit with a high coefficient determination (R2= 0.999.

  1. Kinetic analysis of apolipoproteins in postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, M; Ito, T; Ohwada, K

    2009-04-01

    The postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia (PHT) rabbit, developed as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome, is characterized by PHT, central obesity and glucose intolerance. For detailed investigation of lipid metabolism characteristics in PHT rabbit, the plasma levels of apolipoproteins A-I, B, C-II, C-III and E were measured. Movements of apolipoproteins B100 and B48 were investigated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine whether postprandially increased triglyceride is exogenous or endogenous. The level of apolipoproteins A-I, B, C-II and E were increased in PHT rabbit after feeding. Apolipoproteins B100 and B48 were detected in the plasma fraction of d triglyceride lipase were deficient and that the hepatic uptake of exogenous lipoproteins was delayed in the PHT rabbit. Especially, for examining remnant hyperlipoproteinaemia in humans, PHT rabbit is an excellent animal model for hypertriglyceridaemia research.

  2. Preliminary research on myosin light chain kinase in rabbit liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Ren; Hua-Qing Zhu; Zhao-Feng Luo; Qing Zhou; Yuan Wang; Yu-Zhen Wang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study preliminarily the properties of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in rabbit liver. METHODS: The expression of MLCK was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);the MLCK was obtained from rabbit liver, and its activity was analyzed by γ-32P incorporation technique to detect the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. RESULTS: MLCK was expressed in rabbit liver, and the activity of the enzyme was similar to rabbit smooth muscle MLCK, and calmodulin-dependent. When the concentration was 0.65 mg-L-1, the activity was at the highest level. CONCLUSION: MLCK expressed in rabbit liver may catalyze the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which may play important roles in the regulation of hepatic cell functions.

  3. Cystoscopic diagnosis of polypoid cystitis in two pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Bongiovanni, Laura; Ferro, Silvia; Melidone, Raffaele; Nicoletti, Annalisa; Duca, Valeria Del; Donnelly, Thomas M; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION AS-year-old male Dwarf rabbit and 4-year-old female Mini-Rex rabbit were evaluated because of anorexia and urine scalding of the perineum. CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal radiography revealed a diffuse increase in the opacity of the urinary bladder attributable to urinary sludge. In 1 rabbit, abdominal ultrasonography revealed several mass-like lesions protruding from the mucosal surface into the lumen of the urinary bladder. Rabbits were anesthetized, and cystoscopy was performed with a rigid 2.7-mm, 30° endoscope. Histologic analysis of tissue samples obtained through the cystoscope operating channel revealed findings consistent with polypoid cystitis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME To remove the urinary sludge from each rabbit, the urinary bladder was filled with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and emptied with a gentle massage several times until the ejected fluid was transparent. Rabbits were treated with NSAIDs, antimicrobials (chosen following microbial culture of urine and antimicrobial susceptibility testing), bathing of the perineum, and a low-calcium diet. The male rabbit died of unrelated causes 18 months later; postmortem examination findings confirmed the polypoid cystitis. The female rabbit remained disease free through to last follow-up (12 months after initial evaluation). CLINICAL RELEVANCE This was the first report of polypoid cystitis in pet rabbits. Although ultrasonographic findings supported this diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis was achieved through cystoscopy and lesion biopsy. Treatments administered were intended to reduce the potential sources of irritation. Research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the applied interventions and the association between excessive urinary calcium excretion and polyploid cystitis in rabbits.

  4. Transgenic rabbits as therapeutic protein bioreactors and human disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglin; Watanabe, Teruo

    2003-09-01

    Genetically modified laboratory animals provide a powerful approach for studying gene expression and regulation and allow one to directly examine structure-function and cause-and-effect relationships in pathophysiological processes. Today, transgenic mice are available as a research tool in almost every research institution. On the other hand, the development of a relatively large mammalian transgenic model, transgenic rabbits, has provided unprecedented opportunities for investigators to study the mechanisms of human diseases and has also provided an alternative way to produce therapeutic proteins to treat human diseases. Transgenic rabbits expressing human genes have been used as a model for cardiovascular disease, AIDS, and cancer research. The recombinant proteins can be produced from the milk of transgenic rabbits not only at lower cost but also on a relatively large scale. One of the most promising and attractive recombinant proteins derived from transgenic rabbit milk, human alpha-glucosidase, has been successfully used to treat the patients who are genetically deficient in this enzyme. Although the pronuclear microinjection is still the major and most popular method for the creation of transgenic rabbits, recent progress in gene targeting and animal cloning has opened new avenues that should make it possible to produce transgenic rabbits by somatic cell nuclear transfer in the future. Based on a computer-assisted search of the studies of transgenic rabbits published in the English literature here, we introduce to the reader the achievements made thus far with transgenic rabbits, with emphasis on the application of these rabbits as human disease models and live bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and on the recent progress in cloned rabbits.

  5. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  6. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We exam

  7. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  8. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  9. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  10. Programmatically Optimized SEM Image Acquisition for Measurement of Contamination on Molybdenum Coated Foils from the NASA Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Genesis Mission flew high-purity collector materials on a satellite from 2001-2004 to collect a sample of the solar wind. Upon return to Earth, a spacecraft malfunction caused the onboard sample materials to be severely contaminated during the crash landing in the Utah desert. As part of an ongoing effort to decontaminate the collector materials, they are being scanned with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the amount of dirt and spacecraft debris contaminating the collectors. This effort is underway currently, but we have identified an opportunity to improve the quality of the SEM data collected. At present, many small images are acquired and stitched together to form larger images of Genesis collector pieces, which are then analyzed. The collectors are physically distorted, however, and the imaging method presently used doesn't allow imaging parameters to be adjusted between images to correct for this distortion. In order to improve the quality of the collected imaging, we are developing a program to acquire a focus map of each sample prior to image collection. The program then uses this data to adjust the position of the sample in the SEM to image all sections in focus and at a constant focal length. This is accomplished using the Python programming language, and the programmatic interface built into our Tescan VEGA Scanning Electron Microscope. Our approach, progress to date, and challenges are discussed.

  11. Shaping the Jail Inreach Project: program evaluation as a quality improvement measure to inform programmatic decision making and improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlie A; Hickey, J Scott; Buck, David S

    2013-05-01

    The Jail Inreach Project was initiated in 2007 as a pilot program by Healthcare for the Homeless-Houston, an FQHC serving homeless individuals in Harris County, Texas, as a collaborative effort with the Harris County Sheriff's Office and the Mental Health Mental Retardation Authority of Harris County. It addresses the disproportionate number of homeless individuals with behavioral health diagnoses cycling through the Harris County Jail without provisions for continuity of care. Throughout the years, several evaluations have been conducted to inform programmatic planning and assess the success of the program on affecting patterns of recidivism of mentally ill homeless clients being served. Findings reinforce the importance of linking releasees to services immediately upon release as a measure for breaking the cycle of repeated incarceration and chronic homelessness. This paper illuminates characteristics of a successful intervention by examining three program evaluations conducted at different times in the program's history. It further illustrates how program evaluation has been utilized to help shape the program design and related policies.

  12. Current Knowledge and Future Research on Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV: Basic, Clinical, Behavioral, and Programmatic Perspectives12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chantry, Caroline J.; Geubbels, Eveline P.; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Cohan, Deborah; Vosti, Stephen A.; Latham, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, between 129,000 and 194,000 of the 430,000 pediatric HIV infections worldwide were attributable to breastfeeding. Yet in many settings, the health, economic, and social consequences of not breastfeeding would have dire consequences for many more children. In the first part of this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about infant feeding in the context of HIV. Namely, we describe the benefits and risks of breastmilk, the evolution of recommended infant feeding modalities in high-income and low-income countries in the last two decades, and contextualize the recently revised guidelines for infant feeding in the context of HIV current knowledge. In the second section, we suggest areas for future research on the postnatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in developing and industrialized countries. We suggest two shifts in perspective. The first is to evaluate PMTCT interventions more holistically, to include the psychosocial and economic consequences as well as the biomedical ones. The second shift in perspective should be one that contextualizes postnatal PMTCT efforts in the cascade of maternal health services. We conclude by discussing basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic research questions pertaining to a number of PMTCT efforts, including extended postnatal ARV prophylaxis, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, counseling, breast milk pasteurization, breast milk banking, novel techniques for making breast milk safer, and optimal breastfeeding practices. We believe the research efforts outlined here will maximize the number of healthy, thriving, HIV-free children around the world. PMID:22332055

  13. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  14. Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.: A Viable Credential for Faculty in Programmatically Accredited Business Degree Programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A Pina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A a viable degree option for those wishing a career in academe? The D.B.A. degree is often considered to be a professional degree, in-tended for business practitioners, while the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. degree is por-trayed as the degree for preparing college or university faculty. Conversely, many academic programs market their D.B.A. programs to future academicians. In this study, we investigat-ed whether the D.B.A. is, in fact, a viable faculty credential by gathering data from univer-sity catalogs and doctoral program websites and handbooks from 427 graduate business and management programs to analyze the terminal degrees held by 6159 faculty. The analysis indicated that 173 institutions (just over 40% of the total employed 372 faculty whose ter-minal degree was the D.B.A. This constituted just over 6% of the total number of faculty. Additionally, the program and faculty qualification standards of the six regional accrediting agencies and the three programmatic accrediting agencies for business programs (AACSB, IACBE, and ACBSP were analyzed. Results indicated that all these accrediting agencies treated the D.B.A. and Ph.D. in business identically and that the D.B.A. was universally considered to be a valid credential for teaching business at the university level. Suggestions for future research are also offered.

  15. Increased virulence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A rabbit model of lower eyelid fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Gregory J; Park, D J John; Zaldivar, Renzo A; Pulido, Jose S; Cameron, J Douglas; Woog, John J

    2010-01-01

    To create and validate a new model of lower eyelid fibrosis in Dutch-belted rabbits. Five Dutch-belted rabbits were injected with a transcutaneous 1-ml injection of standard 95% ethanol alcohol just inferior to the eyelid margin of one lower eyelid. A control injection of 1 ml of balanced saline solution was given to the opposite eyelid. A small tattoo was placed on the skin overlying the inferior orbital rim and used as a measuring point of reference in relation to the lower eyelid margin. Analysis was twofold: eyelid measurements were made over 8 weeks to determine the presence of eyelid shortening, and a histopathologic analysis was performed. Mean lower eyelid shortening was greater in the ethanol alcohol intervention eyelids than the control group (-3.4 mm +/- 1.67 mm vs. 0.5 mm +/- 0.71 mm, p = 0.01). Histopathologic analysis revealed extensive fibrosis in the ethanol alcohol invention eyelids compared with the control group. Ethanol alcohol induces eyelid fibrosis and lower eyelid shortening. This may be a useful model in the future testing of novel surgical or pharmacologic treatments.

  17. Lipidome of atherosclerotic plaques from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojic, Lazar A; McLaren, David G; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F; Johns, Douglas G; Castro-Perez, Jose M

    2014-12-15

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  18. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar A. Bojic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  19. Residual stress distribution in rabbit limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Tadano, Shigeru; Fujisaki, Kazuhiro

    2011-04-29

    The presence of the residual stresses in bone tissue has been noted and the authors have reported that there are residual stresses in bone tissue. The aim of our study is to measure the residual stress distribution in the cortical bone of the extremities of vertebrates and to describe the relationships with the osteon population density. The study used the rabbit limb bones (femur, tibia/fibula, humerus, and radius/ulna) and measured the residual stresses in the bone axial direction at anterior and posterior positions on the cortical surface. The osteons at the sections at the measurement positions were observed by microscopy. As a result, the average stresses at the hindlimb bones and the forelimb bones were 210 and 149 MPa, respectively. In the femur, humerus, and radius/ulna, the residual stresses at the anterior position were larger than those at the posterior position, while in the tibia, the stress at the posterior position was larger than that at the anterior position. Further, in the femur and humerus, the osteon population densities in the anterior positions were larger than those in the posterior positions. In the tibia, the osteon population density in the posterior position was larger than that in the anterior position. Therefore, tensile residual stresses were observed at every measurement position in the rabbit limb bones and the value of residual stress correlated with the osteon population density (r=0.55, P<0.01).

  20. Amiodarone Induced Morphological Changes in Rabbit Pneumocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mehraein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Amiodarone as an iodinated benzofuran derivative is a potent antiarrhythmicagent currently used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Pulmonary toxicityis one of the complications of Amiodarone therapy. The aim of this study was todetermine the toxicity of Amiodarone for pneumocytes.Materials and Methods: 14 male white New Zealand rabbits were divided in a controlgroup and an experimental group. The experimental group was subjected to intraperitoneal injection with a single daily dose of 80 mg/kg Amiodarone for two weeks.The control group received only normal saline. At the end of the injection period, thetwo groups were anesthetized and perfused with Karnovsky fixative. The lung tissuewas removed and fixed, then prepared for light and electron microscope studies.Morphometric studies were made on sections to find nucleus profile dimensions.Results: Light microscope observation showed acute changes in the alveolus includingcongestion of alveolar capillaries and infiltration of red blood cells (RBCs intothe lumen of the alveoli. Electron microscope study of lung tissue revealed abnormalinclusion bodies within type ΙΙ & Ι pneumocytes. The micrographs also showedthe presence of vacuoles in 5% of the type ΙΙ pneumocytes. Morphometric studiesshowed that the nucleus of the cells in the experimental group were smaller than inthe control group (p<0.01.Conclusion: These results indicate that Amiodarone administration can cause damageto pnuemocytes and the alveolus of rabbit lung, so the effectiveness of Amiodaronein long term treatment of heart failure patients is limited because of the developmentof lung toxicity.

  1. Complexation of arsenic species in rabbit erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnomdedieu, M; Basti, M M; Styblo, M; Otvos, J D; Thomas, D J

    1994-01-01

    The binding of arsenite, As(III), and arsenate, As(V), by molecules in the intracellular compartment of rabbit erythrocytes has been studied by 1H- and 31P-NMR spectroscopy, uptake of 73As, and ultrafiltration experiments. For intact erythrocytes to which 0.1-0.4 mM arsenite was added, direct evidence was obtained for entry of 76% within 1/2 h and subsequent binding of As(III) by intracellular glutathione and induced changes in the hemoglobin structure (NMR), likely due to binding of As(III). These results were compared with the effect of addition of As(V) on intact erythrocytes and revealed that a smaller amount of As(V) (approximately 25%) enters the cells; the main fraction of As(V) enters the phosphate pathway, depletes ATP, and increases Pi. In contrast, As(III) did not affect the ATP level. Both 1H- and 31P-NMR data indicated striking differences between As(III) and As(V) behavior when incubated with rabbit erythrocytes. These differences were confirmed by 73As uptake and binding experiments. meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a dithiol ligand, released glutathione from its arsenite complexes in erythrocytes.

  2. Effect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Filgueiras

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of freezing on chondrocytes maintained in culture, aiming the establishment of a cell bank for future application as heterologous implant. Chondrocytes extracted from joint cartilage of nine healthy New Zealand White rabbits were cultivated and frozen with the cryoprotector 5% dimethylsulfoxide for six months. Phenotypic and scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out to identify morphological and functional differences between fresh and thawed cells. After enzymatic digestion, a total of 4.8x10(5cells per rabbit were obtained. Fresh chondrocytes showed a high mitotic rate and abundant matrix was present up to 60 days of culture. Loss of phenotypic stability was notable in the thawed chondrocytes, with a low labeling of proteoglycans and weak immunostaining of type II collagen. The present study showed important loss of chondrocyte viability under the freezing conditions. For future in vivo studies of heterologous implant, these results suggests that a high number of cells should be implanted in the host site in order to achieve an adequate number of viable cells. Furthermore, the chondrocytes should be implanted after two weeks of culture, when the highest viability rate is found

  3. Analysis of gene expression in rabbit muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the demand for high quality food. Meat and meat products may be considered as irreplaceable in human nutrition. Breeding livestock to higher content of lean meat and the use of modern hybrids entails problems with the quality of meat. Analysing of livestock genomes could get us a great deal of important information, which may significantly affect the improvement process. Domestic animals are invaluable resources for study of the molecular architecture of complex traits. Although the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for economically important traits in domestic animals has achieved remarkable results in recent decades, not all of the genetic variation in the complex traits has been captured because of the low density of markers used in QTL mapping studies. The genome wide association study (GWAS, which utilizes high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, provides a new way to tackle this issue. New technologies now allow producing microarrays containing thousands of hybridization probes on a single membrane or other solid support. We used microarray analysis to study gene expression in rabbit muscle during different developmental age stages. The outputs from GeneSpring GX sotware are presented in this work. After the evaluation of gene expression in rabbits, will be selected genes of interest in relation to meat quality parameters and will be further analyzed by the available methods of molecular biology and genetics.

  4. Heart rate variability in isolated rabbit hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, B; Heger, G; Mayer, C; Kiegler, B; Stöhr, H; Steurer, G

    1996-11-01

    The presence of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cardiac denervation after heart transplantation raised our interest in HRV of isolated, denervated hearts. Hearts from seven adult white ELCO rabbits were transferred to a perfusion apparatus. All hearts were perfused in the working mode and in the Langendorff mode for 20 minutes each. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain. A computer simulated test ECG at a constant rate of 2 Hz was used for error estimation of the system. In the isolated, denervated heart, HRV was of random, broadband fluctuations, different from the well-characterized oscillations at specific frequencies in intact animals. Mean NN was 423 +/- 51 ms in the Langendorff mode, 406 +/- 33 ms in the working heart mode, and 500 ms in the test ECG. Total power was 663 +/- 207 ms2, 817 +/- 318 ms2, and 3.7 ms2, respectively. There was no significant difference in any measure of HRV between Langendorff and working heart modes. The data provide evidence for the presence of HRV in isolated, denervated rabbit hearts. Left atrial and ventricular filling, i.e., the working heart mode, did not alter HRV, indicating that left atrial or ventricular stretch did not influence the sinus nodal discharge rate.

  5. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Lundgren, G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen rabbits were given cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70/sup 0/C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4/sup 0/C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidney from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Lundgren, G; Nordberg, M; Palm, B; Piscator, M

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen rabbits were given repeated cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70 degrees C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4 degrees C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidneys from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation.

  7. Innervation of the rabbit cardiac ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauziene, Neringa; Alaburda, Paulius; Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Kristina; Pauza, Audrys G; Inokaitis, Hermanas; Masaityte, Aiste; Rudokaite, Gabriele; Saburkina, Inga; Plisiene, Jurgita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit is widely used in experimental cardiac physiology, but the neuroanatomy of the rabbit heart remains insufficiently examined. This study aimed to ascertain the architecture of the intrinsic nerve plexus in the walls and septum of rabbit cardiac ventricles. In 51 rabbit hearts, a combined approach involving: (i) histochemical acetylcholinesterase staining of intrinsic neural structures in total cardiac ventricles; (ii) immunofluorescent labelling of intrinsic nerves, nerve fibres (NFs) and neuronal somata (NS); and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of intrinsic ventricular nerves and NFs was used. Mediastinal nerves access the ventral and lateral surfaces of both ventricles at a restricted site between the root of the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The dorsal surface of both ventricles is supplied by several epicardial nerves extending from the left dorsal ganglionated nerve subplexus on the dorsal left atrium. Ventral accessing nerves are thicker and more numerous than dorsal nerves. Intrinsic ventricular NS are rare on the conus arteriosus and the root of the pulmonary trunk. The number of ventricular NS ranged from 11 to 220 per heart. Four chemical phenotypes of NS within ventricular ganglia were identified, i.e. ganglionic cells positive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and biphenotypic, i.e. positive for both ChAT/nNOS and for ChAT/tyrosine hydroxylase. Clusters of small intensely fluorescent cells are distributed within or close to ganglia on the root of the pulmonary trunk, but not on the conus arteriosus. The largest and most numerous intrinsic nerves proceed within the epicardium. Scarce nerves were found near myocardial blood vessels, but the myocardium contained only a scarce meshwork of NFs. In the endocardium, large numbers of thin nerves and NFs proceed along the bundle of His and both its branches up to the apex of the ventricles. The endocardial meshwork of fine NFs was

  8. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Phase 1: Conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are presented. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSFR to the FOC LSFR. The IOC and FOC LSFRs correspond to missions SAAX0307 and SAAX0302 of the Space Station Mission Requirements Database, respectively.

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Farmers’ Rabbit Breeds Purchase and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhe; SONG; Laping; WU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,based on the survey data on farmers in 14 provinces and cities nationwide provided by China Rabbit Research System,we analyze the farmers’ rabbit breeds selection,purchase channels and the demand for new varieties of rabbits as well as the problems in the course of rabbit usage. We make an empirical analysis of the factors influencing farmers’ rabbit demand,and put forth the recommendations for farmers’ rabbit breeds usage and to improve the promotion of new varieties of rabbits.

  10. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Humans and Rabbits in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaoqian; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Xingyou; Li, Ruizhen; Sun, Yuqian; Gadahi, Javaid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China. Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (Prabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (PRabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China.

  11. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  12. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  13. A successful programmatic structure and strategies to attract and educate students in earth and environmental sciences: an example from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of sustainable use of our natural world is one of the major issues confronting humankind today. Environmental issues are inherently complex and difficult to resolve. Successful resolution of our most pressing environmental problems, such as climate change and ocean acidification, will require well-trained earth and environmental scientists that think critically in a multi-dimensional framework at variable spatial and temporal scales. This begs the question as to how we can both attract and successfully educate students in such a way that will permit them to tackle the multitude of environmental problems currently facing society. This poster details one way to successfully attract and train students in an interdisciplinary environmental education framework by sharing: (1) some of the successful strategies and programmatic structure of the University of Delaware's undergraduate environmental programs that have grown over 60% in two years after a major programmatic revision; and (2) the current round of programmatic revisions that will complete the strategic planning process.* The interdisciplinary environmental education program at the University of Delaware has a strong programmatic core that provides students with the requisite quantitative training and field experience to solve complicated environmental issues. At the same time, the environmental program includes the social, political, and economic contexts of environmental issues. Together, these two parts of the core best equip students to mitigate environmental problems. Following a strategic planning effort, the University of Delaware is building upon past successes in training environmental scientists and managers by further reformulating its environmental programs to leverage the power of theme-based learning which complements the programmatic core in such a way to teach problem-solving skills. This poster details the multidimensional nature of the University of Delaware's environmental

  14. SMALL-SCALE RABBIT MEAT PRODUCTION IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE : BACK TO BASICS ?

    OpenAIRE

    LUKEFAHR, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    [EN] In the Western Hemisphere, in countries where the demand for rabbit meat is low, and where intensive livestock production systems are common (e.g., commercial broiler, swine, and cattle production), it may not be appropriate for rabbit scientists to recommend commercial rabbit production. Commercial-scale rabbit operations might only be justified, at best, when located in proximity to processing plants and(or) to large cities where there is a strong tradition of rabbit ...

  15. The Alice - "Follow the White Rabbit" - parasites of farm rabbits based on coproscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Kowal, Jerzy; Wierzbowska, Izabela; Basiaga, Marta; Nosal, Paweł; Niedbała, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study, conducted in the years 2011-2013, was to determine the level of gastrointestinal parasites infection in New Zealand White rabbits, kept at the Experimental Station of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. The study showed rabbits protozoan infection with the genus Eimeria, belonging - based on the sporulation method - to the following species: E. magna, E. media, E. perforans, E. stiedae and E. irresidua. The highest prevalence of infection, as well as the intensity of oocysts output (OPG - oocysts per gram of faeces), was noted for E. magna and E. media - respectively 31.4 % (19477.3 OPG), and 40.0 % (14256.07 OPG). The infection of rabbits with Eimeria spp. differed significantly between years. With regard to oocysts output, the level of infection was strongly connected with the age of rabbits, being higher in young animals. However, the range of infection was highest among adults. Among nematodes, Passalurus ambiguus pinworm was regularly found (prevalence reached 21.9%), other species - Trichuris leporis, and Graphidium strigosum were rarely noted. The overall infection with nematodes did not differ between years. Similarly, as in the case of Eimeria older individuals were more often infected by nematodes. We observed some trends in parasite oocysts/eggs output; the protozoan oocysts were recorded more often in faecal samples collected in the evenings, whereas the nematodes eggs occurred frequently in the mornings. This situation may be related to the phenomenon of coprophagy occurring in the mammals of Lagomorpha order. The results of the study indicate that especially coccidiosis constitute permanently throughout the years an important problem in the rabbitry examined.

  16. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  17. Ketamine anaesthesia following premedication of rabbits with vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsa, Abdullahi; Ubandawaki, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    The effects of vitamin C on ketamine anesthesia was studied. In normal rabbits the onset and duration of ketamine induced anesthesia were 6.0 +/- 0.5 and 36.0 +/- 0.9 min, respectively. Pre-treatment of rabbits with 30, 60 and 240 mg/kg, i.m. of vitamin C followed by ketamine 40 mg/ kg i.m. resulted in significant (p vitamin C and ketamine combinations. Serum analysis showed a significant (p vitamin C. These results suggest that vitamin C at higher doses could potentiate ketamine anesthesia in rabbits.

  18. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  19. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent of the potential health hazards of particulate matter (PM inside rabbit farms and the magnitude of emission levels to the outside environment are still unknown, as data on PM concentrations and emissions in and from such buildings is scarce.  The purpose of this study was to quantify airborne PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and emissions on two rabbit farms in Mediterranean conditions and identify the main factors related with farm activities influencing PM generation.  Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were determined continuously using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM in one farm with fattening rabbits and one reproductive doe farm in autumn.  At the same time as PM sampling, the time and type of human farm activity being performed was recorded. Additionally, temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rate were recorded continuously.  Emissions were calculated using a mass balance on each farm.  Results showed PM concentrations in rabbit farms are low compared with poultry and pig farms.  Average PM10 concentrations were 0.082±0.059 mg/m3 (fattening rabbits, and 0.048 ±0.058 mg/m3 (reproductive does. Average PM2.5 concentrations were 0.012±0.016 mg/m3 (fattening rabbits, and 0.012±0.035 mg/m3 (reproductive does. Particulate matter concentrations were significantly influenced by the type of human farm activity carried out in the building rather than by animal activity.  The main PM-generating activity on the fattening rabbit farm was sweeping, and the major PM-generating activity in reproductive does was sweeping and burning hair from the cages.  Average PM10 emissions were 5.987±6.144 mg/place/day (fattening rabbits, and 14.9±31.5 mg/place/day (reproductive does.  Average PM2.5 emissions were 0.20±1.26 mg/place/day (fattening rabbits, and 2.83±19.54 mg/place/day (reproductive does.  Emission results indicate that rabbit farms can be considered relevant point sources of PM emissions, comparable to

  20. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor in rabbits and mice serum and rabbits aqueous humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi ZHANG; Guang-ji WANG; Jian-guo SUN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) in rabbits and mice after iv and postocular administration, and the changes of rhbFGF in rabbits aqueous humor after postocular administration. METHODS: After iv or postocular administration three doses of rhbFGF in rabbits and mice,rhbFGF concentration in serum and rabbit aqueous humor was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent .assay. RESULTS: Serum concentration-time data of rabbits after iv administration of rhbFGF 1, 2, and 4 μg/kg were fitted to bi-exponential equations with half-lives of 0.9, 0.9, and 0.6 min for T1/2α and 7, 8, and 4.7 min for T1/2β.Plasma concentration-time data of mice after iv administration of rhbFGF 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/kg were fitted to biexponential equations with half-lives of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.9 min for T1/2α and 6, 5, and 7 min for T1/2β. The AUCs were linearly correlated to doses in both cases (rrabbit=0.997, rmouse=0.999). The serum concentrations of rhbFGF were very low, near to the background after postocular administration of 2 or 5 μg/kg, in both rabbits and mice. The rhbFGF levels in rabbits aqueous humor were higher than control 8 h postdose (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: rhbFGF within the examined doses had a linear pharmacokinetics in rabbits and mice. High concentration of rhbFGF was found in rabbits aqueous humor after postocular administration.

  2. Rabbit hepatitis E virus is an opportunistic pathogen in specific-pathogen-free rabbits with the capability of cross-species transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyuan; Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Chen, Yiyang; Wang, Xinjie; Huang, Baicheng; Li, Huixia; Nan, Yuchen; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhang, Gaiping; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in rabbits, a recently identified natural reservoir. In this study, anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA were detected in rabbits sourced from a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbit vendor in Shaanxi Province, China. BLAST results of partial HEV ORF2 genes cloned here indicated that two viral strains circulated in the rabbits. Sequence determination of the complete genome (7302bp) of one strain and a partial ORF1 gene (1537bp) of the other strain showed that they shared 90% identity with one another and 78%-94% identity with other known rabbit HEVs. In addition, inoculation with rabbit HEV from SPF rabbits studied here resulted in infection of SPF pigs; this cross-species transmission was evidenced by seroconversion, viremia and faecal virus shedding. These results suggest that to prevent spread of this zoonotic pathogen, rabbits should be tested routinely for HEV RNA in SPF vendor facilities.

  3. Electrocardiogram of rabbits experimentally intoxicated with carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, S

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on 24 rabbits intoxicated intragastrically with carbaryl in single doses of 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed in 3 limb leads before and 1, 2, 4, 6h and 1, 2, 4, 6, 14d after intoxication and in a final stage of lethal intoxications--in a continuous manner. It has been found that, depending on the intensification of disease, ECG changes were characterized by the decreased heart rate with stimulations coming from the left ventricle, premature supraventricular stimulations, increased T wave amplitude and its reversion. These changes, except two lethal cases (1250 mg/kg), were compensated but the compensatory heart abilities decreased with increasing carbaryl doses.

  4. Autoradiographic studies in a rabbit osteoarthrosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fengler, H.; Franz, R. (Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1982-02-01

    To study the onset of the osteoarthrotic process, an osteoarthrosis model was used on the knee joint in adult rabbits by a valgus deformity of the proximal tibia of 30/sup 0/ in conformity with Reimann 1973. The synthesis capacity of the chondrocytes was investigated by using /sup 35/S-sulfate autoradiographies. Already prior to the affection of the superficial integrity of the cartilage it was possible to observe an enhanced glycosaminoglycan synthesis, but with progressing fibrillation the sulfate incorporation was found to be diminished. Thanks to autoradiography with /sup 3/H-thymidine the replication of the chondrocytes was already found at very early stages of osteoarthrosis that is likely to occur mitotically. The osteotomy itself induces mitoses and an enhanced glycosaminoglycan synthesis.

  5. Tricolemoma em coelho Tricholemmoma in a rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricolemoma é um raro tumor benigno, composto por células epiteliais claras derivadas da bainha externa da raiz do folículo piloso. Esses tumores têm sido descritos no homem e raramente em cães. No presente relato, descreve-se a ocorrência de um tricolemoma, de 1cm de diâmetro em um coelho adulto, cujas características histológicas são muito semelhantes às descritas para esses tumores em cães.Tricholemmoma is a rare benign tumor composed of clear epithelial cells derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. The tumor has been described in man and rarely in dogs. This report deals with the occurrence of a tricholemmoma , with a diemeter of 1cm, in an adult rabbit. The histologic features are similar to those described in such tumors in dogs.

  6. Low rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission in a routine programmatic setting in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Tingathe program utilizes community health workers to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT service delivery. We evaluated the impact of antiretroviral (ARV regimen and maternal CD4+ count on HIV transmission within the Tingathe program in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS: We reviewed clinical records of 1088 mother-infant pairs enrolled from March 2009 to March 2011 who completed follow-up to first DNA PCR. Eligibility for antiretroviral treatment (ART was determined by CD4+ cell count (CD4+ for women not yet on ART. ART-eligible women initiated stavudine-lamivudine-nevirapine. Early ART was defined as ART for ≥14 weeks prior to delivery. For women ineligible for ART, optimal ARV prophylaxis was maternal AZT ≥6 weeks+sdNVP, and infant sdNVP+AZT for 1 week. HIV transmission rates were determined for ARV regimens, and factors associated with vertical transmission were identified using bivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Transmission rate at first PCR was 4.1%. Pairs receiving suboptimal ARV prophylaxis were more likely to transmit HIV (10.3%, 95% CI, 5.5-18.1%. ART was associated with reduced transmission (1.4%, 95% CI, 0.6-3.0%, with early ART associated with decreased transmission (no transmission, compared to all other treatment groups (p = 0.001. No association was detected between transmission and CD4+ categories (p = 0.337, trimester of pregnancy at enrollment (p = 0.100, or maternal age (p = 0.164. CONCLUSION: Low rates of MTCT of HIV are possible in resource-constrained settings under routine programmatic conditions. No transmissions were observed among women on ART for more than 14 weeks prior to delivery.

  7. Modelling the elimination of river blindness using long-term epidemiological and programmatic data from Mali and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Walker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The onchocerciasis transmission models EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have been independently developed and used to explore the feasibility of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa with mass (annual or biannual distribution of ivermectin within the timeframes proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO and endorsed by the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (i.e. by 2020/2025. Based on the findings of our previous model comparison, we implemented technical refinements and tested the projections of EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM against long-term epidemiological data from two West African transmission foci in Mali and Senegal where the observed prevalence of infection was brought to zero circa 2007–2009 after 15–17 years of mass ivermectin treatment. We simulated these interventions using programmatic information on the frequency and coverage of mass treatments and trained the model projections using longitudinal parasitological data from 27 communities, evaluating the projected outcome of elimination (local parasite extinction or resurgence. We found that EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM captured adequately the epidemiological trends during mass treatment but that resurgence, while never predicted by ONCHOSIM, was predicted by EPIONCHO in some communities with the highest (inferred vector biting rates and associated pre-intervention endemicities. Resurgence can be extremely protracted such that low (microfilarial prevalence between 1% and 5% can be maintained for 3–5 years before manifesting more prominently. We highlight that post-treatment and post-elimination surveillance protocols must be implemented for long enough and with high enough sensitivity to detect possible residual latent infections potentially indicative of resurgence. We also discuss uncertainty and differences between EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM projections, the potential importance of vector control in high-transmission settings as a complementary intervention strategy, and the

  8. Tuberculosis contact screening and isoniazid preventive therapy in a South Indian district: operational issues for programmatic consideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Pothukuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP, all household contacts of sputum smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB patients are screened for TB. In the absence of active TB disease, household contacts aged <6 years are eligible for Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT (5 milligrams/kilogram body weight/day for 6 months. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of household contacts aged <6 years, of sputum smear positive PTB patients registered for treatment under RNTCP from April to June'2008 in Krishna District, to assess the extent to which they are screened for TB disease and in its absence initiated on IPT. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Households of all smear positive PTB cases (n = 848 registered for treatment from April to June'2008 were included. Data on the number of household contacts aged <6 years, the extent to which they were screened for TB disease, and the status of initiation of IPT, was collected. RESULTS: Households of 825 (97% patients were visited, and 172 household contacts aged <6 years were identified. Of them, 116 (67% were evaluated for TB disease; none were found to be TB diseased and 97 (84% contacts were initiated on IPT and 19 (16% contacts were not initiated on IPT due to shortage of INH tablets in peripheral health centers. The reasons for non-evaluation of the remaining eligible children (n = 56, 33% include no home visit by the health staff in 25 contacts, home visit done but not evaluated in 31 contacts. House-hold contacts in rural areas were less likely to be evaluated and initiated on IPT [risk ratio 6.65 (95% CI; 3.06-14.42]. CONCLUSION: Contact screening and IPT implementation under routine programmatic conditions is sub-optimal. There is an urgent need to sensitize all concerned programme staff on its importance and establishment of mechanisms for rigorous monitoring.

  9. Integration of HIV in child survival platforms: a novel programmatic pathway towards the 90–90–90 targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick D Chamla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integration of HIV into child survival platforms is an evolving territory with multiple connotations. Most literature on integration of HIV into other health services focuses on adults; however promising practices for children are emerging. These include the Double Dividend (DD framework, a new programming approach with dual goal of improving paediatric HIV care and child survival. In this commentary, the authors discuss why integrating HIV testing, treatment and care into child survival platforms is important, as well as its potential to advance progress towards global targets that call for, by 2020, 90% of children living with HIV to know their status, 90% of those diagnosed to be on treatment and 90% of those on treatment to be virally suppressed (90–90–90. Discussion: Integration is critical in improving health outcomes and efficiency gains. In children, integration of HIV in programmes such as immunization and nutrition has been associated with an increased uptake of HIV infant testing. Integration is increasingly recognized as a case-finding strategy for children missed from prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes and as a platform for diffusing emerging technologies such as point-of-care diagnostics. These support progress towards the 90–90–90 targets by providing a pathway for early identification of HIV-infected children with co-morbidities, prompt initiation of treatment and improved survival. There are various promising practices that have demonstrated HIV outcomes; however, few have documented the benefits of integration on child survival interventions. The DD framework is well positioned to address the bidirectional impacts for both programmes. Conclusions: Integration provides an important programmatic pathway for accelerated progress towards the 90–90–90 targets. Despite this encouraging information, there are still challenges to be addressed in order to maximize the benefits of integration.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied sparfloxacin in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Milan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that have a broad spectrum of activity and are widely used against many of the ocular pathogens, responsible for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers etc. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin (0.3% w/v in the aqueous humour of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 µl topically. The aqueous humour samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 hours after instillation. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after the instillation of 50 µl of sparfloxacin 0.3% solution, the mean concentration in aqueous humour was found to be 1.4 µg/ml, which reaches the peak level of 3.7 µg/ml after 1.3 hours. At 6 hours, the sparfloxacin aqueous levels were 0.562 µg/ml. The clinical efficacy was predicted based on the Maximum Concentration (Cmax: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Area Under the Concentration-time curve (AUC:MIC ratios. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Both Cmax:MIC and AUC:MIC ratios are high enough to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Sparfloxacin (0.3% ophthalmic preparation has excellent penetration through cornea.

  11. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking gap junction communication. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... an important role in spreading of apoptotic and necrotic signals from injured and ...

  12. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking gap junction communication. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked ...

  13. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients.

  14. A test of Darwin's ‘lop‐eared’ rabbit hypothesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordero, G. A; Berns, C. M

    2016-01-01

    ... other. Darwin provided a striking example of this process in the ‘lop‐eared’ rabbit by demonstrating that artificial selection for long external ears induced variation in the external auditory meatus...

  15. Study on impression smears of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara; Rayulu, V C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis is a contagious and lethal disease condition in rabbits. The disease was recorded in six rabbits suffering with watery diarrhoea. Clinically, affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, diarrhea and rough hair coat. Examination of the faecal samples revealed the presence of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. After sporulation Eimeria stiedae oocysts were identified. Postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules on the surface of the liver. Impression smears from the liver revealed the presence of numerous developmental stages of E. stiedae corresponding with the stage of the liver lesion and also represent the histological changes of the liver. Rabbits were treated with a combination of sulphaquinoxaline and diaveridine for five days.

  16. The Complement-Fixation Test in Hepatic Coccidiosis of Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. Elaine

    1961-01-01

    Antibodies to Eimeria stiedae were measured in rabbit serum by complement fixation. The titre rose to a maximum at about the 22nd day after infection, remained at this level for about 20 days and then declined. Antibodies were still detectable up to 160 days after infection. Evidence of past or present slight E. stiedae infection was found in clinically normal rabbits whose sera fixed complement with E. stiedae antigens. Challenge of rabbits which had recovered from a near-fatal infection had no effect upon the complement fixation titres of their sera. The serum of a rabbit which had been injected with alum-precipitated antigen fixed complement with E. stiedae antigens. However, the animal was still susceptible to a superimposed oral infection which had the effect of further increasing the serum titre. PMID:14493840

  17. THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF SARCOPTIC MANGE IN RABBIT WITH IVERMECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange infected non-descriptive rabbits were successfully treated with Ivermectin @ 400 µg / kg body weight sub-cutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks resulted complete recovery within a month in Kalyani area, West Bengal, India.

  18. Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed Graded Levels ... for their nutritional and medicinal values and are rich in minerals and vitamins. ... used to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on testicular ...

  19. ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY STUDIES OF TROISTM IN NEWZEALAND WHITE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  20. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  1. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  2. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  3. A Complete Handbook on Backyward and Commercial Rabbit Production = Sa Kalusugan ng Bayan Rabbit Ang Alagaan. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicwaten, Juan B.; Stahl, Diane

    This handbook on rabbit raising, prepared for use by Peace Corps volunteers, attempts to share information gained by rabbit raisers in the Philippines along with information gathered from academic sources. The manual provides step-by-step information on how to begin and carry out a program of rabbit production. The 15 sections of the guide cover…

  4. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established...

  5. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Meirelles,Rafael Panisi de Campos; Hochman, Bernardo; Helene Junior,Americo; Lellis,Rute; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. METHODS: On this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. RESULTS: Af...

  6. Increased platelet aggregability following an atherogenic diet in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Velkovski Saško D.; Mazić Sanja; Nešić Dejan M.; Igrački Iva; Milošević Verica L.; Starčević Vesna P.

    2002-01-01

    In atherosclerosis researches different animal models are used but the most common is the rabbit, because of the easy development of atherosclerotic lesions. Atherosclerosis is a multicellular process and platelets play an important role in atherogenesis. Excessive plasma lipids stimulate platelet aggregability and thus atherosclerosis development. The effects of an atherogenic diet on lipid status, abdominal aorta wall structure, and platelet aggregability were studied in rabbits. Adult male...

  7. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in suckling rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in suckling rabbit causes collibacillosis, which is characterized by sever yellow diarrhea, poor growth and high mortalities. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in suckling rabbits in Egypt. Additionally, expression of some virulence-associated genes in the isolated E. coli serotypes were examined using the polymerase chain reaction. Finally, antibiogram of the identified E. coli serotypes was also investig...

  8. THE GENE EXPRESSION OF BDNF IN NORMAL RABBIT RETINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明; 胡海涛; 马东亮; 孙乃学; 赵世平; 冯海晓

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) protein in the rabbit retina. Methods Immune response material in the retina was observed using BDNF antibody by the method of immunohistochemistry. Results BDNF gene expression was mainly found in the RGCs, also in innernuclei cells and outernuclei cells in rabbit retina. Conclusion RGC is not only the target cell of BDNF, but also express the BDNF protein. BDNF from multi-sources participates in the regulation of RGCs.

  9. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levo...

  10. Blood flow in rabbit osteotomies studied with radioactive microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, K. (Department of Surgery, Aurora Hospital, Nordenskioeldinkatu, Helsinki, Finland); Slaetis, P. (Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Surgical Hospital, University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland)

    1984-01-01

    Arterial embolisation with radioactive microspheres was used to measure the proportion of cardiac output to the skeleton and the tibiofibular bone both in unoperated rabbits and in rabbits after tibial osteotomy and subsequent external fixation. The mean uptake of the intact tibiofibula was 0.11 per cent of the cardiac output and, correspondingly, 0.21 per cent after the osteotomy. Maximal uptake occurred 18 days after the operation which was accompanied by a slight decrease in overall skeletal circulation.

  11. Pathology and Therapy in Naturally Eimeria stiedae-Infected Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, L. D.; Juyal, P. D.; B S Sandhu

    2000-01-01

    Clinical hepatic coccidiosis in New Zealand white rabbits (n=24) of either sex (aged 1-2month) with clinical signs, pathology an therapy is presented. The infected rabbits showedanorexia, reluctance to move and death within 3-4 days. Liver showed irregular whitish nodulesscattered on its surface and in deeper parenchyma. Characteristic histopathologjcal changes inliver with different developmental stages of Eimeria stiedae in the epithelial cells of bile ductshave been recorded. Treatment of ...

  12. Endostatin inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model*

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Hai-Tao; Hu, Hang; LI, YUAN; Jiang, Hong-fei; Hu, Xin-lei; Han, Chun-mao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to use an in vivo rabbit ear scar model to investigate the efficacy of systemic administration of endostatin in inhibiting scar formation. Methods: Eight male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups. Scar model was established by making six full skin defect wounds in each ear. For the intervention group, intraperitoneal injection of endostatin was performed each day after the wound healed (about 15 d post wounding). For the cont...

  13. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levo...

  14. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  15. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  16. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gerolamo Xiccato; Angela Trocino; Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing) is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe...

  17. Purification and characterization of protein Z from rabbit liver cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S H; Holeman, B; Muller-Eberhard, U

    1985-10-30

    Protein Z was purified from rabbit liver cytosol by affinity chromatography on oleic acid-agarose and preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the renatured protein was found to bind heme and bilirubin with a Kd of approximately 1 microM which produced large red shifts in their absorption spectra. On isoelectric focusing, rabbit protein Z exhibited two main bands with pI around 6.0.

  18. Measurement of Tear Production in English Angora and Dutch Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Rafiee, Siamak Mashhady; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Masouleh, Mohammad N; Jamshidian, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for tear production tests in different breeds of domestic rabbits. Healthy adult rabbits (n = 60; 120 eyes) of 2 different breeds (English angora and Dutch; n = 15 of each sex and breed) were used in this study. Tear production was measured by using the 1-min Schirmer tear test (STT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), and endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT). In addition, horizontal palpebral fissure length was evaluated as a measure of ocular adnexal dimensions. Tear production (mean ± 1 SD) in English angora rabbits was 5.4 ± 1.6 mm/min according to the STT, 25.0 ± 2.7 mm in 15 s for the PRTT, and 18.8 ± 2.1 mm/min by the EAPTT; in Dutch rabbits, these values were 4.6 ± 1.2 mm/min, 23.6 ± 2.3 mm in 15 s, and 16.9 ± 1.7 mm/min, respectively. Only the EAPTT revealed a significant difference in tear production between English Angora and Dutch rabbits. These results provide reference values for tear production in English Angora and Dutch rabbits according to 3 different quantitative tear film assessment methods.

  19. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  20. Angiotensin II receptor alterations during pregnancy in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.P.; Venuto, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    Despite activation of the renin-angiotensin system during pregnancy, renal and peripheral vascular blood flows increase, and the systemic blood pressure and the pressor response to exogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) fall. Gestational alterations in Ang II receptors could contribute to these changes. Ang II binding parameters were determining utilizing SVI-Ang II in vascular (glomeruli and mesenteric arteries) and nonvascular (adrenal glomerulosa) tissues from 24- to 28-day pregnant rabbits. Comparisons were made utilizing tissues from nonpregnant rabbits. Binding site concentrations (N) and dissociation constants (K/sub d/) were obtained by Scatchard analyses of binding inhibition data. Meclofenamate (M) inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, reduces plasma renin activity, and enhances the pressor response to infused Ang II in pregnant rabbits. Administration of M to pregnant rabbits increased N in glomerular and in mesenteric artery membranes. These data demonstrate that Ang II receptors in glomeruli and mesenteric arteries are down regulated during gestation in rabbits. Elevated endogenous Ang II during pregnancy in rabbits may contribute to the down regulation of vascular Ang II receptors.

  1. Effect of pregnancy on topiramate pharmacokinetics in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Kamal M; Marafie, Najlaa A

    2011-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes that may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetic profiles of many drugs. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of topiramate (TPM) in the rabbit model. Nineteen female New Zealand white rabbits (nine pregnant and 10 non-pregnant) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving TPM orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg and then serially for up to 24 h. TPM plasma samples were analysed using a validated tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. The mean values of TPM pharmacokinetic parameters (t(1/2), T(max), AUC(0-∞), and CL/F) were significantly modified in pregnant rabbits as compared with non-pregnant group. Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.05) increased TPM half-life (t(1/2)), time to attain the maximum plasma concentration (T(max)), and the area under TPM plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞)) and decreased the drug's oral clearance (CL/F) compared with non-pregnancy state in rabbits. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetics of TPM in rabbits in late gestational period and considerable inter-animal variability was observed. The findings of the present study indicate that TPM CL/F is decreased during late pregnancy in the rabbit model.

  2. Labeling of rabbit neutrophils with (/sup 111/In)oxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, T.A. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Bergum, P.W.; Lichter, J.P.; Spragg, R.G. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-25

    The successful labeling of rabbit peripheral blood neutrophils with (/sup 111/In)oxine is reported here. Standard techniques for preparation of rabbit neutrophils, while acceptable for maintenance of in vitro function, rendered the neutrophils ineffective for in vivo use after labeling with /sup 111/In. Specifically, rabbit neutrophils were sensitive to the use of hypotonic shock for red cell elimination, centrifugation into a button during preparation, and the presence of oxine during chemotaxis in vitro. Using a carefully modified method of neutrophil preparation and labeling, it was found that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils retained normal in vitro function, including chemotaxis. In addition, using this method, 34% +- 5% of labeled neutrophils were recoverable in peripheral blood 5 min after intravenous injection. The half-life of circulating radiolabeled neutrophils was 5.6 +- 2 h. Continuous external imaging of radiolabeled neutrophils after intravenous injection showed initial lung uptake, followed by rapid clearance of radioactivity in the lungs (50% clearance in 10.5 +- 3.3 min.). Hepatic radioactivity was maximal by 30 min after injection and thereafter slowly declined. Finally, it was found that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils migrated to sites of artificially induced inflammation. These findings indicate that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils, if prepared under optimal conditions, should provide a useful tool for investigating the fate of neutrophils in experimental inflammatory conditions in this animal.

  3. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cloning of Rabbit HPRT Gene Using the Recombineering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun SHI; Donghui CAI; Xuejin CHEN; Huizheng SHENG

    2007-01-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) plays an important role in the metabolic salvage of purines, and been used as an alternative pathway for mutant selection in many studies. To facilitate its application in rabbits, we have cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA of the rabbit HPRT gene using an approach that combines bioinformatics and recombineering methods. The cDNA is comprised of 1449 bp containing a coding sequence for a protein of 218 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the rabbit HPRT gene shares 98%, 97%, 98% and 94% identity with human, mouse, pig and cattle HPRT genes, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed in tissues of adult rabbit. The rabbit HPRT gene spans approximately 48 kb in length and consists of nine exons. The cloning of the rabbit HPRT gene shows the usefulness of the recombineering system in cloning genes of large size. This system may facilitate the subcloning of DNA from bacterial artificial chromosomes for cloning genes of large size or filling big gaps in genomic sequencing.

  5. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  6. Serum amyloid A gene expression in rabbit, mink and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Hackett, B; Dowton, S B

    1997-02-01

    The expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, a major acute-phase reactant in most species, was examined by in situ hybridization in multiple organs of rabbit, mink and mouse. In livers of unstimulated mice and rabbits a heterogeneous pattern of SAA expression in hepatocytes was observed. In all three species, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration resulted in extensive uniform hybridization of SAA probes to hepatocytes and in the rabbit SAA transcripts were detected in cells in the white pulp of the spleen, the adrenal cortex and ovary as well as in the mucosa and lymphatic vessels of the small intestine. Examination of hybridizing SAA signals in the rabbit myocardium showed a speckled distribution in myocytes. The rabbit endocardium was strongly positive, and in the kidney rabbit SAA mRNA was mainly confined to epithelial cells of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. In the unstimulated mouse, SAA mRNA was detected in the liver and epithelial cells of the small and large intestine. After stimulation of an acute-phase response with LPS a strong response was seen in these organs as well as in the convoluted tubules of the kidney. In extrahepatic organs of the mink, no SAA mRNA was detectable in unstimulated animals, while the convoluted tubules of the kidney and uterine endometrium were strongly positive after systemic LPS injection.

  7. Incidence, radioresistance, and behavior of Psychrobacter spp. in rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, José M; Patterson, Margaret F; García-López, Isabel; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2005-03-01

    The relative incidence of Psychrobacter spp. in rabbit meat, the radioresistance of these bacteria, and the growth of nonirradiated and irradiated psychrobacter isolates, alone and in coculture, during chilled storage of inoculated sterile rabbit meat was investigated. Psychrobacter spp. accounted for 4.2% of the storage psychrotrophic flora of 30 rabbit carcasses. The radiation D10-values of 10 Psychrobacter isolates, irradiated at 4 degrees C in minced rabbit meat, ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 kGy, with significant (P meat, but when the fastest growing strain was cocultured with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates, maximum cell densities and growth rates were significantly (P meat, surviving cells of both Psychrobacter strains decreased for a period of 5 to 7 days and then resumed multiplication that, at day 12, resulted in a similar increase (1.6 to 1.7 log CFU/g) over initial survivor numbers. When irradiated in combination with the spoilage bacteria, one of the strains required 12 days to reach initial numbers. In conclusion, Psychrobacter spp. are radioresistant nonsporeforming bacteria with a low relative incidence among the storage flora of rabbit meat, unable to compete with food spoilage bacteria in this ecosystem and apparently not a major contributor to the spoilage of rabbit meat after irradiation.

  8. Characteristic analysis on susceptibility weighted imaging of intravitreous foreign body of autologous eyelashes in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; WANG Juan; ZHANG Yong; LI Hua-li

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of the intravitreous foreign body of autologous eyelashes in rabbits.Methods: A total of 12 New Zealand white rabbits,either sex, weighing 2.5-3.5 kg, and provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Henan Province were employed in this study. For each rabbit, 5 autologous eyelashes (1 cm in length and 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter) were implanted into the right ocular vitreum, while the left control ocular vitreum received sham operation but nothing was implanted. SWI sequential test was made 2 hours postoperatively. Then the rabbits were killed and the specimens of the vitreous bodies of the rabbits were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and histological examinations were performed. Results: The autologous eyelashes in 8 ocular vitreums of rabbits showed linear low signal intensity on the magnitude images and susceptibility weighted images, but linear high signal intensity on the phase images. Among the 12experimental rabbits, 5 eyelashes in the right vitreum were completely shown in 3 rabbits, partly shown in 5 rabbits (2eyelashes shown in 3 rabbits and 3 eyelashes shown in 2rabbits), and not shown in 4 rabbits. Conclusions: SWI of the foreign body ofintravitreous autologous eyelashes in rabbits has its own characteristics. The combined application of SWI sequential magnitude images, susceptibility weighted images and phase images is helpful to the detection and diagnosis of intravitreous autologous eyelashes in rabbits.

  9. RNA transcripts of full-length cDNA clones of rabbit hepatitis E virus are infectious in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Huang, Yao-Wei; Yugo, Danielle M; Kenney, Scott P; Piñeyro, Pablo; Matzinger, Shannon R; Heffron, C Lynn; Pierson, F William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-11-07

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Hepeviridae. At least four genotypes of the family infect humans: genotypes 1 and 2 are transmitted to humans through contaminated water, while genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and have animal reservoirs. A novel strain of HEV recently identified in rabbits is a distant member of genotype 3, and thus poses a potential risk of zoonotic transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to construct and characterize an infectious cDNA clone of the rabbit HEV. Two full-length cDNA clones of rabbit HEV, pT7g-rabHEV and pT7-rabHEV, were constructed and their infectivity was tested by in vitro transfection of Huh7 human liver cells and by direct intrahepatic inoculation of rabbits with capped RNA transcripts. Results showed that positive signal for rabbit HEV protein was detected by an immunofluorescence assay with a HEV-specific antibody in Huh7 human liver cells transfected with capped RNA transcripts from the two full-length cDNA clones. Rabbits intrahepatically inoculated with capped RNA transcripts from each of the two clones developed active HEV infection as evidenced by seroconversion to anti-HEV antibodies, and detection of rabbit HEV RNA in sera and feces of inoculated animals. The availability of a rabbit HEV infectious cDNA clone now affords us the ability to delineate the mechanism of HEV replication and cross-species infection in a small animal model.

  10. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeij, Johannes T; Mikalová, Lenka; Smajs, David

    2013-05-31

    Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares without causing clinical disease, while "T. paraluisleporis" induces disease in both rabbits and hares. The 16S rRNA gene of "T. paraluisleporis" was sequenced (GenBank acc. no. JX899416) and compared to the sequence of T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence alignment of 2002 bp taken from several treponemal strains was constructed. Both "T. paraluisleporis" and T. paraluiscuniculi are clustered together indicating their common origin. The close phylogenetic relatedness of both representatives supports the conclusion that subspecies or ecovar status should be given to these strains rather than species status. A more appropriate species name might be Treponema paraluisleporidarum. The genitive refers to the nominative Leporidae (family of rabbits and hares). The naturally occurring strain in rabbits would than be T. paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus and the strain from hares T. paraluisleporidarum ecovar Lepus. Since the former seems to have fewer physiological hosts, ecovar Lepus may represent an evolutionary ancestor of ecovar Cuniculus.

  11. Superfund Programmatic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes an inventory of program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the...

  12. An Experimental Study for Radiation Nephritis in Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Experimental radiation nephritis was produced in 15 rabbits by X-irradiation. About 2, 000gamma(tissue doses) were given to both kidneys of a rabbit in 5 days. Other tissues and organs except both kidneys were protected with 2 mm thickened lead plates. 5 weeks after the last irradiation, blood pictures, blood pressures, B.U.N., serum creatinine, Ca, Mg, Fe levels and serum erythropoietin activity of the irradiated rabbits were studied. After finishing above studies, rabbits were sacrificed and both kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically. Same laboratory and pathological studies were performed in 6 control rabbits. In this study, the author obtained following results. 1) Both kidneys of rabbits with experimental radiation nephritis showed marked histopathological changes, i.e.: renal tubules showed diffuse cloudy swelling, impacted intraluminal hyaline casts and focal precipitations of lime salts on the tubular epithelium. Diffuse interstitial fatty necrosis and various degrees of fibrotic infiltrations on the interstitium were also seen in association with focal lymphocytic infiltrations. Hyaline degenerations were observed on the glomeruli and small vessels. 2) Experimental radiation nephritis rabbits showed marked lowering in R.B.C. counts, decreased hemoglobin levels, low hematocrit values and leucopenia in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P<0.01). (Table 1 and 2). 3) Mild proteinuria were observed in experimental radiation nephritis in rabbits. 4) The levels of B.U.N. and serum creatinine increased in experimental radiation nephritis. (P<0.01). (Table 1, 3 and 4). 5) The levels of serum Ca and Mg Showed no statistical difference in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P>0.05). (Table 3 and 4). 6) No statistical correlations were observable between the levels of B.U.N. and Hb. values. (gamma=-0. 223). No close correlations (gamma=-0.338) were noticed between the levels of B.U.N. and serum iron levels. 7) Erythropoietin activity (R

  13. Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C L; Duarte, E L; Monteiro, M; Botelho, A; Albuquerque, T; Fevereiro, M; Henriques, A M; Barros, S S; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05), demonstrating that vaccination-induced immunity reduces viral loads and delays disease progression. Contrarily, in vaccinated young rabbits higher viral loads were registered compared to non-vaccinated kittens. No significant variation (p=0.3824) was observed between viral loads of non-vaccinated domestic and wild RHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon.

  14. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    of higher education.This essay is programmatic and thus deliberately combines facts and values, past andfuture, summaries of first person observations and third person factual information,without the burden of systematic referencing required by scholarly writing. It does notclaim to replace empirical surveys which, however, are still lacking to date regarding theactual state of affairs of higher education inspired by integral and likeminded approachesin Europe. Accordingly, at this stage, the essay is an exercise of awareness-raising tostimulate more and better collaboration across streams, disciplines and countries betweenthose scholars, students and activists who are already inspired by integral and likeminded approaches and interested or already engaged in developing and sustaining highereducation programs according to a more integral spirit.

  15. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    structures and practices of higher education. This essay is programmatic and thus deliberately combines facts and values, past and future, summaries of first person observations and third person factual information, without the burden of systematic referencing required by scholarly writing. It does not claim to replace empirical surveys which, however, are still lacking to date regarding the actual state of affairs of higher education inspired by integral and likeminded approaches in Europe. Accordingly, at this stage, the essay is an exercise of awareness-raising to stimulate more and better collaboration across streams, disciplines and countries between those scholars, students and activists who are already inspired by integral and likeminded approaches and interested or already engaged in developing and sustaining higher education programs according to a more integral spirit.

  16. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus.

  17. Reliability In A White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiński, M; Wlostowski, T; Prados, C

    2011-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a time-deterministic, low-latency Ethernet-based network which enables transparent, subns accuracy timing distribution. It is being developed to replace the General Machine Timing (GMT) system currently used at CERN and will become the foundation for the control system of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. High reliability is an important issue inWR’s design, since unavailability of the accelerator’s control system will directly translate into expensive downtime of the machine. A typical WR network is required to lose not more than a single message per year. Due toWR’s complexity, the translation of this real-world-requirement into a reliability-requirement constitutes an interesting issue on its own – a WR network is considered functional only if it provides all its services to all its clients at any time. This paper defines reliability in WR and describes how it was addressed by dividing it into sub-domains: deterministic packet delivery, data resilience...

  18. Ocular pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, I; Fos, D; Gonzalez Peñas, E; Gazzaniga, A; Gianesello, V; Ceppi Monti, N; Figini, P G; Zato, M A; Bruseghini, L; Esteras, A

    1992-10-01

    The ocular pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol (TAP, CAS 15318-45-3) was studied in rabbits by means of the assessment of its ocular and systemic absorption, and urinary excretion after instillation of 0.5% TAP eye drops. TAP concentrations in aqueous humor, plasma and urine were evaluated by a coupled LC/GC method (detection limit = 0.1 ng/ml), because the necessity to have a technique much more sensitive than the traditional chromatographic ones available in order to quantify the very low drug concentrations in biological fluids produced by the ocular treatment, and generally by a topical administration. The intravenous route was chosen as reference and allowed the absolute bioavailability to be estimated. TAP proved to be well absorbed through the cornea with the peak aqueous humor concentration of 110 ng/ml at 45 min following the instillation. The good ocular absorption of TAP was confirmed by the plasma concentrations observed after instillation of 0.5% eye drops. In any case, these concentrations were more than 1000 times lower than those observed after the intravenous treatment at the dose normally used for infectious diseases, allowing to exclude any systemic toxicity of TAP eye drops. The absolute ocular bioavailability was 16.2% when estimated from the AUC values and 34.0% from the cumulative urinary excretion values.

  19. Abstratcs of the 5th American Rabbit Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    5th American Rabbit Congress Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico, September 8-11, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th American Rabbit Congress was held in Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico from September 8th to the 11th, 2014. Research works representing 14 countries were accepted to take part at the congress, including papers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, México, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela. These research works highlight the enormous interest, effort and commitment of the scientific community that bonds the trinomium of Research+Innovation+Technology Transfer, in favour of the integral development of rabbit rearing as an important primary activity that generates permanent employment, as well as healthy and nutritive meals for their respective countries for the XXI Century World. One major impact at this 5th American Rabbit Congress was the participation of Argentina, Brazil and China. The latter country’s report was presented by Laping Wu and Dong Wang (2014, showing that from 2005 to 2010, meat production of swine, beef and poultry underwent average growth of 2.6%, whereas rabbit meat production reported an annual average growth of 6.29%, reaching an annual volume of 761 000 tons, positioning China as the world’s main rabbit meat producer. This data highlights the great potential of rabbit production, both as an economic activity and a key strategy in the fight against hunger and poverty in many countries all over the world. During the congress, scientific works were presented related with the fields of Ethology, Housing & Welfare; Genetics; Reproduction; Digestive Physiology and Basic Nutrition; Feed Evaluation and Feeding; Pathology & Hygiene, Meat Quality, Safety & Dining; Management, Social & Economy. Furthermore, the meeting of the AB-WRSA chaired by the AB-WRSA founder, Dr. Steven Lukefahr, also took place at this congress, in which the new board of the American Branch was elected and the proposal put forward for the next American Rabbit Congress to be held in Costa

  20. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOTH PIG AND RABBIT ZONA PELLUCIDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OURU-QIANG

    1989-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against both pig and rabbit zona pellucida with a dual immunization protocol employing heat soluble pig zona (HSPZ) and heat soluble rabbit zona (HSRZ), Of the 140 wells screencd, 12 wells were positive to

  2. [Targeted modification of CCR5 gene in rabbits by TALEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Quanjun; Li, Xiaoping; Fan, Nana; Yang, Yi; Quan, Longquan; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-04-01

    The lack of suitable animal model for HIV-1 infection has become a bottleneck for the development of AIDS vaccines and drugs. Wild-type rabbits can be infected by HIV-1 persistently and HIV-1 can be efficiently replicated resulting in syncytia in rabbit cell line co-expressing human CD4 and CCR5.Therefore, a rabbit highly expressing human CD4 and CCR5 may be an ideal animal model for AIDS disease study. In the present report, by using the efficient gene targeting technology, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), we explored the feasibility of generating a HIV-1 model by knocking in human CD4 and CCR5 into rabbit genome. First we constructed two TALEN vectors targeting rabbit CCR5 gene and a vector with homologous arms. TALEN mRNAs and donor DNA were then co-injected into fertilized oocytes. After 3?5 days, 24 embryos were collected and used to conduct mutation analysis with PCR and sequencing. All the 24 embryos were detected with CCR5 knockouts and 5 were human CD4 and CCR5 knockins. Our results laid a foundation for establishing a new animal model for the study of AIDS.

  3. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Claire A; Flecknell, Paul A; Leach, Matthew C; Richardson, Claire A

    2011-02-21

    It has become widely accepted that whenever animals are used in scientific procedures, the 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction and refinement described by William Russell and Rex Burch should be adhered to. Animals should be replaced with non-sentient alternatives if possible, the number of animals used should be reduced and experimental procedures should be refined to minimise pain, suffering and distress. Administration of analgesic agents to animals undergoing surgical procedures is a refinement used to alleviate pain. In this study, a structured literature review was carried out to examine current trends in analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures. 128 papers from 51 peer-reviewed journals were selected for inclusion in this review. Reporting administration of systemic analgesia to rabbits in peer-reviewed scientific papers increased significantly from 16% to 50% between 1995-1997 and 2005-2007 (P rabbits undergoing surgical procedures is increasing, rabbits do not always receive analgesia when they undergo experimental surgery. Other practices in rabbit perioperative care that could be improved, highlighted by this survey include: 1) changing the timing of analgesic administration by giving systemic analgesics pre- or perioperatively rather than only postoperatively, 2) using multimodal analgesia when pain is likely to be moderate to severe and 3) increasing the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and use of other techniques such as epidural analgesia particularly for orthopaedic procedures.

  4. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Matthew C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become widely accepted that whenever animals are used in scientific procedures, the 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction and refinement described by William Russell and Rex Burch should be adhered to. Animals should be replaced with non-sentient alternatives if possible, the number of animals used should be reduced and experimental procedures should be refined to minimise pain, suffering and distress. Administration of analgesic agents to animals undergoing surgical procedures is a refinement used to alleviate pain. In this study, a structured literature review was carried out to examine current trends in analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures. Results 128 papers from 51 peer-reviewed journals were selected for inclusion in this review. Reporting administration of systemic analgesia to rabbits in peer-reviewed scientific papers increased significantly from 16% to 50% between 1995-1997 and 2005-2007 (P P Conclusions Although this review provides evidence that systemic analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing surgical procedures is increasing, rabbits do not always receive analgesia when they undergo experimental surgery. Other practices in rabbit perioperative care that could be improved, highlighted by this survey include: 1 changing the timing of analgesic administration by giving systemic analgesics pre- or perioperatively rather than only postoperatively, 2 using multimodal analgesia when pain is likely to be moderate to severe and 3 increasing the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and use of other techniques such as epidural analgesia particularly for orthopaedic procedures.

  5. Controlled doe exposure as biostimulation of buck rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Noguez-Estrada, J; Rangel-Santos, R; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Fallas-López, M; Maldonado-Siman, E

    2010-12-01

    Female exposure of males could be a low-cost biostimulation option that benefits AI in commercial rabbit operations by improving buck rabbits reproductive performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate exposure of buck rabbits to females as a biostimulation option to improve reproductive potential. Treatments were: exposure (biostimulated) or not (control) of bucks to does. Bucks were New Zealand White, 15-month-old, sexually experienced and fertile. Experimental design was completely random with nine replications, experimental unit was one buck. Doe exposure was permanent using replacement pubertal does housed in an adjacent wire-mesh cage and changed for new ones every other week. Semen collection lasted 14 weeks (late winter and early spring) twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection. Analyses of variance were under a mixed model: treatments, ejaculate number and season were fixed and rabbit random effects and buck weight at each collection as covariable. Biostimulated bucks showed greater (Pbucks but not in doe exposed bucks (treatment × ejaculate number, Pbuck rabbits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rabbit care unit for intravenous feeding and metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukipuro, K; Harju, E

    1986-01-01

    A simple rabbit care unit for peripheral intravenous feeding and metabolic studies was developed. The unit consists of six aluminum boxes with a common cover. Inverted T-shaped mobile supports hanging from the upper horizontal part of a frame hold the infusion lines. The side walls of the box prevent the rabbit from turning around, but other movements are possible. After initial training with 21 surgically treated animals, there was only one early anesthetic death among the subsequent 21 rabbits (4.8%). There was one late death (4.8%), and one animal was slightly, and two animals clearly, deteriorated. The ear vein cannula had to be changed in one-third of the animals not more than 3 days from the outset. Problems associated with the infusion systems or urinary bladder catheterization were minor. The results showed that it is practical to infuse rabbits via a peripheral intravenous route in a semi-restraining metabolic unit. The cases of late death and deterioration can be explained in part by the stress of experimental conditions with starvation and surgery, rather than by the effect of the metabolic unit alone. With previous experience in treating rabbits, we find the period required to learn this technique is short.

  7. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K

    1998-05-01

    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  8. Hypolipidemic effect of arborium plus in experimentally induced hypercholestermic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Devarakonda; Rajesh, Enjamoori; Raghava, Doonaboina; Raghavan, Tangaraj Vijaya; Surulivel, Mukanthan Karupiah Munirajan

    2010-06-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of the ayurvedic herbal formulation Arborium Plus [Hyppophae ramnoides L. fruit juice (S) and Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Linn flower juice (R) in a 1:4 ratio] on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), atherogenic index (AI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs CRP) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Four groups of rabbits were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: control group, CHOL group (1% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks), S+R group (1% w/w cholesterol and Arborium Plus for 8 weeks), and A group (1% w/w cholesterol and atorvastatin for 8 weeks). The results showed significant increases in TG, TC, LDL, AI, and hs CRP in hypercholesterolemic rabbits which was significantly reduced in Arborium Plus-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The data demonstrated that the Arborium Plus formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  9. Correlation of restenosis after rabbit carotid endarterectomy and inflammatory cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Jun Liang; Wei Xue; Li-Zhi Lou; Cheng Liu; Zhao-Fen Wang; Qing-Guo Li; Shao-Hua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establish rabbit model of restenosis after carotid endarterectomy surgery, and to study tissue inflammatory cytokines(TNF-α,IL-6) involved in restenosis.Methods:A total of32 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: model group and control group.The right common carotid artery in rabbits was damaged by carotid endar terectomy in model group.The tissues were harvested at different time points respectively, the pathological changes of the vascular wall after operation were observed at different time points.The changes of expression of tissue vascular wall inflammatory cytokines(TNF-α,IL-6) at different time points after the surgery was observed byRT-PCR, and the changes of serum inflammatory cytokines(TNF-α, IL -6) were detected byELISA.Results:The new intima appeared after7 daysof the injury and reached the peak on28 d which is uneven and significantly thicker than the control group (P<0.01).The tissue inflammatory cytokines(TNF-α,IL-6) were significantly increased after the rabbit common carotid artery injury, which was significant difference compared with normal control group(P<0.05).Conclusions:The tissue inflammatory factors significantly increase after the rabbit carotid artery injury, which suggests the mutual concurrent effects of inflammatory cytokines can result in the proliferation of vascular restenosis.

  10. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-05

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on a New Method of Reducing the Water Shrinkage of Rabbit Hair Knitted Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Fu-kui; WANG Shan-yuan; LONG Min; YANG Guang-ming

    2005-01-01

    In order to reduce the water shrinkage of rabbit hair knitted fabrics, a new method is developed, which is blending rabbit hairs with a little bit of blaze. The sericin on the blaze which can swell and melt in hot and wet condition[1] can cohere the rabbit hairs through special processing. So the relative movement among fibers could be restricted. The testing results show that the water shrinkage of rabbit hair knitted fabrics can be greatly reduced after processed.

  12. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  13. Vaccination success and body condition in the European wild rabbit: Applications for conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas, Sonia; Calvete, C.; Moreno, Sacramento

    2006-01-01

    The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is the main prey for several endangered species and an important game species in the Iberian Peninsula. However, over the last several decades 2 diseases, myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), have contributed to a decline in rabbit populations. In Spain, vaccination campaigns against both diseases and the translocation of vaccinated rabbits are frequently used in projects aimed at stimulating the recovery of wild populations. We es...

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are

  15. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of the Immune Response to Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Vaccine in Young Rabbits by Advanced Vaccination and Chinese Herbal Adjuvants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Long-sheng; XUE Jia-bin; HU Yuan-liang; WANG Fang; WANG De-yun; XU Wei-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants (CHA), containing astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and ginsenosides (GS) on the immune response to rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) vaccine in young rabbits. In experiment 1, 5 New Zealand rabbits of each group at 30, 35, 40, or 45 days of age were injected with 2 mL of inactivated RHD vaccine, respectively. The dynamic changes of antibody liters were tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) method. In experiment 2, 30 New Zealand rabbits at 35 days of age were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups, representing inoculation with 3 mL of non-adjuvant RHD vaccine, CHA-RHD vaccine, CHA-HA vaccine (half dose antigen), aluminium adjuvant-RHD vaccine, and PBS, respectively. The dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody liters were tested by the MTT method and the HI method. The results showed that the titer of maternal HI antibody in the 35-day-old rabbits was lower than the protective level of 3 log2, while on days 7 to 49 after the vaccination, the antibody tilers were higher than 3 log2. The CHA promoted me lymphocyte proliferation and enhanced the serum antibody liter (P<0.05). These findings from the two experiments suggested that advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants significantly enhanced the immune response lo vaccine againsl RHD, and effectively protected the young rabbils againsl RHD challenge.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S F; Tsang, Alan K L; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 10(8) copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5'-UCUAAAC-3'. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed rabbit sera tested by an N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits.

  18. A new recombinant Orf virus (ORFV, Parapoxvirus) protects rabbits against lethal infection with rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Joerg; Schirrmeier, Horst; Granzow, Harald; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim

    2011-11-15

    This report describes the generation of a new recombinant Orf virus (ORFV; Parapoxvirus) expressing the major capsid protein VP1 (VP60) of the calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Authentic expression of VP1 could be demonstrated in cells infected with the recombinant D1701-V-VP1 without the need for production of infectious ORFV progeny. Notably, infected cells also released empty calicivirus-like particles (VLPs). Challenge experiments showed that even a single immunization with ≥10(5) PFU of D1701-V-VP1 protected rabbits against lethal RHDV infection. ELISA tests indicated that the protective immunity mediated by D1701-V-VP1 did not strictly depend on the presence of detectable RHDV-specific serum antibodies. The induction of interleukin-2 found only in the sera of rabbits immunized with the D1701-V-VP1, but not in sera of rabbits immunized with the inactivated commercial vaccine RIKA-VACC, might indicate also some involvement of T-cells in protection. Collectively, this work adds another example of the successful use of the ORFV vector system for the generation of a recombinant vaccine, and demonstrates its potential as an alternative vaccine to protect rabbits against RHDV infection.

  19. ANTIBODY POLYCLONAL PRODUCTION ON RABBIT ANTI-OVINE PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEIN (Rabbit anti-ovPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Setiatin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce polyclonal antibody (rabbit anti-ovPAG which could detectPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes. Twelve rabbits were immunized against ovPG DEAE-TrisHCl (DT,DEAE-NaCl 20mM (DN2, DEAE-NaCl 40mM (DN4, DEAE-NaCl 80mM (DN8, DEAE-NaCl160mM (DN16, DEAE-NaCl 320mM (DN32 and DEAE-NaCl 1M (DN1 and NaCl 0.9 % as aplacebo. The 0.5 ml of isolate (purified from ovine cotyledon was emulsified in equal volume withcomplete and incomplete Freud’s adjuvant. The mixture of each isolate and adjuvant was injected atmutiple sites along the dorsal area of rabbits by subcutaneous route. Blood were collected from marginalear vein, starting before first injection (baseline and every 14 days. Rabbit anti-ovPAG were measuredusing Modified ELISA Technique. By using Western Blot Technique, DN32 showed the best immuneresponse among others and also could differenciate ovPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes It could beconcluded that ovPAG DN32 is a specific source of rabbit anti-ovPAG production. Protein of ovPAG atmolecular weight 31 kDa is a pregnancy protein marker of garut sheep and could be developed as amajor protein for producing antibodi.

  20. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.